Newspaper of The New York Herald, May 10, 1845, Page 10

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated May 10, 1845 Page 10
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\aao?'lilt Ion of Amfrk.n GeotofcUtu ????? New Haven, Tliurt-duv ^turning, i May 1,1>W' > Protestor Chester Df.wky, of Rochester, took ,he chair at 9* .'clock, and immedi kiiIi n>BrJ tin- ? ?nl*. 'll"' ?J4wy? read die minuws of the session of Wednesday aiter noon, which were adopted. The business committee reported, through 1 ro fessor Rogers, and offered a programme lor the morning session, and recommended that the me morial addressed to the Secretary of the Navy, by a committee appointed for that purpose, should be iirst taken up. , Professor Rogers then read the correspondence that had taken place with the Secretary of the Navy, in reference to this memorial, and als? the document itself. Its object was to induce the government to set on foot, under the direction of naval officers ol the United States, a comprehensive series of ??ser" vations on the geology and natural history of the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of this country, on the fluctuations of the gulph stream, its true course, depth, velocity and temperature, and variation of the compass. It intimated the alleged existence ol a large shoal on the Florida coast, of counter currents in the Atlantic, as well as one supposed to set in from the Chinese Sea to the Northern Pacific. It also stron-'lv recommended a systematic course of obser vations' on the formation of shoals, corals, and *U marine productions; onthealtitude ^na tion, ritrht ascension, &c., of the heavenlyOouies, all these, and numerous others, were mentioned in ?he memorial as tit subjects for the investigation of the able and scientific men employed in the naval service of the country, whose services in this cause would greatly redound to the benefit of the country ?P??ii^?*-What order will you t%ke on this report ? It is open for discussion. a??,.a The report was adopted, and, on motion of the Secre tary the committee was continued over till "ext year. ?he Pkf.siuf.nt said that the subject called for any? in formation that members acquainted with it could com municate. (A pause) If tWe are no remarks to be made we w H proceed to the business next m order Mr. Secretary Here are papers (taking them from the Sec re ^vT on^tke sublect of Jrirts ; also, a paper on a chain ol erratic rocks in Massachusetts. .. rnrks de Mr s Rf-rn read the paper on the erratic rocks e but'^UVe^Pyar5sCwide Tpresentednan evtraordinai y apj Water? Id not do it-it was incapable of strewing them \\ ater couia noi i ? i se of forl1y miios. t\0r could icebfres do it. lie was not committed to any particular theory and, therefore, could freelv give any suggestion halT'often*seen'chains^oTrock^and Kray?prescnting the appearance of a railroad embankment. At the SauKcSt M neTl erc were found depositions of every kind of rock iwnnd of, the shores of I.ake Superior, both angular and rounded Some of them were brought by causes now in S b?t the most elevated were of a more ancient oriirin and were formed whjn the Lake stood at a much hie^ier level as it certainly did at one time. hen this agency of masses of ice, in depositing these chkinn ot cr **The?Pn r -i f'nt'saUl?that the difficulty of this subject was the magnitude of these masses of rock. The chain of J* . . Jj, Connecticut and Massachusetts arose be- | trt een oiie thousimd and fourteen hundred feet, and it was hard to suppose the transportation of these isolated masses cXd^he^attention of Professor Hitch cock'to immense boulders of a rounded form, and of a spe cies of yellow quartz, in the region of his observations. He would ask if there were any; means of ascertaining the level of the Connecticut river 1,000 yelir8 Bn? His attention had been directed to the height of the t on nectkut river from the fact that the rver^Jile was now found to be 34 feet lower than it was 1,000 years ago. Professor Hitchcock said that the terraced valleys on the borders of the Connecticut was the only thing to I1 i Jht on the subject. From al 1 he kne w there was no change in the level of that stream-at least within the TIcT referred to a chasm through which the Merrimack Bowed, and whieh led to the influence that its course was a thousand feet higher at a former penod tliai now In Grafton, Orange County, there were wells found on a high ridge, showing that water must have been flowing there at a period when uerhaps the level ol the continent was very much lower tnan at present. Professor Silliman observed, in reference to the drift theory, that he was uncommitted to any theory; he would observe that they were not accustomed to attribute enough importance to the agency ol ice and wateiin transporting rocks. He was told by gentlemen that they had seou on ice island several miles in extent, and ol im mense height. In the Antarctic ocean, a Inend had coast ed along an ice island for seventy miles, and w;as unable to round it. Such enormous masses ot floating ice would be adequate to transport all the rocks spoken of. and in view of this he thought they should attach more impor tance to there forces, although thev might not in all cases be able to clearly explain their action. Mr Dana said he was extremely happy to hear those opinions from Professor Silliman. In the Southern Ocean a friend of his had sailed a whole day along an ice island in a boat; it was forty miles long, and he was of opinion that the more they knew of these islands, the more they would be satisfied with the agency of ice in transporting rocks, according to the views stated. V requently. smaller masses of ico had been seen bearing masses of houldera, and they were not always to attribute the removal ot these boulders to the largest ice islands. D~ * Reed arose to explain some particulars, which he had omitted in relation to the position of the erratic rocks on which he had reported. In the Richmond valley, these boulders were found resting upon another elevation, forty feet high showing that there must have been a power in acUonfo form this elevation, previous to that which pro duced the boulders. ... A. ? Professor Hitchcock was dubious on the successive passage of tides, or ocean waves in the same narrow track. For a distance of forty miles, and such a supposition was necessary to account for the detached position of thtse erratic rocks, without tho agency of icebergs. Dr S Ri ED was pleased with the suggestion of the gentleman; he had given his views, not because lie was perfectly satisfied with them, but as they were the best he found. Dr. Jackson mado some further explanation as to the ac tion of ico islands in Lake Superior, and pointed out the curious fact of a portion of earth containing copper being found at River, although there was no copper ore found on any spot on the borders of the lake, unless at Isle Royal, 40 miles distant from the isolated, and evident ly transported mass alluded to. Professor admired the assiduity evinced by the gentleman, in treating the subjoct. In rela tion to the main point, the subject of drift rocks, he would read a few remarks of nis own. (Reads a dc tcription of four different hypothesis.) All these theories presupposed the entire submergenco of the continent at a former period. He had before challenged any member of the Society to prove that the level of the continent was ever more than 100 feet lower than at present. In the val lies of the Ohio and Missisippi, there were no marine de posits, or remains to prove it. At Albany, in the C ham plain valley, at West Point, and along all the northern rivers, there were found marine shells in abundance, but in other parts this essential proof was wanting ; and he thought it was little use to dwell upon these theories about drift rocks as a piWf that the globe was once sub merged, if they could not prove the inferior level of the mountains at a former period. Before theyspeculatcd upon the removal of rocks by ice, they must first bring down the hills to the level of the ocean, when the ice could operate upon their masses. They w ere aw are that the tide wave crossed over the globe twice in hours ; there were, however, other waves. Recently, having occa sion to examine volcanic action in the case of the earth quake of Lisbon, it was ascertained that the tide wave caused by volcanic action, was known to move with a velocity of 30 miles an hour. Under these circumstances, how simple was it to account for the theory of the removal of rocks by these immense earthquake billows. The difficulty of properly appreciating the force of there physical dynamics could only be surmounted by extending their ideas of the vastness of their force in "a degree commensurate with the resistance encountered. As to the angle in the direction of those drift rocks, it could he easily accounted lor by the motion of two tide waves. Professor Sii.i.ima* supposed that the gentleman whose eloquent remarks had been just listened to, would go as far as any other geologist, and admit that there was no occasion for bringing down the level of moun tains, for the time was when tney were all submerged.? He saw no discrepancy between those who regard ice and those who looked upon water as the translating agent?the one theory did not go so far as the other in appreciating the force of ice ana wator respectively. He thought that the subject ol drift, one of the most import ant in geology was drawing to a crisis, and he confessed he saw no great diversity in the essential nature of the two views. Mr. I)a?ia concurred in tho views of Professor Silllman?nor would he deny that there was not enough weight attached to the force of water as a physical dy namic. On motion of Mr. Rrr.o, the subject was, for the pre sent, laid on the table. Mr. Rkoheld, Menr., read a report on fossil fishes, made by Mr. Redfield, Jr., by direction of the Society, which was illustrated by a variety of specimens.? Whilst these were being arranged, Professor Su-i-iMAN arose and said, if no arrangement was made for the following evening, he would lie happy to see the members at his house ; and if any stranger wished to go, he would accompany them at 8 the next morning to the top of the hill contiguous, whence could be seen the adjacent scenery, the geological features of the region in the vicinity of New Haven, which was rather celebrated. The friendly overtures of Professor Silliman. and also that of Professor Shepnrd, before alluded to, were ac cepted by the Society, who agreed to visit both these gentlemen at their residences on this and the following evening. Adjourned tfll half past 2 o'clock. AFTERROO* SESSION. The first business done was the reading of a paper en I titled " a review of chemical thoories, by Mr. J. 0. I WlutpleyIt wan based on the Atomic theory of Dal ton, and ingeniously discussed the leading properties of mutter, heat temperature, affinity, cohesion, impenetra bility, elasticity and a variety of other topics. Some of his view* seemed very visionary, and speculative. Professor Roi.khi, alter the conclusion of the leading of the paper, moved for the appointment of ttie general committee, which was carried , and the Chair named the follow mg to compose the Committee :? Professor Dewey ; B. Silliman, jr.; The Treasurer ; I)r. ('. J. Jackson ; Dr. Biuiiey ; H. D. Ilogers ; Professor Sil liman ; Piotessor Hitchcock ; J. M. Redfield; J. C. Booth ; John L. Hayes ; J. D. Dana ; E. C. Herrick. Professor Hiti iicoi k arose and said, that at tho last meeting held at Boston, he read a paper entitled " notes on the geology of < cntral Asia, which had been inserted in the transactions of the Society. Since then he had re ceived a large number of specimens in natuial history. One of those, a small bottle of water from the Caspian sea f ormed the subject of a long oral communication, in which he detailed the results of its chemical analysis, both by him and another operator in New York, which unfortunately proved inconsistent and very different. He read an extract from the letter of Mr. Abbott, the British Consul at Cairo, announcing his having procured the Caspian water through a Russian Commodore, com manding at Aitrabad. Another specimen, he also had, but as it was from the Bay of Astrabed, and essentially different from the other, he would no f urther refer to it. These waters abounded in sulphurated hydrogen, and a study of the subject was important, and lie believed would lead to the conclusion that those virulent fevers and dangerous malaria prevalent on tho Coast of Africa, and certain regions of Asia, would be found to be gene rated by sulphurated hydrogen. He had a long series of observations from the Rev. Mr. Merrick, from Persia, but as there were a number of specimens coming, he would not follow the subject now. Professor Booth said that the opinions presented by Professor Hitchcock were plausible, lie spoke of an examination made of the Schuylkill and Croton water; at one period the former was slightly tho purest, but the Croton contained less solid matter now. He called at tention to the existence of silica in water, and recom mended those who testod water to attend to this, as the best German authorities had said that silica held an im portant place as a solvent in wuter. Dr. Jackso* und Dr. Bauhatt made a few remarks upon the foreign matter in water ; the former concurred with Professor Booth, that the presence of shell fish in water had a tendency to purify it, by absorbing the lime and colcarous matter held in solution. EVENING 8KS9ION. Half Past 7 o'cloci. At the opening of the session this evening the College lecture room presented a more gay and lively appear ance than it lias hitherto worn; it was very well lighted, and several ladies came and occupied the transverse Beats on the left of the rostrum. The first paper to be read was announced from the Chair as one " on the foot marks found on the sand stone rocks of the valley of the Connecticut river." Dr. Bahkatt took his stand and proceoded with the readidg of his treatise. The first thing dwelt upon was the track of an animal, which he considered was a bird; a drawing of the foot mark was submitted. The socond sketch was of a foot mark bearing no roscmblance to that of any species of animal extant, but the author thought it was like that of the Hippopotamus. Another was equally singular, and was regarded as moro like an elk than any other; this was found in a soft sand stone, and were Becoming every year more distinct by the gradual removal ot a of blue grit which had cover ed thom. All the most interesting marks that came from Middletown, were found in a quarry about a mile distant from it, and he predicted if that quarry were again open ed it would be fruitful in like curiosities. Several other tracks of birds were found there, some of which were eighteen inches long. On one slab of gray sand 6tone he found a truck four inches long, and a dozen smaller ones, showing that the animals must have been numerous there. Professor Hitchcock read a naper on the "fos sil footmarks of New England." 1 Ins paper was to be accompanied by sketches of the mirks, but they were not ready at that time. A long classiDr ation of the genera mid species of these animals follow rd; of the former there wore twenty, of the latter thirtj five. Several of the names bestowed on them were boil owed from members of the association, and many oil ers were grotesque enough; but in giving them, the author said that ho had endeavored to be explicit und comprehensive, and above all to be consistent with the principles of comparative anatomy. Professor Silliman next submitted a paper on tho new fossilfoot marks found in sand stone. In commencing,the speaker observed that when first these discoveries wore submitted to him, he, as a teacher of science and the edi tor of a scientific journal, felt bound to take up the mat fer, and accordingly had made exertions to bring them to the notice of other countries. The first who adopted his communication was Professor Uucklund, in his Bridcwa ter Treatise, where he had regularly given credit to Professor Hitchcock for the discovery, as an important light thrown on the progress of life on our Olobe. Pro fessor Silliman prelaced the reading of the paper by some inteiesting remarks, to make it more intelligible'in reference to the age in which the animals making the tracks existed, and also as to their class. He was of opi nion that tliey were of the Saurian tribe, which were the exclusive denizens of this globe in the age preceding that of the coal formation?the redundant terrestrial ve getation and the creation of quadrupeds. Prolessor Rohkrs made some remarks on the Pennsyl vania foot marks, and their position in the apalachian for mation. In doing so he had occasion to speak of the great coal Held which extended in that and other central and Southern States over63,000 square miles? an area equal to that of nil England, and the half of Scotland. He concluded by recommending the Society to be cautious in committing themselves on the subject of these tracks until more facts wero known. After a few words from Mr. Haldeman and Professor Rogers, Professor Silliman moved that a committee bo appointed to follow up the investigation of the Philadel phia tracks. The Chair named Professor Rogers, Mr. Haldman and Professor Hitchcock, and the society unanimously con firmed the nomination. Dr. Bahratt followed in reply to Professor Rogers. He appeared to doubt the reality of these footmarks, and said tnaf in all his researches he never could find any such marks. Professor acknowledged the ingenuity of some remarks that had fallen from Mr. Barratt, and said he re garded it as part of the duty of the committee to attend to it. He was of opinion thutif any of these trucks were in relief, it proved fatal to the theory. Professor Hitchcock agreed with the last speaker, as to the force of the tracks being found in relief. On this matter ho had conversed with Mr. Lyell, tho Geologist, and con fessed to him that if?out of the two thousund tracks Ue had seen, he had found one in relief, which he never did? he would give up his theory; to which Mr. Lyell replied, that if he lound only one, lie would prefer striving to ac count for it, rather than forego the testimony of the 1999. Dr. Biwnrv would ask if our knowledge of the past his tory of our globe depended upon an acquaintance with dead birds, how long it would require to become conver sant with the subject j for, out of the thousands of species of birds, lie was certain not one there ever had soon eight different kinds ot dead birds, unless on the table. The Society adjourned here, till half past nine o'clock on Friday. New Haven, Friday, May 2,1845. The Association met at ten this morning, und were busied for half an hour with the usual routine business. A few slight alterations being made in the record of the minutes, Dr. Barratt read a paper entitled " Evidences of Congelation in the Red Sandstone, exhibited by regular triangular and rhombic marks, of great dis tinctness.'* After noticing the bearing of this conge lation ouestion on the temperature of the earth, at the earlier periods of animal life, and his finding ice in the form of rhombs and triangles, in February, 1841, he added, in regard to the sandstone, that the marks were produced by a pressure of lines in cor responding figures when in a soft state. For a long time he had recorded every ap|>earance of ice, tor the purpose of throwing light Upon the past action of congelation in the production of these imprints in rocks. Dr. Barrett concluded by inviting gentle men to accompany hun to a building alluded to by him, where certain marks were to be seen, in va rious forms, and which he regarded as decidedly of an icy origin. B. Sili.iman, Jr., arose to say, that in certain soft argillaceous beds in Bennsylvaiiia he had observed marks such as described by Dr. Barrett, but he did not ascribe it to the same causes, but rather regard ed it as the ell'ect of causes which act in the forma tion of such species of rocks. Mr. Johnston thought that the rhomboidal struc ture talked of by Dr. Barrett was entirely distinct from that alluded to by Mr. !Silliinan. The President asked Or. B. if lie regarded the triangu lar diagram as possessing any thing peculiar; he ob served that he had represented them as of about 00 de gree*. Dr. Barratt replied he took no measurement?he had taken a sketch of them at random. Prof Sm i-aiiii said the measurement wan a matter of importance, for his part lie was not satisfied with the ex planation given of those marks, for at the supposed time of their formation, he thought the temperature of the earth was much higher than was essential to Dr. B.'s hypothe sis. Dr. Barratt observed that he had anticipated some op position, ami had taken care to make a long series of me teorological observations, which he would bo happy to show to any gentlemen ; at present he had them not with him. 1'rof. Hii,lima> was glad to hear the remarks of Dr. B., but thought that they could not afford so much time in speculation, there being many things of at least equal im portance to take up; besides, if they devoted too much time to it, they might freeze themselves. A Mkmhi.r assured Dr. B. that no opposition was given to his theory more than that which was requisite and usu al to test any hypothesis brought before the Association, lie would move that the Chair should appoint a commit tee to pursue the investigation and report the result to the Society. The' Mtin nominated Prof. Hitchcock, Dr. Bariiatt, ami Mr. Rkdfiri d, and so the question dropped. Mr. Jamks D. Dana read an essay " On the orgin of the constituent and adventitious minerals of trap and tiie al lied rocks." This iiaper w as so long and elaborate, and the language so technical, that it is hardly practicable to give a clear synopsis of it. 1'iif hiii> vi ?It is the wish of the business committee K proceed with the reading of all those papers and leavt the whole open to discussion at once. The next paper is "On the naturo of minerals accompanying trap dykes w hich intersect various rocks."' Dr. Jackson proceeded with hi* statement, which, he said lie desired to make an appendix to that just rend on the trap rocks. Some interesting f,t?;s were stated by him in relation to the different kinds of minerals which were found at the places of contact of these intrusive trap rocks, with limestone, sandstone, and calcareous spar, lie alio stated that, phosphate was found to exist iu sea water, although the fact of iti existence there, and of its being essential to the osseous part of the structure ol Ashes, wai overlooked by naturalist*. Professor Sili.iman, in making a few remark* suggest ed by the statements of Dr. Jackson, exhibited some lich and massive specimens of copper ore, found in sandstone at the place of its contact with trap rocks. One speci men w as from I-aku Superior, another from Connecticut, a short distance from New Haven, where, at a former period, a mass of the purest oopper, weighing lOOlbs , was tound by a mechanic of New Haven, and used for purposes of Ins business for a long timo. Professor Sili.iman drew the attention of the Society to the first volume of the transactions of the Society which hud been just published, and passed a handsome eulogium upon the work, observing?not, he said, that they were constrained to go to Kurope for a proper esti mation of their own books?that, both here and abroad it had been pronounced by the ablest men as a volume doing creuit to this country. He, therefore, would again commend it, and advise members to not only give it their support, but make an effort to spread its circulation rnong their frieada and the friends of science. The President introduced the report of the nominating Committee, which passod unanimously. The following is the list of new members contained in the report:? Professors H. Coftiu, Norwalk; Dr. VV. Tulley, New Haven; Dr. James O. Percival, do ; Rev. James Ksta brook, President of Tenncsjee Collage; O. Root, Esq., Utica, N. V.; Rev. Justin Perkins, Rev. J. H. Van Len nep, Constantinople ; Rev. Ebenezer Uurgcss, India; Samuel Wells, Ksq., Northampton, Mass.; Thomas R. Pynchean, Hartford; Robert Bakewell, New Haven; Dr. Eli Ives, Now Haven; Eli Blake, do.; l)r. King, I'cnn.; Rev. J. J. Dana, Canaan, N. Y.; Dr. W. W. Reed, Ro chester; Thomas H. Weld, Mount Savage, Maryland. Professor Hitchcock addressed the Society" on cer tain remarkable facts respecting the magnetic polarity of trap rocks." A short treatise, entitled " Some Reminiscences of the Geology of Jamaica (W. I.), viz., a recent elevation of the Island: the absence of drift?a new geological agent," by C. B. Adams, occupied the meeting till it adjourned, at one o'clock. afternoon session. Hale-past 2 O'CLOCK. The PaKsiDENTjstated the subjects prescribed by the business committee for the remainder of the day. Professor Johnston ottered the following resolution : " Resolved, That committees may be appointed from year in the vicinity of all the principal Northern rivers emptying into the Atlantic Ocean from the territory of the United States, to make the necessary measurements and experiments, and to ascertain, as accurately as may be, the amount of sedimentury matter annually carried by them into the ocean." Professor Dewky thought it would be better to defer the nomination of the committee till next day. Professor Loomis was of opinion that it would be more desirable to appoint a committee at once. Professor Olmsted suggested that the better way would be to appoint a committee composed of a limited number, with power to add to their number. Professor Johnston, at the suggestion of the Chair, withdrew the motion for the present. Professor Dewey arose to read a paper " On the Oyp sum of the State of New York." These rocks, he said, occupied a great extent among the upper transition rocks, and in masses of different sizes, imbedded in the rocks sometimes, partially chrystalizcd, at others so well as to be beautiful sileuite. His principal object was to dwell upon the rocks with which it was associated. The general opinion was that it occupied a lino by itself, whereas tlie fact was that it was found in isolated masses in other sorts of rock ; therefore, when he spoke of gyp sum, he did not speak of it as a stratum, although he might do so of the gypsyferous earth. When common people name objects nut known to them, they must do so in accordance with some obvious quality, or appear ance, or association ; so gvpsum was called ashes. One peculiarity in it is, that wherever found, the rock over it was curved; and when in contact with limestone, the latter was cracked in small pieces, giving color to the notion of the common people, that it was still up-heaving. After stating numerous facts in proof that gypsum was mot of a continuous formation, or connected stratum, he ulluded to Some plausible theories us to its formation. Some accounted for it through the presence of sulphu rite of calcium, but this he discarded, as no such sub stance was to be found in the earth--it was to be had only in the laboratory of the chemist; others associated its origin with chrystalization. As to the curves and cracks, which suggested the idea of upheaving, he was more dispose.I to attribute it to tho settling of the mass on loose earth after solidification, as the settling would present the same appearance. After making seve ral other remarks, the Speaker said that he did so for the purpose of bringing the subject before the Society, for the purpose of ascertaining the position if gypsum were the same in other places. The President invited members to state whatever facts they were acquainted with; but no communication being made on the subject, Dr. Jackson arose and addressed the meeting on the Barometer. He set out with stating that no instrument was usually more imperfect than the barometer, and the price was in the inverse proportion to its perfection. Those procured for the use of the N. E. Survey from England were not true; although those imported from that country were much better than those made in the United States, whilst the French were still more valua ble. Then follow ed a description of a simple contrivance for serving all tho purposes sought to be securod by the barometers now in use, and submitted an unfinished specimen of the instrument. It consisted of a glass tube about two inches long and one and a fourth inch in di ameter; to one end was attached, by a screw, a cylindri cal receptacle of bell metal to hold the mercury, to which again was attached another tube in the shape of an inverted cove, covered by a leather cover, and through this operated the pressure of the atmosphere. The upper portions of the structure were described in ! detail and were exceedingly simple, and probably for that not the less perfect. Dr. J. acknowledged the aid afforded to him in his troublesome experiment to make a good barometer to Mr. J. H. Temple, of Boston, whose skill in brass work was not to be exceeded in any country. A Memrer?What will be the cost .of these barome ters ? Dr. Jack??n? Sixty dollars?the sum charged for tho<>c now in use, and which are worth nothing. I)r J., ended by advising scientific men to keep perfect instru menu, an their results were sure and satisfactory, whilst had ones were an endless source ?f annoyanco and er ror. He was suro that an averago of ten measurements of the altitude of a mountain barometrically would be found more accurate than if done trigonometrical!) . Professor Olmsted begged to say that the thanks of the Association, and of the country, were due to| Dr. J. for the ]>ains taken by him to improve the barometer, and also for instructing an able mechanic in his improvements, who would furnisli the country with what was so much wanted?a perlect specimen ol this useful instrument. This subject having dropped, tho President advised the meeting to resume the inquiry on the minerals asso ciated with trap rocks, which had been already before them. Professor Rooers first rose to the question. He did not conceive the possibility of external waters permeating through the solid bed of rocks ;and where wells and de posits of waters were found in strata of rocks, he thought it would be fuuad to be of the precise kind, and a portion of those waters in whiclt the particles of the substances were first deposited ; as, for instance, the brine wells found in part of the State of New Vork, w ere portions of the ancient ocean, displaced by these deposites. The idaa of currents of water from tho surface of the earth, or the air, passing into solid slata, he could not at all uu-' dcrstand. He did not mean to deny the existence of hy drous minerals ; that was one mode of segregation ; b;u there were mineral solutions of igneous as well as aque ous origin. What he meant was, that where these were found, the water containing them was as old as the mat ters they held in solution. Mr. J. D. Dan* explained some views expressed in the morning in relation to this topic. Mr. Stephen Reed, Dr. Jackson, and Professor Shep herd, spoke briefly. The latter expressed his belief that the question on which they were now engaged was like the great one of corpuscular action, full ofdifficulty; and while he thanked .Mr. l)nna for bringing up the matter in the form he did, he begged to be excused if lie stated some of the obstacles to belief in his views. Professor 8. then repeated in detail some incongruities in the reasons fiven for the origin of these mineral%aters in rocks by Ir. I), and others. f Professor Silliman, after a few illustration, thought that we were yet far off a proper appreciation of the immense forces?such as fire, water, pressure, 8tc.? which are in activo operation in this globe, and which are constantly engaged in the production of vast changes and effects in the elements composing its mass. Yet the age, the efforts being made, the importance of the investiga tion, promised that, at no distant period, an approxima tion, far in advance of our present position, would be made to a proper appreciation of these powers. Tho President again called to the notice of the Socie ty its fiscal affairs. Since he spoke of the matter in the morning, ho believed all the members then present had complied w ith his suggestion. If any others, not then present, had sinco arrived, they would do well to pay their assessment. I'rofossor Rogers again brought up the question of the memorial to the government, which was made matter of discussion on the day before. In dwelling briefly on the importance of the matter, he alluded to the pains taken by foreign governments in regard to similar subjects, and desired to sec a committee appointed, and the discus lion pursued among members. Mr. Hays and Dr. Jackson spoke. The latter said, that when professionally engaged on the coast of Maine, he had paid attention to the subject of the ocean's level, and frequently conversed with old pilots and fishermen, who were invariably of the opinion that tho lovel of the sea on that coast had sunk, or, in their language, that the rocks iiad sensibly grown within the memory of man. tie was anxious to see a systematic plan undertaken for ascertaining the tide levels, under the auspicos of gov ernment. At Portland, measures to this end had lately been effected ; and when it was considered that the Uni ted States had power and means, throughout the whole occan coast to do so, it would be a matter of regret if efforts were not made to sec whether wo were getting up in the world or down. (Laughter.) Professor Silliman added, that on the coast of New Kngland, evidences, in the form of marine remains wore abundant, that a difference had taken place in the eleva tion of the sen. For one, he would be glad to sec gov ernment taking tip the matter; it would not cost much, and would be well carVied into effect by the liberal mind ed men in their employ. In immense valleys over this country, in the State of Mississippi, the immense alluvial deposits were proofs of what hud boon said. He spoke of the ruins of the cypress forests found on tho banks of the Mississippi. Of the proofs of successive growths on the alluvial soil, of the low site of New Orleans, compared with these deposit?*, as bearing upon this question. After dwelling on the bad foundation of New Orleans, he said it was a matter of great importance that they should sink no farther. Professor Roijers was still doubtful of the alleged rise of the New Kngland roast. There might have been pa roxysmal elevations, but they were not continuous ; and

as to the direction of the land at present, he was com pletely in the dark. He thought if the matter were pro perly brought before government, they would take it up. A motion whs then carried for the nomination of a com mittee, whose duty would be to memoiiali/.e the Secreta ry of the Navy, on the questions forming the subject mat ter of the discussion. In yesterday's report an abstract of them was presented. The Association here ajjottraed till half past 9 o'clock on Saturday. New Haven, Saturday, 9J, A.M. Professor Dewev took the chair this morning, at half-past nine o'clock. The minutes of the previous day's transactions were adopted. Professor Shkpakd proceeded to address the So ciety on a "new locality of Meteoric Iron." lie was indebted for the information to Lieut. Flagg, of the navy, from whom he read a letter, dat ed November 12th, 1844. The locality is St. Augus tine's Bay, on the south-west coast of the Island of Madagascar. The writer of the letter having visited this place, gave an interesting account of the appear ance of the natives, through whom, having observed the prevalence of weapons of iron among them, he ascertained the locality of the iron. Professor Shepard observed that having procured a spear-head used by these people, he.tested and found it to be of meteoric iron, and gave a detail of the analysis. It might be doubted that such a wonderful mass of meteoric iron, as is said to be in the locality under considera tion, amounting to 16 feet in diameter, existed, whilst the largest mass hitherto known to exist was one of 16,000 lbs. Whatever there was incredible in the repre sentation, might be explained from the possibility of not perfectly understanding the statements of the na tives in their little known tongue; at all events it was certain that in whatever quantity it existed, it was decidedly meteoric. The s|>ear-head spoken of, was here handed round for examination. After concluding tliis topic, the Speaker next ad verted to his discovery of a marine animal, last win ter, which he regarded us the ancient sea hare. Concerning this animal, a variety of curious state ments were quoted from Pliny, the younger, in whose days the sea hare was considered one of the most noxious in creation. Here followed a techni cal description of the animal, of which, before the discovery of this specimen, none was believed to exist in our seas. After adverting to the classifica tion of Lamarc, a French naturalist, he observed that this specimen of the Lejms Marinas, did not fully correspond with the description given by the author quoted: it differed in many important points, which he would point out to any gentleman who de sired it. In this state of the case, he would call this animal Aplysia Caroliniana, being found on the Carolinian Coast. In reply to a question of Mr. Redfleld, he gave it as his opinion, that this animal could not have been drifted from the West Indies, as it was of a different kind from the animal found there. The same gentleman then proceeded to make some observations on elastic sandstone, of which he presented a beautiful specimen, found in North Carolina. When he first became possessed of it, he became impressed with the idea of its being similar to the celebrated elas tic sand stone of Brazil. In the course of some time, he happened to meet with a German naturalist of high repu tation, named Von Schriver, who had been in this coun try exploring its mineralogy and geology, to whom he introduced tne subject. Mr. Von S. was in possession of abundant samples of the Brazilian ; but hesitated to sub mit his views on the substance to writing, but promised to writo to Professor S. from Germany. This he did, and in his letter (read by Professor S.) concurred in the opinion of its being similar to the Brazilian, and quoted tne nuthority of a German gentleman of science, named Eckhardt, that the same production was found in the gold region of the Ural, as well as that of Brazil ; from all which circumstances, he (Professor S.) was confirm ed in the opinion that a gold mine existed in North Ca rolina. This could be supported by several facts, such as the finding of gold in Lincoln County, and other lo calities. In winding un his remarks, the speaker inti mated his intention of drawing up an account of the Brazilian gold and Platinum region, from an excellent work published in France by M. Plessis, in 1840, as it was of consequence to ascertain how far there was an analogy between that and the region of North Carolina. Dr. Jackson quoted a very credible authority in sup port of the presence of platina in North Carolina. Professor Oi.mitkd spoke of a specimen he had seon and endeavored to procure, which was found in Lincoln county, North Carolina. An interesting conversation ensued on the subject of gold discoveries in several parts of the Union. The following list of now members were proposed by the nominating committee and adopted :?Thomas Pea body, Esq.; Henry Whoaton, M. D.; Thomas Cole, Esq.; John E. Lee, Esq., all of Salem; Andrew Nicholis, M. D.: William Otis, Esq., Ipswich; Professor G. W. Kcely ; Honorable Levi Woodbury; Lieutenant H. W. Halleck, Kngineer Corps; 8. T. Olmy; George Thurber; Perkins Shenard. Providence; J. It. Ingalls, Greenwich, New York; M. C. I.cvenworth, Waterbnry, Connecticut; Lieutenant H. Klag, United States Navy ; Edward It. Taylor, New Haven. I)r. Jackkom addressed the society "on the siliceous matter in plants, with an analysis of the method of re moving it from the fibrous and cellular matter. A de tailed account of the process was given, anil the practical benefits stated to be considerable, as affording means to procure the pure fibrous vegotable matter oT plants far tho manufacture of paper. The same gentleman continued to give the result of his experiments " on the Rosendale, New York, and Connecticut hydraulic cement, and the limestone of which it is made." In concluding a detailed statement of an analysis, he said that the presence of potash, soda, sulphuric acid and manganese in these ccmcnts hitherto had been overlooked. Professor ltor;Kits gave an illustrated course of re marks on tho changes of the slate strata of the Apala chian range. This was a pleasing discourse and was heard with great attention. Adjourned till 3 o'clock. AftEUNOO* Session. Three o'clock, r. M. The President on taking his seat, announced the llrst business in order, to be remarks " on the prevailing winds of North America." Professor ( 'okfim stated, that he had intended to make only an oral communication, but would read a papar. One of the greatest difficulties, and that which long de terred him from experiments, was the occurrence of winds, from all points of the compass, in a circle of one hundred miles diameter, and the erroneous result of the common mode of calculation, in pronouncing that the pre \aient wind which predominated, even slightly, regard loss of the rest. Jle was of opinion that observations to determine the specific gravity and velocity, as well as the prevalence of ?inds, would be valuable; but for want of means, this was at present hardly practicable; yet, what he could do, we found worth attempting. He then ex hibited an ingeniously constructed chart, representing various circular sections of the earth's surface, whose winds w ere represented by a shaded margin, of a breadth proportionate to the prevalence of those w inds. These were founded upon experiments made in over 200 locali ties, in this country, the British possessions, and the West Indies. The winds of this country could he demonstrated to prevail vory uniformly from a lit tle south of N. West?any great variation from this di; rection being caused by eildies in the air. Mr. C., in conclusion, thought the subject was not one that could be investigated. The President suid that gentlemen were aware of the reports from the different Colleges of the State of New York to the Kcgents, from whom .Mr. Coffin had procured the results of their experiments, and lie was now desir ous of pursuing the investigation of the winds. Prof. Hedfikld acknowledged tho importance of some of Mr. Collin's distinctions, and his claims to credit for zeal. Observations made by him gave the same results as those of Mr. C. The track of a storm was the truest indication of its course. He would shortly be prepared to givo a his tory of a great hurricane, HOO miles broad, passing over Central ^America towards the island of Jamaica, and thence to the Northern Atlantic. Prof. Hhkfahd said that thanks were due to Mr. Coffin for his labors ; they were frequently entertained by Mr. Redfield with oral communications on this subject, and he thought it would be desirable that the gentlemen should pursue their enquiries. In the meantime he arose to speak of the necessity for appointing a committee to ar range subjects for reports at their next annual meeting. Prof. Olmsted coincideil in the suggestion, and trusted that the subject of the winds would not be neglected. Prof. Siiepard suggested that Prof, Hedfleld and Mr. Coffin should pursue their observations in concert. Mr. Redfielu slightly differed from tho last speaker. It would bo found much more satisfactory to leave it in the hands of an individual; and thore should be no conflict of opinion, no compromise ; then the report would com mand justly more weight. The Society then, by vote, requested Mr. Coffim to carry out his observations, Mr. Retinoid having declined. Professor Sili.ima*, after a fow words, highly comply mcntary to Mr. Taylor, an English naturalist, now enga ged in composing a work on coal, submitted a report of that gentleman's on "the coal mines." Professor Ro<;*.rs observed that the work Mr. Taylor was now engaged in was the only one undertaken on the extent and distribution of fossil fuel throughout tho world, although it was the greatost of all mineral gifts of the Creator, and tho source of all mechanical skill, national industry, wealth and power. It would bo a work which no public library, certainly no geologist's library, could be without, and he folt it his duty and pleasure to contribute iu any way to the promotion of Mr. T.'s enterprise. Professor Bailey read a paper on "Plants of the genus Rhi/omorpha." A short desultory conversation onjdios phoretic woods and minerals. Dr. Jacrsois then made an interesting address "on the copper region of l.ako Superior." A brief description, ho said, of that tract of country might not prove uninter esting to the scientific community at a time when public attention is towards that country, and mining enterprise about to be engaged in by many companies and individu al*. Some had too exalted views with regard to tho valuo of mines, while others were us much in error in over looking and neglcting opportunities for good invefttmehts of capital. It should, however, be distinctly understood, that he w ho purchased a mine bought only a w orkshop containing the taw material which was to be rendered valuable by labor and skil.l It was requisite, then, in the miner that he should understand his business and know the extent and value of his stock as far as it could lie as certained, anil how to convert it at the cheapest rate into merchandise of value. It often happened that tho extent and \ aluo of a metaliferous Imlr might be ascer tained by measurement and calculation, tint more fre quently only a rude explanation could be obtained on account of the irregularities of the veins of ore nnd the liability of the Indr to change in character. Geological science should come to our aid in investigations ol this kind, ami it would bo well if more attention were paid to the phenomena of mineral veins nnd the associations of metalliferous ores. <{oology had been reproarhed lor not giving adequate information on this subject, and so it had been left to the mineralogist and practical miner. The subject was one of much practical and scientific, interest, and he jvould therefore commend it to the special attention of those who might have occasion to explore localities where the phenomena alluded to might be atudied. Che racter; for aatu'^ ?*?*? Part in researches of this cha different from those rnmiPrescri d cl,cmicai tacts \ery boratory, and other* ^nU observation in the la principles. He might 01 woU known ject hereafter. and wouM .,^00"10111? rcfer t0 thi? mb ?(deration of the mineral reS, P?" d?rectly to the con entering St. Mary's river tr- .*} . *ko SuPerior. On they left the fossiliferoiis 0 '?k* Superior, abundantly farther to the ??..?!? e' which occurred of Lake Huron?d came?o^hhn'W*?tWa/d on t,le 8'?>res and conglomerate* which bonUrJ^ i""^ Krey sandstones falls on Snult St. Marie were nrn I ?He SuPer?ur. Tlie of the waters of Luke 8un?S^ by the discharge sheets of red sandstone X i??tVer ,l?htllr Alined form a series of .helved or .l^f toWardf!the W'e, and rushes with great velocity m . f!f ?V8r w,uch tho water more than two miles in wTdtK Thi^ln ?roar"'g rapid of and the distance thence to the'l^i V* about 1H fee? contemplated to cut a ?hh, r., ?i / ou Lone mUo- '? river, before the fajls onlv thr? i if 0 Iake to th>J in* required, and the excavation th *1' /eot eae1' be" ef sandstone, will be eusy whlUt the L ' give permanence to the can^l I t wiu around the falls is covered with mvr?T"^"i efrround of rounded sienite, porpherv t rim ? m. of arKe blocks There are specimens of tho' ^".11" , . ar?d sandstone, which were mostly brou^t ^ 0^^"^ the lak?' cation by drifting Ice whL. r l,resc"t ho over mow elevated land t an .?nC?, Was ?wol,t with water since t!?? hu?P ? ?* beo? covered have been evidently two or l?nC opoch. There tions of its borders or Paroxismal eleva there are two well marked ancTnT^ho^ oMhTl from one to two miles inland The first I. the XvelK tlMi t)ase" of'H*b ? !'i?h''''' th? Prcsent ?bore - the other ^s Lak Vlh ' ,- ' ?,"e,or two miles further from the ?I?m " .. i ^,ck Br?wtli of moss covered spruce trees and slender white lierch, cover the first shore : the..mceZ tw ten this and the other is a dark boggv swumn Ik he.n.oct0"80/0'08' of wWt0 ce.lars,g^e7wfth a ,ew hemlock and pine trees. On the hills further back roc!.,c1 n!i?J Br?Mh oi s"wLSS5?-? llpslM?!?! SSi^sy^aAiidaSS ? 1 as a Psl" depressionslfor we could not as rms lie eifVa ril ? e8tW^ich ?cueraU>' act in lines, the raising of a run round this great sheet of water At Copper Harbor the rocks are a coarse conglomerate and trap dykes, which intersect it. hi the former consi' derable quantities of chry soceller, or hydrous S of ffiVhe'blicrvM8 fS *)uo" known as the Orcen ; i ,ck OXK,? 01 copper, and brown siliceous o*. wfntir?n0?C?C?Uri c"~? V?r " ,lavi"S been|opened duriug last winter at the barrack of the troops at Kort Wilkins At ie" PAtCA^'?ntrhP 'ock?show themselves in large mas *i i % k harbor tho conglomerate is airuin mt &att.Ln-mCi:0US VraV d>kcs- and the amygdaloid found at the juncture of these rocks, is tilled with small \?VtZ formed agates and nodules ofcorni! t c'mlce'iony. The pebbles on the shore are ^tr/'v,c!e?nC? ,? ,"ame of 'ho harbor. Krom A/rate to t>, ! harbor, clills of conglonieiuto and abutments of the trap are seen The latter often contains i.ieces of native copper, and the former large veins of calcareous JopDerCCand0,tfn/ !ltn"$ '?Betl'er by filaments of native P , ' .and tinged with the green carbonate. Some of m.t1n\U iS are s,x fcet u?dcr, and may be seen running out into deep water in tho lake. At Kaele Ifarbor S vein ol dalholite occurs, with black boro-sflicate of iron The d^SKolite6 chr\'?*ientSi>01 tlle I"'111 Interspersed. r??i mnforni cbrystals often contain scales of bright dant ^n the trali 'lfn I V'1"8 ?f ',rohnitc' ar? very abSn! conLr nni ^ 'n tdwa>'s contain particles of pure copper. One ol these veins (sample No. 6.) is four feet wide, and every chrystal ol the prehnite conta.ns a It rp?rt-.Ci0i)per as U,in 88 ff?ld foil a"'1 perfectly bright or i? kjtjrs ner. He could not form a satisfactory opinion as to fli? ?Wp^35ra5!?^wr the riju Sy'the'action cist in7? ? C' y tl,ese wotals wore fused and hfs doUt ofH! ?8Cn nnS' . 'rn conclusion, he expressed nitiv? . Permanent fertility of these mines; as native copper, when found in masses was a susnirinne ^n.1it0In(;Kthe,efore' 100 niuch caution^ and foresight jects fo "wo'rkhfJth*e<l by Ca',ita,lists 1,1 listening to pro mention^3 onterprise. mi"eS' bcfore made inv'est rrof. Shkpard was struck, during Dr. Jarkso.,', n,l drr"^lth. ',e 8tntcments he made, and the richness of SSSWf ??HS ssasreijF, J&sfisx? eopi>er w'as foifn<i? 1 nt occurre(' i" ridge, of fandstone i 'ouna; but it was not known that such Walt these^roc^u would'in a').Vndan.t ">ines; and in this case, catch the (peculator^ I>robabillty P?>v. a ?? trap- to ?n<]er-estimate them, Profes barking in th?[ b".u,d l,ave to? many competitors in em friend??c^ntrary^ to'their"interests in dfd^^t l? in W.d^eedl(>Lamu0ghtenr)ribUtablU Ara4; ^copper' ofhrl-"n.iWM '"?Pres60d with 4I'0 unpromising nature "f,"- inti!e w? s copper iegion of l ?k? f C?l't'Jer ore lo,u"1 *n the witha0kthersupcrior' nm<l?u a casu "otcn 'ihe Society adjournod to Monday morning. New Haven, Monday, 9& o'clock, A. M. Professor Dewey called the meeting to order, and announced the business of the day. Dr. Amos Binney moved that the subject of the distribution of mollusca, formerly committed to Dr. Booth, be continued in his hands for a future report. Adopted. Dr. Binney again moved that S. S. Haldeman, Esq., and T. E. Melsheimer, M. D.,'and John L. Le Conte, M. L)., l>e requested to prepare a synopsis of the coleoptera of the United States, including the specific character and synonymes ol all the known ?peciea. 'flie President rpad a recommendation of the General Committee, that the next session ot the As sociation be held in the City of New York, in Sep tember W16, which was carried. The following were nominated as a local Committee to carry out the necessary preliminary arrangements:?Major James Delafield, Professor J. Ren wick, Professor Cyrus Mason, Hon. James Talltnadge, Hon. Luther Bra dish, Professor Jirnea JO. De Kav, Jeremiah Von llansselaer, M. D., Professor Scnnell Draper, II. Brevoort, Commodore M. C. Perry, U. 8. N., Charles M. Wheitfley, Professor James Hall, Al bany; Wm. B. Kenney, Esq. Newark; Chailes Congdon, Eaq., Brooklyn. Professor Shkpaiid rose to say a few words further on the subject of Dr. Jackson's communication of last evening, relative to the geology of Lake Superior. Ho (Professor s.) had opportunity only to nay, that ho could not coincide ;with the view brought forward by that gentleman, in respect to the peculiarity of the copper lodes or deposites of Lake Superior, and especially us to his inference of the possible depth of such lodes, and their direct origin from the primary rocks below. It appeared to him, that we simply have in the Lake Supe rior a repetition, on a large scale indeed, of the new red sandstone formation with its contents, like that in the val ley of the ? onnecticut. For instance, the sandstone con tains at numerous places on ts western border, from Ham den to (ircenliold, Mass., the same copper ores that are found just across the line in the contiguous primary; and those are laid down around the dtbri.? of the very same rocks, which arc still seen to inclose the copper in the primary. Thin copper ore must, therclure, have been brought by the same causes, (end these doubtless wore torrents of fresh wator setting from the higher formatiou region down the slojies of the primitive into the then Ureat Lake of the Connecticut valley) and luid down sometimes in bedded masses over wide ieieas in the sandstone; at others it dropped into east and west cracks along with barytes. Tho subse quent eruption of tlio trap dykes among these strata, an ovent which doubtless led to the drainage of tho lake,and ami the present order of the surface, altered many of these deposits of copper,where the dykes passed near or across thorn, partly reducing in the latter caso the oxide and sulphurets to native copper, bringing portions of the ore to the surface, 011 the sides and backs of the dykes. So also with regard to tho new red sandstone region of Lake Superior, whose strata were formed at tho same period ami under similar circumstances, from the segre gation of the surrounding primitive by the waters which rushed across tliem in the synetinal depression of the Inko ; the subsequent eruption of trap dykes produced similar results with the copper strata and veins which they contained. The sliding upwards ol a triip dyke from the inclined strata of sandstone, would give upon the upper surface of the trap, ill course* immediately sub. jacent to the vein or bed, a superficial coating ot amy. galoid, rich in native copper. The subsequent sinking of tho trap near such points would allow of the coating of points with thin portions ol native described by Or. J. The presence of silver with native copper did not appear to Professor s. as any ground for attributing a remote origin to 'the deposits, sinre it is well known that the great new red sandstone of Western Germany, in which also is copper, produces quite as much silver in proportion to the copper, as is found by Dr. J. sit Keweena. Tho mines,for example, there, give commonly about ton thousand pounds of silver to two thousand tons ol copper. Professor S. had no doubt, from the accounts given by Dr. that the deposits he had des cribed were exceedingly rich, and would prove profit able to thoso engaged in their exploration; but no did not see any grounds for supposing that any new geologi cal features were involved 111 them, and especially (lis senteil from the supposition that the copper lodes in con nection with tho trap, would descend to great depths, and least of all, that tliey originated direotly from tto older i>)rogenouk rock*. l)r. Jackso v explained?He went to Lake Superior im preised that the cop)>er ore was produced from rock* deposited previous to the sandstone. He did not think so now. The copper must have had an igneous origin, and was part of the primary copper of the globe, brought up in the trap rocks from the interior of the eaith. The views of Professors. were valuable, and would explain the origin of copper ia some localities, but not w hen found in large masses. Professor Shkfard did not nttach much consequence to the fact of copper not being found at the junction of the primary and secondary strata of sandstone. As to the Llack oxide of copper spoken of, enough carbon was found in red sandstone to account for it. He had great respect for Dr. J's views on the district which he had visited, but he could not entirely agree with Jhiin as to the probability of linding the copper far below the surface. On motion of Mr. Rkiifiklo, Dr. Heed was appointed to report 011 the quartz veins of Berkshire county, Mass. Mr. Whklplky addressed the Society on the trap rocks of the Connecticut Valley. Hi* arguments were direct ed to prove that at one period the sandstono of the Con necticut Valley had an elovation to cover entirely those elevations of the primary rocks, known as trap dykes. I'rofesor Kohkhs followed, making some strictures on the views entertainod in the last puper. Jt was well kuown to naturalists that two great masses of red sand stone occurred in this country- one occupied the valley of the Connecticut; another that long track extending from its northern end at the pallisadcs N. J. as far as Carolina on the South. On the geological survey of New Jersey he found that portion of this great estuary, the horns of tho crescent shaped trap dyes are towards the N. \V., while in Connecticut it is towards the Kast, both corresponding with the diiection of the sandstone stra tum, and in no way conformed with that of the old suk jacent rocks. Here followed a brief discussion between Profes sors lingers, Hedfield, and others. The former con tended that there was no evidence of a departure from the horizontal in the sandstouo beds, at a period subse quent to their formation. Professor It. contending that tlie difference ill their horizontal direction was caused by an upheaving force. B. Silliman, Jr., was convinced from every indication, that thcidirection was given to the sandstones before th intrusion of the trap rocks. Prof. Rkdkikld wished to observe, in justice to Dr. I'ercival, that he was the first to take up the subject. B. Silliman, Jr., observed that the 46th volume of the American Journal of Science, published 1K44, gives full credit to Dr. P. as the original observer of the cres ent formed dykes of trap in the new red saudstonc of Connecticut. Dr. Jackson gave some interesting details of the ap pearance and position of the trap and sandstone of Nova Scotia, where evidences of an upheaving was presented by the position of masses of trap protruding between others of micheloid ami sandstone in the line of least re sistance. He considered it was of igneous origin, and caused by the fusion of iron, sulphur, and liornblend, and that the micheloid was a compound of trap and sand stone. < Prof. Bailey road a paper on a new locality of fossil in fusoria, in Oregon. He said, that understanding that Capt. Fremont was about departing to pursue'some scien tific researches on the Pacific coast, he requested him to collect some specimens of infusoria ; this he did, and those sent were from the remote country, and the extraordinary circumstances in which they were found, were of pecu liar interest. They were not marine, hut all fresh water infusoria, found in a river on the eastern Hank of the Cas cade Mountains, which rise to the height of 16,000 feet. The specimens sent were found imbeded in strata700 feet in elevation, beneath a stratum of lava ; so that these most minute of creation's works were hermetically seal ed up in a mass of volcanic matter 104 feet thick. Prof. Hoi;er? regarded this subject as of exceeding in terest^ it was at last discovered that there wero indispu table proofs of an original fresh water formation, and the geological knowledge of tiiat vast territory would be much advanced by this discovery. He had a lew remarks to make in the evening on the fresh water formation of the Missouri: in the meantime he would conclude by ask ing Prof. Bailey to state his views of the probable ago of these infusoria. Prof. Bailey said there were a few facts he could state on that subject; the principal one was the similitude ex isting between these fossils and existing species of th? present day; some of which were found all over the country, others belonging to Mexico, and others to va rious sections of the United States. 1'rofcH.u.L made a communication on fossil vegetable* and shells from Oregon,which occupied the meeting until the hour of adjournment. AFTERNOON SESSION. H?i.r-rait 3 o'clock. On motion of Dr. Binney, of Uoiton, Mr. James Hall was appointed to report on the fossil brachiopeda and orthocereta of the United States. The thanks of tlie Society were voted to Mr. Appleton for his generous oiler to furnish the Society with a sum of $30, conditionally. Prof. IIaldeman introduced the subject of the taconic system, observing thut as Sir. Kmmonds had thought he had discovered au older stratum of rock than had been known hitherto, he brought up the subject to elicit what ever information was possessed by members on such an interesting matter. Professor Rouers alluded to a review he had made of Professor Kmmonds' claim to the discovery of a far ancient stratum of fossiliferous than is admitted ; lit A little to add to those reasons given by him to show \Jr lie was likely misled by their *tructurol character. decisive reasons could be given. It was well kn<lnn that each paroxysmal elevation of strata wus distinguish^ by peculiar and different directions. There was no ca& oi extensive group of depositcs, in which continual lands were raised from the bed of the deep, anterior to that which was recognized. Vet, according to Professor Kmmonds, this Taconic system was uplifted anterior' to the rest; and yet, was it not strange that, if these were the eflects of two distinct elevations, the depositcs of two vast occans and ages, they were so completely similar that no conflicting features could be discovered. As to the evidence from organic remains, Professor Kmmonds had prepared a cbllection of the Taconic system, and pretended they were not like those known. Atone time English naturalists thought of making a system called the < !imbrian, anterior to their Silurian system of fossils, but it was given up. These new fossils should not sur prise us wheu the difficulty of penetrating through fossil iferous rocks, and when it was recollected that every new search gave new specimens. From a letter received from Mr. Lyell, it appeared that Knglish naturalists had not been satisfied with Professor kmmonds' reasons in favor of the theory of a system anterior to the Silurian system, with which the lower N. T. system is identical, and te which these fossils have already been referred. Professor Hall detailed the results of a series of obser vations made by him in the range of sandstone well* which extend from the Hudson river to the valley of the Connecticut. Ho regarded the upper strata as being, in gencraj, less thick than they arc now considered, aun, by the assistance of a chart, pointed out the interruptions occurring in the line by the intrusion of masses of lime stone, granular quartz, calcareous rocks, and others, whose direction conveyed the impression that these in truding strata in some places were continued beneath the upper, rc-appearing at another point on the range. l!pon the whole, tie did not regard tho new fossils found there as oi any system but the Silurian, as at present classified. Mr. Wilder, of New York, mudc a few remarks, as he said, on the defence, and assigned his reasons for not con curring with the views stated. Prof. Dewey, after pointing out certain peculiar fea tures in this range of rock, would not pronounce on the necessity for a Taconic system. There were difficult!** in the appearance of the strata, but he expected that ma ny of these would disappear when the survey of Ver mont is finished. As to the proof of igneous action, there were none except the foldings, and that was the fact for which they wanted to account. There were no traces of fusion?nothing like signs of metamorphic ac tion. Prof. Loomis conceded the accuracy of the inferences drawn from the premises, by ProlV Rogers; and yet, if the statements of Prof. Kmmonds be correct, of a differ ence between tho Taconic and other rocks, it was a strong circumstance. He would ask any member, if they had visited the rocks referied to by Prof. Kmmonds, to pronounce as to the accuracy of his statements. (No rolM T, I rof. Keep, in answer to Prof. Dewey, said he was told there were strong evidences of igneous action in the mountains spoken of. Prof. Dewey would like to see their locality describ od. lie was lamiliar with the mountains spoken of. Dr. Jackson replied to the interrogation of Prof. Loo* mis, that he was well acquainted with the Taconio rocks of Mr. ?mmondst and could confirm the accuracy of his representations concerning them. Prof. Ucioth could refer Prol. Dewey to positions on the Susquehanna river, where he might, if disposed to be convinced, find ample proofs of the metamori>hi<Js theory. At the suggestion of the Chair, the discussion here dropped, to afford time for the next subject, which was introduced by Dr. Kamk, on some minerals found on the prairies of Alabama. These he described as in some measure dif ferent from other prairies; they w ere not flat but undu lating, and contained minerals, which was not usually the case. One of the specimens was a substance he re garded as chalk; if so, it proved the fallacy of the opin ing that there was no chalk on this continent. He narra ted the offer of a man, who was bv no means visionary, to procure an immense whtcr power hv perforating the great limestone stratum found there, and was willing, if the legislature of Alabnma granted him $100,000, to pro cure a supply of water sufficient to raise the Tombigbee river 10 feet and make it navigable for the largest ships. (Laughter.) Would call tha attention of the Society to a piecefot lime found at Tennessee River and altogether composed of sholls too minute to be visible. This vein he knew to be 1A0 miles wide. Professor Booth pronounced the specimen a tertiary mnrl, the shells being of a secondary formation. Professor Hhkfako thought tho first specimen was iden tical with the great Carolina bed of which so much had been said, and which Professor Lyell considered as of the Upper tertiary formation. The list of officers for 1818 were here balloted for; the following being chosen : Dr.CHARLEsTV Ja oksow, Chairman. Mr. Bkxjamm Silliva.x, Jr., Secretary. Prof. Sillima.n addressed tho society on the Iron moun tain of Missouri. He gave a very interesting account of in excursion to these regions, and described the vi ?inity of tlio iron mountain in glowing terms of ad niration of its striking mitioralngical mid picturesque eatures. The mountain called, par excellence the Iron, icing surrounded by other vast accumulations of that netal, was about 100 feet high and covering an area a* argo as that of New Haven. After minutely dwelling in the characteristics of the iron, its appcarance, lie., lie ittributed its origin to the same cause as other intrusive nasses, and of decidedly an igneous origin, sent from the nterior of the earth, where, it might lie safely conjee urod, vast stores of metals existed, as well as other sub tanccs. ? Prof. Dewey made a few happy remarks as to the good fleets ol the Society, hoping it would he continues and herished, and intimated the necessity for his leaving lor lome next day. On motion of Dr. Jacksow the warm thanks of the So ioty were presented to Prof. Chester Dewey for the gen lemanllke and jimper manner in which he had presided iver the Association. Tho mooting then adjourned, to meet again at the (on re Church to hear the address of Prof. H. D. Roger*.