Newspaper of The New York Herald, June 2, 1845, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated June 2, 1845 Page 1
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THE NEW YORK HERALD. Vol. XI., No. I m?Whole No. 40114. NEW YORK, MONDAY MORNING, JUNE 2, 1845. Price Two Cents* ARRIVAL OF THE 8TEAM8HIP QREAT WE8TERN. THIRTEEN DAYS LATER FROM EUROPE. ISare Friendly Feeling in England RELATIVE TO THE ORCOOIT QUESTION. DECLINE IN COTTON. EXCITEMENT AND LARGE SALES. Great Decline in Rail Road Iron. ARRIVAL OF THE INDfA MAIL. THE MAYNOOTH GRANT. THE RIGHT OP SEARCH QUESTION. 4*c. fyc. tfc. The Steamship Great Western, the Fashion 01 Peytona?or whichever is the fleetest?of the Atlan tic Course, arrived at noon yesterday with advices from Liverpool to the 17th ult., inclusive. She brings sixty-five passengers. The news is of an highly interesting character. The Great Western and Caledonia with date* from the United States to {he 1st ult. had arrived out. Their news caused the war feeling wholly to sub ? side. ? The people and government of Great Britain were taken by surprize,to learn of the coolness with which the Oregon war speeches of Sir Robert Peel anil others, were received in America. The intelligence from this side, completely upeet the calculations of nearly all the commercial men in England. There was a tremendous excitement in the cotton market. The arrival of the Great Western at Liverpool had an unfavorable effect on that market, and caused a decline in cotton. It will be seen, on re ference to the market report, that a decline of om quarter of a penny per pound had been submitted to. Iron has experienced a great decline. Our new railroads concerns will like this. The English Board of Customs had refused ad mission to Louisiana Sugar at the low duty. There was nothing new from Ireland. The money market in London was very easy. The Funds, which have been unsettled, in conse quence of the threatened rupture with America, im proved on the arrival of the Great Western, and the Caledonia. In the manufacturing districts, trade, which wa* somewhat languid a short time since, has improved. In the Sugar markets and Produce markets of the West Indies generally, there was an improvement. The Hon. A. Smith, Charge d'Affaires of Texas, had arrived in London, on matters connected with the annexation question. Davenport and other harbors at present are assum ing a very warlike appearance, every vessel being refitted and made ready for sea. The Russians are collecting vast armies for the conquest of the Caucasus, not less, it is said, thai. 180,000 men. * The merchants of Siberia are carrying on a great trade in the tusks of the Mastodontes, which sur pass the ivory of tne elephant in whiteness and hard ness. Another comet, ofconsiderable splendor, has madi as appearance in the southern hemisphere. Its de clination is 43 degrees south. It will not be visible in Europe. In 1820 there were 61,014 acres of land employed in hop cultivation; in 1830, 46,726 acres; and in 1840 but 40,000 acres. The value of the contributions to th^ great Free Trade and Anti-Corn-law Baznar, held in Covent Garden Theatre, London, exceeds ?20,000. The Queen has been pleased to appoint Charles Duncan Wake, now British Vice-Consul at Copen hagen, to be her Majesty's Consul at Charleston. The 5th May, being the anniversary of the death of Napoleon, masses for the repose of his soul were celebrated in twelve of the principal churches ol Paris. The spirit of speculation has displayed itself even among tne abodes of the dead. At Kensal Green Cein' try several tombs have been built, which are ready to be let to the highest bidder. The fortifications of Paris are to be armed widi 22<W mortars, cannon, or howitzers, of which 50 are to be Paixhan guns, 6350 muskets for the ramparts, 200,000 infantry muskets, 1500 fusees, 1,000,000 pro jectiles, Arc. The Berlin correspondent of the Frankfurter Journal states that the Court of Wirtemburg, and the head of the house of Hohenzollem, are in treaty respecting a matrimonial alliance between the Crown Prince of that kingdom and a Russian prin cesR. 5'The morality of the Polka," says the Brussels Gasettr, "has been officially acknowledged at An twerp. This favorite air of the celebrated dunce has been set to the carriilons (chimes) of the cathedral of Antwerp. This gallantry on jhe part of the mu nicipality of the city merits "honorable mention. In the course of 1844, there were 102persons killed and injuVed by railway accidents in England, com paratively few of whom were passengers. During the llrt-t three months of this year, there were also 252 persons killed and 17 persons injured by railway accidents. The Greek charge d'affaires at Constantinople has Sven to the ambassadors of the protecting powers e most formal assurances that his Government had never thought of making any hostile demonstration against Turkey; but at the very same time shots were being exchanged at Lumia between the Greeks and Turks. . At a late meeting of the Statistical Society, an in teresting paper was read by Assistant Surgeon Bal four, on the mortality of tne army, in the course of which the following tabular results Was given in re gard to the coloniru establishments:?Annual mor tality iwr 1000?New South Wales 14 1; Cape ol (rood Hope 15 5; Nova Scotia and New Brunswick 18; Malta 18 7; Cannda (Upper and Lower} 20; Gib raltar 22.1; Ionian Islands 288; Mauritius 30.5; Ber muda 32.3; St. Helena 35; Tennasenm Provinces 50; Madras Presidency 52: Bombay Presidency 55: Cey lon Z57.2; Bengal Presidency 63; Windward and Lee ward command 85; Jamaica 143; Bahamas 200;Sierra Leone 4K3. Tea duties paid in 1845 up to InRt weak.?London, 8,721,5371b.: Liverpool, 1.858,2091b.; Bristol, 314-, 7311b.; Hull, 132,4211b. Total, 11,0M,8881b. Same rime in 1844, 10,365,1181b. It is the intention of Government, in conjunction with the Chester and Holyhead railway company, to have the electric telegraph established on that im portant line, reaching from London to Holyhead, a distance of between 200 and 800 miles, and em bracing in its route the commercial capitals of Liver pool, Manchester, and Birmingham. The success of the apparatus in the service of the South-Western and the Admiralty between London and Portsmouth, 88 miles. i<* said to be the superinducing cause of its proposed establishment on the Chester and Holyhead line. The adoption of this invention on a scale of magnitude bids fair to effect a radical change in the entire correspondence of the country, by bringing, as it were, momentarily intoclose consolidation and communion the exchanges of London, Liverpool, Manchester, and Birmingham, conveying with light ning like velocity every fluctuation of affair*, and telegraphing from mart to matt, with marvellous ex actitude, and over areas of hundred of miles, intelli gence that may be received and reciprocated almost simultaneously by every mercantile community in ihe kingdom. I'll'* greatest alarm haa been excited in military ' circles Uy her Majesty having chosen the period 1740-50 for her ball costume, as at that time neither i whiskers nor moustaches were worn, and those facial appendages will, therefore, have to be shofn. The report that the Priest Ronge had been shot by an assassin, is mud to have been first spread at l- rankfort-on-tne-Odor; it stated that he had been shot at Lcignitz. The whole story is a mere fiction. Amongst the railway projects talked of is one to connect Pristol with South Wales, by means of a tunnel under the Severn. The New Yokk Packet Ships.?From the 4th to the 17th ult. there waa the following later arri vals from the United States:?The Sen, Capt. Ed wards. arrived on the 7th inst.; and on the 8th, the Great Western steamer arrived at 11, P.M. Her news was forwarded to London by Express, as was also the news by the Caledonia steamer, which reached on the 13th, at about the same hour. The Ashburton, Captain Huttelston, arrived on the 12th, at 6, A. M., preceding, by about 6 hours, the New York, in whose company she sailed on the 21st ult. We have seldom s^len greater anxiety for American news, than was manifested on the arrival of the two steamers. Her Majesty's Visit to the Continent.?It is reported that her Majesty and Prince Albert intend visiting the Continent, and that preparations are in progress to enable them to take their departure early in August next. The route spoken of is, first to Bel gium, and afterwards to Saxe'Gotha. Humor also asserts that her Majesty will visit the KinR of the French alter returning from Germany. Some of the London papers confidently state that the Queen has abandoned her intention of visiting Ireland this summer, in consequence of the outpourings of the repeal agitators ; whilst others affirm that she ad heres to it. American Hops ?An extensive fresh importation hasjust taken place of a very excellent quality. The duty on this produce is so nigh, that the last which were imported were sold lor the use ot Sydney and the Channel Islands.?London Standard, May 18. Eukopeak Journals ?It is estimated, that at Rome, there is one journal to every 51,000 persons; at Madrid, ene to 60,000; Venice, one to 11,000; London, one to 10.600; Berlin, one to 1070; Paris, one to 3700; Stockholm, one to 2600; Leipsic, one to 11,000. Taking, instead of cities, kingdoms, the estimate is?in Spain, one journal to 864,000 indi viduals ; in Russia, one to 6^4,000; in Austria, one to 376,000 ; in Switzerland, one to 66,000; in France, one to 52,000; in England, one to 46,000; in Hoi land, one to 40,500; in Prussia, one to 43,000; coin paring the number of subscribers with the popula tion, the population is, in France, as one to 437; in England, as one to 184; in Holland, as one to 100. Wealth ok the Propaganda.?The French jour nals state, that the receipts of the society instituted at Lyons for the propagation of the llomish faith, amounted in 1844, to 3,562,088f; France had con tributed l,885,029f; Bavaria, 232,748f; Prussia, 145,0G6f; Germany, 42,159f: Great Britain, 23/,795t: Ireland, 181,905f; Spain. 10,578f; Russia, 2,449f; Sardinia, 267,464f; Sicily, 109,118f; the United States of America, 6,384f; South America, 10,247f; Oceanica, 240f; &c. The society expended, in Oceanica, 503,836f; in the United States, l,044,895f; in the African Missions, 266,069f; in Asia, 997,125f; in Europe, 547,317f; coasts of printing, 256,3G0j; the entire expenses of the year amounted to 3,668, 762f. There was a surplus of 424.308f in the trea sury of the society lying over since last year. Thade with Brazil.?We find that the version of the resolution proposed in the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies, in reference to English cotton goods, which has appeared in most of tne newspapers, and which was copied into the "Manchester Guardian'' of the 3rd instant, was not correct. The resolution does not propose an additional duty of 20 percent on the value of the goods, but an addition ofa) i>er cent, (or one-fifth) to the present tariff duty. Thus, suppose the existing duty on a particular article to be 20 per cent., and to amount to 5s. per piece,the addi tional duty would be one-fifth more, oris, per piece. The Iron Trade.?The reduction of 40s. per ton announced last week, has been general throughout the South Staffordshire district. The present price is probably not higher than can be steadily maintain ed until some of the heavy orders for rails are clear ed off. The speculation in pig iron in Liverpool which has existed,has received a very serious check during the past week. Many of the needy holder have pressed sales, and large parcels of Scotch pig' hdve teen offered at 75s, per ton. Early in March purchases were made at 110s.. and none of the ma kers would take orders under 120s. The price ol pigs in this neighborhood has not been subject ti> the same fluctuations. The above reduction wasde cidedly necessary to prevent a very awkward state of embarrassment in several branches of trade.? Moreover, the feverish state of the present year t market is expected to occasion the iron trade a per ? manent injury, in the fact that the Americans are | now strenuously endeavoring to produce more iron The produce ol iron last year in the States amount ed to 500.000 tons; the estimate for the present yeai ! is much larger; and in ten years it is calculate^ thai | the makfc will reach a million of tons, unless the tali in prices in Great Britain should be such as to ren der it cheaper for the Americans to purchase our pro duce,than to manufacture for themselves. Free Trade and Navigation to Paraguay ? On Thursday, a |ietition to both Houses of Parha ment, on the subject of the navigation of the Rivet La Plata, lay in the Exchange news-room, and wat numerously signed. The petition prayed that hei Majesty will "direct such instructions to be given to tlie officers commanding her Majesty's ships in the River La Plata, as will enforce the free uavigation of that river and its tributary streams, compel the due enforcement of the treaty, and oblige Buenot Ayres to abandon pretensions thatare unjust in them selves, and, in their results, utterly destructive ot a trade which, if permitted to be carried on freelv. promises to become of great advantage, second only in value, extent, and importance to that ot Unina. Emigration .?Our correspondent at Waterford savs?The following list of vessels will show the destination of the emigrants, who were not the most uncomfortable of the Irish population j-Bohvar. Quebec, 30 passengers ; Ratchford. St. John New foundland, 120 ditto; Louisa, Quebec, 30 ditto; So phia, Halifax, Nova Scotia,90 ditto; Rosemacroom, St John, New Brunswick, 30 ditto ; Thistle, Que bec, 40 ditto: Marv and Harriet, Quebec, 30 ditto : Elita St. John's, Newfoundland, 30 ditto ; velocity. St John's, New Brunswick, 30 ditto: Dispatch, Quebec, 190 ditto; John, St. John's, Newfound land, 140 ditto; via Liverpool, per steamers, 100 Total 11G0. The John last mentioned, went front our quay on Wednesday evening. There was a great number of Carrick people (young men and young women generally) onboard. There appears to bk a Premium to Emi grants?John Dent, nearKnaresborough, has otter ed ?5 to any of the poor families residing in Ilun sinuore and Walsford, who may feel inclined to make a trip across the Atlantic. A like oner has also been made by the parish officers in those places, and many families have already availed themselves, of the opportunity. America* Ice.?A novel article of import has re cently taken place in the shape of ice, from America, in the neighborhood of the Wenham Lake, &cc. The article is brought in large blocks, varying from 2 cwt to4cwt.; ana several vessels nave arrived laden almost entirely with it, having several hundred tons on board. It is deposited in the ship's hold with care, and covered and surrounded with wood dust, and so arrives in a very perfect state, with very little loss in weight, particularly at this season of the yVar. The greater portion of mat hitherto imported has been landed at the St, Katherine's Docks, where a shed or warehouse has been appropriated in a cool portion of the south quay, and to which it is removed on being landed, and deposited until removed to the owners' private stores.?Ixnulon Herald, May 6. Extraordinary Running Match against Tim*. ?Some time since an officer in the Guards laid the odds of .?300 to ?100, with Mr. Bragg, proprietor of the North Star Inn, at Slough, that he could not pro duce a man on Friday, the 16th of May, who would run twenty miles within two hours. Mr. Bragg has had four or five celebrated |>cdestrians in training ever since the bet was made, he not being compel led, according to the articles of the match, to name the man until ne is brought to the jwst to start. The celehratrd runner known as the North Star, will, it is expected, be the party selected to attempt the feat, which, if accomplished, will be one of the most ex traordinary undertakings ever attempted. The match will come ofVin the immediate neighborhood of Slough. Betting, at present, is 4 to 3, and 2 to 1, on time. Lord John Rksseli/b Resolutions.?'The leader of the opposition In the House of Commons, con sidering that the present time?a time of unusual prosperity and comfort?is the proper season for mi nutely considering the condition of the laboring classes, is to bring forward his resolutions on this subject on the 26th inst. They embrace topics of freat magnitude,but will lead to nothing but a debate le denounces tne corn laws as pernicious, but does not offer a substitute. It is evident that Lord John will shortly become a free trader: Lord Howick seems resolved to outrun him if he does not take c;irc. "Wholesale Desertion of Wives.?The parish of Clerkenwell has lately suffered severely from the wholesale desertion,by men belonging to this parish, of their wives and families, some of them leaving as many as six children?thus casting a heavy and j>ermanent burden upon the ratepayers Within the last few days 12 m?n have thus absconded; and to such an extent has the system been earned that the parish has determined to adopt vigorious measures to cheek the practice, if possible, and intend t<> offer handsome reward* for their apprehension. Hamburg.?The commercial operations of Ham burgh, which had been lying dormant during the winter, are again now in lull activity, and the traffic in the streets, and numerous canals by which the city is intersected,is more extensive than it was ever before known at that period. The general improve ment in the traffic in merchandize indisposes the pub lic generally to share gambling. Their attention is better occupied, and so long as this is the case the railroad mania will be checked. Kngland and America?Opinions of the Newspaper Press. [From Wilmer'g Times, May 17.] The probability of a war with the Uni ted States occupies the public mind on this side of the Atlantic, to the exclusion of every other topic. The arrivals from the Western world are looked to with absorbing interest, and the in stant a packet arrives, the news is conveyed, with all the potency and speed which steain can com mand, to the metropolitan journals. In this way, we forwarded, by special express, and at a great outlay, the news which came to hand on the night of Tuesday by the " Caledonia." The previous arri val?the "Great Western"?caused some stir, as it was known that she would bring tidings of the ef fect which had been produced in America by the speeches of Sir Robert Peel and the Earl of Aberdeen, in Parliament, on the Oregon Question. But as only a [day or two had intervened between the receipt of those speeehes and the return of tha steamer, which had not permitted pub lic opinion to develope itself, the succeeding arrival produced, il possible, still greater interest. The pros and cons of the question, it is needly to say, are daily discussed; and this is certainly not the first instance, of rate, that the spirit of American institu tions has been analysed by British pens. The theory of the Federal Constitution has formed, of recent years, a standing dish with the politicians of Eng land. The national character anu its peculiarities? the public men and their waywardness?the democ racy and its elements?are all weighed with critical skill, sometimes with a friendly, often with an ad verse hand. But whatever diversity of opinion may exist amongst Englishmen as to the abstract merits of Republicanism, a war with America?the bare contemplation of such a possibility?is abhorrent to the national mind. A war patty, properly so called, ?is regards the United States, does not exist. There is nothing to mark its influence. The mooted point ?the Oregon?is not generally believed to be worth fighting for. It is not a i>oint which appeals to national firide, or prejudice, or power. Every one feels that this ittle island has territory enough, and colonies, and subjects, which own its sway in every par^ of the habitable globe, that plume themselves on their iden tification with the British name, without measuring lances with a kindred people about a few thousand miles of a barren and protnless waste. No. The sentiment which has taken deep root in the public mind of this country?which pervades all classes,and sects, and shades of opinion, and unites them as one man, refers not to the value of the territory in question, but to what they conccive to be the ar rogant, overbearing, bullying style with which the opposite claim is advanced. It is with a spirited people as with a spirited animal?if you drive, they resist, if you lead, they may concede. Mr. Polk must be a crude judge of human nature, or he would not have put forth, in his inaugural ad dress about the Oregon, sentiments which were not merely indiscreet?not merely uncalled for and out of place, but which sneered at, and may be said to have hurled deliance at the British claim. We sav nothing now as to the justice of the claim ; all that we aim at is to account for the extraordi nary unanimity which exists on this question?an unummity so surprising, that if we do go to war about it, every hand will be held up, every nurse will be opened, every arm will be stretched, to sustain it, and bring it to a speedy and triumphant issue. There are men who would tamely submit to wrong, that would instantly resent an insult.? The country feels itself insulted by the new Pre sident Is he not a bungling tactition that thus gives his opponent such an advantage?that places himself in the wrong by his manner, while he is probably right in his theory1? Human ingenuity could hardly have devised any means so effectual for amalgamating, as in a crucible, the discordant elements of which public opinion in every free country is composed. Like the wand of an enchant er, Mr. Polk has done this, and if there is any truth in the saying of Napoleon, that moral force, even in war. far outstrips physical force, it will be found that his first will not be his last blunder. Hasty men are generally obstinate men. The President has committed himself?will the Re public sustain him 1 He has so precipitated matters that the question must now be settled. He has thrown down the gauntlet, and it has been taken up ; ho has jeopardised the American claim, and flung to the winds the "wise and masterly inacti vity" which Mr. Calhoun,with afar-seeing sagacity, recommended as the best policy for the United States to pursue. Back out he cannot, without per sonal compromise, for he has shown his cards to hi? opponent, who will work the game according ly It is well understood on this side of the water?it is still batter known at Washington, that the British Cabinet have come to the conclusion thut the present is the time for bringing this matter to an issue. To let it slip would prove them as arrant bunglers as their antagonist. Diplomacy, like the chess-board, consists of a series of successful moves, and a skilful player can hardly be blamed for check-mating his rival. The affair might have remained in abeyance another quarter of a century, as it has done during the last half century, and every year would have increased the means, on the part of America, of a successful resistance?de creased, in the same ratio, the power of Bri tain to sustain, or take forcible |>ossession of. the Oregon.?The tide of emigration, which is daily flowing to the West, would have peopled it in a few years with the Anglo-American race, who would have held their own against all intruders. These advantages have been cast to the winds ; and nothing appears to remain but mutual con cession, or the settlement of the auestion by the ?-troncf'st arm. Here; again, the evil genius of the President confronts him. The temple of Janus is closed?we are at peuce with the world. Our Indiun empire is consolidated?our colonies in China are progressing. The British Exchequer is full to repletion?its navy is in admirable trim Our steamers sweep even' sea; our means of trans porting troops, whether from Europe or from Asia, were never more complete?more perfect. There never was a period in the history of this country when it was better prepared for war?never did a question exist, not on its abstract merits, but be cause of its concomitant swagger, on which less diversity of opinion prevails, and with heart and soul would the dernier retort be entered upon and pursued. We do not write in a partizan spirit. Nothing, Heaven knows, should we regard as a greater na tional calamity than a rupture with theUtiited States; and we should be sorry to say or do anything which could in the remotest degree precipitate it. It is pain ful?harrowing?even to contemplate such a contin gency. The elements of society would be convul sed, commerce would be swept from the ocean, and the ties ofinterest,and evenot consanguinity, would be rudely snapped asunder. Upon England it would inflict all but irreparable injury, and America would hardly suffer less intensely. May so fearful a con summation be averted! If the President is obstinate, and will concede no thing, the party which elected may feel bound in consistency to sustain him, and tne voice of the more sober and discreet portion of the Union will probably be drowned in the avalanche. We sin cerely nope that discreet councils will prevail, and that ltoth Governments, conceding something for the sake of peace, may bring the matter to a timely and satisfactory adjustment. But it is follv to blink the fact, that tne " black cloud in the West," to which Sir Robert Peel so portentiously alluded, looks threatening, and may burst with devastating fury. In this crisis it is ntrt unnatural that public feeling in America should be watched with some anxiety. The commercial classes can Have no desire to light Britain about the navigation of the Columbia. The Northern States are identified with the continuance of peace and the progress of manufactures. The Southern States would not like to sacrifice their trade in cotton, tobacco, and other produce, for so illusoiy an object. The brawlers in the West may desire a row, from an inherent love of sport and of mischief, or a thirst for gain. But, after all, the matter will probably resolve itself into a contest for political supremacy. With any country but America, war, with all its newly-acquired horrors and improved instruments of destruction, would be fearful, yet speedy. Hut with such a line of coast on the Atlantic, and the barren waste in dispute on the Pacific side, it must, in the nature of things, be protracted. Possession of the Oregon by an armed force would, of course, be the first, and the destruction of the Atlantic cities on the sea-board, the second object of Bri tish annoyance. But we pause, and sicken nt the bare idea ot evils so appalling, and yet so appa rently immediate, resulting from the language of a hanty and intemperate man, railed, unexpectedly, to a poiition, in which hia capacity for making miichief ap pears to he the only capacity of which he hai yet, in the opinion of the Britisher*, given any proof. I'nfortnnately for our nagacity, wc fore told, in this journal, the very day following the arrival of the President'* Inaugural Address, the hubbub to which his indiscreet remarks on the Oregon would give rise here, and our statement has been verified to the Iett?r. [From Liverpool Mail, May 17.] We present to the notice of our readers two arti cles from the Washington Qtobe and the Washington Const Hut ion,?journals supposed, and, with some reason, believed to be, the organs of the United ?States cabinet,?in reference to the Oregon terri tory. It will be seen at a glance that, if the articles to which we direct attention emanute from any official source, the government of the Republic are determin ed to appropriate what they cannot legally claim?to usurp what will not bo peacefully conceded?and rush into war be the results either beneficial or ruinous. However much we may deprecate the vulgar and violent nature of the abuse indulged in by the Wash ington press, we cannot admit that we were unpre pared for it. It is Mr. President Polk who speaks through the newspapers* Their words and senti ments are his. His inaugural address, which has deservedly given so much ofl'ence on this side of the water, is the " unquestionable" staple of the Wash ington journalists. They borrow liis words; they paraphrase his impudence ; they blow his coals ; they use his accustomed language of slavery in ad dresi 'tiga "free people and, therefore, we have a right to presume that, either as independent think ers, or profligate hirelings, they have a stake in the same mad and revolutionary adventure. The mer

cantile letters, we admit, are more pacific. But the reason is plain. In that class men are inclined to think what they wish. We never knew a war break out in Europe, or elsewhere, in which the par ties deeply interested in the maintenance of peace, did not deny the possibility of war to the latest mo ment. Such is commercial policy. Intelligent men will say, "A war between England and America is out of the question." " Why 1" we ask. " Be cause," say they," the two countries have nothing in dispute worth fighting for, and particularly be cause the United States have neither an army, a lieet nor a dollar to employ in a game so unwise and des perat*." Our answer to this is, that bankrupt na tions, communities whose credit is tarnished, whose laws and institutions are insalubrious all over the world, are always the readiest to rush into a war. He who has nothing to lose has nothing to risk; and if a kick can pay a debt, or a rifle compound for a pecuniary default of a State, it is easier for some people to resort to the former than to the only honest remedy, of satisfying the just claims of their injured creditors. The Washington journalists, to whom we have alluded, have the modesty to inculcate, what indeed is not a new doctrine, that republican institutions have been appointed by divine Provi dence to redress the wrongs of arbitrary monarchies and tyrannical aristocracies, and that in American re publicanism alone are to be found the germs and fruits of truth, honor, justice, freedom, equality, and the na tural rights of man in the highest state of civilization. This looks very well in words and upon paper. But it has an ugly and foibidding aspect, coming from tke other side of th? Atlantic. America, by a per version of justice, and all forms of recognised law, is the plaintiff in the case; and Europe generally, and England particularly, are the defendants. That is the republican mode of putting it. But the propo sition is in i'self glaringly dishonest. Throw Europe out of the scale?when aid England cheat, rob, swin dle, or defraud the United States 1 She never did. The question, therefore, like Lord Ross's monster telescope, must be turned in a different direction.? And, we ask, when did the citizens of the United States cease to carry on a civil war of cheating, rob bing, and swindling against this country 1 She boasts of her honor. Can she pay her just debts I? She brags of her power! She cannot make a gun to arm her most formidable frigate, the Princeton. The only national bank she ever assessed was founded upon English capital; and, according to her usual practice, and the rules of her government, she swin dled and robbed the English shareholders. In short, and in plain terms, the whole system of revublicanisrn in the united States is founded on robbery. 7fte revolution was a premeditated act of robbery. The sympathy of its leading revolutionists with France,was an art of " unquestionable" and unpardonable vil lany. These be hard words; but their truth is de monstrated in every act of that senseless and dishon est democracy. There are, however, many sensible men in America?men of property and influence? who see that dishonesty does not prosper?that limit* are set to mob rule?and that the time has come when the institutions of the United States must undergo u change for the general benefit of the commonwealth These thinking men think that the time is now. We agree with them. Mr. President Polk is an instru ment?and an ignorant though a useful one. While he has been flogging his slaves, the Christian world ha:; undertaken the duty of floggiug the slave-swner; anil in the conflicting course of discipline, the breeder of, and dealer in, slaves must take the consequence. While we write, none of the official correspondence between the two governments has transpired. If go vernment messengers from Downing-street have passed hither and thither, their presence in the packets is unknown. Now that parliament has met we shall probably have some explanations; but we are left in the darkness of conjecture. All that we have to say is this, the American question must be set tled. Sir Robert Peel and Lord Aberdeen have not only asserted the rights of England, but declared their intentions of maintaining them to the last ex tremity. We have no doubt of their faith; but they will be everlastingly disgraced if they shrink one line or hair's breadth from their promise. What parliament has declared must be England's voice. With the rascality and dishonesty of the repudiating States, the British government nave nothing to do They cannot enter upon any terms of compromise with republican pawn-brokers, or the receivers ol stolen poods. But we think that it is their duty to compel the United States not only to pay the private debts of her citizens, but all the indiv idual State debts which she owes to England and Europe. [From London Standard, May 1ft.] The most careful review of the American journals received by the Caledonia, leaves us just as wc were before, in respect to the means of judging of the probabilty of peace of war. The question in such cases is always determined by the seeming interests of the predominant party in a democratic govern ment, more than by the sense of justice, the sense of honor, or even that by passion. In such governments war, however detrimental generally, will be fre quently in favor with the short-lived executive?the game, as it is called, of kincs, is oftea the trade of protectors, dictators, presidents, consuls, or by whatever other title the ephemeral rulers of democ racies are called. The change from the state of peace to the state of war, gives a great addition of patronage, while war itself covers j>eculation, and by war obscure persons in the condition of republican rulers, may perchance make themselves a name without any iiersonal risk. It may, therefore, be taken as a general rule, that the ruler of a democracy will always be inclined to war, if not a very good man, and this it is which has in all times made de mocracies such pestilent neighbors, when possessed of the power to annov. The most obvious interests of the people of the Lnited States are, however, so clearly in favor of maintaining pacific relations with this country, that we are in little fear that Mr. Polk will be permitted to indulge those belligerent propensities common to men in his position, and which seem to possess him in full measure. Wc do not see what important class in the United States could gain anything?what im portant class would not lose much by a war with Great Britain, whatever the event ot the contest might be, and therefore we hold a war to be ex tremely improbable, if not an absolute impossibility, let Mr. Polk do all that he can. In saving this, we would not be understood as speaking <fisres|>ectfully of the military resources or the nulttary qualities of our brethren at the other side of the Atlantic. We merely give them credit for the itossession of com mon sense and common humanity. A war that holds out no prize to the victor, is a very silly waste of money ana of life. Let the Republicans if they please gratify themselves with the notion that they can beat us ; as long as they do not put the opinion to an experimentalproof, it is a very cheap enjoy ment to hold it, but practically " to whip the British ers," as Sam Slick says, were a sport in which the winner, suppose winning certain, would "find the game scarcely worth the candle." It is upon a con viction that these considerations must have their due weight in the United States, we have come to a con clusion that the pacific relations of the kindred states are in no danger whatever. [From London Time*, May 10. The intelligence brought by the Great Western from the United States, which we published exclu sively in the larger portion of our first edition yes terdny,ha8 fully justified the pacific anticipations we had ventured to express in that very day's impres sion. The Caledonia reached New York on the 21st ult., and the Great Western sailed on the 2-ttli. The interval between those days was net sufficiently long for any answer to the declarations of Sir Robert Peel and lord Aberdeen to be received from Wash ington ; but in New York the eflect they had pro duced was extremely satisfactory, tending manifest ly to bring the pending negotiation to a prompt con clusion, rnther than to defeat if by an untimely rup ture. Although the American (Government luis long been thoroughly apprized, in the course of the vari ous negotiations which have been carried on with re ference to the Oregon Territory in the course of the last twenty years,otlthe strong conviction entertained by all the British Ministers and Commissioners who | have successively dealt with this question, and of the irrefragable proofs on which this conviction of I our rights is established, yet the American people have heard but little from this fide of the Atlantic ! of the arguments, and the resolution with which we | are prepared to rebut their pretensions. In the Uni ted States the Oregon question has been dressed up in a popular form, skilfully adapted to popular preju dices, and successfully uned to assist the triumph of a popular party. Its political importance, as affect ing one of the most considerable foreign relations of the Union, has been regarded as secondary to the importance attached to itfor the purpose of domestic agitation ; and this delusion had gone to such a length,that in contemplating the incorporation of the i Oregon territory in the Union, the Americans had scarcely given a thought to the inevitable conse quence of the measure?war with England. The public opinion of New York is, however, a some what over favorable specimen of the opinions- pre vailing in the United States. The great maritime towns of America, from the mouth of the Hudson to that of the Mississippi, have every thing to lose by a declaration of war on ihe part of a great maritime power. They must inevitably support the brunt of such an attack. The unprotected shipping which is to be met with on every sea under the American flag, belongs to their merchants ; and even their own ports ne exposed to the incursions of the Meets and steamers which would speedily be collected in Bermuda and the West Inclid Islands. The com mercial circles of New York are, therefore, the last places in the Union in which we should expect a war fever to manifest itself, either for the unapproachable wilds ofOregon, or the slaveholding immigrants of Texas. In the western states the case is different They are for the most part entirely secure from the dan gers of actual war upon their own territory. They abound in a more adventurous population, which is eager to advance upon the western limits of the American continent, rather than to establish those arts and institutions which future generations will have more leisure to perfect. ? * * * The difficulties which may arise out of these pre possessions will doubtless present themselves forci bly in the Senat ? of the United States, whether a treaty for the equitable partition of Oregon should be presented to that body, or whether the failure of the negotiation for that treaty should render other and ulterior proceedings inevitable. But as this Oregon question has now reached a point at which it cannot possibly remain stationary, and us the existing con vention of joint occupancy is virtually abrogated bv the official declarations of both countries, that each of them has rights which it is resolved and prepared to maintain, a very short time will suffice to show whether Mr. Polk is prepared to terminate the dis pute by a fair compromise, or whether he had rather succumb to the passions and prejudices of the j>eo ple than accept from England, and offer to her, a just concession. It is his own fault if he has ren dered that concession more difficult by overstating his case, and setting up an exclusive claim in Ore gon. Our claim has never been for exclusive sove reignly, but for joint occupation; ner do we now take advantage of the fact of all but exclusive British occupation to raise our preteiisions ; but it is clear that joint claims to an unapprojtriated region can only be resolved into separate rights by a partit ion propor tioned to the extent to whiai they have been actually asserted. The intelligence from Mexico is of a more decided character, and for the moment of greater interest, than the communications affecting our own relations with the United States. Since the adoption of the Annexation Bill by the Ameri can Congress, the conduct of the Mexican Govern ment anciof its agents has been dignified and un compromising. * * * * * But in the mean time the Government cf Mexico has not been inactive. * * * * In these various documents we observe that the pre tension of Mexico still to treat Texas as a revolted province is abandoned ; and we infer that the recog nitiim of the independence of Texas by Mexico will be yielded as soon as there is a reasonable prospect that the independence will be honorably maintained. [From the Paris Constitutionnel, May 6.] The uncertainty which exists with regard to the disposition of the Government of Texas relative to the bill of annexation voted by the American Con gress, appears to restore courage to the British poli ticians, and to give them hoj>es that the intervention of the great Powers by diplomatic means may pre vent the annexation. England naturally desires to induce France to adopt her views, and the Time?. publishes an article calculated to demonstrate the i fatal consequences of the annexation to the Spanish American race, and the dangers which threaten Eu rope front the indefinite development of the power of the United States, and asserts that the Govern ments of Great Britain and France are perfectly agreed on the question of Texas. The Times haf seveial times repeated this assertion without any contradiction having been given on this side of the Channel; and it agrees with the reports repeatedly circulated in London at the period of the Duke de Broglie's mission. We do not ex|>ect to obtain any information from the Cabinet on the subject, but u is well to direct the attention of the country to the possibility of a new and gratuitous concession to England at the expense of an old ally. Parliamentary, Maynootli, die. The British Parliament meets on Monday after the Whitsun recess. This is the sccond division of the Ses sion. The first terminated at Easter ; and, the conclu ding one promises to bo most important. Our relations with Amarica may probably bo alluded to, but arc hardly likely to be discussed. The wily Min ister will keep his own councils and allow members to flounder as long ns they like in the waters of conjecture In this respect, American statesmen might, with advan tage, take u useful hint from the cautious tact which cha ractises the Ministerial announcements in the British Par liament. Upon Mr. Polk, the lesson would probably be lost?but even a statesman so eminent as Mr. Calhoun could without any damage to his well-earned reputation His spcech on the Oregon bill when it came be fore the Senate, is now going the " round" of the English press, and who knows but that tho indis creet disclosures which he therein made, as to the policy of leaving the Oregon question in abey ance for some twenty years, when Americans would be able to hold it themselves, may have furnished a hint, upon which the government is now acting, in pressing for a speedy settlement of that vexed queAtiop? European statesmen appear to have become infected with Tallyrand's axiom, that spcech was given to disguise though, and feeling. Sir Robert Peel certainly sinned against the rule, when he admitted that the threa tened rupture with America increased his desire to paci fy Ireland ; but, during his long public life, it is almost the first fal e step of the kind he has made, and savagely has tic beeu badgered about it. If all men were honest, candour would be the first of the virtues ; but, in the ab sence of universal perfection, statesmen must deal with the world as they find it. The first great question which will occuny the attention of the House of Commons, will l;e Maynooth. The third reading of the Bill for the increased grant to that College ii fixed for Mouday. Of course it will pass?not, perhaps, with so thumping a majority as marked the second reading, and the divisions in the committcc, but still with force numerically sufficient to teat down all opposition. When Parliament broke up, the saints at Exeter-hall, scattered themselves in like mancr all over the country, to re-appear nt their old quarters next week. The "charmed life" which induced the Scottish thane to defy his assailant, was not a whit more umeal and visionary than the opposition which the saints arc making to "burke" the Maynooth Bill. The fate of tho Ministry is hound with it, wnich is a good reason why it should pass. The new education scheme for Ireland, which Sir James Graham developed beforo the adjournment of the House, hai not been very favorably received either in this country, or in the country to which it is to be ap plied. The government purpose, in the three lay col leges which they intend to erect in the western, south ern, and northern parts of the island, is to let religion take care of itself. The friends of the students are expected to look after their religions education, as the State will not do so. Sir R. 11. Inglis declares that this is to be a " gignntic icheme of godless educa tion," and, strange to say, Mr. O'Conncll echoes the sen timents and even the words of the member for Oxford. The learned gentleman, however, merely expresses his own individual cstimaie of the scheme; for, like a duti ful son of the Church, he forbears sounding the tocsin until the prelates of his creed give the word. The mea sure, when it was first propounded by the Home Secre tary, received the almost unanimous approbation of the Irish members who were present, and in his Dublin Par liament Mr. O'C'onnell expresses his surprise that they could be so easily pleased. Horse or Commons, May 7.?Si.Avr. Tbadr?Bic.iit or ScAarti.?Lord Palmcrston wished to put a question to the right honorable baronet at the head of tho govern ment?it was one which he had put to him the other night, and which,as he was not then prepared to answer it, he would how repeat. By the treaty of Washington, concluded in August, 1S4'2, and by the S?th article of that treaty, it w?: stipulated, that " whereas, notwithstand ing all the efforts which may be made upon the coast of Africa, for the suppression of the slave trade, while the facilities for carrying on that traffic, by the frau dulent use of flags arc so great, that the temptations for pursuing it wheis markets can b# found are so strong, that the desired result maybe long delayed, unless all the markets now open be shut up against the purchase , of African negroes-the mrtics to the treaty <i<> there fore agree to unito in all becoming representations to, and remonstrances with, any and all of the powers with- | in whose dominions such markets are allowed to exist, and that they will urge on all such powers the propriety ! and duty of closing such markets fully, at oncc and for- | ever." He wished tiiem to ask whether, in consequence 1 and in pursuance of that 9th article, the governments of I the United states and of England had united in commu nicating any, and, if any. what representations and re. monstrances to the governments of Brazil and Spain, both of them nations included in tho class of those re ferred to. He wished, also, to ask, with reference to the treaty in December, 1810, for the suppression of the slave trade the treaty, he meant, signed, between Eng land, Austria, Prussia, and Russia?whether any steps had been taken in pursuance of the 17th article, which stated that " The high contracting parties agree to in vite those maritime powers of Kuroiie which hare not yet concluded treaties for the abolition of the (lava trade, to uccede to the preseut treaty.'' The powers referred to, were Belgium, Hanover, Greece, and tha question which he wished to put to the right honorabla gentleman was, w hether the parties to that treaty of December, 1840, had, in pursuance of the article be had referred to, applied to those three powers to obtain their annexation to the treaty I Sir R. Peel said, that the noble lord having given him notice of his intention to ask the question which he had put, he made inquiry at the Foreign Office as to the trana action referred to. The noble lord had quoted, of course correctly--the article of the treaty of Washington, as to representations and remonstrances to be made by the Go vernments ot Great Britain and the United State* to cer' tain foreign powers. After the passing of that treaty/ i several conferences had taken place between hia nobler friend at the head of the foreign department and th0 American minister, Mr. Kverett, upon the subject of the article in question. The question was, whether it would be most advantageous aiid most likely to bring about desirable results, were the representation to be made by both countries united, or by each for itself. The words of the article undoubtedly were, that both countries should " unite," but it was not considered that they were necessarily bound, therefore, to make a joint representation,and that,should it be thought most de sirable for each country to make a separate representa tion, each country was at perfect liberty to do so. It waa ultimately determined, as the best course to be adopted, that each country should make such a separate represen tation. The government of Great Britain had faithfully adhered to that arrangement, and he understood from tho American minister that the government of th* U. States had also made a similar representation to Brazil, through their minister there, who had all along shown the utmost readiness to assist in every measure calculated to put down the slave trade. (Hear.) As to the second question of tha noble lord, he had correctly stated that in 1841 a treaty had been concluded by Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Itussia, conceding to each other a mutual right of search, in order to suppress, as far as possible, the slave trade. That treaty had been signed by France, but had not been ratified by her. The other great powers of Europe, however, independent of that non-ratification, concluded the treaty. It was a quadruple treaty, binding on four powers, and it became a question whether, after the refusal of France to ratify the treaty, it was desirablo that representations should be made to the three powers who hud not at all joined it, namely, Belgium, Hanover, and Greece. He believed that no vessels belonging to these countries were engaged in the slave trade, nor were their flags used in the promotion of that traffic. No doubt it would be very desirable that all the maritime powers of Europe should unite to put it down, but there were considerations connected with the refusal of France to ratify the treaty, which were judged to form obsta cles in the way of representation being made to the three powers alluded to. (Hear.) Viscount Palmerstoi* observed, that as to the first question, as it appeared that the Government of the Uni ted States had made remonstrances in execution of the article of the treaty of Washington referred to, he pre sumed that there would be no difficulty in obtaining a di plomatic communication of these remonstrances from that Government, and in laying them before the House. If the remonstrances had been joint, as was the literal construction of the treaty, they would have been laid on the table of the House as a matter of course ; but be ing comformable to the treaty in spirit, although not in form, ho still did not see that there could be any obstst cle to their production. Sugar Duties?Order in Council.?By an actpassed in the present session of parliament, it was enacted that there should be charged, amongst other duties of cus toms, tho following, viz :? On sugar, the growth and produce of China, Java, or Manilla, or of any foreign country, the sugars of which her Majesty in Council shall declare to be admissible as not being the produce of slave labor, and which shall be imported into the United Kingdom either from the coun try of its growth, or from some British possession, having first been imported into such British possession from the country of its growth, the following duties :? White clayed sugar, or sugar rendered by any process equal in quality thereto, not being refined, the cwt. '28s. Brown sugar, being muscovado, or clayed, or any other sugar not equal in quality to white clayed, the cwt. 23s. 4d., and so on in proportion for any greater or less quantity than a cwt. And by the said act it was also enacted, that with re gard to sugar, the growth of any foreign country, be tween which country and her Majesty there was then subsisting any treaty or convention binding her Majesty to grant to such country, either conditionally or other wise. the privileges of the most favored nation; or to permit the produce of such country to be imported into the United kingdom at the same duties as are imposed upon the like produce of any other country, it should be lawful for her Majesty, from time to time, by Order in Council to declare, that from and after a dav to be named in such order, brown, muscovado, or clayed sugars (not being refined) the growth of such country, in case such treaty should continue to subsist, should lie admitted at the rates of 2?s. and 23s. 4d. respectively, in like manner as sugars, the growth and produce of China, Java, or Manilla. And whereas, amongst other treaties and conventions as aforesaid, a treaty w as at the time of the passing of this act, and still is, subsisting between her Majesty and the United States of America, which was signed on the tith day of August, 1827, extending and continuing in force the provisions of a certain other treaty with tho said United States of America, amongst which was an agreement that no higher or other duties should be im posed on the importation into the territories of her Bri tannic Majesty in Knrope of any articles, the growth, produce, or manufacture of tho said United States, than were, or should be, payable on the like articles being the growth, .croduce. or manufacture of anv foreitrn country ;? And, whereas application has been made, on the part of the Government of the said United States of America, the State of Venezuela, and the United State* of Mexico respectively, claiming under the said treaties the admis sion of sugars the growth of the United States of America, the State of Venezuela, and the Unitod States of Mexico respectively, of the said duties of 3?s. and '23s. 4d. per cwt. respectively :? Now, therefore, her Majesty, by and with the advice of her Privy Council, doth order that henceforward brown, muscovado, or clayed sugars ^not being refined,) the growth of the United States of America, or of the state of Venezula, or of the United States of Mexico, shall, if imported in accordance with the terms of the act, be admitted at the said rates of duty, subject, nevertheless, to the i>rodtiction of the same certificates and the making of the like declaration as are required by the act with respect to sugars the growth'of C hina, Java or Manilla. And the Right Hon. the Lords ('ommissioners of her Ma jesty's Treasury are to give the necessary directions ac cordingly to carry this order into effect from tha present time. .May 10, 1845. Theatricals, tSie. Tiik N'kw Opera of the " Enchantress"?By Mr. Baijte.?This new piece was brought out at Driiry Lane Theatre on the ult , and was highly successful In this piece Mad. Thillon made her debut with the greatest erlat. The London press thus speaks of it, and the fair debutanti:?The gene ral character of the music is elegant and agreeable, and not too learned for the common ear. There are some ballads in it (likely to make the fortune of the musicwller who buys the copyright) full of captiva ting simplicities, und just the things to throw the metropolitan drawing-room intoecstucies of delight. The descriptive pieces are clever, and the orchestra has been skilfully employed in furnishing sparkling etfects. The-opera in short, will maintain the repu tation of the composer. That reputation, certainly, is not referable to a very high standard; but as it is awarded by thousands of music-loving though mu sically uneducated people, the term of existence in store for the Ervhantrent is therefore not likely to be limited. Balfe is the only man to whom theatrical patrons, who bravely pay their money at the doors, will listen ; and seetng that his songs and ballads are full of pleasing melody, have a graceful languor, and above all, are not hard of attainment by practising amateurs, if is not to be wondered at. As far as fancy and imagination are concerned, his operas are quite equal to those of Donizetti, and others of the same class, upon which the fashionable attention is turned with so much fervor. He is a good tacti cian, anrl he knows how to write for the multitude ; and to his credit it may be inferred that he has here and there awakened a feeling for mttsicpn the bosom of his listeners, which may have afterwards taken a loftier and more artistical direction. The songs sung by Madame Thillon were well calculated to exhibit the wondrous flexibility of her voice?naturally a thin and piercing organ, but so well exercised as to rarely fail in developing passages of brilliant intricacy. Iter first air, a piece of co quettish liveliness, she delivered with grace and nuivetf: and in another, in the second act, half comic and half-sentimental, she obtained even a double iwort! She sang also a cavatina, similar to thnt in the Grown Diamonds, winch depended upon the subtleties of acting for its etiect: and she was subsequently encored in a delicate little solo, which floated over a substratsin of light chorus. But her great feat was a song beginning "Who has not heard?" with a -'Tru, la, la" appendix, the orna ments of which, a succession of scale passages and awkwardly contrived intervals, she execufrd with marvellous precision, fluency, and truth, throwing in now and then little embellishments?rare master pieces of capricious grace and vocal finesse! Bat it is scarcely necessary to point out one thing in pre ference to another; she sang with indescribable smartness and skill throughout, and she was over whelmed with applause. The pirates'chorus, which occurred every now and then, had a very pretty burden, ami it Was very nicely rendered by the singers. This, reproduced in a glee, will probably be one of the town favorites. I he singers were one and all called for when the curtain fell. In our tiles of English papers, we do not find Miss Cushman's name; hut we presume she was taking a tour through the provinces, as previously an nounced. Mr Hackett's whereabouts and doings is, in like manner, not inentioned. He was, perhaps, emoy ing the Whitsuntide holiday, with his friends, Mr. mid Mrs. Ki-an, at their beautiful seat in Kent, Mr. Forrest has been playing with somewhat 1*1