Newspaper of The New York Herald, September 21, 1845, Page 1

September 21, 1845 Tarihli The New York Herald Gazetesi Sayfa 1
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THE NEW YORK HERALD. Vol. XI., No. JI5R-. Wholo No. ftlNN. NEW YORK, SUNDAY MORNING, SEPTEMBER 21, 1845. Frit* Two Con fa. AKK1VAL OF THK STEAMSHIP BRITANNIA. TWELVE DAYS LATER FROM EUROPE. VERY IMPORTANT COMMERCIAL INTELLIGENCE. IMPROVEMENT IN THE COTTON MARKET. The Harvests More Favorable than Anticipated. FAMINE IN POLAND. THE REFORMATION IN CONTINENTAL EUROPE. RIOTS IN MADRID. The Queen Still on the Continent. Markets. fcc., fcc. The steamship Britannia, Capt. Hewett, arrived at Boston on Vriday morning, having made the passage in fifteen days. We have advices from Liverjioo! to Sept. 1?London to the 3d, and Paris to the 1st. The Britannia brought ninety-two passengers. Among the passengers are the Hon. Edward Everett, late Minister of London, and family, Tem pleton, the vocalist, Papineau, the Canadian revo lutionary leader, and a pair of Boots. The Cotton Market had improved, and the prices were fully an eighth of a penny higher than at the close ot last month. The news is very interesting. The new American Minister in England, Hon. Louis MeLane, has taken up his residence at 38, Harley street, Cavendish square. At Lloyd's there were signs of apprehension that a war between the two American Republics may lead to a system ol privateering on the western coast of the Atlantic, dangerous to our merchant ships. The underwriters demanded a higher rate'of premium from England to America, unless the clause is inserted declaring the insurance free of capture and seizure. The Experimental Fleet had returned to Cork. A flairs in England were quiet. Parliament was "shooting grouse," the Queen was in Germany, < t'Connell at Drurynane, and the people absorbed in the Railroad mania. The papers contain full accounts of the journey ings of the Queen and Royal party in Germany. On the 27th of August Her Majesty proceeded from Co hurg to Gotlia, accompanied by Prince Albert, the King and Queen of the Belgians, and the Reigning Duke, where they would remain till the 3d or 4th inst., when they would return homeward. The overland mail from China arrived in London on the 1st inst. The dates from China are to the 25th of May?not so late as those received direct in this city. There is a complete famine in Poland, so that no sujiplies of wheat can be expected from that quarter. The St. Petersburgh papers give accounts of the operations ot Gen. Woronzotf in Circassia, but nothing definite as to his success. He assumes as the basis of his operations the line of the Terex and the town of Kisliar.and has jienetrated, by the north of the Daghestan, into the mountains which bound that i untry to the west. The steam ship Cambria, hence, Ifiih ult., arrived at Liverpool on the 28th, making the passage in 11 days and a hall, including her stay in Halifax. There has been a terrific whirldwind on the con tinent. Its effects in Holland were almost as severe ly felt as in France At Rouen, however, it seems to have ex|>ended its greatest violence. In that city three extensive manufactories were destroyed by the whirlwind, while all hands were at work; not less than sixty persons of all ages perished in the ruins, and 12(5 were thereby wounded. The recent favorable change of the weather ap pears to have extended over the whole of the United Kingdom, and there is every prospect of a glorious harvest. In the course of the second week in Sep tember nearly the whole of the corn will be housed, and the crops will not only be abundant, but they will he secured in good order. The chief topics of discussion during the past fort night have been the rumored ap|>earance of war be tween Mexico and the United States, and the appre hended deficiency of the crops, through the preva lence of weather unfavorable to the prospects of the agriculturists. The news from Ireland is not imjiortant. The Ulster journals are crowded with announcements re specting the general organization of the Orange So ciety, and especially in reference to the demonstra tion which took place in Lusbum, county Down, on Wednesday, the 20th ultimo. The state of trade is in most respects satisfactory. The demand for all the leading staples, whether sugar, cotfee, wool or cotton is so steady as to indi cate a healthy consumption, and the supplies are sufficient to check any exorbitant advance. The weather, which has for some time been stormy, and which it was lenred would greatly in jure the growing crops and retard the harvest, has suddenly changed for the better, and there is a fair prospect of abundance. The question of revising the fundamental laws of Holland, excites a strong feeling in that country.? The substantial burghers appear to be opposed to everything in the shape of innovation. The ancient town of Tervonia in Hungary has been reduced to a heap of ruins by lire. By advices from Constantinople, of the 7th, we 1 learn that the disposition to revolt against Turkish governors,manifested so frequently of late,had shown itself in various quarters. The Persian government always puts a charge of five tier cent upon imported articles, in order to restrict the introduction of such as may tend to effeminate or vitiate the people. The Emperor of Austria, on the advice of Prince Metternich, is about to endow the Protestant clergy in the German states. Such is the slow march of science in modern Italy, that the noble city of Milan was unilliiininated with gas until last month. The Mining Journal, of Saturday, denies that the iron manufacturers of England cannot meet the growing demand, both for the home aud foreign market, and supports its position with figures. The East India Company are building two splendid war-steamers, of 1,1 fO tons each. A convention for the extradition of criminals has been signed between France and Prussia. The censors of the public press at Berlin have, by a cabinet order, received fresh instructions to refuse tlieir imprimatur to any article intended for publica tion in any |>oliticnl journal or |>eriodieal, upon matters of religious or theological controversy. In virtue of a convention with the Persian govern ment, French ships will henceforth lie received into the |?orts of Persia upon the footing of the most favoured nations, and the produce of the industry of France will be admitted on a duty ol five per cent. The Univntal Prussian Uasrtte of the 9th, states that a decree has been published containing the con ditions under which the Lutherans who have sepa rated tram the Evangelical Church,are permitted to form religious communities. The Mining Journal says:?The introduction of machinery will render Spain one of the first mining countries, not only in Eurojie, but the world. Some pillars and other remains of n Roman build ing, and two beautiful coins of the Emperors Anto" nius and Domitian, tiave been discovered in High street, Stamford. The United State x Service Gazette says: "We be lieve it has been decided u;>oii that each port shall have two old 74's, mounted with 50 guns each, and a frigate mounting 30 guns, to be kept in constant readiness, on the screw principle. The lady detected in a criminal humon with Victor Hugo, the distinguished French writer, has been sentenced to three months' imprisonment and a se paration from her husband on an allowance of l,200f. I>er annum. The children to be under the care of the father, with leave to the mother to see them twice a month The steamship Caledonia from Liverpool was passed on,Thursday morning bythe Britannia oil'Li verpool, N. S. Isetters from Berlin, of the 22d instant, state that the Emperor and Empress of Russia were on their way to Italy, the physician of the Empress having recommended that she should pass the winter in that cunntry. Mr. King, the American Minister at Paris, has transmitted to the Minister of Foreign Affairs the thanks of his government for Captain Tnhet, of tiie Mappemonde brig, for having, on October 10, 1841, saved off Cape Ontonio, Cuba, part of the crew and passengers of the Elizabeth, of New Orleans, which had foundered at sea. Some of the crew endeavor ed to save themselves in the long-boat, and were ne ver more heard of; the remainder, who had got in to a smaller boat, were picked up by Captain Tahet, and most kindly treated. We have seen a letter from Rome, dated this month, which contradicts the report that the Pope is in a dying state. The writer describes the Pope's health to Tie excellent, considering the pontiffs ad vanced age. The following were amongst the persons proclaim ed outlaws last week in Middlesex:?William Le Poer Trench, the Hon. Richard Fulke Greville, Sir Charles Edward Gray, Kni?ht; Sir Henry Wyatr, Knight; Joseph Ferdinand Count Taafl'e, the Rev George Brydges Lee Warner, and Mortimer Percy Druminond. These are a few of the philosophers in Knglund who re used to admit Americans to the Club House, because Mississippi had repudiated a part of her debt. The religious disturbances at Leipzic have not been renewed, and the popular irritation jhas been allayed bv the King's prompt compliance with the request ol the citizens in regard to a commission of inquiry. Accounts from Turkey state that the Porte has decided upon a plan for the pacification of the Leba non, which has received the approval of the repre sentatives of the Five Great Powers. By this mea sure the independence of both the Druses and Ma ronites will be maintained, and the free exercise of the two religions satisfactorily secured. There has been a change of the Turkish ministpy. Madrid has been the scene of another distur bance. The [>eople having resolved not to pay the new house taxes. The terms of a treaty of amity and commerce have been definitely agreed upon by the British and Brazilian negotiators. The rough draf t of this treaty has arrived for the approval of our cabinet. The Queen's Visit to the Rhine.?The exiiense ot the fPta given upon the occasion of the (Queen's visit to the Rhine is stated in the German papers to amount to 5,000,000f. (?200,000.) The musicians alone were paid 400,000f. (say ?lh',000.) New Lines ok Steam Vessels.?New lines of steamers from this country to distant parts of the world are constantly forming. On Wednesday last the Novelty'sailed from .Liverpool for Constantino ple, ub the first of a monthly line ol steamers be tween this i?ort and the Turkish capital. We see by the Timet that steamers have just begun to run be tween London and Leghorn,and in a short time the line from Liverpool to Rio and River Plate will com mence operations. British enterprise has now esta blished steam communication with the following countries:?To Russia, Sweden, and Denmark, by the Hull line; to St. Petersburg, to North Ger many, by the Hull and London fines to Hamburg; to Holland, Belgium, and France, by the General Steam Company's vessels ; to the north and south of Spain and to Portugal, by the Peninsular Compa ny's vessels; to Italy, by the new fine from London to Leghorn; to Malta, the Levant, und Constanti nople, by the new line from Liver|>ool; to Egypt, Arabia, Ceylon, India, Singapore, and China, by the Oriental Steatn Company's vessels; to British America and the United States, by the Cunard and Great Western lines from Liverpool ; to the West Indies, Mexico, and the north coast of South Ameri ca, by the West India line ; to Peru and Chili by the West Coast line. To Brazil and the River Plate by die line now building in Liver|>ool. The only Bri tish colonies of any importance which have not now the advantage ot steam communication with the mother country are the Cape, the Mauritius, and Australian colonies. Progress of Iron Ships an d Screw Propellers. ? We understand that the firm of James Hodgson it Co., iron ship builders, ot this town, are build ing, amongst other vessels, an iron ship of 1200 tons burden, the first of a new line of steamers to ply between New York and Liverppol, with engines of 1N0 horse power, also one of 600tons burden and 100 horse power, to ply between Liverpool and Rio Janeiro, tne first of a new fine of seven; also one (or Buenos Ayres, all fitted with screw propeller and Grantham's patent direct-action engines.?Liver pool Times. Tiie German League and tiie United States.? The Constitutionnel states that a Prussian ugeut, who was sent to the government of the United States to request its accession to the German cus toms union, has failed in the object of his mission. Commercial.?There was no particular inquiry for money, and it appears that the banks have a good deal of surplus cash at their disposal. The foreign exchanges rather improved on the principal conti nental places Amsterdam, 13 8 ; Rotterdam, 12 8; Antwerp, 25 77J 26; Hamburg, 13 14fc ; Frankfort, 121 i! : Paris, 25 95 ; Marseilles, 25 H7 26 2 ; Trieste, 10 1 10 2. State ok Trade.?There is still a good business doing in the several woollen markets throughout England. At Leeds they are busily engaged, whilst they obtain remunerating prices for their labor. The same remark applies to Hudderstield and Rochdale. In Worsteds there is an active trade; designs for the ensuing winter season meet a good demand; indeed, the weather has exercised a considerable influence upon these and the Cotton trades. The late change to dry, warm, autumnal weather has proved favorable to both manufacturers and merchants. At Manchester, both goods and yarn are now in belter request, and prices very firm. Pugilism The Chamimonship of England Tuesday, the 26th ult. according to articles, wus appointed for making good the tinal deposit for the match between Hen ("aunt and the renowned Ben* digo, amounting in all to ?200 a side; and on this occasion a numerous assemblage of "right sort" patronised the hospitable spread prepared by Tom Spring, to celebrate the event. "Time" having been called, the flimsies of Caunt and Hendigo were quickly de;>osited in the hands of the stakeholder.? According to the articles, it was provided thnt a toss should then take place for the choice of ground, but aftPr some discussion, in which it was obvious that the friends of Hendigo and Caunt were equally I anxious to select a spot least likely to cause interup- I lion, it was agreed that certain parties should retire I into nn adjoining room and come to an amicable nn- 1 derstanding This wasdone, and a proposition on ? the part of Hendigo's backers was at once acceded | to. The announcement of this adjustment ol all an- j ticipated differences was subsequently commnniea- ' ted to the guests, with an intimation, thnt u few Havs before the mill, those desirous of obtaining a know ledge ol the locality could have their wishes grnti lied on application at any of the sporting houses in London, Birmingham, Nottingham, Liverpool, Man ill Chester, and elsewhere. Every pains will he taken in the selection of the fixture, hot yet linally select ed, to avoid giving umbrage to those who may be hostile to those manly demonstra tions of fair play and British courage.-? In proposing the health of Caunt and Hendigo, with the customary hope "thnt both might lie well on the day, and the bptter man win," the Chairman expressed nn anxious wish thnt all parties should unite in preserving strict order and regularity, and that whatever might be their hones or predilections they would sustain the true character of English boxing, by securing to each man a fair and unpreju diced opportunity of displaying his qualities. All that was desired was to have "u clear ring und no favor," and without this it wan in vain to ho|ie for a satisfactory issue to lite contest, or for the mainte nance of that position upon which the future success of I he fistic school de|iended. The belt of the Chum pion of England was to be the reward of the con queror, and to whomsoever fortune unsigned it, un less it was obtained by the display of manly courage and fair play, it would aflord no |>ermanent advan tage. The toast was then re?|>onded to with nine i times nine and "one cheer more." There was a good deal of talk about betting, and we did hear of ?W) to ?40 laid on Gaunt, but it wns apparent that his friends were disinclined to lav more than even bets, or guineas to jiounds. There were a few vaunting offers to take ?100 to ?10 that Bendigo won without a scratch in half an hour, but there was more "chaff" than "grain" in these simula tions. After the principal business of the evening had been settled, attention was called to the fact that ] fllO had lieen deposited on behalf of the Tipton 1 Jaadier to "take up the conqueror," Caunt or Hen- | digo, and to contend for the belt; but as no person appeared as his representative to make a further de posit, a forfeit was declared, and Spring having ta ken up the ?10 he had put down, the remaining ?10 (that was put down on the Slasher's account.) will be added to the stakes lor the match in progress, so that the winner will net ?210 over and above his own stake. | We have since received a letter, in which the Slasher savs he has been very ill for a long time, or he would be glad to have had a shy for the championship. | Caunt continues to train at Hatfield, Woodside; Hertfordshire, under the eyes ol his uncle, Ben Butler and Turner; and Bendigo still sojourns at Crosby, near Liverpool, as light and us lissome as an ' antelope and lull of confidence. Condition of England. [Krom London Chronicle, Sept. 3 ] It is an extremely wholesome practice tor nations, i as well as individuals, now and then to deliberate | upon the actual position in which they stand wnh I regard to the resjionsibilities by which they are sur- i rounded, and which are day by day growing up around them?to ascertain how lar their means are equal to their engagements, and to determine whe ther adequate precautions are being used to ensure their fulfilment. We reudily enough perceive the necessity of the Cltaneellor of the Exchequer annu ally presenting to Parliament an account of the in come and expenditure of the past year, and an esti mate of the mode by which he expects to meet the liabilities of the next. We easily understand the prudence of merchants and others periodically, as the phrase is, " taking stock" of their affaire and " balancing their accounts," for the twofold purpose of knowing the precise result of the past, and deci ding upon the course for the future- These are du ftes, moreover, the jierformance of which, inde pendently of the immediate objects in view, pre sents opportunities peculiarly fitting for a calm re of those principles which have view of those principles which have guided our po licy hitherto, and which are to be relied upon here after. But necessary as these duties may he?ne cessary as it unquestionably is,that we should clear ly see," from year to vear, how public faith is to be maintained, and public engagements met?yet we think it will be admitted,that us long as governments impose upon themselves the responsibility of regu latinjg the supply of food, as long as they will jierstst in determining when, and how, and at what price, a people shall be permitted to obtain the first necessaries of life, no graver or more imjiort ant duty could occupy such a government, or a nation so circumstanced, than that of carefully de liberating upon the events of the past, and esti mating the prospects of the future, to ascertain how far these self-imposed obligations of jiroviding tor a nation are guaranteed by existing circumstances. For our owh part, we cannot for a moment hesitate to say, that it would be wiser that a government should adopt no such responsibility as these restric tions and regulations necessarily imply, or that it te to lei would not be by far the safer course to leave a coun try at full liberty to provide for its wants in the way best suited to its own means, freely exercised, under all circumstances, as they arise; yet, as long as we liersist in assuming the functions of a paternal and regulating government, it is un equallylgrave duty to form a clear estimate of the supply ol tood to the in creasing millions of our population, as it is to pro vide for the due fulfilment of any other national ob ligation. If we tie up |>eople's hands?prevent a free exercise of their own judgment, and ask them to de|iend upon precautionary regulations of the Legis lature?the least the people can expect is, that the Legislature will be responsible for rendering exist ing circumstances such that those regulations can be relied upon. The natural enquiry is?whether or not such is the case ; and this inquiry is not only natural and necessary, but the time is j>eculiarly fit ting for it. The principle of our corn-law clearly assumes, as a fact to be relied U|>on, that at all times there are abundant stocks of corn on which we can fall back, when our own crops fail. This assumption is unde niably a necessary adjunct to the sliding scale. We avowedly and purposely prevent any regular intro duction of foreign corn. Nevertheless, our own harvests are such that ut least every five years in ten we require large supplies. For years together we are blest with a cycle of abundant harvests, but the sliding scale assumes that, come a bad harvest when it may, foreign growers are waiting with their stocks in the granery ready for us. Is this assump tion, on which hangs so heavy a stake, true f Does past experience, or do the present circumstances ol the world, as far as they are known, warrant a re liance on this assumption 1 As to past experience, the last twelve years, the events of which are still familiar to all, furnish a sufficient test. From 1833 to 1H37 we had a cycle of abundant harvests, and an entire absence of foreign importation. What was the effect of one deficient ana late harvest in 1838 1 A sudden rise in price, within a short period, from fifty-two shillings to seventy-three shillings the quar ter, and as large an importation as could Be obtained at tliatand evehhigher prices.But was the importation adequate to our wants 1 The best answer is, that for more than a year the price of wheat varied front se. venty to eighty shillings the quarter, andthat. with but slight fluctuations, it was kept at those high rates tor three years. The derangement and suffering that occurred in consequence, to all the best inte rests of the country, are scarcely yet effaced. But it we found so inadequate a provision for the acci dent of the sliding scale in 1838, are there grounds for any greater reliance on its operation now, or when it may next be called into requisition ? We are in the fourth year of abundance, and for three years we have practically proscribed the trade in wheat. No one will deny that if the late fine weath er has given more assurance of the present crop be ing sufficient for our consumption, yet that up to a very recent period there have been reasons for the greatest alarm; and if, fortunately, our harvest is still good, that we have narrowly esca|?ed the great est danger, and to which we must be exposed more or less with every recurring season. Annually exposed, then, to such hazard,what new Suaruntee, if uny, have we in the circumstances ot lose countries to which we must look for supplies in case of need ? What is there to induce us to repose any more confidence in the provision assumed by the sliding-scale us always available, than at any former period! The most natural corn-growing country in connection with ourselves is the Uniteu States oi America, it possesses a soil rich as it is boundless; a people, whether immi grants or natives, naturally prone to extending, clearing, and cultivating their measureless tracts of country?fond of agriculture, not alone as a means of subsistence, but as a source of commerce; and with habits and tastes calculated to require every thing that this country produces in abundance. Hut what do we lind the state of that country.' Its population is increasing at the rHte of more tlmn half a million a year; but, with this increase ot population, there is every evidence that within the last three years its agricultural productions have been absolutely diminishing, in place ol, what might from all the circumstances of the country have been exacted, more than relatively increasing. The rejiort oi the Commissioners of Patents shows the production of wheat hi 184-1, notwithstanding the favorable season, to have been live millions of bushels less than 1HM, and the falling off in the in ternal trallic from west to east, of wheat and Hour, during the past year, shows that the production ol the country is more closely measured to its own consumption. The present year's crop, though in some districts re|Kirted as extremely aVundant, yet in others, including a large part of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and North and South Carolina, all most im portant wheat districts, are notoriously and un questionably defective. It the whole crop of the present year be estimated us even equal to that of Inst, America will linve no surplus beyond what is necessary to supply its regular customers for (lour in the West Indies and on the South American con tinent. Then, it we turn to Europe, we find matters in noway more encouraging. Prussia, and especial ly the If bluish provinces, have been importing gra in tlie whole year. In Poland there is such a dearth, that the |ieople are making sudden irruptions into the neighboring |Hirts ot Prussia, and committing depre dations, to satisfy their immediate and prelsing wants The north of Russia is in a state of famine, and the Em|>eror lias himself la-come h buyer and importer of rye to cfistsfbute among the |>eople. The Ottoman Court, by the last advices, has issued a decree prohibiting the export of grain from any part of its possessions, wlucli is more important, us an evidence that the stale of their harvest will ren der foreign supplies necessary. In Belgium the King has just issued an order suspending the corn-law till after the harvest of 1846 France has, during the whole summer, been importing wheat for its own consumption ; and in all these countries, lessor more, but particularly in Belgium and Holland, the potatoe crop is an entire failure. Much of all this, no doubt, is to be attributed to an unnropitious season, though we fear our own |>olicy is chargeable with the largest portion of the more important cause. In America and in Prussia ]>eople become wearied in growing com lor the mere chance of an English market.? They turn their capital and labor to other pursuits, and rival us in our manufactures. In proportion as agriculture has been abandoned, or ut least has re mained stationary, manufactures of all kinds have increased ; and our exclusion of the agricultural pro duce of those countries has reconciled all parties to adoption of high tariff's against our goods,for the sole purpose of creating a home market?for procuring there what the sliding-scale denies fhein here. But every man who leaves the plough for the loom, while lie makes one producer less, makes one con sumer more ; and thus, year alter year, the surplus of food produced in other countries, under the dis couraging influence of bur restrictive system, is be coming less and less, and ilie danger to which we are exposed, in the event of a defective harvest, be comes in propottion more imminent. Texo-Aiuerlcui^ Altulrs In Kurupr. [From the Liverpool Mail, Aug. 3d ] What we anticiptted in a late number of the Mail has actually taken place?Mexico has declared war against the United Skates! Mexico has been forced into this contest. A portion of her territory has been invaded, and her property spoiled by a set of robbers, and she has, in the cause of justice and honor, declared that she will resist the aggressors to the last extremity. If ever there was an unobjectionable cause for the shedding of blood this is on". Texas is not an in

de|<endent country ; wlu.tever she may be rfc facto, she is not dc jure; and, consequently, the Tinted States have no more right to treat lor her annexation to that republic than the subjects of (|ueen Victoria, who assemble in the Conciliation llall of Dublin, have to treat with Louis Philippe for the annexation of Ireland to France. It is not enough to tell us that the people of Texas are favorable to the proceed .abduction. We have yet to learn who the people are,and what their opin ions are. All that Europe has yet seen are the re solutions of fifty-three men who siyle themselves "a Convention." Whether diey are absconded citizens of the United States, compulsory exiles from Ire land, or expatriated Scotchmen, remains to bo ex plained. But as they are not natives of Texas,they must have a local standing somewhere, either in the inside or outside of a gaol. They cannot belong to two countries.any more than they can inhabit two places at the same time. To treat with such per sons for the transfer of property, is like an alder man of London treating with thieves for lhe resto ration of stolen goods. Indeed, it is worse than this; for die property never did belong to the United States, and hence they are in the |M>sition of crimi nal receivers of goods which have been obtained by felonious means. The cause of Mexico is, therefore, tne cause of every just anil honorable government ia Christen dom. England and France cannot look on in si lence at this horrid deforcement und atrocity. Mex ico may be the weukerpower? the money borrowed from England and the debt repudiated, may be used iu plundering a neighboring soil aud oppressing a leeble j>eople. But this makes the act more crimi nal, and tne cause of war by the invaded state more righteous. Mexico will be justified, in conformity with Mr. Canning's maxim of employing the resour ces of the old world to redress the w rongs ol the new?she will he justified in granting letters of marque to all the maritime states of Europe; and if this ts done, as it is sure to he, w hat a capital hunt ing field lor sport will he the Irish Channel and the highways to Liverpool. One large liner |>er diem for six weeks would put New York in mourning, Baltimore in convulsions, and Boston on lire. We sincerely hope that these misfortunes will not ha|> pen; but, if they do, the United ytutes alone will be to blatne. In so unjust a warfare, the retribution must be equal to the offence. [From the Liverpool Mercury, Aug. -29.J Our readers are already award that the act of the Texan Congress for merging the independence ol their Republic in the American Union was, on the ?1th of .Inly, definitively ratified by a convention ot delegates of thut population of land-jobbers, slave drivers, lawyers, and nondescripts, which diploma tic courtesy compliments with the title of " people of Texas." Mexico has indignantly protested, but it appears exceedingly doubtlul whether her weakness and disorganization will allow of her expressing her resentment in active hostilities, the effect of which would onlv be to invite further aggression. Large bodies of United States troops are despatched to oc cupy the military posts of the annexed territory, and a powerful United States fleet is in the Gulf of Mexi co, in preparation for the emergency of war. Look ing at the relative strength of the two powers, there can be no doubt that, whatever may be decided in the councils of Mexico, the annexation of Texas to the Republic of the "stars and stri|ies" is now, once for all. a fait accompli. Such is the consummation of one of the most ne farious transactions recorded in modern history.? The United States government has now completed a series of as atrocious international f rauds and in juries as ever were veiled under the names and forms of diplomatic legality. It has all been done quite " regularly." United States citizens "emigra ted" to Texas, and there became Texan citizens and subjects of Mexico; and, as Texan citizens and Mexican subjects, they picked 11 quarrel with the Mexican government, got up an insurrectionary war, and carried on that war by the aid of bands ot United States " volunteers," whose equipment the United Slates government proclaimed, 111 good set phrase, to be illegal. They made themselves "inde pendent," and, as an independent State, they were, of course, at liberty to enter into any arrangements with un independent neighbor which they might think proper. All perfectly regular, and all infa mously base and treacherous. The reality shows through all the disguises and pretences with which it is glossed over. A gang of United States land sharks and rutlians, supported by the sympathies and alliance of slave owners and slave breeders, who want a new market for their detestable traffic, and by the well understood countenance of their own government, have robbed a neighboring and friend ly jiower of a valuable province. Two significant tacts sufficiently explain the true character of the whole business. The insurgent force which struck the blow that finally severed Texas from Mexico, contained only fifty real Texan citizens; and of the sixty one delegntesof the convention of the -fill Ju ly, sixty were natives of the United Slates. The ratification which the United States Govern ment has now finally affixed of'the successful crime of a lawless h-?rde of its own citizens, is an act which must have very important consequences We do not pretend to predict these in any sort of detail ; but there can be no difficulty oruncertainty in that general prngnotin, which is based on the na tural and necessary laws of moral and political cau sation. The United States have now regularly em barked in the career of aggression and robbery, and they will?sooner or later, in one shape or ano ther?have to pay the penalty which nuture and Providence award to the crimes of nations. "The seizure of Texas," it was long ago predicted by Channing, " will not stand alone ; it will darken our future history ; it will be linked by an iron necessi ty to long-contmned deeds of rapine and blood," Of course the seizure of Texas will not stand alone. The spirit which has prompted the r-eizure of Texas will not be contented with Texas California is an nexed already, in purpose and intention?" the ac quisition of California is in contemplation," as the AVie York Mirrntng Herald phrases it. And by and by it will be the central provinces of Mexico. Ore gon, ol course?why not Canada ? though, to be sure, the same Arte York Morning Herald does sug gest reasons why if would fie unwise " at present, to " talk ol the annexation of Canada." The seizure of Texas will indeed " nol stand alone." It will react with a terribly retributive force on the character and institutions of the Ame rican (s-ople. In becoming an aggressive, robber power, the United States must take care to be al ways ready with force to sustain us nggressions? that is. the United States must become a great mili tary power. If the Americans |Kisitively must and will linve "glory," they will have to pay the price which glory costs in the old world. They will be driven to maintain an immense and costly military establishment, on a scale utterly at variance with the spirit, and, eventually, destructive of the forms of liberty. The free institutions of the country of Washington and Franklin are fit only lor a jieople whose policy and habit is peace. This guilty success may have consequences as re girds the I nion itself, little contemplated by the zealotsof annexation and territorial aggrandisement It will bring North and South into itohtical and moral collision, lty giving new development and power to the most vicious and dangerous of the "peculiar do mestic institutions" of America, it will widen a schism, which has long been known to exist be tween el 1 fie re nt sections of the Union. It has always been a cardinal point of policy with the North to maintain, in Congress, an equilibrium of tree and slave States. That equilibrium is now destroyed.? The character, the policy, the "glory" ol the entire Union is now identified with an institution utterly abhorent to the deepest feelings of the best port ion of the population in the older States New England is a copher?a political and moral nonentity. The de scendants ot the pilgrim fathers are out-voted and overruled?bound up with a policy which they de test. Whether the union of such States as Massa chusetts with such States as Texas could long stand the strain and stress ot any serious political casually ?such as atoreign war, growing out of the slavery policy to which the Republic has now committed itself?is a question which we think it would be rash to answer in the aliirmative. The natural consequences of this public crime may deveiope themselves slowly. It is possible, ' ofthi even, that the recent triumph of the war and slavery party may produce a re-action suiliciently strong to enforce a pause for the present. But then* can, we conceive, be little doubt as to its tendencies?though other and counter tendencies may o(ierate to modify their action. If America has made Up her nnd to "glory,"conquest, and territorial aggrandizement? extension ot the area ot freedom," ns the New York Morning Herald calls it?she inay get die n.i lory, or she may not; but she will infallibly have to get rid of some ol those political and civil liberties which are so troublesome a clog on the movements of a military executive. II die Americans indulge die war spirit, and preserve their own domestic liberties intact, they will be the first people in his tory that ever succeeded in combining the enjoy ment of just and good government at home, with tyranny and lawlessness abroad. The accounts from Mexico, via New Orleans, re ceived by the Cambria, from which we have given copious extracts elsewhere, are suiliciently warlike, though it does not appear that a formal declaration of war, on the part of Mexico, hud been actually issued, up to the time of the latest advices Irorn Vera Cruz That Mexico has a most unanswerable ra?u$ belli against the United States, (if fraud, violence, atui robbery, be any justification of warfare between nations,) we have shown above; but whether she will really go to war with her powerful and unscru pulous neighbor must depend upon other considera tions wholly apart from the justice of her cause We think it unlikely that any formal declaration of war has heen issued, and also that if u war should really take place, it will be forced on by further and still more aggressive proceedings 011 the part of the United Stales, which may render it necessary for other nations to interfere. [Kr im the London Economist, Aug. 30.] A war between Mexico and the United States, if circumstances do not draw other powers into the conflict, can have but a result unfavorable to Mexi co. But the Mexican (lovernnient is so weak, so unable to act on the most pnulent, it it should be an unpopular |K>licy, and esjtecially at this moment,j list prior to the presidential election; and the popular feelings in Mexico upon this subject have already shown themselves so decidedly, that it must be con sidered a matter of certainty that war will be de clared. But when we look to the resources of the country?torn up as it is with internal dissensions, and with rival parties, without treasure, with an ar my barely suilicientto maintain domestic order, and with scarcely the name of a navy?and consider that such a country is to commence a war, which,though it should be and really is one of defence, would have all the disadvantages of one of aggtession against the United States, we can only see an easy triumph lor the latter in the maintenance of its new posses sions, however ill acquired. But here the mischief will not end. The Americans have already formed new and extensive designs o{ annexation. A war of defience of Texus will easily become one ol ag gression on Mexico and California. The ease of the conflict with Mexico, the certainty of its result, and the ho;>e of its leading to larger prizes, make such a war all but universally popular .11 the States. It is in this view chiefly that we look with the utmost alarm to the commencement of hostilities. If we believed that America would be content only to defend Texas, then would a declaration of war be of little importance ; but the American inind is intoxicated with the nassion for territory, ami the opportunity which will be thus afforded for indulg ing in that passion, is a matter ot exultation to a large portion of the American press. The extent of the power ol Mexico to annoy or in convenience the United States by issuing letters of marque and reprisal, or by tampering with the slave population of the Southern States, we believe to be greatly exaggerated, and, therefore, we see no pro bability oi anything but an uninterrupted train of in glorious successes, on the part ol the Stales, that will attend the conllict. Meantime, how stands the Oregon question 1? Success against Mexico will not temper the public and unreasonable demands with respect to Oregon There is every reason to believe that the display of public feeling has already deterred the American cabinet fronuproposing what it believed a fair com promise, aud less than which the English govern ment may be considered pledged not to accept?to settle the boundary by tlie 50th degree. That is now looked upon as beyond the power of uny American cabinet to propose. [ From Kuropean Times, Sept. I J The recent warlike accounts from Mexico and the United IStutes have naturally excited much at tention on this side of the water. Trading as we do extensively with both countries, this is not sur prising. What Mexico can gain by a rupture with her powerful neighbors, it would puzzle a conjuror to conceive. Fight she cannot, and whatever turn matters take, she cannot possibly be benefitted A war between maritime nations is likely enough, at all times, to involve neutral powers; tor, when light ing in the order of the day, the chances are against the combat being confined to the original belliger ents. The points involved in the dispute are daily criticised by the press oi Europe, and, as sympathy generally enlists itself in favor of the weak, Mexico finds plenty of supporters?on pai>er. Mexico carry ing on an aggressive warfare with the United States seetns absurd enough, but unhappily the primary features of the Spanish character are obstinacy anil pride?pride which is blind to a sense of its own weakness, and obstinacy that repudiates the doc trine ot probabilities. The fear is, that Mexico, weak, tottering, decrepid, may be silly enough to at tempt to carry out her pompous threats; in winch case, like the jiact uncus cams 111 "Plucdrus," she will soon cease to hive a "local habitation and a name," and be swallowed up by the antagonist she lias provoked. California and Santa Fe are tempt ing baits, and Jonathan, by an instinctive love ol in terest, would stand pardoned, by hts own read ing ot the moral code, 111 laying violent hands upon them. " The balance of |>ower" was formerly a favourite theory with the soi-di$ant " Holy Alliance" in Eu ro|>e, whose rulers, niuiually jealous, dreaded the least accession of strength to the other There are English publicists who desire to apply the same principle to the American continent, torgetting that the laws of nature orduin that the weaker shall be come absorbed in the stronger race or cease to exist The Saxon blood which courses through American veins impels them to spread their power and their progeny; and, if they do this without violating any of th>- conventional dogmas of civilization, who has aright to arrest them i Let those inclined to do it at their i>eril! 'Tis all very well to talk ot the spoli ation involved in the Texas annexation ; but a gov ernment which cannot rule its citizens, or punish their revolt, must e'en submit to the alternative ot losing them. But, apart froin the Mexican bone ot contention, there are other matters that vex men's souls connected with what goes by the name ot "American aggrandizement." Foremost is tue Ore gon utlair, respecting which meetings appear to have been held in the United States, to induce the gov ernment to annex the disputed territory, without waiting lor the results ot negotiation. The bruiutn f 11 lmm in the western hemisphere is referred to hy parties on this side as a proot'ot the want ot princi ple which pervades the whole American people, but such wholesale assumption is, it is clear, wide oil the mark. Amongst lite really enlightened and pa triotic portion of Americaus, a policy so outrageous can have lew advocates. The Uregon waste is hardly worth, certainly not worth, fighting lor; but such a sei/.ure, tarn tnrmonir, would speedily bring the matter to blows. It is a question altogether dif ferent in its character and results front the dispute with .Mexico. Dftt people here, who express opin ions on such matters, forget, in the case of others, whaf is daily happening amongst themselves?thai there are always to be found in free countries reck less bidders for popularity, who out-herod Herod by their extravagance and lolly?mauvats sujtts, who would produce a general conflagration for the mere wantonness and tun of witnessing the blaze. (From the I.iverpool Mail, August W.J I We arc anxious to learn what part the government! ol F.ngland ami France will take in the propoead annexa tion of Texas to the United .State! of America. We are not of thoie who would diipute the nghl ? nation, or an united people, to choose their own form ot government, or to pieferthe | rotectionol one neighbor ing power before another, suit them are limits to the rule, well known to the erudile and International law. For instance; the people and territory ol "elgitim were incorporated with the kingdom ot Holland, by the great treaty ol Vienna, concluded at the termination ol the French war. Under thie treaty, King William wan re cognized as the sovereign ol the I nitcd Netherlands In 1880 however, or thoreahonte, the people of Belgium m vulted and raised the etandard ot independence. Thil independence was instantly recognized by France, then, also, in a transition and revolutionary state. It wa? near ly at the same time iccognized 11 y the government ot huglaiul. then in the hands ol the whig*. Now. it strikes us that Texas, in 1843, is precisely in the position that Belgium was in 1830. The former is, at this moment, as the latter was fifteen years ago?a re volted province. Mexico, the mother country, has not yet consented to the separation. Holland, the mother country in the other case, had not assented to the sepa ration tthen the independence of Belgium was recogni sed by England and France. What these two last named powers did for Belgium, they have also done for Texas. They have dc facto recognized the independence of the 'Tetus, then, pursue the parallel a ltttle farther. ^ pose, for instance, that Belgium, having shaken ott the butch yoke, had proposed to incorporate her.eW with, and annex herself to, her powerful neighbor h ranee Would England, or any if tho monarchies of Europe, have sanctioned that alliance ? Would they have allow - ed France to increase her power, and extend her ?omui ion by a peaceful compact, after all the money that hail been spent, and the blood shed, and the desolation, ruin, and wo inflicted upon the human race,for the sole oDject ot checking the ambition of Napoleon, confining r ranee within her legitimate limits, and securing for her a fi"n safe, and constitutional government f It is not probable. It would have been an act of suicide. It would have been act of suicide, it would have made their profes sions ot twen'y years a niere mockery, and their princi ples the essence of hypocrisy and fraud. Is it not apparent, then, that the governments of Eng land and France stand in the same relation to Texas, us those of England and the northern powers of Europe stood in relation to Belgium J To recognise tne inde pendence of Texas is one thing; to permit the cession ol the Toxan territory to an overgrown, and grasping, and unscrupulous republic, like that of the L nited States, is quite a different thing. Mexico is weak enough, with a levolted province on her northern frontier; but th&t weakuosa would be renderd more dangerous and pitia ble it her revolutionary citizeus were armed with the urotectiou of a greater and overawing republic. It may bo tho policy ol France, in tho distribution of her favors, to give a preference to the I nited States, on the rule that what the republic gains we lose. This, of course, is not English policy, The object of America is to monopolise, as much as she possibly can, the cultivation of cotton. She has also other views. Slavery in the south is alarmed by the blasts the north. There is a hollow sound coming over the billows of the Atlantic, and a still, small voice in the States of Sew England. Black men are permitted to walk on the shady sine of Broadway in New York. They are free men too, by some infelicitous accideut, which the cotton planter cannot understand. Hence the necessity of more ilave influence in the Senate at Washington, more anti emancipation votos in ( ongress, more resisting power to the approaching revolution. .. If the government ol England should unhappily give tacit consent, or no consent at all, but an unmeaning growl to the annexation scheme, she will be ?j a dereliction of duty, and will expose herself to the charge of suppressing slavery with one hand, and encouraging it with the other. The interests oi the manufacturers ol this country are decidedly in favor of the independence of Texas. Policy challenges the economy of the propos ed union. The less we are dependent upon any one country for tho supply of that important staple, cotton, the better for ourselves. The soil of Texas is lertile, and its agricultural products for manufacturing purposes are inexhaustible. In an independent position, hertrede, her supplies, her consumption, would be invaluable to this country. Bound to us by favorable treaties, and lib erally encouraged, she might, under our protective friendship, be placed in a mediatorial condition. and availing nerseli of her locality, she might be the school mistress of Mexico, and the parochial beadle of the I nited States. She would be a cooling draught to Eng land between two tires. Annex her to the latter repub lie, and she would be for ever swamped-a convenient bog, in which would be submerged the principles of lib erty, light, and truth. But there is another point W ho are the men in Texas who call themselves a convention of the people, and who, in the idle and absurd name of the people, with all the pomp and circumstance of unblushing quackery, give their solemn and profound assent to this act of an nexation ? We believe, and we have reason to believe for their names are published, that they number about littv individuals-good men and wise they may be-but retugecs, nevertheless, lrom the! nited States, Irom Eng land; Holland, Ireland, Wales, Scotland, and othcreouu tiies These conventionalists each represents his five hundred square miles. Who the electors are. we have Vet to learn. These fifty odd men seem to call the Texan territory their own. By what right, it would be difficult to explain. The lands they hold, or have apportioned amongst themselves, they certainly have never pur chased, or, it purchased, have never paid for, and never intend to do. In these immaculate days, it would be, per haps, deemed illiberal if we were to call them ro^era Tho poor Indians have a name lor it, which we do not choose to translate. These men call themselves a re public?an independent republic?but pray where are \he citizens who constitute a republic I For these reasons alone, we earnestly contend tha England cannot with honor consent to this mercenary ami unjustifiable annexation. It may have been a dream r - i;r. tiiUnn fonnv wns iinroKtrftllied ? the charm aiue tuuivAauiv*!. S....J - of young life, when fancy was unrestrained iled ?but w? believed that England was the and hone smiles?*?uv w? u?ic ??>? ???? ---q?? ?- ? champion ol the distressed and the injured all over-the world. She. we w ere told, sent her thunder to avenge world. She, we were soul, -e crime. She sided with theweak against the strong and the lawless, and in hor piide of equity threw her gauntlet in the lace of her oppressor. It was a dream, we suspect, lor whatever history may tell, we 1'ave had no proofs o confirmation of the (act in our time. The United States lav claim to the whole o! the American continent, 1 erra del Fucgo to the North Pole, and we suppose they must have it all. In dealing with England, the most and successful speculators are those who have nothing to lose money and credit in such cases being hindrances. If Texas is annexed tu the United States, we cannot see, on the same giounds, any formidable reason why Ire land should not be so. The Popish priests would like it. because the ignorance of America is sympathetic with her notions oi civil and religious libe rtJj" " t;,i states we are glad to say, is working double tides to gain a'respectable and creditable reputation ; and there are bones that the "drab colored population ol Phila delphia will ultimately pay their debts. But lor a quiet ami reflecting man to think that a pecuniary easiness is to be caused by the capture of the Texan territory, is a matter that produces, and must produce, painful ideas. Our last word is, that if Lord Aberdeen assents to the dictum of Sir Robert Peel, that Texas must be surren dered to the I'nited States, we shall, as t anning said, covci the union jack with crape, and hido our sorrows mid our tears in chambers dim, or in old and umbrage ous bowers, known only to the owl and the bat. Tlio Progress of Hiieen \ letorla In berniai' J ? The visit oi lier Majesty to Germany continues to create great excitement amongst our continental neighbors The enthusiastic welcome which she has received in all quarters must be highly gratifying io her Majesty and her Royal Consort. We are not about to lav before our readers a lengthened descrt| tton of the various places through which her Majes ty passed, accompanied with a circumstantial detail of all that occurred to her, the illustrious persons that were presented to her, the remarkable scenes she visited, Arc.; there is necessarily such a same ness a bom a royal journey utter the first day or two lias imssed, that to do so would be entailing a deal of trouble on ourselves, without at the same time contributing much to the gratification or amusement of our readers. We shall, therefore, glance briefly over the scenes in Germany tor the last week, or at least up to the last day, of which we have received intelligence. Mayence, Saturday Evening, August 16.?It was about hall-past eleven to-day that the lowering of the royal standard, which tor the last two days was waved from Stotzenlels, announced that the royal imrty had left the chateau to rejwnr on board. 1 In king ot Prussia and his suite, accompanied the Queen and Prince Albert to the Fairy. He then took farewell ot them, and returned onshore, while the yacht amid the cheering of the multitude and tiring ot artillery, was set in motion, and proceeded up the Rhine As long us she remained in sight from the bank below trie castle, the King stood upon die beach waving his handkerchief. The finest sce nery ot the Rhine lies between Coblentz and May ence. The rocks rise more precipitously trom the stream, their tortus are bolder, their outlines more irregular, the ravines narrower, darker, and bolder than below; while the number of ruined feudal tor treuses, with their grey battered walls, looking as it what had once been the summit of the rocks had been hewn into castles?these robber-holds of yore; are met with in tar greater numbers than along the lower jiortions of the river. Vast military prepara tions had also been made. Mayence is the capital - I the Duchy ot llesse Darmstadt, but insgarri sOIied by Prussian and Austrian troops. There are, indepd, I believe, upwards of 10,000 soldiers of the two countries at this moment at Mayence. The greater portion of these troops were drawn up round and in the qnadrangle ot the Government House, the blue uniforms ot the Prussians, and the white ot their Austrian Iriends, varying the brown masses of the people crowded orouud. At lio clock her Majesty and the Prince, accompanied only by their own nuile, funded As usual, cannon thunder ed and music played. Resides the guns on the for tifications, a troop of light horse artillery banged iway, anil not a little streumer on the river, but had her crack out ot her couple or so ot rusty pop-guns. The disembarkation was the work ot a moment, iter Map-sty quickly disappeared from vulgar eyes beneath the portals of the government house, and the crowd which had collected allowed the march of the military as they hied oil to their various bar racks. Her Majesty and the Prince were received by Prince VViihainot Prussia, lite Governor ot May nice. The royal party did not, however, stay long ut the, official residence, but proceeded to the Hotel de I'Europe, where sleeping apartments had been prepared tor them. The hotels here are very hund ?ome, and that selected by the Queen is one of the most magnificent, a tine white range of buildings looking towards the river. Sunday.?The Queen was fatigued after her voy age up the Rhine yesterday, and remained during the whole ot the early part ot this day ut the Hotel de I'Europe. The royal carriages were in attend ance to convey her Majesty and suite to any part of the city or its vicinity she might express a wish to

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