Newspaper of The New York Herald, May 10, 1845, Page 11

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated May 10, 1845 Page 11
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New Haven, ip&waii i'wj u, menu. Chester Dewey having returned horns, os Binney, of Boston, wua elected to take ace as chairman. fter the minutes were read, and slightly altered, ae suggestion of several members, Ijt. Jackson arose to I hunk the Society warmly rihe unexpected honor conferred upon him the y before, in his election to the otfice of President r the ensuing year; and to assure them that, il ovidence permitted, he would be at his post, and js all his effort* to promote the harmony and pros rity of the Society. Pbjf. Kodoers moved that a committee should appointed to petition the legislature on the sub *t of the distributions of the report of the Geolo al Survey. The motion was adopted, and Profs, gers and Silliman* and Dr. Jackson, were nomi ted as the committee. K. J. D. Dana rose on behalf of the committee inted to revise the scientific nomenclature, as lined by the rules of the British Association, ey suggested their proposed alterations in the fol ding report, which, upon motion, it was resolved submit to the three scientific Societies of New rk, Boston, and Phdadelphia, for their approval, such amendments as they might think prosier to gest. I.AW OF PKIOBITY WITH ITS LIMITATIONS. ie name originally given to a group, or sppcies, its founder, should be retained, to the exclusion all subsequent synonyuies. he systematic nomenclature having originated th Liniueus, this last law is not to extend to the tings of antecedent authors. n the progress of science, it often becomes ne eary to restrict or extend the characteristics of a nus. orto subdivide it into several genera. The lowing principles bearing upon the above law, ould be adopted in making such changes. When several smaller genera are united in the name of the earliest, if otherwise unob nable, should be selected as the name of the ole group. .?When a genus is subdivided, the original generic e should nut be cancelled, but should t>o retained for at portion of it which was considered typical by the thor; or if the evidence as to the original type is not ~ar and indisputable, it may be given to any portion, d thoir given name should be ever afterwards retained. C.?When a generic name has a synonyme exactly uivalcnt to it in its original application, in making a bdivision of the genus, this synonyme should not lie opted for either of the new genera formed, except hen its type, as laid down by its author, belonged *o a "brent section of the genus from that of the other name, d both these sections are elevated to genera. For in nce, the genus " Monaulus" of Viellot, (1816.) is a ecise equivalent to oi Temmenck, (1K1U,) both thors having adopted the same species as their type ; d therefore, when the latter gonus came, in the course time, to be divided into two, it was incorrect to give condemned name, " Monaulus,'' to one of the por ns. The name " iKdemin" and "Molanetha," were ginally synonyms, but their respective types were en from different sections of the group, and conse ently, in raising these two sections to genera, their ~es are retained for the groups. here are other limitations ol the law of priority, aris from the violation of the rules of propriety in the in duction of terms. They are as follow : *.?Names riven to species or groups unaccompanied published descriptions, should yield place to the ear st name accompanying such description. t has been customary for some naturalists to give mes to species in their cabinets, or in a published csitn ue, and on this ground to claim authoritv for such mes. This is not allowable?neither is it sufficient that description appear in a public newspaper, or in a rnal not widely known for its scientific character, name of a species already in use for another species the gafte genus, should be changed; also, a generic me in Zoology before employed for a genus in the e kingdom should be <;nuiiged, and the same in the nical kingdom. A name glaringly opposed in its nification to the essential characteristics of a species group, and likely to propagate important errors should changed. uch terms as monodon, Caprrmulgus, Paradisin njioda monoculers have acquired sufficient currency no ger to cause error, and are therefore retained without onvenience.Names derived from localities where the -cimens arc found to have wider limits, should still be ~:ned. But when we find a Batrachian reptile named violation of its true affinities Mastodon saurus, or en a name is derived from an accidental monstrosity, in Picus Semirostes of Linaaeus. and Helix disjuncta. nton, another name should be substituted This privi e should be allowed only in extreme case*. "hen the name of a species is afterwards made the e of a genus, including that species, a new specific me should ke given. The gencric name, Pyrrkocorax, was called by Linn s a Pyrrhocorax. It, therefore, became necessary to nge the specific name, aud Jiljnnxts was substituted.? practice of thus elevating specific names to generic,is ~ne. Objected to in one of the sections below. Laws with kkuaiidto Orthorrapiiv. writing systematic names, the rules of orthography should be adhered to, except ords derived from proper names in which only terminuiion should tie Latinized. Proper namfcs individuals would often become unintelligible /podified so as to conform throughout Latin or Kraphy. We should not recognize Knighti, Wood tf.di, in the words CnUUti, Fudiarii. But words of bar /ous origin, having no fixed orthography, are more pli e, and hence, when adopted into the Latin, should he udered as classical in appearance as is consistent with e preservation of the original sound. In compounding two liieek words, the first of the two iiId have the form of the genithe case, dropping only Pe terminal consonant. In compounding two Latin words, the same rule (should E> followed, except that ? should l>v substituted when e genitive ends in it I'ennafui mis should be Penni rm it. Words of different languages must never be compound Id together. 1 SjKscillc names, derived from a locality, should termi (ate in emit. 1 Specific names derived from names of persons, when in louor of the discover, should cud in the genitive i or ii; lut when in compliment to a person not a discoverer, lie adjective should end in anus. Trot. Rook hi condemned the use of unnecessary names, [hove all, of complimentary nRmos. It was a fault to vhicli naturalists were very prone to give the names ot heir friend* to new species, and he hoped the committee Lould recommend in their report the abolition of this in lumbrance to science. Prof. Hai.dkmais observed that in the report of the Bri Isli Association which was widely circulated, they sug gested that unmeaning names of this description should (?printed commencing w ith a small letter ; now this re rnlation he was in favor of as an effectual reijied) against lie bestowal of such names by naturalists?who would lot consider it any great compliment to their friends to |ave their names placed in a position of studied obscuri His (I'rof H.'s) name had been given to several small | Animals. (Laughter.) But he expected to see it redeem ed from the, (by no means illustrious,) association by the ] ate of tho small letter. ^1r. WnKi.ri.Kv was always of opinion that science pu ffed itself; and no matter what names were given, if | key did not possess a meaning, they would not last lifty rears. The evil discussed would correct itself. Prof. moved that tiie report should be recom-I flitted with the recommendation that the committeo | [liould adopt in the report the usage of the British Bsso iation in regard to the small letter. Adopted. The Secretary read a letter from Lieut. Johnson, dated 'ort Washita, < lioctaw Nation, containing a fbw remarks I logy of Prolessor IIai.i. tlicn occupied the association for a brief I griod on the fossils of the partially altered slates anil | ftoncstoncs of eastern New \ ork. The Secretary next made some remarks on some of tho Stallic ores of Mine l.a Motto, in Missouri, and followed tm by reading a letter from Dr Dickson, of Natche/., ted April 1U, I84>, on the Natchez bluffs, with some intion of a nondescript animal ol the class Mammalia, and near Natche/.; 'J, Notes on Nachez Bluffs, by C. K. orsby; 3, Notes on the Geology of Mississippi, i>v o. C. j . Waits; and also remarks on the fossil infusoria*fonud i sptcimensfrom tho above ocallties by Professorliailey. Professor Rooms moved the billowing resolution:? llesolved, T hat a (niiiinittcc be appointed with instruc tions to inquire into the que.' tion of the geological ago of lac Zn|MM| tad to icpoit at the next annual meeting ijpfftssociation. Adgpted. rofefmr Umii read a paper on some of the fossil co Berous trees of the I .'nitcd States. ^1-. M. 1). Wmrri.t: stated some new views on geology, "h received \i,iy little of the attention of tho audience, far as we could apprehend hi* theory, he considorcd j'.e crust of tho earth at one pt-ciod to be in tho form of a kite, and tho mountains \\ eie protfHded bv tho action of mo mcchaiii il ,'oucr, fi'e, lie considered a mechanical ^wer, and the pioccss lie alluded to was illustrated by pie me on a red hot mass of iron, aske l the society to now an) good reason against positions, and was, he -aid, anxious for discussion; t whether they took up the question or uot, he had in <1 a work which would short!) appear, lie then read i a slip ot paper the following o.ipei'tus ol a new work on Ideological Subjects, en I "I ii iW I 1 "Oi :? I jr M. I>. U hippie, containing tii" ?wing, uinonj othei articles :? he Production ol I nifonn Materials, such as the tvr siuids a id clays, diiectl) from metal matter. ' Loose Bounded datenal-, directly from past) tier, aided by agitation. (i) Structure produced by Lamination, while the ck was in a pasty ?'tatc. , In to, mai'e by Sliding of the llock. fancy of ileclianleai Action, in separating and mix ( peculiar compounds. irlginof Trap Dyke some ro*ks more fusible than h> i s. ?Bmination frequently causes the Inclined l)ip in Cork 1. Jrooves in Hock, made while in n pasty itnte. Alteiation m tbu fusibility of rocks, since first aggro fitted. Mr. Wi.-trri having finished the perusal of his pros |wctiis looked round wit'i an air of <!V iih'iit solicitude. isee if any of the inembei s would do him the kindness Attacking him, but on finding that challenCe was re ?ivc.l with the most provoking silence, he took his seat, paiciitly inorc tb in everconvinced that his paste tlico was invulnerable . M|i i iv \?, Jr , propo ed the following resolution : jsolved, That l>r. Uiekerson, of Natche/., and Col B. VVaites, of fuckson, Miss ,bc a committee to report lie Geology of the 11 nnty ot Natche/., and especial' It dtpositts furnishing the remains of the llase nr Tygo lo i the ma .to Ion remains of Nnche/. fit uilti'eeni ei< nonde r i ipt animal mentioned by |Dickson in t e - immiiuic.ttiou alrea I) made to the intion. [tfc m< etin,; lie e O ;e 1 11 dinner. A i r. .. suo* S?.?s,ov. ?TV-e ? re', i-y. i. >'>,i.i.i is-., -ii , a.1.111'. od the Society .111.114 oi t!m cedar and cypress founts found in ,| ,|i?pii,: i or / ii/n it of .i issi ?ippi,and conrlu " *ur, of viississip Ho. iot), at its " Mississippi in Adoptr , "'ivtal iH?|mi"i ' i or ' n/n it oi ui?i -ipp a mot.on t.nit ? rofeisor < arpeutor, P'Mf'" I fie ici| "? "d to icport to the He E' i,m, o , the alluvial dc^osHs of I I rofessor Si llima m aroic for the purpoie of ?*ain al luding to the expected visit of that celebrated naturalist and geologist, Professor Agassiz, of Switzerland; he wa? coming to this country for the purpose of studv ing it* geology, fcc., and ai it was not improbable that member, of the association might have it in their power to facilitate his enquiries,he could not let thu opportunity slip of bespeaking for him the ready co-operation of American men of science, as it was due, not only to the cause, but to himself (Professor A.) personally The 8KC?F.TA?r then read a paper written by Professor Samuel Webber, on certain forms of attraction. It wa* an elaborate and abstruse treatise, entering closely into the doctrine of chrystalization, affinity, fcc. He says ac cording to Khrenberg's statement,that chalk it composed of the remains of minute animalcula; and knowing that other animalcula have their hard part coinjiosed of silix it seems not improbable that the flint* found in the clulk are merely the remains of the last, as the chalk itself i* of the former kind; and that both sort* perishing together in the water, the siliceous skeletons collected together in masses under the influenco of the attraction of similarity. In this view 1 am sustained by a new work called "Ves tiges of Creation." If this bo admitted to be the case might not the acarus crassii be merely the developement of ova, which at or near maturity, wero enveloped iu the remains of their progenitor!, and retained sufficient vi tality in despite of all the hard trials to which they were subjected, to be called at last into life under the i>o ent influence of the voltaic battery. The concluding paragraph of Mr. Webber's paper pre sents a brief summary of his view*, thus What is this attraction, that has been treated of. and of which 1 havo spoken as homonegeous attraction? Is it anything but a general law by which the particles that constitute a solid of a uniform nature, arc brought Hnd held together and of which the law of cohesion and chry* tarnation are but modifications or states, itself being part of amore general law of the universal attraction of mat ter for itself, which moro general law ha* its modification of cohesion and union among particle* not hetcregoneous. Is it but an imperfect action of the attraction of polarity exerted over sensible distances, bringing particles into cohesion, at any rate acting moro powerful/)- upon parti cle* of tho same kind, and disposing them to unite with each other, in preference to foreign particles, and when peBfcct and unimpede 1 in its action, to unite in certain regular forms F Or is it, as some imagine, without treat "!? , *u"y> but a kind of chemical attraction or affi- i pity ( 'J liese question* cannot now be answered satisfac torily, but it may be conjectured that the law of polarity, meaning thereby some great power like electricity, if not electricity itself, seems to me the most probable, and it may be that such is the great law of all attractions of all kinds, and of gravitation itself?a power of universal ex tent and plusticity, deriving its apparently discrepant a.c.tlon. from the circumstances under w o r ac ' '^e permutation and combination of ut a few comparatively simple and general principles. iJ? . ,SfK." do"bte,1 ,hc orthodoxy of the work quoted ?r,' catltlci1 " vestige* of Creation." It was certniii veLilohf ,,0V' i.nj? "u'P"u,ic acid on certain ve ee? but nif?f?h substance* anamalcul? wero produ fhn! k t I the use of silicate of potash, us spoken of in formed teStud " UnJ f?uuj no anima'cul? were ni in to the supposed discharge ol gelatinous matter from meteors, wondered how such f" 1 ,,0t10'1 became prevalent. After the great me ?fmfi er ol 1833, Prof. Twining resolved to traco to then sources all these reports, and the result of his la bors was a conviction of their entire fallacy. Hut ho rose more particularly for the purposo of enquiring if rnv matter be in*?!?? ? as cognizant of any case ofgclatiuous pi f ., g ""charged lrom meteors. [No reply.1 I rof. Kooi:h* observed that he could not dissent from the subiecVof'i r ** r th? ''roduc,ion of animalcule ; tne subject of generation was one of great importance but yet in great obscurity, and he desired to see it taken rnlnHv-L" J ^8 *? crronoous and ape culative views advanced in that celebrated work, " Ves tiges of C reation," they were far overbalanced by the sublime and glorious views it unfolded of creation. ?uSOr /u n?M.A.7 thought they should not con j Vestiges of Creation," for adopting the course followed by all orthodox writers; that is, of reasoning on premises that were not entirely and unani mously admitted by scientific men. There was as much assumption on one side as the other, and the" doctrine of generation occupied and puzzled tho strongest minds of every age. Professor Sillimax cited the authority of Dr. Mantell, ol f huadelphin, now in London, against the book,which, although evidently the production of a powerful, en quiring, but not practical writer, was of a dangerous and irreligious tendency. 1 he Pkksidknt here announced that the regular busi ness was finished, and inquired if members had any addi tional business to ort'or before they adjourned. Mr. J. IX L)aka again brought up the revised report of the committee on nomenclature, which was adopted. fe)u motion of Professor Sillimax, it w as resolved to publish 600 copies of the report for circulation in the manner best calculated to forward the views it em braced. On motion of Professor Ro??:rs, it was resolved that the Secretary be instructed to prepare minutes of the Society's proceedings, and to that end obtain from mem bers abstracts of papers read by them, and that 500 co pies of said proceedings be published at the expense of the association. It was also resolved that the remaining volumes of the transactions ol the Society be placed on sale for tho bene fit of the Society Mr. Redfield moved that the local committee appoint ed to make arrangements for the next session at New : ork, have power to invite such persons a* they thought desirable to attend their session. 1 he General Commttteo reported the annexed list of new members,which was approved Or. John H. Kane, New Haven; Dr. M. W. Dickisou, rsatchez; Colonel Waites, Washington, Miss.; Dr. Daniels, Savannah; Dr. W. Alvord, Greenfield, Mass.; Wro. Logan, Esq. of the Ocological Survey, Canada; Sir Charles Bonne) castle, Canada; Nathl. T. True, Mon mouth, Me.; Uichard Bolton, Miss.; D. Olmsted, jr. New Haven. ' A vote of thanks w'as then passed to the Governor of i ale t allege for the use ol tho lectuie room, and also to the Secretary and his assistant, lor their valuable ser vices. Prof. SiiKPAitD rose, and alluded to some remarks of his made the day belore, a* to the identity of tho specimens produced from Alabama, by Dr. Knne, and the great bed of Carolina ; he added thai by experiment, he found the latter to contain lrom 0 to H, or even 9 per cent of lime. Dr. Jackso.n observed, that when engaged in the geo logical survey of Vermont, he found beds of marl that yielded three per cent of lime. He could not help here adverting to the singularity of the fact, that, while the English w ere honoring Dr. Justus Liebeg, for his dis covery of the relation Detween the phosphate* and vege tables, they had in their own language a work in which the whole subject was treated of in a masterly manner. This volume was written in 1695 by the Karl of Dundoii ald ; and it not only treated of the action of phosphates, but of alljsalts, as well as the alkalies; in that great work, which wa*- forgotten only because it wa* in advance of the age, the author was assisted by the famous mon, Priestly and ( avendish, the first of whom di*covered the simple constituent element* of air, the latter of water. Prof. Ho<ii-:ns reported on behalf of tho committee ap pointed to make certain amendmcnt-i in the constitution, that they recommended tho changing of the name of the society to " tho society for the promotion of science," that their secretary should be permanently appointed, like that of the llritish .Association, and that member*, on admission, should pay a fee ol two dollars each ; it also suggested that chemistry should be added to their field of inquiry. Prof. Booth thought it would be better to wait a little belore acting on that report. He had no doubt that the changes contemplated could be ultimately found practi cable ; but although the British Association wa* worthy of imitation in the wide field they took for their enqui ries, it could not be overlooked that their mean* wero incomparably greater; they had great wealth, which ena bled them to conduct gigantic enquiries. There wa* a danger in forming their association on too grand a scale ; it would be better to build slowly and surely: and ho feared it would be found to be growing too rapidly if the proposition under consideration were immediately acted upon. Chemistry was a department )#milinr to ma^* members of the society. and therefore might le luken up. c?rta,_nty it was one of the most important, a* some of he other branches depended upon It for their fundamen tal principles. rui u>f t(,-'MSTr-D would like to throw in a word for liutu I pnilosophy. Sir John Herschcll had shown most con clusively the connection between these departments ol science, and lie desired to sco Astronomy receiving the attention ol the society, if they decided on adopting Che mistry or other branches. Professor Sh.lim ?pi, a* one of tho committee recommen ding the changes, thought that their adoption would be no symptom* ol an over rapid growth. They had now gouo ou gradually and steadily for six years, and it was time to open their society to all communications. In tho meantime, the report might stand over to next meeting, when they could bo discussed at more length. < apt. Wn.Kt:*, L'. S. N., was of opinion that the propi a _' ?Iterations wore Judicious ; if adopted, many men now excluded, ami who were unxious to join them, could do so. i no researches of men in every branch of science "u<;h persons interesting to each other; this he round to be the ca-e in tho course ol the Kxploiiag Kx pediUon, where the gentlemen of the different depart ments made themselves reciprocally source* of interest to each other, and tlie name result would be foun I in re gard to this society. No harm could come of extending tlieir enquir es, and it would bo certain to widen tin liit ciet) beyond its jnesonl limits, and it would be stretching out tho hand ol good-will to those scientific brethren who wished to join them. Thadiftt-.ti -?ion bote dropped, the report 1) ing ovor for future connideration. It wai then resolved, that Ruthois who had presented papers to this meeting) have power to publish them in anv vehicle the) think proper. f'rolennor Siu.imai rose, uitd In it few brief mmniks re viewed tho session Hint wa? now ithoiit coming ton clone. A? oiio of the committee appointed to make the pre liminary arrangements, he f<"It no little responsibility., and ?ome ?n.sietv for the result ; and it u source of great gratification to hnn to observe from day to tiny, tile iiai inonjr, cottrtexv, nod mutual good fueling that was exhibited during their proceeding*, and he could not lot the opportunity past without tlinnkini? them individually, for the courteous und friendly bearing they exhibited to ward* himself; and it would not bo without a fooling of regret tlint ho should without for tho present, a trrmina tion of their laliors, and tic- ire to *co the period come again, when they Nhould resume them. PrniiMor Olmhtkd entirely concurreil in the obser vations that had l.tllon from I'rolessor Sillituitn, and he begged to m.iUe hi ? acknowledgment* to member* in genoral, for tho court ?oy extended to him. A vote of thanks wat then passed to the inhabitants of Now Haven, for their kindness mid attention to the sor.cty, ant! it was declared adjourned, to meet again in New i oi k in September, 1840. Fnrmcra' ftiili?Mrehnnlea* Institute. Ti ksday, May ti. HvBJKCT?PirurPatuM of Animal Food. Thi' siibjrct announced for discussion upon this or ? usion, ttlli acted it more than Usual assemblage of nil interested in the important iimie, front the butch er 11 the lurmer, and f rom the tlirifty housekeeper 11 the government contractor. The first hour was, an usual, devoted to subjects of a miscellaneous conversational nature, and not without some pecu liar interest. Mr. Bauber, of Massachusetts, was nominated to the chair; and the Recording Secretary, as usual, was Mr. Mkics. An alarming statement was read, of a disease prevailing generally in Europe, amongst black cattle, bearing all the characteristics of tne typhus in the human form, and equally fatal in its consequence* in the animal creation. A premium has been offered by an agricultural society in Eu rope, of $300, for tne best essay on its symptomatic developments, the best mode of treatment, its con tagious influences, the pre-disposing cause, and how far it can relate to this climate; as, aLso, u|Kin the necessity of such precautionary measures as may avert tin's calamity from our cattle. During the dis cussion of this, another subject was introduced by Mr. Meigs, by the presentation of 30 grains of wild rice, used by the Otonabee Indians, upon Rice L ike, in Lri>per Canada, and which was decided to lie food only tit for the tribe that cultivate it. A gen tleman then reverted to the disease of cattle, and ascrib ed to those coming from the west, Ohio and Illinois par ticularly, all the diseases of lungs and liver to which ?xen are " heirs to." Mr. Edwards, from England, gave a horrifying description of the ravages of this disease in that country, and suggested for that useful class of crea tion the same precaution that the faculty adopt in all si milar human visitations, " white-washing,jbleeding by the gallon, chloride of lime and cleanliness.'' A member here mude an objection to the sweeping imputation cast upon the horned tribe of Ohio by another member, and eloquently repudiated the " soft impeachment" from his optical experience in Kulton market. A meml er said that twenty years ago, all the cattle in the west were afflicted with liver complaints and dyspepsia, which an improved soil has removed. Mr. Meigg* reiterated the caution he once received from an honest butcher, not to purchase any meat but that impressed with the Jew ish seal. This interesting discussion was here inter rupted by a motion to publish the letter for the prizo essay 011 tho disease of bulls, which was passed tiem. r?n. Then there was a discussion about the Inven tion of Anastetic Printing, which some Englishman as sumed as his discovery ; while Joseph Dixon, of Taun ton, ten years ago, claimed the honors duo to this impor tant invention; specimens were produced, as labels of Gillott's steel pens, which caused a great sonsation. After a few heads of corn were handed round, a commu nication was read from Mr. Mclnster, on the soiling of cattle. He recommends mangel wurt/.el, sugar beet, ruta baga, turnips, 4cc. The chairman highly approved of this diet, confirmed by eight years personal experi ence. He approved of carrots as a substitute for oats for horses. At this stage of the business, the secretary circulated some " mannnia" of various country's growth, and Col. Clarke somo sun Hower seeds of great prolific virtue, as aho a few seeds of marrow squash. Several teamed analyses of guano were referreil to the olfactories of a select committee. Then came the subject of the day, " Preservation of Animal Food." Or. Lordlier ond Profes sor Mapos had both been invited to furnish their expe rience, hut both were absent. A long communication was read, prescribing a course of cure, that included molasses, ami salt, ana pearl ash, and salt petre, as a val uable remedy. The same author wroto a homily on the preservation of eggs, butter, hogs lard and trout, for Delaware and Catskill, all proving, incontrovertibly, that molasses possesses " antisceptic" properties, thst, no 10 but " sceptic" could hesitate to believe. Another member announced, that he ate part of a ham in Virginia, that was for two years suspended in a bag, in a dark gar ret, and never needed smoking. At this stage of these interesting proceedings, Professor Mapes entered the hall, and all eyes (that is, of those who remained be hind,) were fixed upon him, for his opinion on the " ma teria medica" of salt, which he delivered with his usual philosophy, and no doubt, to the edification of the rem nant of the agricultural club who heard him. This inexhaustible subjoct will be renewed next Tues day. ^T.C? '?r'rnme" Eager for the Murder of Philip WUllnms?Scene nt the Tumbi, &t. The execution of this unfortunate and guilty man took place in the yard in the rear of the City Prison, but within tiie outside walls, yesterday afternoon; when he expiated upon the gallows the penalty due for the heinous crijne of which he has been tried and convicted, and which he himself has from the first admitted; and we trust that the speedy manner in which justice has in this instance been performed,will uct as a preventive to crime. But as executions have taken place before to-day, and murderers have notwithstanding committed crimes with impunity, we do not anticipate any very favor able result, especially as wealthy criminals,* with in fluential friends and relatives to back them have succeeded m brow-beating and defeating the ends of justice, nnd in cases too, when murders have been committed with less cause, and for more worldly and infamous motives than actuated the poor wretch who has just been sent from this breathing world into the presence of his Maker to receive that after-punishment which he feared and dreaded so much more than that which he received in compliance with the voices of his fellow men who cry a tooth for a tooth, an eye for an eve, and blood for blood. Eager was about thirty-three years of a.'e five feet nine inches in height, stout and square 'built and would weigh about one hundred and fifty pounds. His countenance was not unprepossessing He was bora in the North of Ireland, of Protestant SSR :f%: "sar SF ignominious death. She was of intemnera.H h habit of having illicit intercourse with her and he determined if such was the case, tha 1 e wonId take some means, what he did not care ?1? ? l?"?elf ujwni the man that had destroyed his pence of mind. Wilhams and his wife X . \ J L timate and he often saw them together, and' afla'Jr* SSftJSSSWii' A ineir jwrts tended to convince him more sironirlv that he was right. On the night of the 2d of Decent ber last.he went to the house, \o. 121 Rosevelt street 1^ w!ii H ii1',1S and went to his door where ?nH ? all night, believing that his wife had been and was still in the room of Williams. The next morning when Williams dressed himself and came out into the entry to go to work, hfenXeES witf!?' F f 8,abl,erf ,llnJ f'veral times in the breast with a knife, one wound penetrating the heart and causing almost instant death. He was arrested on he spot in the very act of consummating his ,uril? nd acknowledged that he had committed the iimr der, stating in extenuation that his wife had lie ?? i, the room of Will,an,s thepreceding eVnm, ?h" knew by her voice, and that he c , ? tance; that he went out "'..A mnv htHI i get admit returned to 41 a ? pircluuitd a candle and r uirnea to tJ,e door, but was still denied admit Unco?upon which he went out for a watchman 1 thni& "Ti li?> T' c'""? back "nd found' 'the candle had been taken inside. He iheii de t Tunned to be revenged, and waited in the hall all nicht until lie accomplished his purpose. He also stafed to the watchman that the deed was done and intimated that if he had the life of another person lie shouhlliie satisfied. His trial commenced upon the 18th of March, in the ( ?urt of Oyer and Terminer before Judge Kdnionds and two Aldermen, and lie was defended by James I Hrudy, Kaq., with ability ?received every concession from Mr. Paterson the District Attorney, that could justly he granted?re ceived a fair and imnartial trial, and on the l??rl, of March was convicted by the jun , after an absence ot ?ne hour, with a recommendation to mercy made because sonic of the jurors were np|x,sed to capital punishment. 1 On Friday, the 21st of March, he w is sentenced by Judge hdmonds to be hung between the hours of clock on the fit I, of May, and conjured to banish all hope of mercy from his mind aid prepare for Ins dreadful doom. 1 A bill of exceptions whs prepared l.y his counsel, hut they were so weak an J unlenable that he was loroed to abandon them, and ho clear was the man's evciii.taking Ins own tonfe-sion, that Governor S sftcr1 "? At the time of the sentence HDairer complained that It Was hard todie for killing Ins" wifMucer I ? CMVI ill the justice ill the law. He w s all ignorant man, hong unable to either read or write 80011 alter 11ssentence,he was visited by the Rev \ ?v 1 res. "t ,r"of m?'"onnry, ?| the Hupfls, f?,h, and V| r< >? d a desire to be prepared for death. 11, wt> Hilt "of!h/vt'n y Alr' the Key. It. \\ WLite.*' ""-"I KJ'w'r/f.irrA'" ?> mm* ??,i that lie believed In ' ' , '""'v- ?nd maintained W w T' kn,T"^ ul"< fate must be ' A few days ago he expressed h desire hi? u itt , .nut f \|>resH Iiih fotynvenefta to her nnd ?? l"<; lay file Visited h,m, 11 his cell, ?nd unmoved heard tile rloomed man forgive her, and call ,mnn ?>d to do so likewise. On Wednesday-he viX him nsfiiin. in company with one or two' women nnd Ca f! O n l'li ?'ex^en'7' IIV""'", ? ????? ??f intOXI i Z ; h ind to her, but she re in ' d to take it, ii|K>n which a momentary e one upon hi? face, but soon subsided into a resigned , v iy'^1?Hi,,^l(W,T,, a sigh he s?d, -God be merci- I ?id. His wits and the party with her behaved bru- ' tally, and conducted themselves in so improper a manner, that keener Johnson was^obliged to order them f rom the ceD, und when they were gone,Eager said he did'nt want to see hid wife again, and she never after come near him. At the request of Eager, Mr. Haft and Mr. Camp visited him in his cell 011 Thursday night, and sat with him,praying mid preparing him for the morrow, until about 4 o'clock, when he expressed a desire to be left alone. When asked by Mr. Hatt if he was prepared to die, he said, " Yes ; it isn't the death of the body 1 fear, but its what's to come hereafter. The law of God which demands my death is right eous and jutt, and die law of the State is just, and I ought to die. I feel uo dis{>osition to quarrel with my sentence." When a*ked by Mr. Hatt, in the course of the night, if he had not better take a little rest and try to sleep, he replied?" No, sir; I shall have rest to-morrow." When asked if he had any desire to have the execution delayed, he said?"No, I am now prepared and ready to go, and desire no delay." Alter being left alone at 5 o'clock, he fell asleep and slept for about two hours, and tn<-n ro>e, washed himself and partook of some light food. Several persons visited him in his cell, anil to all he expressed himself that he was perfectly re signed and ready to throw himself into the urms of his God. The clergymen were with him at an early hour and remained witli him to the last. About 8 o'clock several judges and aldermen, and persons deputised as special sherifls for the day, the officers of police, physicians invited to attend the execution, Jcc. began to enter the prison, as well as a number of persons who forced themselves in with out any rijht or title, hut were on that account per mitted to enter without any warrant or permit, when those whose duty called them were obliged to go through the prescribed form. The sheriff and his deputies were 011 hand in good season preparing for the event of the day. Persons began to llockinto the police office to cravc C'rmits, to congregate in Franklin, Centre, Kim and eonard streets, with a vague idea or hope of some how or other getting a chance of'seeing something, and without tne most remote probability of their be ing able to satisfy their morbid curiosity. The num ber outside the prison who were unable to see any thing at all could,not have been less than a thousand, and in the inside there was about three hundred, two hundred of whom came in properly. The gallows was erected in the rear of the prison, across the passage way, and within a few feet of the window of Eager's cell, and a few feet of where it was last erected for the purpose of Colt's execution. This same gallows, which is made on the modern plan, has been used for the execution of ut least ten iiersons, two of whom were pirates, and it has been used in various parts of the State. It is con structed of two square oak posts, about 20 feet high, each supporting one end of an oak cross beam of about die same size and about 25 feet Jong. The posts rest upon two horizontal beams, from which there are stanchions to the uprights. Between the posts a platform is made upon which the criminal stands. In the centree of the ross beam is a small iron pulley, over which the traversing ror>c passes to the end, where there is another pulley, over which it also passes, and is fastened to a large roi>e. The end of this larger rope is attached to the iron weights,four oti and one 28 pound weights, and the other end passes through a farmer pulley at the cross beam, and is made fast to a belaying cleat, which is nailed upon the horizontal beam. The weights having been raised about four feet from the ground, the traversing rope upon which the halter is fastened, is lowered sufficiently to allow the halter to be looped on and permit the criminal to stand upon the platform, and the other end is, of course, made fast to the weight. When the large roi>e is cut by the under Sheriff, the weights suddenly descend, and run the criminal up the same distance tliatQ they go down. At one o'clock the Sheriff entered the cell of the convict and directed him to dress. The hangman's livery, which consists of white muslin pantaloons bound with black braid, frock coat of white muslin bound with black, and a cap bound with the same material with a black silk tossel at the top, was then put on by the criminal without his uttering a word. The She rill then placed the halter about the neck, and as he did so, a slight convulsive gulping was ob served, bul he appeared no more affected, or so much as those that witnessed the preparation. The crimi nal's amis were then tied behind him by the elbows, and the Sheriff gave the word to move. As he left the cell, Eager asked permission to shake hands with Babe the pirate, and with Saun ders, the only two prisoners with whom he has had any converse, and the Sheriff readily granted this last request. Babe was then led along the corridor, and Eager shook hands with him, saying, "good bye, you must soon prepare to follow me ?anil to Saunders he said pretty much the same thing. Babe did not evince so much feeling as one would stip l>ose a person in his peculiar situation would do, and Saunders did not ap|>ear to feel much. Everything being in readiness, at precisely twenty minutes past one o'clock, the criminal, supported on the left by High Sherill William Jones, in his cocked hat with his sword trirt around his waist, and on the right by Deputy Slieriff McDonnough. also in uniform, preceded by a small inmse of deputy sheriffs, with their staves of office, left the cell of the prisoner at a slow, solemn and mournful pace, turned round the east end of the prison, and then turned into the pas sage-way in which the gallows was erected. At this point every eye was fixed upon the prisoner, but lie (lid not betray the slightest emotion, his features being calm and coini>osed, evincing clearly that he was prepared to meet .his death as a christian and a jienitent. He never raised his eyes to the gallows, hut kept them lixed about twenty paces ahead. As soon as they did rest upon the platform,a slight tremor passed over his frame, lively thing was as hushed as death, and the unfortunate criniinaj was placed upon the platform, and turned round facing the east. The sheriff then adjusted the halter, placing the knot behind the ear, and fastened the other end to the loop of the traversing rope overhead. The minis ters of Ciod then uncovered, as well as the sheriff and most of the spectators, and taking hold of the hand of the unfortunate wretch, the Rev. Mr. llatt delivered the following prayer?the criminal as he did so, swaying his body slightly from side to side. Almighty ami Kverlasting Ood! thou just protector of the universe?thou (iod of Kternity, who uelightesf not in the death ol a "inner who has not obtained iliviuo forgiveness at thy hands?we pray thpe, and crave that thou may hear us. Wo pray that this 'man, ?ho hath seen the folly and wickodness of his ways, as thou knowest, may obt tin forgiveness through the mediation of a suffering Saviour. Thou knowest, O God, that lie is prepared to die the death of n christian, and to enter the valley and shadow of death, with angels to bear his spirit to thy shrine, where there is no sin. We commit him to thee, O Ood of the whole caith, to blot out all his sins, and to forgive all his iniquities and transgressions ; and may the saints of heaven rejoice over one who has re pented. Oh Lord, have mercy upon the soul of a poor siuner! Amen. ? The prisoner calmly but fervently responded an amen to the prayer. Mr. Hatt shook hands with him, and said, "How is it with you now 1" To which he replied, "All well, and I die in neaee. (iood bye, good bye?pray for me." The Sheriff, the minister, and one or two others, shock hands with hitn, and then all were ordered to stand back. The capwas pulled over his eyes?the Sheriifwaved his h ind to Mr. MclJonriough?and, at precisely half past one o'clock, he, with a blow from the nxe, severed the large ro|>e from the belaying stay?the weight descended, and the unfortunate criminal was run up into the air, so that his feet were about two feet from the ground. At the instant of the ascent, his arms were convulsively jerked, and then a tremor of the whole frame set in. The clenched hands were then rai?'d and lowered, the lejjs stretched .mil drawn np slightly. Another tremor passed over the whole body?the body then bent backward ?the hands were again raised, as it the body in agony was parting from flic soul. The hands again lowered?another tremor ran over the body?the toes dropped?and the spirit of James Eaijer, a vic tim to vicious human (wssions, winged its way to that I iod that gave it birth, to receive, at his hands, the last, final judgment. May He have mercy on his soul! The pulse of Eager could lie felt for fifteen minutes after hi- was run up, and u was evident, b? t??r?* he was taken down, mat the rim h ,d not dis'octifed his neck, and that he died from strangulation. He died as easy as any person could expect. After the body had been suspended for thirty-five minutes, the coffin was brought front the prison, and the body taken down and placed therein,after which ii was placed in an apartment to remain twenty four hours, to lie claimed oy Ins frit nds, (alas! poor man. he has none) at the expiration of which time, it will be handed over to the surgeon for dissection. As soon as the ror/rgc had left the pri on, a look , in;; glass was pushed through the window, in the top of Hinders'e ll, m w hich the reflection of Saun ders'fac" w ..telling, with intense anxiety, the pro ceedings, mi'.'ht lie seen reflected. A great many of the prisoners had pieces of lookins; glass plneed in sticks, and thrust out of the window, to so,- the ? cution. Charles ILickey. Mr. Cox's " conlid'ntial prisoner,'" i?'iched himself upon the root of the main prison, and his woolly lit ad was observed projecting owr the spout._ The jury of twelve men, who are always se leeied by the sheriff to witness the execution, and with the phy leian certify v< -villi';.; I.eei. conducted pio|>erly. |?erformed that duty, and the re cord wall be transmitted to the Executive Thk Iiai.timorj? Postmaster.?A few dy ago our llaltimore correspondent made win ? remarks hItout the nflv Postmaster of that city, stating th it iie was a vvhii:. V. e have every reason t" believe that this is an error. Mr. Buchanan, according to ne best information we have, has been ?lu?tinguish ??d as a democrat for many years, and is deservedly esteemed for his excellent character 111 public and private life. MONKY MARKET. Saturday, May 3?0 P M. The stork market is steadily declining. Stonington fell oil' 1] percent; Norwich and Worcester, J; Harlem, 4 i Canton, }; Penn. 6'?, }; Ohio fl's, J; Vicksburg ]; Jsland, Morris Canal, and Farmers' Loan, closed firm at yesterdny's piiccs. The sales were limited, and the ten* dency of prices is downward*. Where they will stop it is impossible to tell. The returns of the City Bunks, for the quarter ending May 1st, 1845, show an increased movement in nearly every department. 8o far as we are able to judge, from the statements received, the increase in discounts for the quarter, will not vary much from live millions of dollars. Banks or the Cnv New York. >V6. I8IJ. May, 1845. Loam. Specie. Loans i>p ecie. NortliRiver Bk 1MI.328 114,130 1,061,006 I?6,t;59 Greenwich Bk 210,%7 3U,.?to 2'JU,G:t3 32,796 $1,185,296 141,676 1.292,719 219,455 Cue. I ftp. Ci'c. lip. North River Bk 312,740 5?1,1I6 310,332 7 20,831 Greeuwick Bk 91,059 11)0,962 111,218 115,521 $103,799 695,078 451.580 836.352 The movement of the North River Bank, in every de partment, has increased since February ; also that of the Greenwich Bank in every department, but in discounts. Contrary to the expectations of all directly interested in the operations of the banking institutions of this city, there has been a great increase iu the aggregate move ment of the city banks, for the quarter ending May 1st, 1843. An increase in specie was anticipated, but it was supposed that the contraction that has been going on for the past few weeks,would reduce the amount of loans be low that of February last. The deposits to the credit of the Secretary of tlie Treasury in the government banks, on the 28th of April, 1845, were about a million of dollnrs larger than on the 24 th of March, 1843, but $3,142,797 less than on the 24tli of November last. We annex the official statement of the Treasurer for each period, showing the amount at his credit iu the various banks holding public deposits, and in the mint:? * Monthlv Statement of the Treasurer of the United States. Nov. 25. A/(i: 2l. Jlnl. 28. Jlmt on Jbul on Jtint on In what Place. deposit. deposit. deposit. Coin'l. Bk Portsmouth, N. H.. $12,739 553 553 Bank of Slontpelier 3,100 ? 972 Merchants' Bk Boston 2,110,735 318,278 555,418 City Bk, N. Haven 54,139 9,!>96 15,515 \rcade Bk, Providence 50,968 6,276 11,326 Farmers' and Mech. Hartford, Ct 21,068 13,114 13,421 Meoh. and Farmers' Bk, Al bany 82,213 67,311 66,493 Albany City Bk, Albany 28,398 20,965 20,965 Bk of Commerce, N. V 1,WO,356 339,87 1 247,197 Bkof America, N. ? 856,241 233,625 648,812 Am. Kxc. Bk. N. Y 822,108 343,190 23i,733 Merchants' Bk, N. Y 915,830 364,092 461,908 North River Bank, N. Y - ? 282.939 Com'l. Bank, Albany 25.000 20,000 80.000 Philadelphia Bk, Philad. 701,550 147,206 207,451 Kxc. Bank, Pittsburg 161,136 261,904 226,229 Bk of Pittsburg, Pittsburg... 2,909 2.909 ( 2,909 Bk of Baltimore, Ball 619,315 99,963 < 96,478 Bk of Washington, Washing- I ton 140,165 122,986 126,173 Bk of the Metropolis 1,239,364 670,211 627,116 Bk of Potomac, Alexandria... 23,787 19,317 16,817 Bk of Virginia, Richmond..., 97,832 52,000 52,000 Kx. Bk of Virginia, Norfolk.. 43,385 50,818 51,821 S. W. RR Bk, Cliarlestou .. . 221,193 196,170 1M.398 Bk State of N. Carolina 836 ? ? Planters'Bk Ga. Savannah... 63,107 61,121 57,737 Bkol Mobile, Mobile, Ala... 44,000 167,876 201,939 Br. Bk of Ala., Huntsville... 2,483 2.958 400 Bk of Louisiana. N. O 421,147 467,701 475,120 Uuion Bank of Teiui., Nash ville 57,940 S3,621 53,201 Louisville S.iviugs Ins. Louis ville 116,758 112.807 118,393 The O. L. it Trust Bk, Cin.. 4,526 10,729 10,992 Clinton Bk, Columbus 27,749 28,443 35,053 Bk of Norwalk.Norwalk 13 13 13 Bk of Sandusky, Sandusky... 3,665 31 34 Bk of Missouri, St. Louis... 198,219 486,393 537,582 Michigan Ins. Co.. Detroit... 216,623 168,352 168,252 Union Bank, N. Orleaji* 12 ? ? Br Mint of the U. 8., N. O... 6,700 ? ? Mint of Philadelphia 2111,960 201,970 204,960 Br Mint Charlotte, N. C... . 32,000 32,000 32.000 Br Mint at Dahlonega, (la... 30,000 30,000 30,0(0 Br Mint N. Orleaiij, La 123,238 123,238 123,238 Corcorans and Riggs, Wash ington 1,445,013 382,770 395,003 Francis Dodge, Georgetown.. 50,000 50,000 50,000 Bk of Middletowu ? 50,000 50,000 Chesapeake Bk, Baltimore... ? 113,419 100,276 Patriotic Bk, Washington... ? 128,898 128,719 Farmers' Bank, Va ? 52,000 52,000 12,967,701 6,796,402 7,721,904 The deposits in the bonks of the principal cities have, since March 24th, increased, us will be seon by the fol lowing comparative statement of deposits in Boston, New York and Philadelphia :? Government Deposits in the Banks of Boston, New York and Philadelphia. Oct. 28. Oec. 30. Mir. 25. Jlvl 28. 1841. 1841. 1815. 1845. Mcrch'ts Bk Boston... $2,138,297 2.2to,9.'i0 318,278 555,418 Bk of Coin, N. Y 1,100,876 1,126.092 339,87 1 217,197 Bk of America. N. Y... 1,552,551 1.072.668 233.625 648,812 Am Kx Bank, N. Y 9'i6,t32 817,815 :?3,I'J0 232,733 Merchant*' Bk, N. Y.. . 1,382,216 831.234 261,092 461,908 Philad Bk, Philad 927,711 170,676 147.206 207,151 8,437,513 6,ii)l,IGi 1,076,202 2,353,519 It will be seen by thin, that, in the six government hanks of these three cities, there has been, within the past month, au increase of deposits amounting to $677, 2.">7. Thin increase is in the old deposit banks. The North River llank has been added to the deposit banks of this city, and had, according to the latest report, $282, 989 on hand, making the aggregate increase in the depo sits of the banks of these three cities, from March 24th to April 28th, $960,196. The deposits to the credit of the Secretary of the Treasury in the government banks have increased in the face of a decrease in the revenue, and an excess of expenditures over receipts for the quarter ending March 31st of $5,245,097 Oti. We annex a statement of the receipts and expenditures of the Treasury for the quarter ending March 31st, 1845. It will be seen that the payment of the loans of 1841 and 1813, are included in the expenditures, which is one cause of their being so large ; deducting these amounts and the receipts for the quarter, would leave a small balnnce after paying the usual expenses of the gov ernment. Receipts and Eipeniiiti'res?United Statf.s Treasury. Rrceipti.?Vrom Customs, $6,375,575 Lands 485,532 Miscellaneous sources, 20,000 I 6,861,107 KxnmAUurtt ? Civil List, Miscellaneous, and foreign Intercourse $1,708,407 On account of army,. .$l,l31,H'jt> 5(i Indian Department, . . 43,930 07 Fortifications 88,412 50 I'cusious, 1,106, H><> 19 $2,647,368 Navy 1,578,631 Interest on tho public debt 38,062 Reimbursement of the loan of l(UI, 4.912,686 |)<>. do. IMS, 400,000 Re imbursement and interest of Trea sury notes, 841,048 12,126,204 Kxeess of expenditures $5,243,097 Of the expenditures for the quarter, $841,048 was for the redemption and interest of Treasury notes. The fol lowing table shows the amount of outstanding Treasury notes on the 1st inst. compared with former periods Treasury Notes OutstaxdiSP. Drcrtatf. Amount of th.~ jrveril imues out standing, Keb. I, 1H5. 81,561,068 97 ? Amount of the several issues out st unting March I, 1815 1,211,779 22 316,289 75 Amount ? f tho sever il issues out *tsudii'4 April 1.1815 1,1)73,3:11 22 171118(10 Amount OUUtuldin* May 1, lR|j. 923,35MO 119,<(79 82 The total amount of Treasury notes.issued under the ?lif forent acts was $4,165,225. Amount outstanding the 1st inst. $023,351. The balance $3,211,87 I have been redeem ed since Jan. 1st, 1843. Suriilny, Mny 4?0 P. M. The stock market is in a very strange position, and wo see no prospect of an immediate change. The condition of our foreign relations is considered of very little im t.mce by the organs of some of the speculative c/ijik ?, l.ut the great mas< ?f those engaged in commercial ope rations, look upon the position of our a Hairs w itli lireat IJ.itain and Mexico with much doubt and many misgiv ings. There is no doubt but tlint the existing state of ?ommrrcial matter , generally, is principally caused by the 1*1: Itntin.i of the Oregon question and the progress 01 lexation. It i-possiblo difficulties may grow out of the e things full as alarming as anticipated, and the lirst movement made to disturb tho peace of the western w orld, will without doubt, be made by the Mexican government. I'll0 probability of any rupture with <in .it Hrit.iinupon lie Oregon question ha* been very slight, but even the possibility , as weak as it has been heretofore, has been .?ill further reduced by the advices from Washington I his and all other direct difficulties wo may ha\c with tiv, at Britain will,without d?ub< b.- amicably arranged negotiation, or mediation, but the gov eminent ol Mexi 1 i 1 a very different power to deal with. A govern nent, the resources of which to carry on a war are limit . 1 <nd its strength almost con'omptiWe. w ould be little ii .0 1 to decline war against :? powerful nation, un ; ti!ue.i'*ed by 01110 .i;,ont l.i*ing a va' t iiiten-t at \o In promoting hostilities. It cannot be for a mo , : doubted but th.r our commcielal m, b*w . ry thing to fc ir fro 1 the doptc l.itions of t' ?* Vl ? ?,l t-vic our go* - : ? ,t n -iy be ?>V. <H> .'?? ^ 1 :r move ncuts. 'I he ? on ofio,;oss n' o' t ?' ! i III rel, t ??lit... . ? ell ? llioillc '! e || e , 1 and decide at once w bet >1 **? ?:?? to h..*e wnt 01 ? >t. It is 'tilted that ? one of "'ir Wiri'ie 1 v 'n 01,v, allies have inserted the ** el u<o in tin ii nt \ , olicies, but wo learn tl .. it is not so Such a movement would at this tunc be ?eiy injudicious and crcate an ! alarm that would do a great deal of harm. The stock market is already unfavorably affected by the public feeling in relation to thii thing, and mutt continue so until ! these questions are tctlled. Government and htat* stocks have for the past month been gradually but ateadi ly declining. We annex a comparative table, showing the closing prices for itocki, for the week ending the 26th ult, and prices for each day of the week just closed. Quotation* current at the close of the market yesterday, were in many instances several per cent below those ruling at the end of the previous week. Quotations roa the Psimim Stocks in the New Yoaa Market. sat. Man Tu'y. Wtd. TTt'y /Y'i Moiuw k. , ... *"?<? Afon. 7Vy. H 77i'y f\ Long Island 7JV 75*4 74if 75^ 75 74! .Moluwk 6lS 61 - Harlem 72# 72 iitnrm 72J4 72 CliltAU Farmers' Loan 3G 35\ Nor. and Wor 7272>a Ohio Sixes 97 ? llliuou Sixes 39 39 Indiana ? ? Kentucky Sixes 101 ? ? IViiu'a. Fives 73*-? tlVt T1K 71 StoniiiKtou 39>? 38 38H ? Kne K.ulroad ? 29?i 28^ 28>? Vicksburu 9% 9 8>? ? U. 8. Bank 6# 6'4 6H ? OTA ? Reading IIR - ? 49 49 49* - ? Morris Canal 3IX 31'? 31 31}? 3I3< 31>? 31)i East Boston 14>i U/i ? ? 14H 14>* A comparison of prices current yesterday, and on the 26th ult., shows a decline in Long Island of 1 j per cent; Mohawk, 1|; Harlem,3J; Canton, 1J; Farmer's Loan, J; Norwich and Worcester, 1; Ohio 6's, J; Pennsylvania Sf, 1J; Stonington, 1J; Vicksburg, }; Morris Canal, J. Th? only stock in the list that has improved any time within the week, is the Reading Railroad. The May returns of the city banks, so far as officially made public, show an increase in all the department#. We annex the reports of thirteen banks :? Banks or New Yoaa. Feb. 1845. _ May 1845. , Loans. Specie. Loans. Specie. Seventh Ward Bank... 839,082 1TH.792 W7.243I *6,811 National Bank 1,097,611 292,835 J North River Bank 911.328 114,136 >.<?'.?!* Greenwich Bank 210,967 30.510 230.613 J?''?? Bank of Commerce.... 3,243,319 603,210 4,215,467 Bank of New York 1,894,454 613,038 1,9<>1,5J4 558,55? Meclia'* Bke Asso'n... 501.M3 79,7:16 011,279 142,244 I'henix Bank 1,550,529 833,461 1*35,600 323,341 Union Buik 1.684,439 318,652 1,708,106 453,148 Mechanic.'Bank 2,845,112 435,903 2.37U1' M9.?8 Bank of America 3,138.508 448,104 8,tt7,6 5 Merchants' Bank 3,874,883 565,751 3.293,614 !M2,706 American Ex. Bank... 1,961,337 312,810 2,128,505 375,754 $22,216,952 4,083,283 23,797,613 5,359,768 Cir. Dtp. Cir. Dep. Seventh Ward Bank... 226,407 387,099 238,796 357 ,<07 National Bank 199,058 626,438 221,498 804,267 Nonh River Baniu . . . . 312,710 594,116 310,332 720.831 Greenwich Bank 91.059 100,962 111,218 115,521 bLIoT Commerce.::. 251,66.'. I.68I.8J5 268.775 1 8C5.815 B uik of New York. , ?. 427,244 1,67.1,876 43o,407 1,712,983 Mecha's Bkg Atio'n... 261 398 513 616 305,898 571,987 Phenix 403,095 749,116 473,602 974,061 Union Bank . 389,503 1,218,981 411,269 2,3*1,180 Mechanics Bauk 397.172 I,08!tf29 408,339 1,309,004 Bank of America 196,938 1,116,870 196,626 1,592,437 Merchants' Bank 316,251 1,780,212 363,961 1,968,826 American Kx. Bank... 1?7',252 915,616 109,336 911.273 $3,635,782 12,468,G26 3,978,087 15,238,598 The aggregates of these thirteen Banks stand as fol Feb. 1815. May 1845. Incrtait. Loans and discounts $22,216,952 23,797,613 1,580,661 Specie 4,083,283 5,359,768 1,276,485 Circulation 3,695,782 3,978.087 282,304 Deposits 12,168,626 15,238,592 2,769,96* The increase in the discounts of these thirteen bank*, is a littte more than fifteen hundred thousand dollar*, while the increase in deposits have been nearly twenty eight hundred thousand dollars. A morning paper has in attempting to give a comparative statement cf all but* | two of the city banks for February and May, been compelled, and to swell the list?for the want of official returns?to make the February and May report* for several hanks precisely alike. It if impossible to give a correct statement in this way, and the result will be much different from that reported by the publication referred to. We have given above the official reports of the largest banks in the city, which only show an increase in discounts of $1,580,661, and we infer from this that the reports of the remaining eleven, being mostly the smaller banks, will not more than double this increase. Even tUis increase is much great er than anticipated, and satisfies us that the banks of this city have determined upon a gradual expansion in all departments. Wc annex a table showing the movement* of the banks of this city since January, 1643:? New York City Banks. Loans. Specie. Circ. Dept. 1843, January $29,579,088 7,279,566 4,631,353 15,452,541 1843, August 36,532,115 12,965,914 5,308,525 23,454,0* 1813, November. .. . 37,150,698 10,386,639 5,755,187 21,978,886 1844, February 41,536,455 9,180,613 5,354,824 22,659,407 1811, May 42,991,266 8,185,563 5,891,438 25,000,757 1811 August 44,936,236 9,189,078 5,871,172 26.466,876 18151 February 44,204,503 7,267,647 6.218,848 23,79t,76? The discounts and deposits since January, ltt-13, have increased a very large per cent. In about two years, the loans rose from $29,579,088 to $44,20-1,503, an increase of $14,623,415, and the deposits from $16,402,541 to $23,791, 768, an increase of $8,339,227. The movement in Febru ary was a little less than in the November previous, but reports for May, as far as officially received, look as though the aggregate movement for the quarter jue closed, had been larger than in November last. The busi ness of banking in this city appears to be steadily in creasing, and the accumulation of capital in this place in the shape of doposits, shows that this city is rapidly in creasing its financial power, and must eventually have the control of the principal financial operations of the country. While the banks of this city arc extending their business, the provincial batiks have maintained at very uniform movement, rather leaning towards a reduc tion than otherwise. We annex the latest returns for the banks of several States, showing the movement at differ ent periods:? Bank Movr.Mlirrs or Several States. Banks of Ohio. l.oaiu. Siiecie. Circ. Dtp? October 1814 $2,950,674 719,0119 2,233.097 315,561 January, 1815 3,343.216 751,085 2,392,939 442, 669 Bank oe New Orleans. 1814 1815. Feb 21 March ID. Feb. 22. March 29 Snecie $8,103,739 8,878,951 7,213,806 7,282,319 Circulation 2,232,302 3,689,615 3.799,397 4,158,594 Cmh liabilities 17,411,455 18,531.80!) 20.587,659 21.772,004 Assets 11,233,172 12,578,387 12.858,617 14,577.638 State Ba>k or Missouri and Branches, Dec. 31, 1844. Loans. Circ. Specie. Dtp's B ink of the State 571,374 793.880 1,501,596 1,312:778 Branch at Fayette 141.461 218.000 122,'.'9 32,716 Do atrafmyra 169,271 158.010 53,519 17,235 Do at Jackson 88.516 115,600 137,Ba^ 10,908 $973,655 1.290,520 1.908,519 I ,'.*73.629 Dec. 30, 1843 723,570 1,073,090 1,506,857 1.226,569 Increase $210,085 217,430 402,262 153,040 Bank or Viroiwia anii Branches. I Mans. Specie. I ir. Dtp. January, 1841 4,516.056 B-iO.452 I.9I0.749 813.501 Jaiuary, 1815 4.867,776 B9.968 2,121.110 990,656 Increase $331,720 ... 180,361 ITT. 1ST Decrease 60 481 ,. . B**a or Washihoton, D. C. Oct. 1844. Jan. 1845. Insr. Discounts $416,090 503,1.VI &1',0M Specif SI,718 78 til8 14.800 Circulation 89,726 97,003 7,877 Drposites 189,773 230,163 40 690 B**ks or Nr.w Juiit. liankI. I.oaus. Specie. Circ. l)tp$ IS*!, Janniry 25 9,341.797 496.917 1,918,017 1,869,254 1841, January 26 4,764.720 510,710 1,578.635 1,190 84V Decrease $1,677,077 ... 339,382 678, J74 Increase 1 ... 13,793 ,,, ... Banks of South Cahomiva. March I, '41. March 1, '45. Inc. Btc. Lomn $5,367,515 5 95..,764 580,219 Specie 988,135 1,100,114 212,179 ... Circulation 2.9TI.220 2.350,308 ... iltt.SIS Deposits 2,060,111 2,221,691 111,583 . B?nks or Maiiii hi'idtti, Jul? I, 1811. ?9ug. 1813. July, l,"U Dec. Tnc. ( imihtion $9,210,267 12,183,158 ... ?,963.881 Deposits 10,213,8k? 18,234 !M . . 2.02".417 Specie 7,*?.K1J 4. .87,110 2,711,675 Discounts 42,993,292 10,;70 975 . . 6,777.68: Of the above returns, the Boston 1 anks arc a? follows t Circulation $t. 116.536 5,016,934 ... '?0,3* Deposits 7,737.923 8.0W.88I ... !.:<?..<?$ Specie b.622,640 3 886.12* 2,736,120 Thc<e tabic* show the banking operations of each State and District, at the date of the latent returns, compared u ith previous ones, so as to exhibit the movement fi r the Mime season in each year, as new- as possible The bunks of Ohio, South Carolina, and Louisiana, vary but atr.fle in then movements from on* month to another The reports of the Bank of Missouri and Branches, ol Virginia and branches, of New Jirte), and of Massaohu setts, are not made sufficiently often to allow us to juuge of the influence of an\ political question upoa theii move ments. The hanks of this city expand and contract their operations very suddenly an.I largely, wbonernrocca sion require" They do not *ui mit to any gradual change, for the purpose ol confirming to the cir cumstance* of the times. From Januwy to August. lrti.1, the bank* of tki< city increased their loans from t>? ?3ti >:tJ,118, an iaolMM of *ii, 0,')3 037. Since 1*13. there has''been no dvci?tM Iro n one qimrtor to anotlier in tlio business of our eitv hank . hut, on the contrary, n tcady increase in .Ii? eoiints and deposits. It se< :i: to ho the policy of tne ban'iirs ol this cit; to r.ike it as much tlie focus of all financial OJ. rolions, us it is of commercial, an.! a Control ling power must ovcntualljr emanate from tliis point, thai W,;i regulate all the banking buiines* of thoaou ...y Operators in every section ol the Mate* wishing to en . nan) speculation, concentrate their funds in thn ,iv, , u e 1 en. tit^ *nd faci'.it es oftodoing are rescued . ,iij point the operator* may require the U8o ol ** ''innge 1. i I o Inrrenso In tlio deposits of our city bn iks, .v.iu t.w recent symptom* of a si-eculntive movement in son.e ol our ?tni les arc sufficient to induct u* to think that them

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