Newspaper of The New York Herald, April 17, 1845, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated April 17, 1845 Page 1
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ff IORR HERALD. Vol. XI., Ho. lOO-Wholo Mo. *OflN. NEW YORK. THURSDAY MORNING. APRIL 17. 1845. **??? Two Cow tat HIGHLY IMPORTANT INTELLIGENCE. ?ZLRZVAZ. OF THB Great Western. TWENTY-ONE DAYS LATER FROM EUROPE. Annexation of Texas zk England. SENSATION PRODUCED! INTERESTING POSITION OF AL.LKQHA1IA WITH KRGLANO, AFFAIRS IN SWITZERLAND. STATE OF THE COTTON MARKET. INDIA, Ac. &?. Ao. Tlie Fashion of the Atlantic Course, the Great Western, Captain Matthews, arrived yes'etday morning from Liverpool. She sailed thence on the ult., and has, therefore, brought twenty-one days later news. The intelligence is important to every Allegha nian. The annexation of Texas?'Tyler'sexpoio on the Slave Trade?Polk's Inaugural Message?the Ore gon feeling in Alleghania?the Alleghanian tariff? in fact, the whole policy of Alleghania, bold, origi nal and independent as it is?has produced a great sensation in England?indeed, throughout Eu rope. The cotton market was depressed?the probable abolition of the duty, and the great crop, being the cause. The corn trade was dull. The sugar market continued brisk. There was not a very brisk business in Allegha nian provisions. There was a better feeling in Alleghanian secu rities. Pennsylvania stock was improving. Parliament adjourned over the Easter holidays. The English papers were full of Texas. Who cares 1 The Right of Search negociations were going on between France and England. The Queen of England will visit Paris, not in April, but towards the month of August. Mr. Gladstone is to re-unite himself to the go vernment by succeeding Lord Ripon as President of the Board of Control. The Queen has appointed Robert Grigg, Esq., to b? her Majesty's consul at Mobile. The packet ships Oxford, Rochester, and India na, had arrrived out. The Great Western Steamship Company have resolved to raise an additional sum for the comple tion of the Great Britain. The Paris Prttu has a long article on the reci" procal situations of England and Alleghania, in which it prophecies quarrels between the countries on the Oregon and Texas questions. The Russian Government has banished from Georgia all the Italian Capucine monks, because they refused to admit the supremacy of the Pa triarch. The Universal German Gazette announces that the Prusbian Government intends to lay a tax on the receipts of the Prassian railroads, but says it will be of small amount. The government ot Saxony ia about to esta blish throughout the kingdom agricultural schools, similar to those which have been founded in Prussia. Tie: accounts from *11 parts ot Germany and the northern division of Europe are most heart rend ing, ot the sufferings of the people for the want of provisions, the navigation and communication be ing in many places quite interrupted. The mortal ity, bo'h among the people aid the cattle, is quite fearful. It ia said, that the government is again about to attempt to put down the repeal agitation?that cer tain strong passages from the speeches of Grattan and O'Brien have been laid before the Irish Law Officers of the Crown; that in the opinion of these gentlemen, there are grounds for a prosecution, if nut of the association as a body, at least against some of us members; and that a communication to this effect has been forwarded to the Govern ment in London. Failure of an Ali.kqhanian House in Glasgow. Advices from Glasgow mention the failure of J. & (j. P.ittisou & Co ,ot that place, who have a house in New York, aud who have d?ne a large business Their debts are said to amount to upwards of ?160.000, of which it is said ?130,000 are owing in England, while several Scotch firms are spoken ot as likely to suffer. A meeting of the creditors was held on the 6th, at which sixty-five out of about ninety attended. There it was agreed that a committee, composed of five of their number, should be appointed to take charge of the estHte until they should hear from F. Pattison, who went out iu the Cambria The creditors agreed to take whatever proposition the committee might prop"'*:, and about 13i or 15s. in the pound is ex pected. Tne imports of AUeghanian agricultural produce into England, especialy latd, cheese, See., have been the occasion of much alarm to the fameng and lauded interests,but without the slightest fouu d.ition, whilst the poorer classes in the large towns, who are the chief consumers, have been much benefitted. The commencement of the new sugar duties has gone off well, as far as the consumer is concerned, the Htock in first hands being relatively so large that ibices have fallen fully in proportion to the re duction of the duty. Since the arrival of the Indian mail, with pretty certain accounts of the crop of indigo exceeding^an average, the price ot that article,so far from giving way, has been firmer, the quotations being repre sented to range from par to 4d. per lb. a^vancc, compared with the January sale. b,Thr Great Western company have determined on reducing their charges in both the pntwnger and merchandise departments The directors have also decided on issuing dsy tickets a' r reduction of one-third the fares. The miRsing packet ships, England and the Uni ted States, form a painful topic ot speculation?if speculation can be suid to exist where all is hope less The names of the ill-fated vessels have formed an augury in the minds of persons who are dispoe-'d to similitudes. Like the unfortunate President, the lust trumpet ?,uly will bring to light the mysteiy which hangs over their fate. It is a melancholy disinter, truly.; but comfort may be derived from the fact, that the success of the Nrw York packct shijw has Ween far beyond the average. The superior build aud equipments of these really noble specimens of maritime greatness, are amongst the causes, doubtless, ot their safety and success. They have dared the elements to conflict in many a fearful scene; but something, surely, is attribu table to the intellect and skill with which ttiey have been guided over the perilous deep. Perhaps a more highly polishrd, educated, and, in all the social relations ot lite, respectable and esteemed clasaof men cannot be found than the command era of the New York liners. We owe thein many obligations, and we deeply lament the losx of two of their number?ornament* to society ; with, doubtless, many other valuable lives. A Berlin paper makes an appeal to capitalists le ?iiecting the formation of a Germano-lberique society of sienm navigation, of which the principal stv ions "hull be Berlin and Lisbon. The chiel object tff this scheme is the exportation ot German f?oriC4 It is proposed to raise, in the first instance, 1,200,000 thafers, for the construction of five steam er*, to be despatched twice every month from Por tugal and Spam, and the nme from Stettin and Hamburg tt. i HnglUh Opinions of Air. Polk's Intognral. [From London Times, March 27 and 3&] The consent of Congress to the annexation ot Texaa is an event so long expected, ibal the ques tion of its justice has gradually merged in the vi sion ot i*a certainty. There was a time when the most enlightened and thoughtful men of (he Union could venture to entertain * stroug moral objec tion against ii ; and their arguments are ou record. It was clear, however, that the masaot the Union, its newest andmos' active elements, were id favor of the measure. Their eyes were always revert ing to Texaa. Texas unappropriated, like indepen dent Megara within sight of Athens, was the eye sore of the Union ; not but that there are other eyesores to the ambitious gaze of that people.? Whatever they s?e they love, whatever they love they covet, whatever they covet they expect, and endeavor to obtain. But Texas was the first thing in their way, and formed the bold foreground ot their hopes. Texas adjacent, revolted, indepen dent, still menaced and molested by the weak and impolitic rulers whose yoke it had broken, already peopled and governed by the citizens ot the Union, or adventurers of the same language and princi pies, was an acquisition absolutely necessary, not so much to the happiness, as to the very comfort, the ease, the sleep, the digestion, of certainly more than halt the republic. The only part of the busines&,therefore,on which there couU be any surprise, would be the particu lar time and manner in which republican wisdom and taste would select for the acquisition. To an European understanding there is something quite grotesque in the time and manner actually adopt ed. The Congress comes to this momentous de cision in the very point of time between the two presidentships. Mr Tyler completes his career with a determination which he cannot have the smallest share in carrying out. and Mr. Polk will be engaged throughout the whole term in the ar duous execution of a project imposed upon him at the first moment ot his official existence. The former Pretident, as he approaches his end, seems horror-struck at the thought of leaving his four years a bUnk in hia country's annals. He must do something before he dies, though he leaves a legacy of trouble to his successor. Yet why defer it to fcuch an hour! Was it as Conatantine put off his baptism to his death bed, that he might enjoy the unimpaired benefit, without the arduous res ponsibility consequent on the ritel Mr. Tyler, a President rather by misadventure than by popular intention, and not reciprocating to his office the dignity it conferred on him, procures admission to the line of American heroes Dy an act which will entail upon him neither trouble nor risk. Should it rven plunge the nation in war, should it rend the Union, should it finally upset that equilibrium of forces by which the federation is now maintained acainst so great a diversity of s-parate interests, Mr. Tyler is clear of all that responsibility. It at taches to those to whom ih? cououtuuoncommits his new-born measure The fit of action stem* to have seized the whole expiring body. First the Preaideut, as sooa as he finds he must needs quit the scene, urges the deed. Then the House of Representatives, about to dissolve, eagerly embraces its laBt opportunity, and, like the silk-worm, having laid its eggs, im mediately dies. The Senate has just time to pro nounce. This it does on the 27ih of February, and on the 1st ot March a new President addresses the whole-population on the f roceedings of the late Congress. The interval could be but a few hours, but there was time enough, it seems, for the late President to use the powers given to him by the amended resolution of the Congress, for the liberty of negotiation. Already had he sent off envoys and instructions to Texas. Such is the avidity for grasping a personal share in public ac tions, whicli a democracy has always been found to generate. The new President, however, is far from quar relling with hia hereditary task. His only com plaint probably is, that he was not allowed to ini tiate as well as to carry on. One could almost fear from the tone of his address that he minded to make up for this wrong by starting a project or two of his own The tone of a President must needs be lofty. He must assume a dignity which is not conceded, and he would only be misunderstood and despised by his fellow-citizens, if he adopted the conventional courtesies and humiliations of European Potentates Hisoffiae is the most honor able in the earth ; his responsibility is the greatest. To disturb the unanimity of the Federal Union, even for an imagined object of morality, is the most stupendous crime ot which human nature can be guilty. To extend that Union, indefinitely, in all directions, is the citizen's first and noblest in stinct ; to be comprehended in it, the greatest felicity that can happen to any race of men. It is the only security for peacc. All this may mean much or little, but in the old world it is the lan guage of men who are not conducting, but found ing an empire. We in the old world have long since chastised one another's desires to at least the language of modesty and mutual deference. The President is not overawed by the presence of one sovereign power in the length and breadth of Ins continent Hence he feels no indecency in expressing, in glo rifying, every aggressive impulse of the heart. The citizen, he says, must rejoice when a frontier line is removed, when he can communicate freely, com mercially and politically, with his neighbors, with out the restrictions of trade, or the interlerence of foreign claims, and foreign politics and morals ? When such rejoicings ate arguments, then we may reasonablytear (or the invid:ous frontier lines oft he St. Lawrence, not to speak of that other on the westward of the Rocky Mountains. But other difficulties will arise before that day. Neither de mocracy nor federation can solve the great problem ot society. Government ia not so easy a task.? The creature of a mob election, addressing hit* creators, may talk in the same breath ot clustering all nations in a constitutional unity, and interdict ing moral and religious interference between the inhabitants of adjacent valleys; but human nature has assigned leas to system, and more to spiritual in fluences. She will soon detect the hollowness of union without unity, and of a political combination that aims to embrace the world, while it is afraid to interfere with the grossest social corruptions in its own bosom. in the inaugural address delivered by the new President on the 4th of March, we find faithfully re-produced all the worst characteristics of the Af leghanian statesmen who have been inpower since the withdrawal ot Mr Webster from the Cabinet of Washington. Ii Mr. Polk was chosen as th< thorough representative of the party which makes slavery, (repudiation, and foreign aggression its claims to distinction, we are bouud to acknow ledge that he has not swerved from the intentions ot hi* constituents. His language on all these sub jects has the same unblushing impudence which belonged to his predecessors, and which we had fondly imagined that no one else could rival; but in his mouth it has this very serious aggravation, that it convinces us he is prepared to begin where the others leave off We had carefully guarded ourselves against any preconceptions hostile to Mr. Polk ; urd we had endeavored to persuade our selves that we should find more moderation in his own conduct than in that of his adherents; bm ?he indulgent illusion is completely dispelled by th* first words he utters; aid the anxiety which was incessantly awakened by Mr. Tylers strange and incongruous efforts, is rendered infinitely greater by declarations from the new President of at least equal violence, and, we fear, much more signifi cance. One of the first sentiments uttered by Mr. Polk, after an exordium, in which " the most admirable and wistst system of well-regulated self-govern ment among men ever devised by human minds" receives a very able panegyric, is that of " deep regret at the schemes and agitations of misguided persons, whose object is the destruction of domes tic institutions existing in other sections of the country " Amongst other nations the expression 14 domestic institutions" designates nil that is most sacred among men ; in Alleghania it expresses that state of bondage which is most abhorred by the free?that system ot slavery which other countries have practised, which some have renounced, which all deplore, but which the politicians of Alleghania have alone the coinage to eulogize and defend. Mr. Polk reserves his compassion, however, for other objects " Happy would it be," says he, " for indebted States ii they were freed from their liabilities, many of which were incautiously con tracted." That sentiment will, indeed, find an echo in every debtors' gaol till over the world ! We who feel for slaves more than for slave-owners, ure apt to think unpaid creditors even more to be i j xan debtors j but in the New world these things are reversed. "The sound, moral, and honorable feeling of the people of the indebted States cannot be questioned, says the President; but, whilst sympathies and eulogies are showered upon them, what, with one recent ex ception, is become of their unpaid dividends 1 After two such paragraphs as these, our readers will not be surprised at anything that may follow, more es|tecially with reference to the foreign re lations of the Union. A lie repeated after it has been contradicted, and scouted by all well inform ed and honest men, is a lie raised to a higher pow er?the square of a lie. Mr. Tyler intimated in a message some time ago, that doubts were enter tained by soma whether Texas had not originally formed part of the territory of Alleghania, and been improperly alienated from it; but Mr. Polk resolutely uffirme, that "Texas was once a part of our country, was unwisely ceded away to a foreign power, is now independent, arid possesses an un doubted tight to merge her sovereignty in ours." The whol* assertion is utterly groundless?first, because Texas formed no part ot Louisiana when sold by Frauce ; and, secondly, because the bound ary treaty with Spain, concluded in 1819, defini tively wiped ftut all such tquivcc&l claims for ever. Bat in this discussion no argument is practicable ; the wolf is resolved on seizing his prey, and it sig nifies but little mat the lamb stood drinking loVver down the brook. Mr. Polk holds somewhat similar, though lees precise, language, as to the Oregon territory. He pledges himself at the very outset of his career, and with the full knowledge that negotiations are actually going on between his Cabinet and Great Britain, that the Alleghanian title to the country of the Oregon is clear and unquestionable. But it may spare time .likely to be consumed in a very unprofitable discassion, if we express an opinion, at least us decided as his own, that in spite of his marauders, and what he terms his constitutional rightM, the territory of the Oregon will never be wrested from the British Crown, to which it be longs, but by war. Mr. Polk avers, that to enlarge the limits of the Union is to extend the dominion of peace over additional territories and increasing millions; but he will find that when they are so far extended as to include the rightful possessions of the British Empire, they will encounter the hos tility and the resolution of a people not interior to the populace of Alleghania in spirit or in resources. [From London Post, March 38.] Whatever may be thought of the message if President Polk, as a bold adaptation of his open ing address to the audacious views of the ultra-de mocratic party, it is in other respects but a poor performance. It is very boastful, and yet bo un skilfully constructed, that the reader is allowed to espy the nakedness ci the land through the chinks of the triumphant covering of words which the Pre-ident would cast upon it. He begins by de scribing his new office as "the most honorable and responsible on earth." Presently afterwards he states that he is a young man. He need scarcely have made the announcement. Such bombast sufficiently indicates that he is young indeed in his appreciation of the true dignity of a high posi tion. In the next paragraph he admits the political per rlexities and difficulties which beset Alleghania.? He avows that, at the present time, "great diversi ty of opinion prevails in regard to the principles and policy which should characterise the administra tion of the government." This lookslike an honest confession; but in a few paragraphs more the mes- ' nage writer jumps off into a very different view of the matter. He boasts of the plainly written con stitution of Alleghania, " which binds together, in ihe bonds of peace and union, the great and increas ing family of free and independent States." The man who writes iu this way must either be dis honest, or be the victim of contusion of mind.? And to make the matter still more palpable, he re turns, in the very next paragraph, to his first view, and speaks of a certoinfmode ot interpretation ot the constitution, as "the only *ure guarantee against the recurrence of those unfortunate collisions be tween the Federal and State authorities. There is a distinction between the beauty of political theory, and the possibility of political prac tice, which Mr. Polk will perhaps discover hereaf ter. His present excuse is that he is the youngest man that ever filled the President's chair. The government of Alleghania?that is, the su preme government?has been intrusted, as ne says, with the exclusive management of foreign affairs. Yes; to each State is confided the exclusive care of its own interests, and iheee may, in a very particu lar and almost exclusive manner, be affected by the management of foreign affairs. The northern States may 6ee advantage in a war with Great Bri tain, and the southern see little else than ruin ? The exclusive management of foreign affairs by the supreme government becomes in such a case nther a ticklish matter The southern States may find th?ir duty to themselves the first thing to be attended to. Mr. Polk's task is easy enough while he has only to gratify the ascendant party which brought him into power. The government ot Alleg hania, however, requires something more than this, us he will find. His troubles are but begin ning. [From London Chronicle, March 37.) we couiesu we are much more mortified than surprised to find this question terminated, like all others iu which the Tory administration had to combat the arts or the ambition of foreign and of rival powers?that is, by the total discomfiture of British interests and views, whether dictated by feelings of justice, of security, or of humanity The question of the independence ot absorption of Texas was handed over to the Tory Government us a fair field tor the exertion of their diplomatic ckill, and ot the hundred means at a goveanment'a disposal for the wotking out of its ends In thesr the Tory Government has most miserably failed. I The Alle^hanian Government have decided upon the annexation of this immense country,containing 300.000 square miles, and are about to establish over that regiou their system of rlave cultivation. It was, indeed, a question of life and death to Alleghanian slavery, which, if confined to its own exhausted soils, must have declined, and met a natural death at no incalculable interval of time, but which now, having secured to it most ample room and roof, cmnot be expected to paus?? till it fills ihe wh'jl- territory :<> the P,'C.ti<, .u d dtlugea the iNew World, tr im hich it had been partly stayed or driven, with its flood of misery and crime. The result of such a communication is,as regards slavery und the slave trade, deplorable. Not only is the interchange of manacled human flesh be tweenCubi and the mainland rendered permanent, but the right of search, secured by our treaty with Texas, is ot course torn asunder It is the fashion, however, to abandon rights of search, so we will not dwell upon that. Bui a consideration asstrious is the effect of this measure on the Alleghanian Union itself. There the fundamental law is, that the South must not out vote the North. Yet here are two Florida state?, and heaven Mows how many Texan ones, coining into the Union The North, which has been unable to prevent this.must at least have the balance redressed. It must an nex, loo, inself defence. It mustcreate new States It must stretch to Oregon and encroach upon Cana da. So that in giving up the Mexican frontier, we are actually necessitating invasion upon our own Numbers of New York people voted for Folk and Texas annexation, because they were told it was a step to Canada and the Oregon Mr. Folk him self admits this in the inaugural address which he has just delivered. Having at some length vindi cated, after his fashion, the annexation of Texas, he thus proceeds:? * * ? * ? ? There is, indeed, one glimpse of hope, however faint, and ihat is the resistance by the Texans.who might reckon in the present stale of Mexico on a recognition bv that power. But the independent feeling of the 70,000 white citizens of Texas is, we ear, not proof against the augmentation of value which their lands and property would instantly gain by annexation te so powetlul an empire. And espe cially ai? Lord Aberdeen or hiB envoy are to be the sole prompters and supporters of this independent feeling, there can be small ground*) for its main tenance or triumph. ti i* painful, indeed, to be thus driven to de^oair; painful to behold, without a struggle, slavery,which we have so long and so extensively, and not effec tually combated, th'is regain what it hu* lost, and sweep, like a hufle sen in uncontrolled devastation, over a surface of such vast extent. Deplorable as is such a prospect, God grant we may not hnv? to contemplate something worse. [From London Globe, March <7. Frugality, freedom from debt, and universal peace, are the three general heads on which most stress is laid by President Polk, in Ins inaugural address It is a shrewd remark that men general ly most vaunt themse.lves ot ihs virtues, or the properties, they possess least of Is this the case with President Polk's panegyric on the government ot lus country 1 In the first place, what is the go vernment of that country'! According to Presi dent Polk'slstatement of it, it is "a confederation of independent States " Now, here it the thim blerig?we are sorry to uae so trivial an expression; but it is the only appropriate one. In order to make President Polk's assertions true regarding the Stales, the pea must be under one thimble?in order to make them true regarding the Union, it must be under the other. Imprimis, then, as re gards frugality and freedom from debt. These as sertions, if applied to that abstraction, the Union, may be true. That is to say, a government, which is not a government to most intents and purposes, does not incurdebis for purposes which it does noi fulfil. Hut li the Union, instead ot being a sort of ab straction, or fictitious entity?if the President, in stead ot being, where deeds, not words, are con cerned, on most occasions a man of straw?or, to refine the phrase?a man of figure and representa tion?were, the one, a whole, of which the States were component parts; the other, the executive j arm, wielding the power of that whole to assert its law?in short, if national unity were, in any consistent sense, predicable of the Union, Presi dent Polk's frugality and solvencyvaunts would be untrue. They are untrue, in any sense which can satisfy moral beings. The head has no right to disclaim responsibility for the members. So lar as the States hav<? been lavish, and are indebted, the vaunt of the Union of frugal lreedom from debt is a trick ol thimblerig. This verbal thimblerig i consists in boasting, iu one brenth, of the pros- , perity of the State*, as an attribute of the Union, I and shirking, in the next, tfje involvents of the j States, as things the Union has no part in.? if it has part in the one, it has part in the other. If it is entitled mightily to magnify these commu nities, as. its own, it cannot be entitled to repudi

ate their obligations, as not its own. It cannot be entitled to contrast their lot with the "melancholy condition" of those European nations which have debts to pay, and which pay their debts, and to ex ult in the contrast?"We have no debts to pay"? when compelled to subjoin, in the very next breath ?"Happy would it be tor the indebted States, it they were freed Irom their liabilities, many of which were incautiously contracted " Frugal folks do not contract deb's incautiously?honest folks pay those they have contracted It is a high pitch of effrontery in the chief magistrate ot a na tion which includes those States, to affect pity for the nations of Europe, whose solvency shows they have preserved the idea ot national honor. Pre sident Polk's idea of nations in a "melancholy condition," is the idea of nations enslaved?by their word and bond. It is the idea of ancient Pistol?base is the slave who pays. The preten sion of cultivating universal peace has something of the same equivoque about it. Like the hedghog, which the saake had given shelter to ia its hole, it only expands its prickly surface on all sides, to its own comfort and convenience. If others are in convenienced, it ieels itself, for its own part, per fectly comfortable. "Thetitleof numerous Indian tribes (the old aboriginal snake) to vast tracks ot courtry. has been extinguished. New States have been admitted into the Union; new territories have been created, and our jurisdiction and laws extended over them." The "re-annexation (!) of Texas to our Union at the earliest possible period" ?"Our title to the country of Oregon is clear and unquestionable." Well bristled, hedghog. Presi dent Polk observes that "foreign powers do not seem to appreciate the true character of our go vernment." We submit that this mav possibly be from the continual duplicity ot position wnica President Polk and his predecessors have assumed as its mouth-piece. The Slates, however, if they take a tancy to hangan Irish man, or lynch an abolitionist, are, in such case, acting simply as "independent States." A^ain, " Ours was intended to be a plain and fru gal government"?but, if every one of the State governments think proper, on the contrary, to be lavish and jobbing, or wildly speculative, " our government" knows nothing about it. The Union cultivates universal peace; but, it any State should prefer border war, the irruptions of its citizens upon friendly neighbors would noways concern the Union. * * * * * As regards the Oregon, (to say nothing, at present, of Texas) the language of this address, notwithstanding the saving clau&e for "obligations imposed by treaty," is too similar to everything else Alleghanian popular politicians have put forth, and too fully deserves the animad version on former such language bestowed by Mr. Falconer, in his excellent little volume on " The Mississippi and the Oregon." "It is greatly to be lamented," observes Mr. Fal coner, "that in Allegh&nia it should have been the interest of dishonest and violent politicians to have adopted a tone of discussion upon the subject oppo sed to its fair settlement, it is not honorable,while the title to the territory is undetermined between the respective governments, to urge measures to populate it with Alleghanian citizene, in order to give facilities for ita occupation at a future period. Such recommendaticns do not indicate a convic tion of the validity ot the claim iusisted on. Alleg hania, ?s well as Great Britain, has an iuterest in the establishment of a settled government iu that part of the world?in marking out the limits of le gal possession?and in rearing a population which, however they mav differ respecting the system of goverument which they may prefer, shall look to the future, as bringing the fruits of a peaceful, generous, and civilized intercourse." [From Liverpool Mail, March 39 ] The sentiments expressed in the inaugural ad dress of the Alleghanian President, Mr. Polk, are merely an echo of those acted upon by his prede cessor, Mr. Tyler. Texas, by this gentleman's ac count, formerly belonged to the United States, but when he does Hot condescend to explain. Alltghe uian institutions are so ancient, and her terruorihl rights so extensive,that the safer way is to date the former from the call ot Abraham, and admit the latter from Cape Horn to the North Pole. He takes for granted that no foreign power whatever has any right to object to the annexation ot Texas to the federative Union, at the head of which he has the honor to be placed. With respect to the Oregon territory, he disposes of it in a paragraph He say a 'hat it belongs toAlleghania; is occupied bythe wives and children of citizens; and, consequently,it must and shall be governed by republican institutions.? The claims ot England are not so much as alluded to He has apparently reconciled himself to the complacency of rejecting all advice on the subject, and refuses to hear any evidence. As they say in the law courts, Mr. Jusiice Polk has stopped the case and discharged the jury. How the British government will treat these im portant proceedings remains to be sxplained.? while Texas remained independent, her position was advantageous to G;eat Britain; but in the hands of the Alleghaniana she will increase the monopoly o( the cotton districts advTHely to the intends ot this couutty. !f we lose Texas, then, what are we to gain in return. This is by t tr the most im|>ortant question as con cerns England. The supeib island of Cuba in onr possession would be some equivalent, and as Spain wants money, we nave no doubt that the purchase of that property could be made on available and agreeable terms Cuba, annexed to England, is quite as expedient as that of Texas to Alleghame; and if this were accomplished, the aggressive and aggrandising power of the republic would, In some measure, be checked. The Union is already too extensive. National power is like steam, the more tormidable the more it is condensed. Every square mile addea to Allrghania is an additional weak ness?a progressive advancement towards dissolu 1 ion But that is the business of the citizens.? Cuba would be of more value to England than Texas multiplied by all the slaves hereafter to be employed id cultivating it. Slave Trade? Annexation of Texas?Poi.k's Inaugural ?The conduct of the Alleghanian Le gislative bodies is a marvel and a mystery to the politicians ot Europe. It passes comprehension, detics calculation, upsets ali preconceived notions ot organization. Every one saw, in th?- resuft of the lam contest for the Presidency, that Texas would be annexed; but that the Whig Senate should be a consenting party has produced aston ishment, and rendered the news which came to hand this week from the western world, not only novel but startling. The Senate is regarded, 011 this side the water, as a very conservative body? a drag upon the more headstrong resohes of the other House; and the dignity of its bearing, com mands, with|the general wisdom of its decisions, th? respect even ot those who are not prone to eulogise republican institutions. Hence the surprise which has been created But the gome ot politics is evi dently the same all the world over?a series ot skil ful moves and countermoves, and the moat skilful player is he who puzzles, checkmates,and triumphs over his fellows With the intelligence of the Annexation Bill ha ving passed Congress, has come to hand the inau gural address, ot Presid-nt Polk, a document upon which much criticism, not over-friendly, has been spent. The verbose state documents ot Alleghanin are li tie relished in England; anc* a moment's con sideration will show the reason. The British Pre mier's place is rarliatneni, where he personally doswersquesttons,defends his conductor atsailshis antagonist. The President ot Alleghania,on the con trary, is shut out ot Congress. Instead of addressing ihat assembly, and through it the nation, turn voce, on the events of the day, when the interest is high and the subject exciting, he waits until anxiety cools or has entirely evaporated, and then, in a for mal manner, traces, in a message, with tedious prolixity, what everybody knows. * * The portion of the message which haH given inost offence, inasmuch as it denotes a "foregon conclusion," is his allusion to the Oregon territo ry. The right of Alleghania to that territory is as sumed by the new President as a matter beyond dispute, at the very momeut that the subject torms an auxious and protracted controversy between the two governments. People naturally say, "Can the new official have a proper sense of the deep tres ponsibnity of his office, when he thus commits himsell at the very threshold T' That Mr Polk is correct in his assumption may be established hereafter, or it may not. But there is a palpable violation ot good taste in so formal a committal on the question. Mr. Polk's predecessor was not happy in imparting dignity to the office. It 1a to be hoped that the mantle of Washington will sit more gracefully on the shoulders on which it has now descended?but the commencement is l>erilous. Connected with this topic maybe mentioned the notice which Mr Tyler's message on the slave' trade has commanded in the House of Commons. Sir Robert Peel, it will be seen, pointedly referred to it, some one having conveniently put n question to him on the subject, the better to enable him to correct ihe ex-President's errors in that document. Mr. Tyler blundered sadly in the matter ol the free blacks taken to the West Indies; but there is too much reason to apprehend that his statements are correct respecting British capital being com bined with Alleghaman ingenuity in carrying out slavery through the medium of the Brazils. The Duke de Broglie has arrived in London, and the conference is now sittiflg whieh is to decide the luture policy of England and France. It is under stood, on all hands, that the substitute for the right | of search which he proposes, is a blockade ot the coast of Africa by the two powers, joined, ol | course, to the squadron of Alleghanta already | there for that purpose. The right of search < in its most obnoxious form is thus given up; but the substitute, inadequate as the former system was, promises to be still more inefficient. The saints stir not while the right of search is thus thrown to the winds before their eyes ?the best proof, we suspect, ot their belief in its failure as a preventive. To the sagacity and tirmness of the Alleghanian Government, every credit is due lor refusing to join the other powers in a system which is thus so unceremoniously surrendered after all the pother it created, the jealousy it exci ted, and the ill-blood which it produced.? JVil mer's Times, March 29. Iron Tradk.?We copy the following from thi; Wolverhampton Chronicle of March 12:?"The recent rapid advances in the price ot iron are bringing about their natural effect; and although the present position ot the trade, taken generally, is a cause of congratulation, yet perplexities ot no ordinary kind, have attended the great and sudden variations of price which have lately occurred.? The rapidity of the rise is beyond all precedent, and has disarranged the plans and calculations of many of the most prudent and far-sighted men in the trade. As an instance we may mention that a heavy contract for rails, to be delivered at Hull, is now in course ol fulfilment at 51. 5s. per ton, while iu another instance 121. per ton is the con tract price for the same article. More cases than one ot these low contracts have been mentioned to us, and these facts must go a good way to di mimsh the advantages generally supposed to be de rived in this district, from the nigh price now pay ing for iron. We have endeavored, but without success, to aEcertain the selling prices of the com modity in its different branches. Nothing like a fixed or general price can be quoted;51, 51. 5s. and 51. 108, being asked for pig iron, but sales, except in small quantities, at the first figure, to persons m want ot the material, could not be ascertained - Tne nrice of bar iron may be taken to be from l(tf to 1W. 10s. per ton. Some degree of surprise it felt in this neghborhood at the quotations of Scotch pig iron, both at Liverpool ana Glasgow, the cur rent price being stated at 51. 10s.,and til. demanded Generally, Scotch pigs rule from 10s. to 15s. per ton below Staffordshire pigs, and this price is looked upon here as the effect of speculation. A f urther advance is by many pprsons in this neighborhood, thought unlikely, but quite as many think the price has not attained its limit. In all the works the greatest activity prevails, checked in some in stances, however, by a short supply of coal. The wages of all the working classes connected with the trade may be stated at about thirty per. cent higher, and employment, ot course, ia easily ob tained. Foreign orders, as might be expected, have received a check : merchants and factors ii. only a very few instances venturing to buy, ot: be half of customers unacquainted with the rise in price, at existing rates." British Alleohanian Land Company.?On Thursday the annual court ot proprietor* in thin company was held in the board-room in Bucklers bury. the deputy governor in the chair. On account of ill health, George Robinson had sent in his re signation ao governor ol the company. Mr. Cum niina then proceeded to read the report, of whifh the following are some of the leading points: "The BdleB oi land, during the ow vear, to bonaJide set tlers, have amounted to 32462^ ai;res, for a sum ol ?14,1W) 7s Id., being an average of about lis. Ofd per acre. The general progress of the business dur ing the year has been of a very satisfactory charac ter. The commit*ioisers' report thereon will be read at this meeting. The English shares stated to have been in arrear, and declared forfeit at the last annual meeting, have since, under the direction given to the directors, been reclaimed and fully paid up with interest, except in two cases." Mr Gillespie then followed with the report ot Mr Gait, dated Sherbiooke, January 25, which states in sub 3tancethat the sales in land were lefslastyearthan tn 1843, but that this was fully anticipated, because ihe returns ol the previous year included all the lots occupied since 1837 by the s utlers at Victoria, ond comprising upwards of 7,000 acres, and also from other causes - The average price r> aslied for the company's land had increased from 10s. 0|d. to lis. 0|d. per acre. All the liabilities incurred had been met by the amount received, and there wat a surplus of ?1,800 over expenditure. The ex penses of management for the current year were estimated at ?1,250. Canada Company?On Tutsday the half-yearly general ineeut g ot this corporation, formed about seventeen years since, to promote emig-ation to, and settlement in Upper Canada, was held at the Canada House, London, tor the purpose of receiv ing a report on the state ot the affairs of the compa ny, for the election of a deputy governor, Arc. The parties who had retired by rotation were re elected The Governor read the report of the directors (or die year 1844, in which were detailed the number of acres of luad sold and leased in the past twelve months, which showed the rapid extern to which settlement in Upper Canada. is progressing. Mr Franks stated, in elucidation ot the strains of th< corporation, that since the year 1S27 about one-halt tne lands the company originally purchased had been sold or leased under the new plan. A propo sal had beeninade to her Majesty's government by the directors, to manage the whole of the Crov n lands in Canada, upon cheaper terms than the go vernment could itself do it. An indirect advantage would be thus secured, as whatever tended to increase the jvulue ot land generally in the colony must benefit the Canada Company. The Canadas possessed advantages overall other British colonies tor iudustrious small farmers. Such could obtain a position in society there, while, if they remained at home, they would sink into distress. As one proof of the prosperity of the comparative poorer classot settlers in Upper Canaia, he might state that in the last year the company had remitted to England, tree of expense, to poor trienris of par ties on the lands of the corporation, ?4141 12s 7d in sums of ?6, ?7 and ?9 each ; the numbers of such remittances being 565. And in the last two months, there had been remitted for the same pur poses, ?1267 7s. 7d., in 186 remittances. Not only therefore, could the poorer but industrious class ot settlers in Canada do well there, but very many of them could assist their friends at home. The Ca naila Company, in the last year, had remitted ?29,000 to the colony, ns great difficulty had been ei|M'rienced in obtaing money upon the security of land, <fec in Canada on trust; and loans funds had been lorried, from the operatiowof which the best results were enticipa'ed. The eclonv was alto gether in a most prosperous smte, Th-^ coul v\a adjourned. Spring Trahkrs to Canada ?Thi European, Albion, anrl James Campbell sailed from the Brooraielaw for Montreal direct on Monday lasi, the Caledonia and Erromanga on Tuesday, to be followed in a few days by th<" John Brown, Favorite, and Monarch, tor Quebec and Montreal, all bumper ships, ?otnc of them having thort shipped goods and large numbers ot passengers Monster Gun for Allkoania ?A monster gun just been manufactured by Forsythe and Preston of Liverpool, which is intended to replace the one that bum on board one ot ihe Alleghsman war steamers, a short time ago, killing the Secretary of Slate, and several other official person ages. It is made ot inallenble iron, is 12 feet long, atid weighs 11 tons 4 cwt. 2 qrs. 11 lbs. Notkl Hack.? On Good Friday a novel and un precedented race came ofl at Mile end, Newtown, London, between a pig and a pigeon, to walk oue hundred yaids. - The race took place in Chureii street, at tlie back _ol Smith's distillery, and was won by the pig in minutes, beating the pigeon by Hbout seven yards, The animal and the bird had been for some time in training, and each was accompanied by its owner at its head. At starting, the pigeon, which was the favorite, went otl at a gallant rate, the snorter losing much time by smell nig and grunting along the road, but ultimately his longer had the advantage ot the shorter leg* ul his leathered companion. The pigeon was a common tumbler, and the pig was about 10 stone, being the property of two sporting characters in the neigh borhood. The novelty <1 t' A *,r rewal.rge concourse ot people British rurlluunt House of Lords, March 28?'Tabiff of Ai.leohania?1The Earl of Clarendon inquired what means had been taken to obtain redress tor certain merchants who complained, ae he con ceived justly, of the loss inflicted upon them by a change made Home time ago in the tarili of Alleghania Under the 26th section of the new tariff, agreed to on the 25th of August, 1842, goods coming trom England, which were shipped before the imposition ot new duties was known, were exposed lo ruinous duties, to the extent of 90 or 100 per cent #n silk goods and 120 per cent on cot ton goods. Goods that had come from the east ward of the Cape were subjected to much lower duties. Now, this he considered to be an infrac , tion of the treaty witn Alteghania, which pro i vided, among other things, that no duty should be imposed on goods Iroin England higher than was | imposed on goods coming from any other country. , Hv the change a single house in Glasgow had lost . ?3,000, and the tot?l lots by the British merchants is estimated at ?200 000. The Alleghanians ap pear fully alive to the importance of the treaty wherever it is in their favor; tor they have insisted on the repayment of the amount of duties levied on their rice by us in excess ot that levied on the rice from the coast of Africa The Earl ot Aberdeen replied, that the case had the attention of Government; but neither the re presentations of Mr Fox, the late Minister at Washington, nor of Mr Pakenham, his successor, had as yet met with the attention tney deserve. House of Commons?Ok coon?Mr. Roebuck asked whether Government had any objection to lay before the House the negotiations between iluBcountry and Allegliania on the subject of the disputed Oregon territory 1 His reason for asking was to be found in existing circumstances in Alteg hania, though he was the last man who would de sire to cast a slur on a great nation. He under stood that in 1818a convention was entered into between this country and Alleghama, the purport ot which was, that the territory in dispute upon the Oregon should be considered as a matter upon which no determination had been come to, and that the whole question should be left open. Un der thes^ circumstances, the House of Represen tatives had passed a bill tor "settling" this territo ry. The English were not, he believed, a people at all accustomed to bluster, or express themselves in a manner which should rouse the indignation of wose with whom they conducted negotiations; but it must be apparent to every body that this was a most extraordinary proceeding. If it arose from i he weakness of the Alleghama executive, it be hoved foreign nations seriously to consider the matter. If the House of Representatives passed such a bill, if it were sanctioned by the Senate and urged unon the President, he might be forced to *ive it the effect of law; while we, having taken no precautions, but trusting to their good faith and the comity of nations, would find ourselves di vested of the means ot protecting our own rights.? If this case had been properly looked into, they should at once have declared that Alleghama had no rights west of the Reeky Mountains; and it the negotiations which had been broken up were to be recommenced, he trusted they would be nut on a proper footing, and that Allegania would be called on to show what right they had to cross the Rocky Mountains at all. Sir Robert Peel replied, that Mr. Roebuck had rightly described the (convention; which was fra med to last for ten years. It was renewed in 1827, and expired in 1838; but it was also provided that neither party should terminate the arrangement w ithout giving a year's notice. With respect to the negociations with the Executive Government of Alleghania, they had not been brought to a close; and it would not be consistent with his Oiity to produce the correspondence to the House. Mr. Roebuck would see that our relations are not with the House of Representatives, but with the Alleghanian Executive. Sir Robert quite agreed with Mr. Roebuck that nothing could be more un seemly than to use any language of bluster or menace; but while forbearing to do so, he hoped the House would not infer that her Majesty's Go vernment are not deeply sensible of the importance of this subject. Mr Divkt asked whether Sir Robert Peel had seen the work ot M de Melfras on California, now i ublishing in Paris!?in which the author, after raying that he hes examined the Oregon question, ?iys ot the claim preferred by the English? II taut uvouer que rttte fats la raison et le droit tuntde lewr <<>le. [M. Dullui de Mofras is a scientific gentle men who was sent out by the French Government, ind his elaborate work is publiched with the offi cial sanction of Marshal Soult and M. Guizot." House of Commons, March 19.?Mr. Tyler's Last Message to Congress.?Mr. Aldam called Sir Robert Peel's attention to a recent message nudressed by President Tyler to the Senate and Mouse of Representatives of Alleghania, in sinuating that the treatment of liberated Afri cans in the British Colonies is no better than it was in the time of slavery [This i .essage accompanied several documents tran?> mitted by Mr. Wise, the AUeghantan Minister at Hrazil, who detailed advices by which both British and Alleghanian subjects evade the laws against rlave-trading; and Mr. Tyler suggested whether ? ther means than those now existing might not be necessary to give etiect to the "just and humane policy" ot the Alleghanian laws.] Mr. Aldam read the following passages from the message i " The slaves. when captured, [.by the British,] instead of being returned to their homes, a re transferred to her Colonial posses sions in the Weet Indies, and made the means of celling the amount of their products by a system of apprenticeship for a term of years." " It must be obvious, that while these large interests are enlist, id in tavor ot its continuance, it will be difficult, if not impossible, to suppress the nefarious traffic and that its results would be in effect but a contin uance ot the slave trade in another and more cruel torm ; for it can be matter of little difference with the African, whether he is torn Irom his country and transferred to the West Indies as a stave, in the regular course of the trade, or captured by acruiser, transported to the ssmc place, and made to perform ihe fame labor bh an apprentice?which is at pre sent the practical operation ot the policy adopted Sir Rcbkht Peel thought it was to be regretted lhatthe President of Alleghania should send a for mal message on Ihe subject te Congress, without tirst ascertaining what whs the real condition of the -laves in the Britn-h Colonies. If the President should think fit to appoint a commission to ascer ?tiin the state of the liberated Africans in the Bri tish West Indian Colonies, so tar from mtking any < lijection, the British Government would offer eve ry facility to the commission for carrying on the in. ipiiry, so that the commissioners, on their return to their own country, might present a uue picture As to the passage quoted, it is well known that the state i I apprenticeship has been altogether abolished in the West Indies No negro who has been captured, and liberated, and sent there, is now, or ever has i>ern, made 10 serve for b time as an apprentice. 11" is perfectly tiee when he lands, and is entitled to all the righ's of freedom. He stated the coujse pursued by government with respect to slaves ruptured by British cruisers?" If ihey acc cap tured on the coast of Africa, they are, gen erally shaking taken to Sierra T.eo?e ; ppj there tliey are pertectlv at liberty to determine for them h Ives whether tfiey will to or not to the West In dia Colonies. They are nlso at perfect liberty to determine tor rhemselvm whether they will go to th* country ol which they may be natives. Ac cording to the provision* of the treaties we have >"tth Spain, in th- event ot the capture of a Soa n'?h trading ves*' l by " British orniser, the slaves so "aptnred are to be delivered up to the country to vhich the capturing cruiser belong*: and we ha?e a vessel at the Hhv?ns, which in general recems the slaves raptured in the neighborhood of Cuba. It istrttc that individual ?laves may not always he I sent to Africa? it is quite impossible at all times to provide means of sending them thither; but if they are sent to the West Indies, they are subject to no compulsion, and although they may voluntarily en ter into contracts, there 1* no apprenticeship whatever. It ih possible the mistake of the Alleghania President may have originated in this manner. Our treaty with Spain wos entered into in ]H3ft, at that time the sto'e of apprenticeship did exist, mid the provision ot the treaty was, that the cap tured negro should be'sent to tne British Colonies and placed on the same tooting as an apprentice; but since If<W the state of apprenticeship has alto gether reused, and no caflured negro introduced into the British Colonies is now in a condition other than that o{ a free man. In addition to the iieatywith Spain, we have a treaty wuh Brazil md Portugal. By treaty with Brazil it was pro vided that the captured slaves shou'd be delivered up to the country on the coasts ot which they were captured, or to which the captured vessel belonged. It was the mamlesi intention ot the treaty that captured slaves should become tree men; but Bra zil insisted on keeping them in a state ot slavery, and declined to keep the engagements ot tne tieaty with respect to the future disposition ot the slaves. On repeated proof that such was the case, we sig nified to the Government ot Brazil, that the slave v hen captured should not be delivered up to Bra - . i . ii. i ? 4*1' the" e ft te

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