Newspaper of The New York Herald, August 19, 1845, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated August 19, 1845 Page 1
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THE NEW YORK HERALD. Vol. JU., No. *07? WhoU Mo. 4ON0 NEW YORK, TUESDAY MORNING, AUGUST 19, 1845. Prtco Two OtDti. By Government Kxpreu. TEN DAYS LATER FROM EUROPE. ARRIVAL OF TUB STEAMSHIP HIBERNIA. Firmness in the Ootton Market. DEPRESSION IN TIIE LONDON MONEY MARKET. Bad Harvests Anticipated. TERRIBLE STEAMER COLLISION. Over* One Hundred Lives Lost. ARRIVAL. Of 'l'Hli OVERLAND MAIL, <SiV? I'U'. iSkC. The Steamship Hibemia, Captain Ryrie, arrived at Boston on Sunday noon, having made the pass age in lees than twelve days. She brings ten days later intelligence. The news is not of much importance. Large sales of Cotton at previous prices. Among the passengers, are Mr. and Mrs. Charles Kean and Mr. Hackett. They will remain a year. It is said the terms of their engagement ure the highest yet given to any actors from England. The transactions in American securities have been very limited, and prices are still depressed. Mr. Charles Ware, formerly of this country, died recently at Liverpool. He had been engaged in commercial business. The wife of George Catlin, Esq., the celebrated painter and delineator oi Indian customs, died in Paris on the 30th ult. Mr. Jenifer, the Minister at Vienna, from the Uni ted States, has received his order of recal. It waa expected that Parliament would be pro rogued on the 7th or 8th inst. A cargo of American ice has arrived at Glasgow where its unloading attracted much attention. It is a fact worthy of notice in the United States, that wool is considerably higher now than for along period previous to the repeal of the duty. This ap parent paradox is easily explained a legitimate result of that enlightened measure by those even par tially acquainted with the science of commerce. ? Liverpool paper. Her Majesty .Prince Albert, and the junior branches of the Koyal Family, are still sojourning in that beau tiful spot, the Isle of Wight. Her Majesty makes frequent excursions to the picturesque scenery with which th' island abounds, as well as her Royal Con sort, and their children, are in excellent health. The ylug.it/urgh Gazette has the following from Aleppo, June 5:?" The troops of the Pacha of Da mascus have gained a great victory over the Arabs, who had surrounded the town of llama. They took 1,<X)0 prisoners, of whom they beheaded 250, and an immense booty. Mr. Brunei has devised a new engine, to run fifty miles an hour, and to work on eight driving wheels. - London evening paper. Mr. McLane. ? The royal mail-steamer Acadia, Captain Harrison, arriqed in .Liverpool on the 29th ultimo, at 11 o'clock, A. M., after a very good voy age of 12 days 18 hours from Boston. It having been notified by telegrnph that she had on board Mr. McLane, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni potentiary from the United States, a number of per sons assembled at the Pier to witness his landing as a mark of respect. During his stay in town he oc cupied apartments at the Adelphi Hotel; and pro ceeded ?m Friday to London, where he arrived in the course of the day, and took up his residence at Thomas's Hotel, Berkely-e-quare, London. The London press announce his arrival with cordial greeting. Hioh-Handed Injustice.?' The Journal du Havre of the 2J of August, contains the following article, which is taken from the Courier Mercantile, of Genoa, of the 26th ult., and is a good illustration of the arbitrary disposition of British naval officers, and the manner in which they interpret the inter national laws, whenever they think they cun act with impunity. Captain Aquaronne, commanding the Sardinian brig Sansone, had lelt Bahia on ttie 3d of March, with a cargo of tobacco, rum, manufactured goods, and sundry other articles. There were on board a crew of fifteen persons, twelve passengers of different nations ; she was going to the coast of Africa. She aiTived at Quitta, where she was boarded by Captain Layton. of the British brig of war Signet, who announced to Captain A? that he, the crew and passengers of the Sansone were his prisoners. Captain A., his mate, the boatswain, and a sailor, were allowed to remain on board their vessel; the remainder, with the passengers, were taken on board the Signet, and an English crew, under the command of one of their officers, took possession of the other vessel. Arrived at the Isle of Ascen sion, the San tone found there the Signet, which had arrived six days before. At tms place, the Sardinian crew and the passengers were ordered back to their own vessel, and ihe Santam was finally put under the command of the First Lieutenant of tlie Signet, Mr Ant. Edward Lynon, who took with him a crew of fifteen British sailors. It is under the orders of this officer that the Sunsone reached Genoa. Thus the passengers who wanted to go to the coast of Africa, and had in those regions business of importance to transact, were brought by force to Genoa, where they probably knew nobody, and have no means of supporting themselves, unless the iSardinian Government comes to their assistanbe. Moreover, a cargo destined for a distant trade and a special market, ts brought to Europe, where it will find no purchasers, and that because a British com mander supposed the vessel was a slaver. United Mexican Mining Association. ? A meet ing of this body was held in London on the 30th ult. The chiel business was to make an alteration in the deed of settlement, so as to enable the directors to declare a dividend, without having so large a surplus as j?60,<(00, which was confirmed. Notice had been given of a dividend of 5s. per share, and the chair man previously to declaring it, stated that, having received additional remittances since the last meet ing they were enabled to declare a dividend of 7s. fid per share, which was done accordingly. The company has been struggling with great difficulties for upwards of twenty years, and this is the first di vidend that has been paid since its commencement. Triai. ok the Spanish Pirato*.? The trial of the ten Portuguese and Spaniaids charged with pi racy, and with the murder of ten Englishmen be longing to her Marty's ship Wasp, came on at the Exeter assizes on the 24th ult., before Mr Huron Piatt, and a jury composed partly of foreigners. The trial lamed two days. On the second day, the jury retired, and, niter an absence of an hour, returned into court with averdict of guilty against the Maja val, Serve, Alves, Kibiero, Francisco, Martinos, and Joaquim ; and not guilty as regard ed Dos Santos, Manuel, and Jose Antonio. The learned judge then passed sentence of death, leaving them no hopes on this side of the grave. Commercial. ? The elements continue fo be an object of serious apprehension, and fears for the satety of the harvest are daily on Ihe increase. The weather continues broken, the temperature is low, there is little sunshine, and the absence of warmth is supplied by occasional lulls of rain, which in some dmti icts have done serious, but not irreparable, in jury to the growing crojm. I',, to the present mo ment the amount of injury, taken in the aggregate, if! henTy' an2 r,th, <l,e rp,u? of 'ine weather, the produce of the fields would speedily ripen, and the result would equal, perhaps exceed, w! ot ?!ly r.eoent y?r- The danger is as to ,fJi! i'lai J harvest under any circumstances, must be late, and a late harvest is always perilous. In the meantime, the stock of grain in the country is daily dwindling away, and calculations are being made that there is not actually more than a fort nights consumption on hand. A bad harvest wBich may Heaven in its mercy avert !-w?.uld be a national calamity; at the present time so fearful, that we turn from itsoonternplation with feelings akin to horror, and nothing but the goodness ofan all wiw Providence can save ?s from the impending evil. Th riunoujj eJU cfH of a bud harvest, id the present position of the country, are incalculable. In H week all the sources of national pros perity would be dried up. The value of money would increase? the bank would re strict its issues? speculation would receive its quietus? the corn imported would have to be paid for in gold? manufactur<s? would ex|>erience an .'SS "rid" w'?K"^h' ?ould "ppear-and I cS u, 'Xh^iT0",""' W""IJ bend before the blast wnn\ i strongest would and bringnu^n' mor^r lil 8Weep over ,hp secondary importance !>,,, ,u ,y? that is of that u wouKm ,he XnS c ,?r?Cun be ''"'"doubt voice potential ? double ? Z night the rain fell in h and ?<l?ally. Daring the of each day "rend ^ sJKfs ?53srisM--JSssS our clim^ti- f! CC ,lle Proverbial fickleness o our climate been more up|iar?nt corn markets'' '}? !llrP"i"y htgan to influence the ?i,Uaki j , f"ond"n the rise lias been con iderable, and the quotations indicate not so much e business done as the fears which prevail ll! Liverjiool market, on Friday and Saturdiv prices improved considerably, and the market closed firm at un advance on the previous mint tions. The same influence has and willbe'exi** doZed$e%e tin; .1" "$71t or wil/be ^^"^warketa'in 11 VV1,11 "e seen from tnese ample de swstxswj&sr irars& o?lhel?t market u*y, Fortian Plonl i!n" wirdifSd' ~.%?b "! b?V'- '"S Si looked for from N? Amm S,S" W1" ?ccoum* Z aJwo'i' pS? thesubject is of the last importance to our comiiier' ?j readers, and to it we direct their speciS XT realized W?.!n 1 worst apprehensions are ?nay be lit 8Us ?r ,vi? *w> lan !l "",nth f rom ,hi* uiny ut ai pus. or even 90s. per <marter if nnr(C "!h? ,', ce^ m the accounts from the Half ie I orts, the produce of Wheat in thedistricts where it is mo? extensively grown is likely to be very detidint on i'mh'" r g? i' ?' "Peculation has Len going on, and prices equal to 12s. per quarter free on 5r?j, {?ave? it is said, been piid. For supplies re ceded from the interior, down the Vistula 84s to .Jw have ?een realised. At Rostock and th'e'lower Baltic jiorts 34s. per quarter, free on board have been given, and even at these rates only a limited quantity could be had. At Stettin nearly the Mine rates have ruled. In short, the leust additional ex blK{ltove7Euron4UPthePriCe ?* Wheat a,arm* r/f '" ?tate ?f the weather has been malting itself i esterday, however, the market rallied a Tie me' hell hv W"e mbbl,n&,Land matters wore a more . y appearance. 1 he sales were H00<> baas tnd latioif (1InnIh? American were taken on sj'.ecu jy circumstances at whichT.K late" 'k", bee? more doing of ? A,ie price ol 1 ig Iron has been reduced in ?10 JeMon. 1 PnCe 0< llail3 rules lronl ^ 10 s. to The intelligence which came to hand re^n?l? not ^ paid*? at "learn ?ored by a sjtecdy m^?5~. A%& now ' begin ' to^be ?'| l" Tl,'"^ <,f. the. harvest far from farCrable for h?*" fe been P'y ?f grain at present in the country is very limited and a failure of the coming cron would be a T on*' inconvenience. The stock <,f 'nit ,i <,1 serious Liveruonl ii nr if. r i Ti, United states flour in whicfffiutir,?M ' Con*>Bti<>t 9C,JM5 bbls ; of wnicn aoo'it J.?, (XX) are sweet, the remainder nnnr ? should the new wheat want help, thls article owma to the low coarse quality of the IkJtic wSi w color alw?8 Vmu'' ?' " ?""S?n" S rf"uSJ; Mim'XZL ,h;! ness of the axiom Inrii i 7rei>gthen the correct subject before .h^Hou^ of r^"8t0n br?^'ht t,,e f" !t r?5 iv-oS, s? physical conflict, the enenneer wilt piL"^0"8 nent a part hereafter ''^V, ?s promi in times gone bv It is thf? n'a done ?inder circumstances bo differZrfrnm^8 .hatha, probably m,pi?d J'ftiti His patriotic misgivings. Mr. Fieldcn, one of the members for Oldham? a large manufacturer, and a gentleman of extreme political opinions ? showed, in an able speech, the other nignt, how grind ingly oppressive tne income tax can be made, even in the case of an ohstrepo rous member of Parliament. Mr. Fieldin's wealth and credit enabled him to make a statement which would have been the ruin of a smaller man ? that his business, so far from yielding a profit, entailed an actual loss. The commissioners treated his assertion, even his oath, with indifference. They first assessed his business as producing -?21,000 profit, and then, on appeal, unceremoniously re duced the amount to $'12.000? for refusing to pay the tax on which, the officers of the (iovernment distrained on his goods ! But although he made out his case, he obtained no redress. He merely succeeded in proving what every one knew to be a fact, that many are obliged to jwy this most inqui sitorial and oppressive tax as the caprice of the com missioners choose to levy it, from tne fear of worse consequences ? that of revealing their pecunuiry nakedness. The Slave-trude Treaty Hill, which seeks to ren der the subjects of Hrazil amenable to English law courts, end to treat them as pirates, has met with a becoming, but a fruitless, op|K?sition. America, Texas, antl Mexico. ? If Mexico be powerless, France neuter, and Eng land indilTerent, Texas is no longer a separate and | independent republic, but " annexed" to the United I 8tat?'s. The I'exan Congress, after an amiable struggle between the Senate and House of Uepre sentatives as to which should have the glory of origi nating the measure, have consented to let the " peo ple and territory of the republic of Texas be erected into a new State, to be called the State of Texas, with the republican form of government, in order that the same may be admitted in one of the States of the American Union." This was followed by another joint resolution of the two legislative bo dies, relative to the introduction of United Stales troops into Texas ; and Jan American agent, imme diately after the passing of the annexation resolu tions, proceeded to select military posts for the said troops. Whether this is to be the end or the beginning of the Texan drama, lies where a great many other curious things are waiting to come forth ? in the womb of time. Mexico, unaided, can oppose no serious obstacle to the completion of annexation, though it is probable she will place herself in oppo sition to it. If she should act in concert with any power, it can only be with England, for M. fiuizot has solemnlyprocla lined that France will not interfere between Texas and the Uoited States. Hut he said nothing about non-interference, if Kugland should I move in the business. Our own opinion, however, is [ that this country wijl not move in it, further than she i already has, viz. to endeavor, hy diplomatic inter i vention, to prevent the annexation. Sir Robert | Peel would hardly go to wnr upon the ?ubject; more ps|M'ci;illy us it now wears the appearance of a na tional proceeding. A Congress lias been elected and couvened expressly for the purpose of declaring, in the name of the people of Texas, whether that country should or should not be annexed; and now, in the name of the people (for so we must interpret the forms that have been observed) they declare that it shall. U|>on what ground, then, could Eng land, or any other nation, Torbid this act of the peo ple! Mexicocan do so, because Mexico still regards Texas as a revolted province of her own empire, and still possesses the right, therefore, if she be able, to recover iN)ssession of it. The introduction of United States troops into Texas was in fulfilment of the assurances contained in the letter of Major Donelson, the American Charge d'AfTaires at Texas, to Mr. Allen, Acting Secretary of Stale of the Texas Republic. The fol lowing extract from this letter will show that the American Government is prepared to maintain its acquisition of the new State at the point of the sword: ? In answer to the application thus made for the em-1 ployment of the troops ol' the United Stales on the fron tier of Texas, the undersigned is authorized to say that, a* soon as the existing government and the Convention of Texas shall have accepted the terms of annexation now under their consideration, the President of tho Uni ted States will then concoive it to be both his right and his duty to employ the army in deleuding this State against the attacks of any foreign power; and, that this defence may bo promptly and efficiently givon, should the anticipated emergency arise rendering it necessary, the undersigned is also authorized ti say, that a force, consisting of 8,000 men, placed upon the border adjacent to Texas, will be prepared to act without a moment's delay, within the territory of Texas, us circumstances may* require, so as host to repel invasion A correspondence has been published in the IVaahingtonlUnion, between the President, Jones, and the Mexican Government, relating to a treaty of peace between Mexico and Texas, unan the basis of an acknowledgement of the indemnity of the lat ter, which certainly shows that the French Minister ! in Mexico has taken a more active part in this ques- I tion than might have been, expected from the lan guage of M. Guizotinthe Chamber of Deputies. The date of this correspondence is anterior to the pro ceedings of the Texan Congress, and while, to use the language of the Wathinzton Union, it "coin prises some of the mysteries ot the treaty with Mexi co," it also "implicates Mr. President. 1 ones in these j extraordinary transactions." This ridiculous negociation (continues the Washington | Union) at which the Courts of England and France will have some cause to blush? every way ridiculous, as well on account of the scheme itself, as of the conduct of its agents (Elliott and Suligny,) and of its unqualified and unanimous rejection by the Senate of Texas, will re/lect some light on the absurd and new-fangled doctrine of M. (iuizot about tho balance of " scenery, machinery and decorations," after all this elaboration of machinery ? nil the working ofthe wires? all these trips of the Eurydice backwards and forwards, the Mexican treaty should have boon unanimously rejected! The whole drama, indeed, is more ridiculous than any farce which was ever played upon tho French or English stage. There is something very amusing in the assump tion of grandeur by the President of Texas in his message to Congress, as if the republic of Texas were at least upon an equality with that of the Uni ted States, and had intimate political relations with all the monarchies of the old world. Iier navy, we rather think, consists of two small vessels, pur chased at New York, nnd her army of every man who ha* got a rille or bowie-knife of his own. Yet Mr. President Jones thinks it necessary to commu nicate to the motley gentlemen who constitute the Congress, the auspicious as|>ect of foreign affairs, in t:ie following words : ? The Executive i* liappy to announce to Congress that Texas is at peace with the world ; that with au foreign powers with whom we have had intercourse, friendly re lations are maintained. The different tribes of Indians on our borders, with whom treaties exist, have continu ed to observe the same with good faith, and within the last few days information has been received that the only band of Camanches within our limits, who had maintain ed until then a hostile attitude towards Texas, have sued tor peace, and expiessed a wish to he permitted to come to Bexar to celebrate a treaty of friendship, which, on the part of this government, had been complied with. Burlesque can hardly go beyond " peace with the world," "friendly relationswith all foreign powers," 1 and the "only band of Camanches within our limits, who had maintained a hostile attitude," suing for peace. ? John Bull, August 2. (From Wilmer & Smith'* Timo?.] Annexation ok Texas. ? The annexation oi Tex as, which may now be regarded as consummated, is too important an event in the history of nations to escape the lynx-eyed vigilance of the press in this ijuaiicr of the globe. It hu? been freely commented on since the arrival of the Acadia, last week, which brought the resolutions of the Texan Congress. The annexation is not, of course, palatable to John Hull, which is, perhaps, the best reason why it should be popular on the western shores of the Atlantic. The leading organ of the late (Government, the Morning Chronicle, makes it the subject of a bitter attack on the foreign policy of the present Cabinet, which might, and ought, it contends, to have prevented the catastropkft. It is ridiculous to hold such language, j The ministry could not have prevented the annexa tion, it they nad strained every art which diplomacy suggests. The policy of Mexico, ever since Texas wrested her freedom from that imbecile |v>wer, has, step by step, accelerated the event at which the lat ter is now so chagrined. The ungrateful, not to say pitiful, conduct of Santa Anna, in constantly keeping in "hot water," and actually making war upon the people who first defentcd, and then, with a nenerous heroism, gave him life and liberty, caused Texas to be attracted, as sympathetically as the pole attracts the needle, to the United States. The citizens of that country were in feeling, as tney now are in name, citizens of the great Republic? one common sympathy of country, and kindred, and institutions, animated alike the minor and the major Republic. The "star-spangled banner" has increased another stri|>e, and has battled the policy of European states men ? those long-headed personages, who fancy that, like Joshua, the sun ought to stand still at their bidding. What has taken place ?as inevitable in the nature of tilings, and has long since been antici pated by all who could read the signs pf the political horoscope. liut American aggrandisement, they say, wili^not stop here. This large slice of deer p;d iMexico may feed, but will not satisfy, greedy re piftilicans. Yearnings after California are already apparent. Oregon, nay, Mexico itself, may be swal lowed up speedily by the energetic Anglo-Americua race, now spreading over the northern continent. Such are the fears that (hake the rulers of the old world ? fears which are participated in, to some ex tent, by many who ought to know better, in our own island. Texas. ? It is very mortifying to perceive that those races in America which ujweld slavery and the old aristocracy of color should be thriving and in creasing in numbers, wealth, peace, and power, whilst that race which has proclaimed the great principle of human ttquality, and acted upon it, should remain poor and divided, its industry paralyzed, its etforts at|K)litical organization utter failures, and its very existence threatened by the encroachments of its neighbors. The Anglo-Americans and the Por tuguese-Brazilians, thrive ; the Spanish race, even in the most favored position dwindles. Within 20 years the Anglo-Americans have swollen from 1<),(XX),(XX) to 18, (XX), <X)0; within the same time, being about the period of their freedom, the Mexicans have increased from (?,(XX),(XX) to 7, (MX), (XX), that too beingmostly Indian increase. There are 1,<XX),(XI0 of whites in Mexico, 2, (XX), (XX) of mixed race, ?I, (XX), (XX) of Indians, llow can such a population withstand or compete with the expansive |>ower of the Anglo-American ! And yet the philanthropist could not hesitate which to prefer. In Mexico the Indian walks armed by the side of the while man, his best sup|M>rt, his free.laborer^ and friend. The Ame rican drives his slave-gang before him to the culti vation of a new soil, 'Hie worst features of hu manity are prominent in the one, the best features in the other ; but the bad prevajls, and, as we can not take ui?on us to set straight by the strong hand what we think unfitting in the ways of Providence, we must deplore und abide. There does indeed seem to be a |vowerful demon employed counteract ing and undoing all that we have done or call do against slavery nud the slave trade Nowhere has it more completely battled our efforts than on this very land of Texas. Hut the struggle front the first was a vain one. Had we, indeed, on first recogni zing the indejH'ndence of Texas procured a recog nition of it from Mexico, and poured Kuro|>ean capi tal and |>opulation into it, we miyht have reared an independent State ; but capitalists refused to repair thither, the American alone migrated to Texas. In such circumstance* to ho|>e that Texas would not declare itself |K?litically Anglo-American, as it was left to become in imputation and commercial con nection. was idle, llow strong the national|Ciirrent ran in that direction we see from the unanimity of the Texan sssembhes. Tlicy are all American to a man. If they ever aHected to desire inde(>endence, it was to force Jonathan lo grant them lair terms.-? I Ibis they Meem to have got, though net without ter- | rifying F resident Polk, by shaking hands with Capt. , Elliott The conditions ot the Ifnited States were churlish ; the grudging Senate of Washington jtassed j them that the IVxans might demur, that fresh nego tiations might take place, that thus the matter should ujfain come before Congress, and allow time nnd huropean interference to defeat annexation. Presi dent I oik has, however, defeated the purpose of his own Senale.he has out-promised and out-manoruvred England, cajoled the Texan* into a \ot? of anncxa- ' tion, and acted thereon promptly by tha despatch of ? ships and regiment* to the Kio Grande. Polk has shown himself in this a worthy won of Jackson ; in deed an improvement upon old Hickory, since he lias avoided the violence and bloodshed which ac companied the General's seizure of the Floridas. ? The question now is, whether the British Govern ment and that of France, having failed, will be con tent to refrain from all further interference Will they give up their treaties with Texas 1 Will En glishmen give up their claim'upon Texas, as a portion of Mexico, tor the l>0,000, (MX) dollirs due by Mexico to them Will these European powers remain strangers to the settlementof a new frontier between Mexico and the 30th state of the Union, or will at tempts be made, by negotiation at Washington, to settle these in conjunction with the Oregon fron tier ! Mr. M'Lane is on his way to England to j negotiate the latter atl'-ti r. The very mission shows a desire on the part of the President to come to ] some amicable arrangement, and this is done the better, tor the American zeal ior territory having been satisfied in the direction of Texas, will now throw itself into the Oregon question with the usual fury of appeals to popul ?r desires. It remains to be seen what attitude will be taken by the American whigs, by those who stigmatized annexation. If Mexico remain quiet, they will have but weak argu ments to bring forward. President Polk's success will add to his popularity, as well as that of the de mocrats, and there seems little doubt that these are determined to follow up their victory by reducing the protecting tariff down to a tariff requisite for re venue alone, h seems to be confidently asserted that Mr. Walker will propose this measure at the opening of Congress. Should it take place, it will in some measure reconcile England to the loss of free trade with Texas. ? Examiner.

[From the London Morning Chronicle, July 31.] Another triumph for the foreign policy of the To ries ! Texas has been annexed to the United States, both branches of its legislature rivalling each other as to which should first consummate it, whilst the oirer of inde|>endence from Mexico, so laboriously, but of course too late, obtained by our envoy, is Hung in the face of our envoy and of Mexico by tfie Texans whilst the United States troops already oc cupy the Western frontier of Texas. Mr. Polk has certainly commenced his Presiden cy with a very brilliant achievement, and in anv circumstances he may have been proud. Although to triumph over our "poor devils" of Tories ? Uiose bye-words of pusillanimity and blunder, those offi cials whose fate it seems to be to yield every British right, and disappoint every British hope, the smile of fatuous self complacency resting on their visages all the while ? to triumph over such self-doomed antag onists can be a source of but little glory. Of the honesty of the transaction the Americans have certainly little reason to boast. They have bought the Texans, or bribed them by conditions doubling or trebling the value of their scrip, from their undoubted Sovereign, and from the United States' inoffensive neighbour, Mexico; and they have effected this certainly against the public inter est otfSTexas itself, which, as a productive region, can never lind in union with the United States that free market in Europe, or open that free market to Europe, which would best develop its resources. The deed has been done, too, it would appear, against the votes and wishes of the American Con gress. That body specified certain conditions of union which, if not sufficient, or not accepted by Tex op, the President was free to appoint commissioners to negotiate. Mr. Donelson, the United States envoy, sets aside the latter expedient as too tardy, ana presses the Texan Government to accept conditions as laid dawn by Congress, in the assurance that the objections will be removed and the errors corrected by the influence of the American Government. In fact, the conditions of the Texan annexation are se cret. President Polk will see them fulfilled, whilst the opposition in the American Senate will find it too late to recall, to remonstrate, or to rescind. The die is now cast, and we must resign our selves to the annexation of Texas and all its conse quences ? to the extension of a rival and a naval power round the shore of the Mexican Gulf, to the approximation of the same power to an immense region and coast on the Pacific, to an incalculable impulse given to slavery and slave breeding, as well as, we firmly believe, to slave trading. Whilst we see France and her prohibitive tariff yearly advanc ing round the Mediterranean, and closing region af ter region and port af ter port to our commerce, so in the New World we find fhe United States, whose prohibitive tariff is of our creation, spread that ta riff with its flag over shores the most open to our influence, the most favorable to our trade. If it was empty honor we lost, or the balance of power, or any of those superannuated, though to us good motives, which this age has obliterated, we should say noth ing; but we are losing trade, profits, power, ship ping and substance, wanting alike the skill to keep, or the s[#rit to defend them. The American papers add, that the Oregon dif ference is settled, as well as that of Texas, and that this settlement consists of our giving up fhe Colom bia and the territory North of it to the 49th degree of latitude. It would not at all surprise us. Noth ing that our Foreign-office could do in the way of cep?iou would surprise us. And we are the more inclined to credit the disgraceful intelligence, be cause of the peremptory bravado in words with which Sir Robert Peel met Mr. Polk's assertion of his country's right. For your weak statesmen al ways affect the pendulum movement. They love to oscillate and alternate ? be humble to-day," because they were brave yesterday? to excite ho|>es one day in order to dash them the next ? and make a bold claim, in order to reap the full disgrace of weakly aounaomng u. Poor Mexico is most to he commiserated. She seems to have relied implicitely on the influence of England, and to have trusted her cause to Cuptain Elliot. The English envoy has proved a reed, which has broken in Mexican hands. For, had Mexico exerted herself, she might have made better terms at Washington He she ever so acquiescent at present, ever so aoiis to avoid war, there remain t! Iiflerent questions of frontier and of territory eh may be claimed as portions of Texas We have before mentioned, that by some "v< n Santa Fe was claimed within its limits. Nor is there any knowing to what point American pre tensions may extend. We are not of those who deem it certain that the Anglo-American race will prevail, and drive the Spanish, even where most agglomerated, from the fertile vullies and rich table lands of Mexico, into the barren fastnesses of the isthmus. The Mexican Creoles are i^ood and valiant soldiers, to expel whom from their homes and coun try would cost the American adventurers dear. Yet, when we consider that the prizes in Mexico are not merely sugar and cotton grounds, wherein to work slaves, but the richest mines in the world, there is cause to fear that the Mexicans will yet have to fight for their central provinces. As to their north ern ones, kept uninhabited by missionary uolicy as well as by the infecundity and inactivity of the S|#in ish race, we fear it is a vain hope, and as vain an in junction as that oi Canute to the waves, to say to the Anylo- Americans they must not advance. Hitherto much dependence has been placed on the anti-slavery and anti-extension party in the eastern and maritime portions of the United States, which could not contemplate without fear the balance of political power in the union carried altogether west- 1 wnrd? slavery, too, hanging at that preponderant end. The late Presidential election has, however, completely overborne them. Texas is annexed, and the north must look itself to extension, in order to compete with rival and with southern interests. War, however, even with Mexico alone, would ren der the annexation measure and |>olicy most distasteful to the north. And it is evidently in fear of such objections and oppositions that the American diplomatist's and ministers proceed with such apparent regularity in this business, such an affected observance of forms, and such < areful and long winded defence of their conduct, and disavow al of either violent means, or of trying to influence the free act of Texas in an undue way. With a'l tins tuaviter in mndo there is. however, the fortiter in re, declaring that although the vote of Congress does not definitively, and at once, render Texas a Stale of the Federation, yet still, being in progress towards that state, it is entitled to military defence and protection. The step taken is decisive, the de fiance peremptory ; but both are s|>euioiisly and ar gumentatively borne out, to meet the objections of domestic opiaments. The Paris papers of the 2d inst., are chiefly taken up with the annexation of Texas to the United States, which the Conttitulionnrl regards as prejudi cial to French as well as British interests. The Courier Franrait remarks, on the contrary that "The policy of the United States, backed by the Krench Ministry, has triumphed over the eflbrts of the Mexican Government and the resistance of England. We imagine that Mexico will not engage in war with the United States in order to retake , Texas. As to England, no doubt she will resign herself to it, and our Ministry will follow the exam- ! pie of that of Sir It. Peel. IJut now that the Texas question lias been resolved, there still remains that of Oregon, and we shall be much astonished if the British Government does not seize the occasion to be avenged for this late, defeat." A letter recently received from France says ? On ! questions of interest to America little has been said j of importance during the fortnight that has elapsed , since 1 last addressed you. The annexation of Tex as to the United States, now that the event has taken place, lias excited much attention. A very I general feeling of dissatisfaction is entertained against the Ministry, and es|>ecially against M. Gui zot, the Minister for Foreign Atf'mrs, for having permitted the diplomatic agents of France to asso ciate themselves with the agents of England in their exertions to induce the Mexican government to ac knowledge the independence of Texas, and to pre vent its annexation to the United States. It is true that it is not quite certain] that the French agents, nor even the English, have taken so very active a part against annexation as has been represented; but still there is the best reason 10 believe that they regarded it, und do regard it, with anything but favor. England's dislike of annexation inay be understood ; but France has no particular interest either for or against the measure. Now, as the annexation has always been morally certain of accomplishment, even from the first agitation of if, fhe has commit ted a great mistake and a great imprudence in asso ciating herself, in any degree, to the opposition to it; for every schoolboy knows that it is bad policy for a Cabinet to meddle in n dispute between two nations with which she is on very friendly terms, inasmuch as, take which side she will, she is sure to oflend one or the other ; and it is still worse poli cy to side with that n>'tion which it was clearly to he foreseen would be the loser. In its conduct on this unhappy Texas question, the French Cabinet has wounded the feelings of the American govern ment and peonle, and incurred the risk of chilling the warmth of the alliance- that lias so long existed between the two countries, without doing any good to herself, and without rendering any real service to her English ally, whose cause she so quixotically espoused. The Ijrru/on Mornxn g Herald says Texas is of no consequence to them, and they would not take her as a gift. The IJnitrd States is welcome to her; that neither England nor France care anything about her bein" annexed to this country, and that Mexico instead of quarrelling about the nuptials, had better act like a sensible mother, and give her daughter away. Ireland. I he Dublin Evening Mail announces the resigna tion of Mr. Lucas, the Under Secretary of State. ? It has been accepted by the Lord Lieutenant. Ill nealth is assigned as the reason of his retirement irom office. Our Irish contemporary remarks: "It is pretty well understood that this is the third occa sion on which Mr. Lucas has tendered his resigna tion of the I nder Secretaryship? once during the V iceroyulty of Lord de Grey ; a second time short ly after the appointment of Lord Heytesbury j and now, when the resignation has been accepted. We believe, and we have grouiids for so expressing the opinion, that for some tune Mr. Lucas had been in a delicate state of health, and that latterly his eyes have become extremely troublesome? that the one fequiies exercise, the others rest." i his office was held, under the whig administra tion, by the late Mr. T. Drummond, the " landlord's lecturer, as ne wag called, irom his celebrated ad monition to the Irish landed proprietors that'4 prop erty had its duties as well as its rights." Mr. Pennefather, son of Baron l'ennefather, and brother-in-law of the Earl ofGlengall, has been ap pointed Under Secretary of State, in the room of E Lucas. Capture ok Five of Molly Maquire's Men. ? A correspondent of ,he Eitning Packet , announces that on Tuesday nigh:, ine 22cfof July, Mr. Christo pher 1 lunkett, R M , accompanied by sub-inspector May, and his |>oliee party, and also by a party of the ?>th t1 usileers, commanded by Lieut. Millman, pro ceeded from Swadhnbar to Glen and liallmagleratrh where, altera march of upwards of thirty miles, they succeeded in apprehending five of Molly Maguire's sons, who have been fully identilied and committed to prison to abide their trial. This capture has af orded great satisfaction, being regarded as evidence that the authorities possess such information as will enable them to break up the dreadful confederacy organized for the destruction of life and property. Repeal Association.? At the meeting on the Re '*Z J?C'aT ?n ,A1onria>'. the '"?st prominent subject was a dispute between the repealers in Lon don. A section of that body were in rebellion U J fwarirn? MruVW. J. O'Connell; and they will u 8 ?ubl'^ meetI.n2 at the National ??' Holborn, to lay their grievances before the public. Mr. O'Connell said that if they did so, their names should be struck off the rolls of Conciliation Hall. The repeal rent for the week was announced to be over ?230. Wexford Repeal Demonstration. ? This great repeal demonstration took place on Wednesday? the irliT'r Z Pr.0STe** ?f Mr. O'Connell from 6 ray to Wexford is descnbedas one long triumphal pro cession. The lasi named town was crowded with people awaiting Mr. O'Connell. , ; ,r" ,9,Co"nSl! responded to the toast proposing his health Iiaving read Lingard's account of the alleged atrocity, he proceeded to congratulate the women of Wexford on their present sufety. The ruthless barbarians should never again even think of slaughtering one of them. His countrymen would die by inches sooner than |>ermit them to do so again Mr. O'Connell concluded by exhorting them to return an out aud out repealer as their re presentative in parliament. Repeal Meeting at Gaiavay.? Mr. O'Connell has had another monster meeting at Gal way. l he J- atal Conflict at Ballinhassiq. ? A meet ing was held at Cork on Tuesday last, convened by Jlr %*JCr' co.mi)l'ance w ith a requisition, in or per to express to her Majesty's government the opin h- kS c'tlzeD8 die recent inquest on fcKfMSirr? d k!"l,e years an extensive and practical farmer; I have been very much through the South since Monday, and I ne\ er witnessed such splendid crops ? wheat, oats potatoes, aJl. ? Dublin Evening Pott. ' France. A statue lias been erected in the Court of the Lou vre to the memory of the Due d'( >rleans, the King's r,H.?e .hr0"' ' I'? hy a ,ul1 'ro'? his car riage three years ago. It bears a simple inscription: Jh ;}rme,e.au d Orleans, Prince Royal," but whether it has been actually erected at the expense of the army is doubtful. The statue is mucf, acL mired, though the critics criticise it severely. Wliai however, is there that that cuptious class does not i criticise 1 Scarcely had the scandalous affair of Victor Hugo ceased tohe talked about, than another equally scan dalous comes upon the tapis. A member of the rUn'L lr I a ln.Mn K reat wealth, high rank, and good family, pleading for a separation from his wife, on the ground of adultery? his wife pleading, in her turn, for a separation from him on account of his adultery? and there being every rea son to believe that both are nearly eon ally culpable. Another case is related, in which a Marquis, hold ing a high oHicial situation, sought the hand of a young lady of great wealth, and married her. On eading her to her nuptial chamber, he addressed her, Madame, I love vounot; my heart is given to Madame , and I shall live with her. lean never love you, but if you choose to reside in the s.une house with us, you may ; il not, you must re turn to your parents! The man then left her to her reflections. Ihis virgin-wife of course returned to her parents, but grief has deprived her of reason, and she is now in a lunatic asylum. As to the hus band, he lives on the fortune of his wife with his mistress. It is in France alone that such things as this can happen. The celebration of the Revolution of 1SOO began in I arison Monday, with religious observances, in honor of those who |>erislied. Tuesday was the day of rejoicing, th?rc whs a kind of fair on the Champs Klysees and at the Hurriere du Trone; a concert in the garden of the Tuilleries, and at night an illumi nation with fireworks M. Guizot left Paris on Monday for Val Richer his seat in Normandy. M. Duchatel supplies the place of M. Ciuizot at the Foreign Office durinir the absence of the latter. The Monitrur publishes the estimate for lSW-in which the ordinary and extraordinary expenditure-* are fixed at 1,-134, |(X> francs, anutlie wavs and means at 1,355, 189, 106 francs. } 'l"d Spain. Our accounts from Madrid are of the 2fith ult. Ac */ /IP to the letters from Malaga inserted in Yhe Heraldo, the Progresista conspiracy, discovered in that ci y, had ramifications in the Ronda, Grenada and different other parts of Andalusia. Among the persons arrested, are Lieut. Colonel Lars, and other officers, a great number of sergeants of the regiment ofJaen a merchant named Hervas, the lawyer Car- 1 dero, Messrs. Canadillas, JSaborio, and other indivi- 1 duals known to profess Progress* principles. The Heralilo states that Madrid was also to have been the theatre of a revoluiionary movement, and that the police had seized copies of an incendiary pro u ?.tl,on' l'nn"'d in Ille vicinity of the capital on the 23if, and which purported to be the manifesto of 1 the "Liberal Union." Extraordinary precautions were taken for thejmaintenance of tranquillity in Madrid, and the night before the entire garrisonhad been suddenly placed under arms. The authorities of Malaga had informed the government that good order had not been an instant disturbed in that city The political chief of Cmdad Real having seized ? treasonable correspondence carried on between the Carhsts of that province, had thought proper to ban ish three of the principal chieUof that party. A large force was being concentrated in the neighborhood of Victoria. Some changes were contemplated in the military department. General Aspiroz, the di rector of tne artillery, was to be replaced by General Loigorry, and General Soria, inspector ?f the infan try, by General Cordova. Spain is still feverish and unsettled. At' Tarra gona the troops were attacked by the mob, and the soldiers had to fire in their own defence. The con scription was the cause of the riot. The new sys tem of taxation has met with tierce opposition in various provinces. The Ministers were about leav ing Madrid to meet the Queen at Sarragossa. Nothing at all has been settled as to the Queen's marriage. Her mother is still anxious to marry her to Don Carlos's son. The Court of France sticks up for Count Trapani, the Neapolitan. England lavors a Cohurg. Some parties in this country re commend one of her Majesty's Spanish cousins. A newspajier valiantly contends for the Prince ot Portugal, a little boy eight years of age ; and the Queen herself would like, it is said, to have Louis Philiippe's youngest Bon, his good looks and charm ing maimers having touched her girl's heart; but though the person most interested, she, of course, will have no voice in the matter. It is impossible to predict which party will eventually be chosen for the Queen's hand, for there are about equal chances lor all, except the two last, who are, as racing men have it, " nowhere." Reports of Narvaez's resignation have been cur rent, but I cannot ascertain that they had the slightest foundation. From Catalonia, the latest intelligence is, that the insurrection has been completely suppressed, owing to the severe measures taken by the military com manders. it is put down, jMsrhaps ? but it is feared that it is only slumbering, not entirely extinguished. At one time it assumed a very serious appearance ? so much so, that the Government caused vessels to be detained in case they should be needed for her Majesty's service, but this order has since been re moved. The insurgents blocked up the cours* of the water in which the Queen was accustomed to bathe, and thereby caused some temj>orary incon venience. The Barcelona Chamber of Commerce has pre pared an address t# all similar bodies in the king dom, calling on them to |>etition the Cortes about the admission of Cuba sugars into the English mar kets. Should England persist in excluding them, the Barcelona merchants recommend recourse to repri sals, und prohibit the importation into Spain, Cuba, and other Spanish colonies of various articles of English manufacture, such as linens, cloth, hard ware, muslin, and machinery. Switzerland. Lucerne, July 24. ? The deliberations of the Diet have hitherto been without political interest, and of a mere domestic character. The motion to post pone the assembling of the Federal Camp for a year was rejected by a large majority. The discussion ot the question as to the revision of the pattc federal has been again postponed. A very melancholy event has plungred the country into consternation and dismay. M. L?eu, one ot the leading members of the Jesuits' party, was found dead in his b' d, weltering in his Mood. Ilis parti sans declare, loudly and unequivocally, that he was basely assassinated ; his political opponents, on the contrary, declare, wiili equal confidence, that he committed suicide. The physicians declare that from the position the ball took (he was shot through the heart with a pistol), lie could not have committed suicide, and the fact that no pistol was loui.d by hus sidfi confirms their asser tion. But on the other hand there are no traces ol any person entering the house ? no noise was heard though twenty people at least were in the house? the sliutters of his bedroom were closed, and his wife sleeping by his side, was alarmed by the report of the pistol, but saw no one. Tne afiair is enve lo|?ed in great mvstery, but it is to be hoped it will he cleared up. The agitation the matter has caused is really indescribable, and it has embittered the ill feeling which the different parties bear towards each other. My opinion is, that more blood will flow before the [teople become calmed down ; and perhaps this suicide or assassination, whichever it may be, may be made the cause for it. Since the above paragraph was set in type, the French pa|>er8 bring intelligence that the murderer has been apprehended, lie had been a laborer in the service of M. Leu, had borrowed money from his master, wno had recently demanded it, and hence the committal of the bloody deed ! These facts, if correct, relieve the atrocity of the still deeper stain which previously attached to it. As a deed ot blood, the murder is sufiiciendy bad, but these disclosures take from the crime all com plexion of a national stain. uciKium* The Itulepfndenef of Brussels announces the for rnHiion of the new Ministry, after a considerable pe riod spent in negotiations. The following is a list of the new government : ? Premier ? M. Dechampes, as Minister of Foreign Atlairs, now Minister of Public Works Intenoi ? M. Van de Weyer, the present Ambas sador in London. Public Works? M. D'Hoflschmidt. Finance? M. Malow, the present Governor of Antwerp. Justice? M. D'Anethom. War ? M. Dupont. Rnnla. St. PsTERsnrrHGH, July 19. ? The general com mand i rig in Caucasus, Woronzow, has succeeded in gaining a victory ; but, though made the most of by our officials, it does not appear to have been a very brilliant affair. Nevertheless, *as a victory it is something, for so far Russia has had more de feats than triumphs in her encounters with her daring and warlike foes. The Emperor has issued an ukase, depriving cer tain classes of the privilege of obtaining nobility, in virtue of official station, with the same ease as has heretofore been customary. The measure is agreea ble to the aristocracy, for the yearly additions to i their ranks became so considerable, as to lessen the I consideration with which tli^yjhink it desirable that the aristocracy should he regarded. Prnnla, Berlin, July 22. ? Four things at present occupy the attention of our people and press. The first is the Zoilverein, on which there is no end to talk, and scribbling, and guessing ; but as the real deli berations of the persons deputed by the different states only commence on the 8th of August, though their formal meeting took place a fortnight ago, and as the result of those deliberations will not be known for some time, it is useless to occupy one's self with the aforesaid gossip. The next thing is the visit of the Queen of England to the banks of the Rhine, for which great preparations are being mude. Trie third is the gigantic concerts and cere monies that are to take place at Bona, on the occa sion of the inauguration of the statue of Beethoven, on the 10th of August. The last, and perhaps the mostimportnnt ofall.is the project of the constitution, which the King is said to be determined to give. A constitution to Prussia was promised years ago, but delayed on one pretence or the other. The present King long since declared that the people were enti tled to it, and when the royal power passed into his hands, he promised that they should have it. But though prayed and entreated again and again, he has hitherto always shuffled out of the fulfilment of his pledge. Whether at last his conscience has pricked him into the redemption of his solemn pro mise, 1 know not. For my part. 1 am not very san guine that it has, for I am one of the old-fashioned l>eoj>le who never place much credit in a person who has suflered himself to be convicted over and over again of most monstrous fibbing. But still the press seems confident of the matter, and even gives a sketch of what the new constitution will be. The faith of these newspaper* is very great, to believe after so many cruel deceptions. Count d'Arnim, the able Minister of the Interior, has quitted the ( abinet, and is eucceeded by Mon sieur Bodefechwiug. But this appointment is only temporary, and there are reports ot a complete change in the ministry. There iH no mercantile intelligence worth mving. The reports current as to the part to l?e taken by PrusMa in ihe Zoilverein. are so contradictory, that it is evident that the people who set them on foot have no access to authentic information. Indeed, I do not believe that our Cabinet has decided on any particular course of action, but modifies us instruc tions to its agent from day to day, according to cir cumstances. The new church continues its cowse and meets with success and with defeat ; but ti|?on the whole it gains more triumphs than checks. The I'ope applied to the king to take measures to prevent the spread ot the schism ; but his majesty refused, reminding his holiness that he did not help him, the king, in his struggles a little while ago, in the mixed 1 marriage question. The government gives no encouragement to the new sect, Diit on the contrary, regards it? pro ceedings with very great inquietude. Still it has not refused it permission to celebrate its rites to the Pro testant churches, when the ministers thereof give permission. From the neighboring States theTe is no newsthat I think worth communicating. Wurtemburg, though a small kingdom indeed, ever advancing in a liberal direction, has lately passed laws giving tne same pri vileges, political and civil, to the Jews, as are en joyed by other clawea.

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