Newspaper of The New York Herald, June 10, 1845, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated June 10, 1845 Page 1
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THE NEW YORK HERALD. Vol. XI., Wo. 15N-Whol? Wo. 40*40. NEW YORK, TUESDAY MORNING, JUNE 10, 1845. Price Two Cento* THE NEW YORK HERALD. JAMES GORDON BENNETT, Proprietor. Circulation-?Forty Thousand. DULY HERALD?Every day. Price a cent* pei c?|.y-f7 j.) nor uinum?payable in advance. WEKKLV HERALD?Every Saturday?Price SJ cent* per copy?$3 19ft cent* per annum?payable in advance ADVERTISEMENTS at the uaual prices?ulwayt cash iu advance. PRINTING ?f 111 kind* executed with beauty and dot; patch. ijij- AU Iettera or communication!, by mail, addreued to the establishment, must be post paid, or tho postage wiil be deducted from the subscription money remitted JAMES GORDON BENNETT, PnorniRTOR or thk Nkw York Herald F.stahlishmkrt Northwest corner of Fulton and Nassau streets LONG ISLAND RAILROAD. CIU'lNUE OF HOUfL SUMMER ARRAGEMENT. Oa and after the 22d itisL, a train will leave the depot, at Brook I yii, for Boston. via Norwich and Worcester, every morning at UK o'clock, Sunday's excepted. Passengers will leave the foot of Whitehall st. at IX 'oclock. K*r? through $3 25 Second class passengers Ill my 17 lmis rc TO WESTERN TRAVELLERS. EXPRESS AND PIONEER PACKET LINE, Frosn Philadelphia to Pittsburgh via the Pennsylvania Rail roads and Canal?through in 3>4 dayj. The above line is now in full operation and offers (rival inducements to persons who wish a pleasant mode of travelling to the west. The cars are built in the most approved modern style, the boats are fitted up iu a suiwrior manner, and every effort is made by the proprietors to conduce to the comfort and convenience of travellers. Tlw scenery on this route is unrivalled, and the Kre at chain of Pennsylvania internal improvements is well wor thy of lieinK seen. By lhi? route passengers avoid all the fatigues and dangers at tendant upon stage travelling, and at the same time make an ex peditions trip. The cars leave every morning at 7 o'clock. Passengers are ad vised to engage their places at Philadelphia. Ollice in Philadel phia N. K. corner of Ckesuut and Fourth streets, and at Nos. 13 and 15 South Third sts. A, CUMMINGS, Agent. Philadelphia, May 17, 1815. Kur information, in the city of New York, apply to 6. H. KNI3KLL. Agent lor D. LEECH It C6.'s Line. 7 West st, N. R. my 17 6m rrc CHANGE OF HOUR. UNITED STATES MAIL LINES TO BALTIMORE. PHILADELPHIA, WILMINNGTON AND BALTI MORE RAILROAD LINE. ViaChester, Wilmington, Newark, Elkton, Havre de Grace, lie. Through in Six llnuri?Fare $3. Ou and alter Monday next, May 12th, .the Cars will leave the Depot corner of Uth and Market street, daily (except Sunday) at 9 o'clock, A. M., the lines leaving at 4 P. M, and half past 10 P. M., being discoutiuued after that date. This Line will leave Baltimore for Philadelphia, at 9 o'clock, A. M. NEW CASTLE AND FKENCIITOWN RAILROAD AND STEAMBOAT LINE. Through in Srren Hours?Fare $2. On and after Monday next, May 12th. the steamboat ROBERT MORRIS, Capt. Douglass, will leave Dock street wharf daily, (except Sunday,) at half past 3 o'clock. P. M., instead of 6 A. heretofore. ? This Line leaves Bowly's wharf, Baltimore, for Philadelphia, " 7 P' M' SUNDAY MAIL LINE. The only Line lor Baltimore on Sunday leaves the Depot, corner of ilth and Market streets, at 4 o'clock, P. M. FREIGHT PASSENGER TRAIN. Fare to Baltimore 50 cents. ... , A Passenger Car attached to the Freight Tram, will leave the Depot corner 11th and Market street, duly, (except Sunday) at 5 o'clock, P. M., and reach Baltimore at an early hour next morning. (?. H. HUDDKLL, Agent at Philadelphia, Pa. For further particulars, aprljW p jrfSHER, Agent, my 10 lm rc No. 17 Wall street, or 6 West street. FROM BOSTON TO PHILADELPHIA IN A DAY. f|MIE TRAlNSupou the LONG ISLAND RAILROAD A are now arranged for |k?ssengers to leave Bostou at 6 o'clock stid arrive in New York st 4, as was the case last evening; and t.ilvv the Philadelphia traiu at quarter l>ef.ire5, and arrw there at II P. M. my23tf -S.-TT1 NOTICE.?On Mid iW'Ut Monday, the !llh iu ?tint, the car tliat leaves City Hull at six o'clock in the mori.iug for William's Bridge, will leave at ? _ li.U'ju.t five: returning, will leave Willi un's Brid^i- at se?e i o'clock. Tnc car that leave* City Hall in the evening at half Past six o'clock for Harlem, will leave at six o'clock, and will ran to William's Bridge ; returning, leave William'a Bridge at seven o'clock and twenty minute*, ju5 rrc PE Oi'LES' LINK OK STEAMBOATS KOK ALBANY DAILY?Sunday* Excepted?Through Di Q? "*?.? at 7 o'clock P. M., from the Pier betweeii JE?Ml y. Courtlandt and Liberty streets. HleambiMt ROCHESTER, Captain R. G. Cruttenden, will leave 011 Monday. Wednesday and Friday Evenings, at 7 o'clock Steamboat KNICKERBOCKER, Captain A. Houghton, will leave 011 Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday evenings, at 7 o'clock At 5 o'clock P. M., landing at intermediate place, from the foot of Barclay street r?? Steamlioat NORTH AMERICA, Captain L. W. Brainard, will leave on Monday, Wednesday, Friday and Sunday After noons, at 3 o'clock. Steamboat COLUMBIA, Capt. W. H. Peck, will leave on Tueaday, Thursday and Saturday Afternoons, at 5 o'clock. Passengers taking either of the above Lines will arrive in Alba ny in ample time for die Morning Train ol Cars for the east or West. ' The Baats are new and substantial, are famished with new and elegant state rooms, and for sjieed and accommodations are uu rivalled 011 the Hudson. Freight taken at moderate rates. All persons are forbid trusting any of the Boats of this Line, without a written order from the Captains or Agents. For passage or freight, apply on board the boats, or to P. C. Scmiiiz. at tlie office on liie wharf. ju9rc NOTICE. STATEN ISLAND FE11RY FOOT OF WHITEHALL STREET. FARE 6-4 CENTS. On nn I after Saturday, 7th Jnue, the Steamboats SYLPH and STATION ISLANDER will leave New V'ork every hour except 4 P. M., commencing at 8 A. M., until 7 P. M. Leave Ktaten Mmid every hour except 4, commencing at A A. M., until 7J\ iNL j"7m KOR SALE?The Steamboat Kioiiiiionu, of 227 lous, of a light dr.ift water, 126 ft length, ,26 feet beam. 8 feet depth beam engine, 35 inch c/lr der. 8 feet stroke, in good order ami fit for immediate use; copper fastened; would answer for a tow, freight or passage boat, having finished cabins with berths. If not sold before the 19th iiitant, will then be sold at public auction, at the Mer chants' Exchange, on that day. For further information, apply to Messrs. Dougherty, 75 South street. jn5 lw'rti CHEAP AND l'LKASANT EXCURSION TO T11E LOWER BAY. The Steamboat WAVE will, on and after ? Saturday, the 7th instant, leave Pier No. 1 K. dtaMMb.ll., st 9 and U o'clock, A. M., and 3 and P. M; leave Staten Island at 8 and 10 A. M., land 5X P. M.? Fare 6'.? cents. N. II.?On the 3 o'clock trip the Wave will make an excur sion in the Lower Bay, passing Fort H uniltgn. Telegraph and Coney Island, giving passengers a full view of tlie Ocean. For the whole excursion only US cents will he charged, jy*Refreshments, of the best qualities, provided on board. my I lm*re ___ DRAFTS ON GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND?Persona wishing to remit mo ney to their friends in any part of England. ' Ireland, Scotland or Wales,can be supplied 'with drills payable at sight, without dis count, for any amount, from XI upwards. I* the National and Provincial Bank of Eng land; Messrs..I. Burned & Co.. Exchange and Discount Bank, LiverjKiol; Messrs. James Bui t k Sou, Loudon, and branches throughout K.ngland and Wales. I t fio.i.aNO.?On the National Bank of Ireland, and Provin cial Bank and branches throughout Ireland. I r Scotland?On the Eastern Bank of Scotland. National B.uiit of Scotland, Gceenock Banking Company, and brauches tli roughnut Scotland. The steamship Britannia sails from Boston on the 1st June, by which all drafts can be forwarded free. Apply to W. it J. T. TAPSCOTT. mvl m 76 South st. cor. Maiden lane FOR HALIFAX AND LIVERPOOL. THE Royal Mail Steam Ship. BRITAN NIA and CAMBRIA, will leave Boston for I'he above ports, as follows:? Britannia, Jno. Hewitt, Esq.. Commander.. .Sunday, June 1st. Cambria, C. H. E. Judkius, Esq., " Monday, June l#th. Passage to Liverpool $120. Passue to Halifai 20. For freight or passage, apply to ?n>n I) BRIOHAM. Jr.. Agent. 6 Wall st. FOR SALE?The Schooner UttlAII H. JUL)AH, one yearold.lll tons, carries 800 barrels or 120 tuns coal, iwill be sold at a reasonable price, or would be ex changed lor a brig (H 200 tous. Apply to ju9 3t?m A. \V WEI.DEN, 107South st. KOR SAI, E?F RE I OH T OIK'IIARTER Tli. very last sailing packet ship, MISSISSIPPI, UN tons, jbuilt in this city by Hrown St Ml, salted on tlie .[?a n?, and resalted every year live oak and and locust top, live oak apron, semson stem frame, and forward and after cant frame*?newly coppered and in perfect order for a three ) ears voyage?1ms accommodations for 20 passengers. Apply on board at Orleans' wharf, foot of Wall street, or to E. K. COLLINS It Co., 5C South street. j 116111 J. HERDMAN'S OLD ESTABLISHED EMIGRANT PASSAGE OFFICE, 61 SOUTH STREET. PASSAGE from Orrat Britain and Ireland, via. ? Liverpool, can always be arranged at the lowest rate ginil llralls furnislied for any amount, payable at all tlie 111 e pil Banks in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales, on application to J. HERD MAN, jfirc 61 South street. AAfiw FOR LIVERPOOL?To sail 14th instant?Tlie WRrsV"'l'K'1"t 1rTY I*"1 sailing packet ship SHAKS jnHMbl'EAUK. (.'apt Cornell, having most of her cargo eu gagxi mil 011 board, will sail as above. For freight or imssnge, having elepant packet acenmmnda tions, apply on board,at Orleans wharl, foot of Wall street, or to jHec E K. ( OLLlNS k CO., JSSonthst ? "PASSAGE KOR HAMBURG?"Witii Despatch The splendid new packet ship SILAS HOLMES, Capt. C. C. Berry, will sail as above, and can very C'liillorlanly acenminodale a limited number of nf passengers in cabin and steer ige. This ship hawing been built expressly for a New Orleans packet her accommodations are of the best and mo*t coatly description. Persons wishing to secure berths shoald rinks early application on bourd, or to W. It J. T. TArSCOTT, myWrr corner South street and Maiden lane. FOR LIVERPOOL?To tail on the 15th June? The splendid, fast sailing ship SUSAN C. HOW iKI.L, ('nptaiit Bailey, ran accommodate a few more catiiu |iiui?eiiger? in a superior House on Deck, at a very mo derate rate. for passage apply to JOHN HERDMAN, j7rc 61 South ?treet. ^ KOll ANTWERP?The splendid ship DEVON SHIRE, Capt. , will m i t with quick despatch _ , ifor the above |>ort. ruriauisage, having handsome furnished accommodations for cabin passengers, and aUo for aecoud cabiu passeugers in the house ou deck, apply to jeT J. HERDMAN, 61 South street. NEW LINE OK PACKETS KOil" UvT7RPOOL .?Packet of 21st June?Tlie splendid and favorite ipacket ship ROCHESTER, 1000 tons burthen, Capt. Iritiou, will sail oil Saturday, June 21, her regular day. The khiin of this line all 1000 tons and upward', persona about to embark for the Old Country will not fail to see the advantages u> be derived from selecting this line in preference to any other, as their great capacity renders them every way more comfortable and convenient than ships of a small class, and their accommodation* for cabin, second cabin, and steernge passenger*, it i* well known, are *ui<erior to tho*e of any other line iifpackets. Persons wisliiug to secure berth* should not fail to make early application on board, foot of Burling Slip, or to W. It J. T. TAPSCOTT, At their General Passage Office, jT rrc 76 South street, corner of Maiden Lane. KOR LIVERPOOL,?Tlie New Line-Regular Packet 21*t June?The superior fast sailing Packet ship __ROCHKBTER, 800 tons burthen, Joh.i Britton, mas tert will sail a* above, her regular day. ? or freight or passage, having excellent and *uperior accom modation*, apply to tlie Captain on board, or to WOOniUJLL k MINTURNS, 87 South itreet. Price of imssage $100. The Packet Ship Hottinguer. 1050 tons, Capt J. Bursley, will succeed tiie Rochester, and sail ou her regular day, 21st July. jefi KOR GLASGOW ?Regular Packet.?The last ? sailing Briiislt Barque ADAM CARR, Scott, mas Jiter, 330 tons, will meet with quick deapatch. hor balance ol' freight, or passage, having excellent accom modation*, apply to captain on board, at foot of Dover at, or to WOODHULL & MINTURNS, 87 3 tilth itreet Tlie regular packet bark ANN HARLEY, will mcceed the Adam Carr. jt-C KOR LIVERPOOL?The packet ship OXFORD ? sail* on tlie Kith instant, and the packet ship GAR ?Rlf'K on tlie 2r;th iust. For passage, having splendid accommodations, apply to J. HERDMAN, 61 South street. N. B-?Thone sending for their friends residing in Great Bri tain mid Irehnd, can have them brought out with quick d? jpatch via Liverpool, and (trails can as usual lie supplied, paya ble throughout tlie United Kingdom, oil application a* above. ju5 rrc PACKET KOR MARSEILLES. on the lOrii June ?-The uew packet ?hip PRINCE DE JOINV1LLE, ?Cant Wm W Lawrence, will be unavoidably de tained until the above date, at which time *he will positively sail. 'l'lie accommodations for passengers by this ship, are not sur passed by any of the European packet ships, and afford an ex cellent opportunity for those wishing to go to any port of the Mediteirouean, for which or freight, apply to CHAMBERLAIN it PHELPS, 103 Front street, or to ? BOYD & H1NCKEN, Agents, No. 9 Tontine Buildings, corner Wall and Water streets, jjrc PACKETS FOR HAVRE-Second Line?The packet ship ONEIDA, Captain Jas. Funk, will sail joii the 1st of July. tor lreight or passage apply to 1IOYD It HINCKEN, Agents, No. 9 Tontine Buildings, cor. Wall and Water streets ju3 rc LONDON LINE OF PACKETS-Packet of the ? 10th June?The splendid and elegant fast sailing pack act ship SWITZERLAND, E. Knight, master, will positively sail as above, being her rtjfular day. Having very superior accommodations for cabin, second ca bin andsteerage passengers,persons about to secure berths should make early application ou board, foot of Maiden Lane, or to JOSEPH McMURRAY, 100 Pine street corner of South street. The packet ship Quebec, T. H. Hebard, master, will succeed the Switzerland, and sail 20th June. m29m FOR LIVERPOOL?New Line?Regular Packet ? of the 26th June?Tlie elegant fast sailing Packet Shin ^_m_bGARR1CK, Capt. B. J. H. Traak, of 1100 tons, win tail as above, her regular day. For freight or passage, having accommodation unequalled for tpleudor and comfort, apply on board, at Orleans wharf, foot if Wall street, or to K K. COLLINS It CO., H South street. Price of passage $100. Packet Ship Roscius, Capt. Asa E'dridge, of 1100 tout, will succeed the Garrick, and sail 26th July, her regular day. mZ7 ec OLD ESTABLISHED EMIGRANT PASSAGE ? OFFICE, 61 South st.?Passage from England, lre ?land. Scotland and Wales?Those sending for their friends would do well to avail themselves of the opportunity of making their arrangements with the subscribers ou very mode rate terms, by first claas packet ships, aailing from Liverpool weekly. Oralis can as usual be furnished for any amount, payable throughout the Uuited Kingdom. Apply to JOHN HERDMAN, ?1 Soeth st. The mail steamer Hiberuia sails frem Boston ou the lfjth inst, by w oirh letters can be forwarded quickly. mv23 rh BURDEN'S PATENT"HORSE-SHOES BEING NOW ON SALE by the principal dealer! i hardware iu tlie United States are all warranted I?er and made of the very best refined iron, I fraction over the price of iron in the bar. .Cvery shoe which may be found not in accordance with the above recommendation will be received back and tlie money refunded, with all expenses from the most distant parts of the country. 0 BEING N in hardware feet in fifln and sold al x Every shoe H. BURDEN, Aaeut, Troy Iron and Nail Fai myl8 1in*rrc Troy Iron and Nail Factory. IMPORTATION OF WATCHES. RECEIVED from Switzerland, by packet ship iZurich. an assortment of Watches and Movements ol "every description and of first quality, ready lor the wholesale trade, at moderate prices. DELACHAUSE * MA IRE, ju7 lin'rc No. 127 Fulton street, New ^ ork. TO Lfti. a A Delightful Summer Residence, one mile from the Williamsburg Kerry.?That Siwcious Brick Dwelling, lurrounded by a whole block of improved ground, and a ? variety ol liuit and shade trees, situated ou the left side ol McKibbiu street, as yon go up from the Peck Slip terry? will be vacated on the 15th June inst.?when a good tenant ran have (H)ssesaion at a moderate rent, for a few months, or the year if required. Apply at Mr?. Ballagh's, corner of Beaver street and Broadway, or at the house. je8 lw*m TO LET?Part of tl?e House No. j? Amos street, con ' sistiiiK of two parlors on first floor, a bedroom on the se cond lloor, two utic bedrooms, and kitchen in basement, Possession d it can be had immediately, at a low rent. Ivmnireat the |irerni<r.i. ju5 lw?rh LEASEHOLD PROPERTY KOH SALE, consist ing of the premises Nos. 189 aud 193 Twentieth street, ? N. V. Upon the former lot are a frame dwelling house iu the rear, and in front a substantial brick dwelling house, built last year. Upon the latter lo' a frame dwelling iu the rear, and in front a brick building used a shop. The property is iu good repair, and liirms a profitable investment. Apply to James IV meron. 349 Hudson street. jut Iw'rrc rfujM KOH MALI.?A property situated in the Village ol KfttNorth Or.inge, Essex county, N J., within 20 minutes of *Jk?.Newark, N.J., and one hour of New York City?Kail road communication. The premises consist of a new two story double house, with a finished basement, a cistern, a well of excellent water, a stable, a garden of nearly an acre, well ?locked ?*ith fruit, together with other conveniences suitable lor the accommodation of a family. Application may be made to John Whitehead, Eiq. Attorney and solicitor, Newark,N.J. urtoS Simson, ou the premises, corner William and Hillyer jm lw*rrc >OK aALth?A beautiful Country Residence, one mil* #5qbfrom Rossville Landing, on 8 tat en Island, a Farm of 22 aJ^acre* of first-rate Land', a large House and good Barn, axxl other Buildings; good Garden, with plenty of Fruit Trees?mil be sold reasonable and ou good terms. Enquire of mv7 Im're HAM'L. HALL, 369 Broome st ENEKAL BUILDING REPAIRS. 58 Nassau St., corner I" of Maiden Lane.?All orders immediately attended to for Mason. Slateing, Plastering, Flagging, tin roofs repaired and painted, and all other repairs ana alterations done in the best manner. Also, furnaces, ranges, kettles, steam boilers, ovens, and every kind of fire works put up. None but good workmen employed. Expeditious and moderate charges, ('hiumey tops for curing smoke. Up towu orders left with J. Quinu, Plumber, 544 Broadway iii27-lm?rh E. H. QUINN. CHARLES"PAUL L)E IvOCK COMPLETI-. rpHE Works of Charles Paul de Kock, Illustrated Edition. 1. with Portrait and Biograiihy, complete in one volume.? Prise one dollar. The public nave now an opportunity of pot leising themselves of the Complete works of the renowned Paul de Kock in one magnificent volume, containing twelve hundred ?mil eighty large columns of reading matter, and at a price which places it within the reach of perrons in dm most limited circumstances. This volume contains all the novels, etc., which were ever actually written by this most witty, laughter loving anu far-famed of modern authors. And the publisher* pledge themselves that the translations have been faithfully ?nad?, and that the work will be found the most care-killing ''nscmaling and exciting that haa ever been issued from the press ,?f this country. For sale 41 Ann street, New York. The work is mailable, and may be sent by post to any part of the United Stalea or the Canadas, at an expense varying from ten to twenty cents, according to the distance. All orclers for one complete copy mint contain one dollar, be franked or postpaid, uid directed to Holland U Glover, New York City. Six copies will be forwarded to one address for five dollars. m28 dltwlrn'm PORTER, ALE AND CIDER. JOHN J. STAFF'S BOTTLING ESTABLISHMENT, NO. I ANN STREET, next door to the American Museum, returns his siucere thanks to his friends and the public generally, for tlie very liberal share of patronage already re ceived, and hopes by strict attention to business to merit a con tinuance. FIRST QUALITY? riiiladelph* Porter Newark Cider, Crotou Ale, Lmidou Brown Stout, and Scotch Ale. Orders for shipping attended to with despatch. mhlt ee THE "THORN CHAMPAGNE." THE UNDERSIGNED will hereafter have constantly on hand, for sale, an article of Champagne Wine of an uasur passed, audprobahly unequalled quality. The subscriber has been ap|iointed sole Agent in the Uuited States for the Manufacturer. As a guarantee of its superiority, Colonel Herman Thorn, ol Paris, has allowed an impression of his seal to be affixed to each bottle. The quality of the Wine will be preserved in all future shipments, uud under no circumstances be sllowed to depre ciate. Resecting this wine, Col. Thorn thus writes:?"It is of a iiuality rarely to be met with iu America; I have drunk no other foe rears past." The attention of private gentlemen, Hotel keepers, and the trade is invited to this article. Parties desiring a summer supply should make immediate ap plication. C. LIVINGSTON, 'Hlmrc No. 10 Wall street. Ill III Ml ^BS. FILES, but little used, for sale? 1U,UVU Also, a lot of File Hceel and Tools lor Kile making, worthy the attentiou of manufacturers and smiths. A|* HvstNo ISfi W.iter mr t* tm'rr IJYSPKPSIA, OR BLUE ISrvTL^ A SAKE, siwdv, and effectual cure, for those that arc afflict /V ed with this obstinate and tormenting disorder of the di gest tie organs, will be found in TURNER'S DYSPEPSIA RE MEDY. This remedy haa been used successfully in private practice, by a Physician of eminence, for years, and haa never failed hi a single instance. Sold, wholesale and retail, for the Proprietor, at E. W OWEN'S, 331 Bowery, corner of Bond street. Price *1 per bot. tie. a!7 !???? o TANG H \VA ; OR THE CHINESE XiAZfGUAOE. NATIONAL INSTITUTE. Front Dr S. Herniiiz, late Attachi to the U.S. Mis sion tm China, on the CHINESE LANGUAGE. To Francis Maukok, Jitn., Esq., Corresponding Se cretary of the National Institute, for the Promotion of Science, Washington. Dear Sir: The events which, within the last few years, have taken place in China, have given to the language of country an importance which it never before possessed. As the language of a vast and very an cient empire, which has flourished for ages in an advanced state of civilization, (a civilization pecu liar, original, and essentially different from that of Christendom) it always presented a curious and in teresting study. Yet, as long as Chinese pride and prejudice repelled all intercourse with foreign na tions, the study of this language, offering no pros pects of great practical utility, was naturally confin- | ed to a very few persons. But now that, thanks to the arms and the diplomacy of Europe and Ameri- , ca, new and more extensive relations have been es- ; tablished with China, a knowledge of its language becomes interesting and useful, alike to the philolo. gist, the missionary, and all those whom commer cial or other pursuits may call to that country. These considerations, and the belief that, in the absence of better sources of information, even a fee- j ble attempt to convey some idea on the subject, may not be unacceptable, induce me to address to the ; National Institute the following brief essay on the I Chinese language. The art of writing, the most potent instrument of civilization, conferring the magic power of commu nicating thought and feeling to the remotest regions of the earth, and of bequeathing the experience and J wisdom of one age to generations yet unborn, has so powerfully impressed certain minds, that they can ascribe its origin to nothing short of a special revelation. The limits intended for this essay do i not permit me to enter upon such an extensive field of inquiry, nor is it considered necessary. Specu lations on the origin of things hidden in the darkest recesses of time, however pleasing they may be to ! the imagination, can be conducive to no great prac- | tical results. It is sufficient for tho present purpose, to assume, (and the assumption, it is believed, few will be dis posed to dispute) that the invention of the fcrt of writing in China, like that of the same art amongst other nations; like that of language itself, had its origin in the inherent powers of the human mind, stimulated by necessity. That the source of this, as well as of all great inventions of mankind, is in the ever active and creative faculties with which man is endowed, and which impart to him the capacity for iniprovrment and civilization. The Chinese have preserved some obscure tradi tions regarding the origin of their language. In the preface to the Kang He 7>c' Tien, or Dictionary of i (the Emperor) Kang He, the following passage is I Joimd : " In ancient records," says the Chinese lexlcogra- i pher, " it is stated that, in very remote antiquity, ' they recorded events by means of knots tied with j cords. In subsequent ages the philosophers changed this method ; they substituted writing in its stead, in order to be able to instruct the officers, and go vern the people." The invention of writing is ascribed by popular i tradition to thrang Te, or the Yellow Emperor, the ?hird sovereign of China, and whose reign, accord ing to our chronological computations of its records, tenninatcd about three centuries and a half before the Flood. The first idea of forming graphic signs, j the Chinese also say, was suggested by observing j the marks on the shell of the tortoise ; by contem- i plating certain constellations, and by the prints of ; the footsteps of various birds and beasts. Whatever value we may attach to these traditions, i an attentive examination of the ancient characters ; of the Chinese language, and of those now in com mon use, is alone capable of giving us the true his tory of its origin and gradual development. In most of the ancient Chinese characters, it is easily observed that they originated in hieroglyphi cal or pictorial figures. Every character being a rude picture of some object in nature it was intend ed to indicate. Thus, for instance, the ancient character jih the sun, was a figure repre 1) e crescei AM Renting the disc of the sun; the character yiie the moon, was a'figure at the crescent, the character Shan, AAA a mountain, was a drawing representing the elevations and depres sions on the earth's surface. This pictoriul method of writing was practised by other nations of high antiquity. On comparing the primitive attempts of Chinese writing with the mo numental characters of the ancient Egyptians, so many points of resemblance are observed, that one is tempted to believe, that at some remote period of time, far beyond all historical record and tradition, some community, either of origin or of intercourse must have existed between these nations." But whether it be the result of community of ori gin, of intercourse, or of accidental coincidence, the similarity between the processes of writing used by the Chinese and ancient Egyptians, seems not to ex tend to the whole structure ofthe two languages. For, whilst the Egyptians had advanced, (as appears from the discoveries of Champollion and his school) from the purely hieroglyphic to a phonetic system of writ ing, whilst they reduced their characters or pictures of things into signs for sound, like the letters of our alphabet, the Chinese hud never conceived the idea of an alphabetic system of writing ; but continuing their first conception of pictorial delineations, they brought their language, by various combinations which will presently lie explained, to the perfection which it has now attained. And, however singular and different from all known languages, the Chi nese, auch as a now is, not only proves to be a sa tisfactory medium of intercourse between a popula tion of WfU millions ; hut such is the influence and superiority of its literature, that it is studied (as the French language is in Europe and America) by the inhabitants of many Asiatic countries, as a necessa ry and elegant branch of education. As has been already observed, the Chinese have no idea of alphabetic letters. The art of expressing our wants, our fieelings and thoughts by a small num ber of simple signs, which by themselves have no meaning, is to them a mystery beyond all compre hension. Their language originated in the concep tion of addressing the mind through the eye, and still preserve* the pictorial form. The characters ot the Chinese language may be divided into three classes: first, characters purely hieroglyphic or figures of objects. Secondly, ideo graphic characters or written signs intended to re present ideas by the combination into groups of two or more simpler signs, each of which possesses a distinct meaning ; and thirdly, symbolical charac ters, in which no trace either of a hieroglyphic or ideographic nature can be detected. Of the formation of'the hieroglyphic characters. I have already spoken. In an ancient Chinese work, Composed under the Chaou Dynasty about the year of the world 2900. and entitled Luh Shoo, (the six books,) it restated that nine-tenths of the characters of the language were originally hieroglyphic. + In the progress of time, the imperfect nature of the pro cess of ftamting, instead of writing, even in the sin gle |H>int of view of rapid transmission of thought, must have become apparent. The characters, there * Hen Ancient Egypt, he., by G. 11. Ulidden. Thin in tereating work deserve* high praiie for the conicientious study ol which it bears the *tHmp, a* well si the noble and enlightened zeal for knowledge, which breathe* through it* page*. t See Introduction to Morrison's Chinas* Dictionary. fore, began to be contracted and otherwise alt ered. These gradual alterations have, in the cou rse of ages, effaced the original hieroglyphic forin in the Suatest number of the Chinese characters. Among ose now most in use in printed books, official documents, and generally in all important papers, the number of characters which, at a first glance show their hieroglyphic form, is very small. Such are amongst others th? characters Khau ? ~~J the mouth, A'Awng g>.r? jj) JjJ wings, Munn a door, ?Scc. But the mere abbreviation and alteration of the ori ginal hicroglyphical signs was evidently not suffi cient to rendar them a complete vehicle of thought. With the advancement of society and the increase of knowledge, signs became necessary to express ideas which could not be represented by the usual painting process. This doubtless had led the an cient Egyptians to use phonetic signs, that is to say, signs for sound only, like our letters, in order to be uble to write the sounds of mich words which were in use in their orul language, and which could be j either imperfectly, or not at all represented by hie- ' roglyphics. The Chinese,who had always remain- ' ed ignorant of this ingenious invention, supplied the j defects of their system by the following peculiar and , not less ingenious contrivance. They chose a certain number of their ancient i characters denoting the most common objects in nature, and constituted them the heads of clauses or svecies of ideas. Each of these characters became the representative of all the ideas which in a near or remote, in a natural or metaphorical sense, had any relation to its original meaning. Each of these characters was, in consequence, attached as a com ponent part to every word which denoted an idea having something in common with it, however re mote that connection may be. To render this in telligible, it is necessary to give a tew examples. The character jih the sun, (contracted from 0 the hieroglyphic./iTi ) has not only its natural meaning, but enters as a component part in all those words which express an idea that can be suggested by the properties of the sun. Such as day, light, clearness, brightness, understanding, the seasons, change, revolution, ?fcc. The character Khau ZZ7- the mouth, enters as a component part in all the words, the meaning of which has some con nection with its functions, or is otherwise suggested by it, such as eating, drinking, sound, words, con versation, language, eloquence, music, ifcc. in the same manner the character kiu gold, is used as a component |>art of all the words relating to metals in general, ana the various uses they can be put to. These original characters have been denominated in different ways by foreign writers. English sino logists call them radicals, French writers clefs or keys, the Portuguese denominate them genero? or genuses, a denomination which approaches the nearest to an exact definition of their functions. A ccrlas letras, says Padre Gonzalves, chamamos gen< ros : porque indicao em geral a que genero de coisas pert awe a significada vela Ictru total (coisa particular dos chinas.) Certain letters we call genuses because they indicate at large to what genus of things, that, indicated by the whole word, belongs,(a thing pecu liar to the Chinese.)* The number of these radical characters is fixed by different Chinese lexicographers at 329 and 540 The best modern dictionaries, liowever, at the head of which is the /Tung lie Tst' Tim, or dictionary of Kan# He, already mentioned abovef admit only 214 Even this number can, by analysis of the radical characters, be still farther reduced.^ The ideographic characters are groups formed of two or more characters, each of which contributes its own meaning to the idea represented by the whole group. A few examples will render this in telligible. a The group chen, composed of the charac ter jih ^ the sun, placed ovtr the character than w a mountain, means the sun illumina ting the hills. The group ham* ^ composed of jih a the sun and lien the skies, means a summer sky, bright and clear. The group htva composed of khau CU th^hiouth and *ar|l>e' rae*ii8 a loud voice and also a large mouth. The group Seuen [i H\ consisting of the two characters Ma wii, Pf - a hare and churn III Vim /// a stream, means a gentle horse, and also acquiring any thing by easy and gradual progress. These examples, though only of a binary combi nation, are sufficient to give an idea of the ideogra phic groups composed of a greater number of cha racters, and of which, to avoid rendering the sub ject fatiguing, I refrain from giving examples. This mode of delineating ideas pervades to a great extent in the written Chinese language. Vet, in a large number of groujis, the ideographic combi nation is no more apparent, this being caused either by the successive contraction of the characters, or alteration in their original meaning. The radicals in these grouiw indicate, indeed, to what class of ideas they belong ; but the other parts of the groups do not clearly define or speoify these ideas. For in stance, the group woo - i I the pronoun of the CD first person, I, myself, is composed of the character khau CO the mouth, and iroo J- j l^e Chinese numeral In this group, the character woo evidently adds nothing to form its meaning. Hut it niust be observed that its own Bound becomes the pronunciation of the whole groun. A great num ber of words are thus found, in which one of component parts adds nothing to the radical, but "s own toum/ or pronunciation. This class of charac ters.which, next to the radicalt, act the most impor tant part in the formation of the written language of * See Arte China, Prologo. t Kang He, the second hmpcror of the Manchu Tartar Dynasty, now on the throne of China, and one of the greatest anil most enlightened monarch* that empire ever had. He wan a contemporary of Louii XIV., and had many points of resemblance with the " Grand Mo narque" of Krance, in the magniflcence and trial of hii reign, and in the encouragement and protection he gave to literature and men of letten. It was by hi* orders and personal collaboration that the great Dictionary of the Chinese Language was composed. The most distin guished literati of tha empire, the Han, or Members of the Academy of Taking, were commanded to undertake the task of collecting the labors of preceding compilers and supplying their deficiencies. The results of the combined labors of these navanti was n work in one hun dred and thirty volumes, entitled Pri H'an Kim Fot, the Storehouse, or Encyclopedia of Letters. Out of this vo luminous work, an abridgment|has been miide in thirty two volumes, and entitled Kangjfr Ttx' Ti?n. This work, a copy of which the writer has brought with him. gives carh word accompanied by its pronunciation in other words of the same sound, and a brief explanation of its meaning. Monsieur ( allerv, a Krench priest at Ma cao, has undertaken the herculean task of transiting the voluminous Encyclopedia above mentioned, which,when completed,,will he a glorious monument ot indefatigable industry pnd profound erudition, reared in any languago. ( Padre (lonzalves in his ftitrinnarin China Portui(utt reduces the number of grutroi or radirati to 1W, (?ee also his Jlrlt CAina.) China, ia called primitives by English, diJjertnQas \>Y Portuguese, and phtmrtiques by French writers. 1m the r of the last two denominations gives n clearer idea of the functions of these characters; di/feren^a, says l'adre C>onzalvt'g,/ic umu letra qvc different a as do me Kino gentro, <jue de ordinario then da o torn ; ou proruinna * "Differtnqa is a letter which denotes the difference between those of the same genus, which commonly gives to them the sound or pro nunciation." But the denomination of phonetn/ues, or signs of sound, adopted by French Sinologists, is more appropriate and clearer. These primitives or Chonetic characters, are about 1300 in number, and v their various combinations with the 214 radical characters, all the words of the language areformed. Chinese grammarians, appropriately enough, call these characters Mo 7Vs', or mother characters, as, indeed, by their union with any of the radicals, they give birth to a numerous progeny of words. It ha3 thus been seen, that in every Chinese group, one part (that is the radical) indicates the general meaning or class of ideas to which it belongs, whilst tne other part either defines it more clearly by its own meaning, or distinguishes it from the words of the same class by its peculiar pronuncia tion. This peculiarity of the Chinese language, has given rise, in the formation of their dictionaries, to two methods. One, m which the words are classi fied according to their meanings under the 214 radi cals ; the other in which the words are Arranged ac cording to th?ir pronunciation, as is the case with our own dictionaries. The first method, and it is the one adooied in the Kang He 71tc' Tien is the simplest ana best, considering the peculiar nature of Chinese words, since it is not necessary to know the pronunciation of anv word previous to looking for its meaning in the dictionary; it is only neces sary to know its radical The second method, used in some ancient Dic tionaries, and in those of the provincial dialects of Kwang Tung (Canton) and Tukien, is full of incon venience, particularly to foreigners. For whilst it would require to know by heart the llKX) primitives or phonetic signs, before making use of a Dictionary following this method, it is sufficient to know only the 214 radicals to use the Kang He Tax* Tien. The principal inconvenience, however, of this method, lies in the fact that no word of the Chinese language has any natural connection with the sound given to it, and that the endless variety this gives rise to in the pronunciation of words, renders a phonetic Dic tionary, for general use throughout the empire, but an im|>erfect assistance. ? The symbolical characters are those which belong neither to the hieroglyphic nor ideographic classes, consisting of words which cannot be represented by graphic delineation, such, for instance, as -k chung heavy, Sz business,/a large, siu, "A small, Acc. These characters are mere arbitrary signs, like the Arabic numerals, which are symbols of quantity and num bers, without having uny natural connection with them. The Chinese language is monosyllabic: that is, each word is pronounced but as one syllable. The number of all the syllabic sounds in tne language, as used in Morrison's Syllabic Dictionary, is 41*1; it consequently follows that one syllable serves for the pronunciation of a great number of words, hav ing different meanings. This peculiarity, however, does not produce the inconvenience ana obscurity in conversation which we are apt to anticipate from it. Ilomophonous words are very numerous in several European languages, particularly in the English and French, without producing any obscu rity in conversation, because the various accents, even the slightest intonations, and the collocation of the words in the sentences, assist to right their un derstanding. Thus,for instance, the words head, had, bread, brtd, bold, bald, write, right, rite, wright, Arc., and in French the words comte, a count, compte, an account, vera, a verse, vers, towards, verd green, verre, a glass, ts.r, a worm, are all pronounced ex actly alike, and yet without being mistaken in a spoken sentence, one for another. In Chinese, it i.? true, Homophonous words are much more numer ous, there being forty or fifty words pronounced by the same sound, but by the use ot four diflereni tones for each word, according to the different ac ceptation in which it is taken, by strong and weak aspirates, the original number of syllabic sounds is greatly increased. In the Fan IVan, or Tonic Dictionary of the provincial dialect of Kwang Tuny (Canton,) the number of different syllabic sounds amounts to 1868. To preclude all possibility of beini. misunderstood,two words differently pronounced are often used instead of one, each serving as a com mentary to the other. For instance the word Kan means to see, but there being many word> of different meaning pronounced Kan, the Chi nese in this case say Kan Kim look. The word Keang, means to speak, and to avoid its being mistaken for another word of the same pronunciation, they say keang Hwu j3-j~ ~ ^ to speak words. Those com D/jr a o pound expressions may, in fact, be considered ax single words. There are other compounds which, though consisting of two or three distinct charac ters, yet form Dut single words; such as for instance, poo fa /r v iz or woo fa J[IT % 7? without law, or like the Eng lish compound expression law-leu, pa poo teh a passionate exclama tion, as Oh! would that! the three characters hav ing this meaning onlv when used together. The Chinese may he called, indeed, a language of phrases, the value of words being determined by their position and connection with other words. When, on pronouncing a single word, he is not un derstood by the listener, a Chinese describes the form of its written character in the air with his fan. just as any one amongst us would spell the word which is misunderstood. The grammar of the Chinese language is very simple. The words being invariable in their form, admit of no change, nor inflexions, either when written or spoken. The relations of nouns, of time and place, the modifications of verbs, the optative or conditional nature of i>ro(>ositions are construed either from the position of the words in the sentence or by separate words.f In the composition of the sentence the natural order is followed, that is, placing the subject first, the verb next, and after it the complement direct or indirect. The adjective precedes the word to which it is joined ; the name governed is placed before the verb which governs it Thus the relative position of words and phrsses sup plies the changes and inflexions used in the lan guages of the Western nations. The same word may, in a Chinese |>hrase, be now a noun and now a verb, according to the position it occupies. This is illustrated in tne following two verses of a Chi nese Ode on patience: >n ,VV Jin 17) J'" ? Pih Ko Jin I'ih Ko Ko Pih .1 in The mm# ot pationce universal Ol univeraal patience The word Ko, a siitmtantive in the tirat line lie comes a verb in the second only from ita pontitm. In their poetical compositions and in all then line writings, the Chinese use very few or none ol those * See Art* China. Prologo. t Orammairc do Is Ian?ne rhineomo, by Abel Hi mu?at. particles which are to abundant in our own lan guage, and which are to necessary to j>erFpicuity and precision. The favorite style of their best wri ters is laconic and concise. The proclamations of magistrates, official documents, diplomatic corres pondences, arc always elaborately written, in this forcible and concise style. It mui<t b?* admitted, however, that what it cams in laconism, it often looses in perspicuity. Foreigners, even those who are well conversant with the language, often lind themselves perplexed in the interpretations of Chi nese documents, by this extreme laconism, and also by the fact, that no punctuation is used t? mark the completion of sentences, nor any capital letters lor names. The invariable nature of th?? Chinese characters may be considered as one of the chief causes which contribute to the ftiaintenance of the national union of the immense Chinese population. Various dia lects are .?poken in the provinces, some of which, particularly those of Kwang Tung and Tukien, dif fer as widely, if not more, from each other, as the French does from the Spanish or the Italian ; but the written language is the same all ovc r the Empire. The Kwan Hum. that is the language of the edu cated class, or as it is generally called by foreign ers, the Mandarin dialect, is ifie standard of pro nunciation and locution throughoutthe country. The pronunciation of the Kwan Kwa itself differs ac cording to that of Nanking, ihe ancient Capital of China, and still the seat of polite studies and litera ry taste, or that of Peking, the present Capital of China. The Chinese write with a hair pencil, the char acters being placed in vertical lines from top to bot tom and from right to left. And it must be conce ded, by those who are familiar with the subject, that whatever superiority our alphabetic letters may pos sess (as they incontestably do from their small num ber and their phonetic nature,) the Chinese charac ters far surpass ours in graphic beauty, in variety and picturesque effect, and in the forcible and im pressive manner in which thought is sometimes conveyed by its pictorial form. The Chinese is deficient in several sounds which are found in the alphabets of Western languages, such as: r, b, d, x, z. This deficiency renders it difficult to pronounce or write a foreign name in Chinese. Besides, all the characters being syllabic, it is necessary, in writing a foreign name, to em ploy a syllable for each letter in it. This often so disguises the name that it is difficult to recognise it. For instance, the name Florida, would have to be written, Fe-lo-le-ta. As each written sign has a meaning, and as the Chinese attach importance to the meaning of names, it becomes an object worthy of attention, in writing a foreign name of a country or a sovereign, to se lect such characters, the meaning of which is most appropriate. The word Prttident, for instance, must be pronounced in Chinese, Pe-le-ie-tien-te, and the characters with which it is written are calcula ted to give the Chinese a nroj?er idea of the func tions of the person invested with such a title. These characters are as follows : it Pc, Controlling, 01 governing ,m - Reason, principle. Se, West. -A- Tien, Heaven. Te, Eartii. :k Jit Thus the whole word, Pe-lc-te-tien-te conveys, as nearly as possible, to a Chinese ear, the ?>und ofPre sident, whilst at the same time it contains the idea of a Chief Magistrate, who governs according to the principles of reason in a Western land. Difficulties, in regard to the pronunciation of cer tain letters, exist in our Western languages, though not to the same extent. The sound of the Spanish iota cannot be written in the French language, nor can the French> org (as in jugf,) be represented by English letters. The ridiculous blunders we re proach to the Chinese, when they pronounce or write foreign names are committed to the same ex tent when foreigners attempt to pronounce Chinese words. Thus, tor instance, liung-fu-tas, we pro nounce Confuciui, of Meng Tsz we makeA/meuw, Ivwang Tung, we transform into Canton. The Chi nese word cftuen, a vessel, has been adopted in the English vocabulary under the disguise of /unk But the most curious Iravestir of Chinese words, is that of Tunnsr Tuh, the title of the Governor General of Canton, and which in the mouth of foreigners be cania transformed into John Tuk.* I conclude this essay with the following sentence of Pere Prfmare, who was certainly the most quali fied. by his profound studies, to express an opinion on the Chinese language. " The richness, beauty and force, of this lan guage arising from the use of certain characters, from various particles, and from numerous figures of speech, challenge our admiration to a wonderful I am sir, with high regard, Your very ob't serv't, S. Hkrnisz, Late Attache of the U. S. Mission to China. Washington, 6th May, 1845. * Thin it equal to the pun made by the wags of Paris on the name of Wellington, pronouncing it J ilain ton. t Notitia Linguae Sinicae, by P?re Prcmare,' chap. II. This excellent work, the best incontestably to im part a knowledge of the genius of the Chinese lan Siage, was under press at Macao when the writer left at city, in an Knglish translation by .VIr. Bridgman. Boston. [Correspondence of the Herald.] Boston, June 7, 1845.?T. M. ('apt. Flowery Convicted. The case of the Spitfire, Capt Peter Flowery, in the U. S. District Court, which has engaged the court for six days, has this moment been decided. The jury, after an absence of upwards of an hour, have just come in with a verdict of guilty?but recommending the prisoner to mercy. The Li. S. District Attorney, Hon. Robert Kantoul, Jr., has added new laurels to his already exalted reputation as a lawyer. It is admitted on uil tides that his closing argument in this cause, was one of the most brilliant and powerful efforts that has ever been listened to at the Suf folk bar. In a most able s|ieech of some three hours, he completely demolished the well managed and ingenius defence setup by the prisoner's counsel, snd in a clear, lucid, succinct strain of eloquence, he rivettcd the at tention of tho jury to every point which weighed upon the case, from beginning to end. The court room was crammed to its lull, and out one opinion is heard in refe rence to the closing plea of the counsel for the govern ment. Mr. Kantoul has outdone himself, and the result cannot but be flattering to hia feelings under the circum stances. The phtoner will be sentenced nn Monday. The puniihinent cannot ,ie ie?s than imprisonment three years and a line of $looo. nor more then seven years and $3000 fine. In haste, S. S. PirntKiRG.?The committee appointed to dis tribute ihe relief land Imve made reoort of their proceedings, from w hich we extract the followintr infor mation : Phe $A0,.'X)0 subscription ol the state ? a* de clined . the amount receivea from other sources was $134,341 ; there were 344 pertons ascertained to have lost each loss than $100, altogether amounting to $l9,tf-.J0. and to those one-half is recommended to he paid ; 344 whose losses are between $100 and $.M>0each. altogether being $91,73H, are to receive one-fourth ol their losses , there are 'J39 under $-J,0OO; fif under $10,000, and 5 under $30,000; and those are to receive the balance of the fund, after a reservation of $IO,Oon to meet future claims, which shall be, in the meanwhile, loaned at three per cent per annum, to those losers who do not with to accept any of the charity. A Highway Koiirkry and attkmittoMi rhkr? At hnJf-paat one o'clock on Saturday morning, aa Mr. tieo. W. Iseminger, butcher, ofSouthwark, Philadel phia, was going from his residence to hit slaughter house. he was overtaken between Third and Fourth streets, near Wharton, and immediately opposite the Methodist Church, by two villains, who came up behind him, and immediately knocked him down with Mud? gcons, robbed him of about $90 which he had with him ( and then cut his forehead, and attempted to cut hit throa. with a knife. Fortunately, however, his life was saved by hit neck-handkerchief, which wat cut completely through. KriscoPAt, Convrytion iv MicHHJAJt.?The Epis copal Convention for th<- diocese of Michigan coin mcnced its session to-day ; the Bishop of the diocese pre tiding. Some thirty of the clergy were in attendance, and about sixtv laymen, l.att week ttepi wore taken for the formation of a new Kpitcopal church (in thia clty> ?this should haie been done two years ago the church under the charge of Bishop Mc? oskry has increased as', tonishingly ; and the same remark will apply to hit whole iliocote. Uimgitvn't Detroit Letter, June 6

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