Newspaper of The New York Herald, October 16, 1845, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated October 16, 1845 Page 1
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THE NEW YORK HERALD Vol. XI., No. MS-Whole No. ?HO, NEW YORK, THURSDAY MORNING, OCTOBER 16, 1845. BY OAT'S KXPRKSS, FROM BOSTON, AND OUR OWN SPECIAL EXPRESS OVER LONG I8LAND. SAFE ARRIVAL OF THE STEAM SHIP GREAT BRITAIN. RIGHT 1>AYS I.ATKR FROM EUROPE. DEPLORABLE STATE OF THE HARVESTS : Its effect on the Markets. SLIGHT DECLINE IN COTTON. AFFAIRS IN INDIA AND CIIINA. ACTIVITY IN THE IRON TRADE. The Religious Progress in Germany. Important Commercial Negotiations and Ar rangements. ORDERS SENT TO AMERICA FOR A 8UPPLY OF FOOD! Organization of a Line of British Steamers to Oregon. Spread of Republicanism on the Con tinent of Europe. Two expresses arrived at our oHiceat six o'clock yssterduy morning with the pleasing intelligence that the Great Britain was safe. She appeared oil" Nantucket early on Monday morning,obtained 11 pilot,and run into Holmes'Hole, where she stopped ten hours und a half. She then Blurted for New York, and reached Sandy Hook ut 11 o'clock on Tuesday night, where she remained till yesterday morning. One of the expresses came from Holmes' Hole via | Boston, und the other from Sundy Hook, over Long Island. iShe left Liverpool at 4 o'clock on the afternoon of the 27th ult. in the first ten days she experienced westerly winils, strong gales and heavy sea at times, during which the ship behaved admirably. For a few hours of the 2d October the wind was N. E., and in a heavy squall the foremast was carried away. She run short of coal, but fortunately the schooner David Collin, of New Bedford, happened to be at Holmes' Hole, from Philadelphia, with a cargo of coal, and at dark on Monday evening was alongside the Great Britain, supplying her. I It may be thought strange that the Great Britatn, in the hands of Cuptuin Hosken, should get among the shoals oil Nantucket. It will not apjiear at all singular, however, when it is known that there was one Bishop and ten clergymen on board, as pas sengers. She passed t lie Great Western, hence for Liver pool, on the 1st. instant, at 6 4ft A. M., in latitude 51 110, longitude 16 50. The Great Britain brought over one hundred and five passengers, including M. Leopold de Meyer, the celebrated pianist, Mad'slle Augusta, the well known danseuse, Madame Otto, vocalist, Henry Ot to, John Povey of the Park, Augustus James, Gustavus Roithhamer, Bishop Reynolds, and ten other clergymen. Also, A. Davy, bearer, of de spatches. The Cotton market had been dull throughout the week, with the slightest perceptible decline in prices. The quotations can scarely be said to have changed, but there had been more inclination to meet buyers, and the common and middling descrip tions were freely otlered. The Hon. Louis M'Lanr is progressing most fa vorably in his new position at the Court of St James'. The produce markets continued, active. For Rice, owing to the causes already assigned, there was much inquiry, at greatly improved prices. The stock was getting low, in consequence of the large demand for export. The B. P. Sugar market was rather dull, and the recent high prices had given way a little. The iron trade continued brisk, owing to the re quirements of the new undertakings, and railway bars were consequently much sought after. From the same cause, boiler plates, used in the construc tion of iron shipping, were improving in value. Pig iron was also selling at good prices, and the make of the metal was greater nt present than it was ever known. The accounts from Berlin state that a treaty of commerce is on the eve of completion, between the Zollverein and Austria. An English journal allu ding to this subject, says : " The Zollverein con cludes treaties with all countries, in all parts of the world, but, just when the treaties are on the point of ratification, something is sure to occur to pre vent their completion. This was the case more or less, with Holland, with Belgium, and more par ticularly with the United States. The continental news of the week is withou1 much interest. The King of Saxony has o|>ened the Diet in a speech which redacts his anxiety respect ing the recent occurrences connected with the reli gious movement. The Prussian government views the Abbe Rouge with the same suspicion as before, and he was prevented from sleeping in Mannheim when he passed through it. The electric telegraph is now being laid down on the Grand Junction Railway, from Birmingham to Liverpool, Manchester, and Chester; and under cer tain restrictions, the telegraph will be made availa ble for commercial purposes. In the months of June and July, the heat whs so excessive in the south of Russia that the troops could not march except by night. The drought has enused great damage, and bad crops are c.\|>cctcd this year in that part of Russia. Both Upper and Lower Hungary have been com pletely laid waste by dreadful inundations, at the beginning of the month of August. Upwards of u million of the inhabitants are threatened with all the horrors of famine in consequence of this dread ful misfortune. During the last two days nearly 2U0 ships have ar rived in Sunderland harbor, which is at present quite thronged, and business, which, from the ab sence of ships, was hi a great degree stis|iended, has now resumed a very lively apia arunee. Accounts from the central province of Busmu state that the |iolato crop there was free from dis ease, but that the corn was still quite green, and that it was sullering from the ravages of a small in- j sect resembling the common flea. Letters from Bntavtn, received in Holland, state that n treaty of commerce has been concluded be tween England and Siam, by winch this country lius secured great and exclusive privileges. The population of Siani amounts to at least three millions. No less than from twenty to thirty thousand tons of salt have been exported from Liverpool to the East Indies within the last three months. The en terprise is exjiected to return a very handsome profit. The death of Mi. DavieP, the prinei|>al editor of the DuUin Nation, 111 the prime of life?for he had only attained his thirtieth year?has produced in Ireland a general expression of sorrow, lie was followed to the grave by all the leaders of the party in Lublin. The l'aris Moniteur announces that the govern ment will soon publish precise accounts of the cha racter and progress of the disease in potatoes, with the means of preventing its development, and of using this year'scrop without danger to the health of men and animals TheQueen and the Queen-mother have arrived at Madrid ; and, although the capital was quiet, fears of nn outbreak existed. The continental news is without much interest. The King of Saxony had opened the diet, in a speech which reflects his anxiety respecting the receut oc currences connected with the religious movement. Switzerland is like a smothered volcano; an ex plosion may he looked lor. Sir John Eennie is to have ?1090 per week for the survey of a new line 111 the north of England. The Eco del Commerrio says, that the Jesuits ex pelled from France are to find a refuge in Spain. The electric telegraph is now already established, or in course of formation, to an extent exceeding I 500 miles. The experiment in cultivating crops by means of I electricity is a total failure in all parts of the king- | dom. Accounts from Kurdistan mention that all the dis tricts bordering upon the Persian frontier were in open revolt. On his late visit to i'ampeluna, the Duke of Ne mours presented a splendid sword to General Nar- : vaez, the ruffian destroyer of the constitution of | Spain. The unfortunate steamer, the British Queen, has been sold at Antwerp, to Louis lteinwit, for 238,000 francs, without the furniture. An explosion took place at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, on Wednesday week, by which five men and two boys lost their lives. The Anti Slavery Rejxtrtcr states, that the Ca|> tain General of Cuba has determined to check the slavet rade by decisive and effectual measures. Mr. Wheaton, the United States minister at Ber lin, has again opened negotiations with the Zollve rein for a treaty of commerce. During the last two or three weeks, the Turkish authorities have been busy in the trade of human flesh, and of embarking slaves. The Minitm Journal stutes that a patent has been obtained in Mexico for separating silver from the ore without the aid of quicksilver. 'l he number of grain-laden ships which passed " - - - ^and - - - - ? the Shund for England from the 3d to the 9tn inst inclusive, were 35 wheat, 4 oats, 5 linseed, and 1 barley. Accounts from Stenay, on the Meuse, state that the disease with which the potato crops nave been attacked in French Flanders and Belgium, has ex tended to that country. The Madrid pajiers say that the negotiations of M. Castello y Ayen/.a, at Rome, have completely failed, and that he will probably return forthwith to Madrid. The English Government has concluded a con tract with the Pacific Steam Navigation Company for the conveyance of the mails along the west coast of South America, from Valparaiso to Panama, and from that place across the Isthmus to Chagres,where they are to be transferred to the West India Roytl Mail Company. This arrangement will turn the whole corres|>ondence along the west coast of South America through England. The Portafo^lio Maltese of the 15th inst. brings news from Tripoli of the !>th. On the 7lh, the Amer ican frigate Cumberland, bearing a Commodore's Hag, arrived in that harbor. The most contradicto ry reports were in circulation. The Pasha, it was said, intended to attempt a amp dc women the is | land of Gerbi. A body of 3000 well armed and I equipped. Arnauts was encam|>ed outside the walls ; of the city, and other troo|>s were expected from I Constantinople. Whilst the Great Britain was in England she wus , repaired, and her screw enlarged. The Empress of Russia, who is proceeding to Sicily for the winter, in the hope of regaining her health, will take up her residence in the beautiful environs of Palermo, and a sma:l squadron of Rus sian steam vessels will be ut her disposal, to enable her to take whatever trips she may choose on the Mediterranean. Vessels proceeding to Russian |>orts with cotton in bales, must either be provided with a certificate of the origin of the cotton, or with a certificate of quar antine. A Danish ship, the Henry and Mary, which arrived at Cronstadt from Kiel, on the 1st August, with 74 bales cotton, had to perform quarantine, owing to her not possessing either of those docu ments. The production of the beet root sugar in the French Department du Nord. which has fluctuated greatly during the last seven years, has risen during the last year to 18,000,000 of kilogrammes, (of lb each,) which is as high as it ever was before. It is expected to rise to 28,000,000 kilogrammes next year. The Ionian government has published an ordi nance granting to Neapolitan subjects and ships the same advantages secured to English ships and sub jects trading with places within the dominions of his Sicilian Majesty, by the treaty concluded on the 29th of August last. In consequence of the extensive orders sent to Canada for Hour, freights in Canada are expected to rise. Great despatch will be needed to get the ship ments off before the setting in of the Canadian winter. The Timen estimates the capital of seventy-four railways completed, or in course of completion, at ?103,166,220?of projected branches of these at ?35,000,000, and of 707 new companies, either es tablished or projected up to date, at ?164,698,656, makings total of ?602,864,876! The steamer Shamrock, which left Liverpool on the 6th inst for St. .lohns, New Brunswick, after en countering very heavy weather, was abandoned at sea on the 15th inst.. in about 50 43 N. lat , 14 7 W. Ion., the master ana crew escaping in the boats to the brig .lane, of Sunderland, which was providen tially in sight. Mountjoy, the pedestrian, has undertaken to walk fifty miles in thirteen hours, twenty miles back wards, for six successive days. A letter from Leghorn, of the 8th inst., informs us that a successful operation had been performed upon Ibrahim Pacha by Dr. Torn, and that strong hopes are entertained of his perfect recovery. Mr. Hudson, the railway king, last week comple ted the purchase of another estate from the Duke of Devonshire, at ?100,000. lie has also bought 10,000 Ions of iron rails, half at ?8 17s. 6d , the rest at ?9 per ton. The recent commercial accounts from the East In dies are considered favorable. It is slated on good authority, that the Lords of the Admiralty arc desirous of carrying out the line of steamers from the western eoHst of America, ! and, as an arrangement has already been made for j a line )rom?Sydney to Singapore, the Indian mails will complete the circuit of the globe. The steam machine for draining the Lake of Haarlem, (which was caused by a terrible inunda tion many years ago) was set to work the other ! day with complete success. Her Maiesly and Prince Albert, who continue at Osborne House, Isle of Wight, have taken their usual carriage and walking exercise daily, during the past week. On Sunday the Queen and her royal consort attended divine service in Whipping limn church. The average number of wrecks of British mer chant ships a year is WW! The average sum lost, about two millions and a half sterling. The ave rage of lives lost, the lamentable number of 1;560. The present seiiHon has been very unfavorable for bees; great numbers of the young swarms have died of hunger, owing to their having been kept within tlicir hives by the inressant rains. Marshal Houjt, the'French Minister at War, is about to retire into private life, lie is seven years junior to the Duke sf Wellington. The Neapolitan tariff is considered somewhat of a boon to commerce. The trade of the I nited Stales, it is said, will suffer by the new regulations, nH the supply of colonial produce was almost entire ly thrown into 'heir hands, on account of the boun ties given by the government to their own flag on nil importations from transatlantic {torts, and the abolition of these bounties will divert the traffic into other channels. Captain Billette. of the French navy, has recently invented new shells and grenades, which are said to have greater destructive powers than any hitherto knowu. These projectiles, when tired at a ship, do not pass through tier side, making a simple hole, but explode in the act of striking, and cause a large rent, and spread u compustible matter in every di rection which it is ini|>osaible to extinguish, ana the ship struck cannot esca|ie from being burnt. The <iueen has been pleased to appoint William Cnyley, Esq, to be Insjiector General of Public Ac counts for the province of Canada. The Jesuits have establishments at Rome, Sicily, Naples Turin, Spain, Paris, Lyons, Belgium, Eng land, Ireland, Austria, Germany, Maryland, and Missouri, t hi the 1st of January, lXM, tnev had in these provinces i73 establishments, and 3,Oo7 mem bers; on the 1st ol January, 1841, they had 211 establishments and 8,565 members; and on the first January, 1844, 2X1 establishments and 4,133 mem bers, having thus, in six years, increased by sixty establishments and 1,<M*? members. In 1844 the number of members was increased to 4,527. The Pope is gradually dying of a cancer in the nose. Influx of Shipping into England.?A great number of vessels have arrived in the Thames and different London docks, within these two or three days,from China, the East and West Indies, the different colonies, and indeed every part of the na vigable globe. Upwards of 150 vessels reported at the Custom House on Monday alone, and the long room of that establishment was literally beseigea by the captains of the dnlepuit vessels tendering the reports, or authentic accounts of the cargoes, according to law, which requires the master of every vessel to report his vessel and an account of her cargo with in twenty-four hoursafter arrival. The present influx is remarkable, as, although the weather has been very boisterous of late, the winds have not been adverse to the arrival ot ships in the channel. This timely spur to business will be much felt and estimated at the different dock establish ments, as, from the extreme slackness and conse quent want of employment for the numerous poor and hard working laboring men at those places, a great deal of poverty and want existed. The recent pressure appears also to extend to Liver pool, as in two days nearly sixty reported, and the day before very nearly an equal number of vessels arrived from all parts of the world at that great mer cantile and commercial port. Packet Ship England.?A bottle was picked up Sept. 16, near Douglas Head, containing a paper with writing u|>oti it in pencil, supposed to give some information of the fate of the lost New York packet ship England. The following is the writ ing:?"Packet ship Ehgland, from Liverpool, Dec. 11,1844. Lon. 7, lat. 45 10." On the other side, "Lost quarter boats, 10 feet water in the hold. No vessel in sight." It is difficult to conceive any one so stupid, as to commit such a message to sci, lor the purpose of communicating information of the supposed danger in which the ship was, of being lost. If uot a hoax, it communicates very little in formation. Without date, and with a manifest error in the longitude, it affords, if authentic, but a slight indication of the time or pjace in which the ship met with her disaster, or of the nature of that disas ter. It is natural to presume that if the paper had been written for the honest purpose of communicat ing information, it would have been made to state something of a more intelligible and specific nature. Prospect ok the Crops.?The rei>orts received from the northern parts of the kingdom speak in a very desponding tone ot the probable ellects of the extremely wet and boisterous weather experienced during the week on that portion of the croos still outsunding. That injury to an extent difficult to be remedied at this advanced period of the year has been done, is greatly to be feared; and, uiless we have an immediate return ol dry weather, the con sequence may be serious. Even if the northern har vest had been got in well, the yield ol Wheat could scarcely have been expected to prove an average; and, under existing circumstances,the deficiency in quality, if not in quantity, islikery tube much great er than was previously calculated on. Notwithstanding the lineweather experienced three eonsecutive weeks, there is still a great quantity of grain abroad south of the river I luiiiber; whilst fur ther north much is yet uncut. Of the total produce ot the United Kingdom probably two-thirds may have been saved: but it is needless to remark, that the manner in which the other third may be secured must greatly influence the whole. Our previous es les of the timates of the probable result of the harvest, have therefore, we (ear, been too favorable; and we now apprehend that, besides die already admitted defi ciency in Wheat and Potatoes, the crops ot Barley and Oats, as well as those of Beans and Peas, may prove interior to what we were induced to hope. As thrashing is proceeded with, the complaints of the yield of wheat certainly increase: nor do the accounts of the quality improve. The loss in weight alone is a serious consideration; suppose the same to be 3 lbs. per bushel on the entire quan tity grown?which is a moderate computation?and taking the whole produce of wheat of the United Kingdom, in an average year, at 20,000,001) qrs., this item alone would make n difference of a million of quarters. These considerations have had some influence with holders of wheat: and the disposition to sell at present prices has much diminished. Those parties who have still stocks of old, naturally conclude that the superiority of last year's growth over that of the new will cause it to command a ready sale at any pe riod; and though fair supplies of new have been brought forward by the growers, they refuse to sell except at enhanced rates. The increasing un favorable reports relative to the potato crop have al so had their weight; and the trade has assumed a decidedly firm tone. Whether any immediate advance of importance will occur in the value of Wheat will probably de pend, in a great measure, on the weathtr; but, how ever auspicious the latter may become, we fe '1 tol erably sure that the price ot bread-stuffs must, later in the year, rise materially. Not only is the crop short in this country, but the harvest has been defective over the greater part of continental Europe. In Holland ana Belgium the fact is so well ascertained that the government of the former country has deemed it prudent to reduce the duties on Grain, to the minimum )>oint; whilst all restrictions on the import of Cornlinto Belgium have been removed for a given period. Already numerous orders I have been received from Rotterdam, Antwerp, ?V:c ; and the moderate stocks of bonded Corn are likely to be shortly re duced into a very narrow compass, if not exhuusted, by shipments to countries from whence, in ordinary years, we are in the habit of drawing some portion of our foreign supplies. In the Baltic ports, Great Britain must expect to be outbid bv the Butch and Belgians; and in the Black Sen, Wheat has lately been bought up to sunply Italy, where the crops are stnted to have yie'ded indifferently. It seems, therefore, that, unless prices advance materially, in this country, we are not likely to draw any quantity of Wheat from abroad. Orders for Food.?Now that circumstances render it painfully apparent, that supplies of food must be had from some quarter, all eyes are turned across the Atlantic, and fears prevail that the late orders which have been sent to Canada will miss the season, and arrive after the navigation of the St. Lawrenoe has been closed by the ice. Much will, of course, depend unon the time when the frost sets in; and if the weather is favorable, there is little doubt that handsome fortunes will be made by those who have s|>eculated largely in bread stuffs. What ever quantities may come from the United States, will also find a ready sale either in this country or on the Continent. The recent accounts Iroin the Union represent the season as having been favora ble for the grain cro|>s. An op|>ortunity now exists, which rarely occurs, of sending produce of that de scription to Knrope, with the certainty of finding a ready and rising market. It is deeply to be regret ted that, instead of an uncertain and unstable traffic, the nature of our com laws prevents the demand from being regular and uniform. Hut such a desi deratum is on the eve of accomplishment. Thk Railway Mania.?The number of projects scattered all over the country, which have come before the public during the last ten or twelve days, is greater than ever, and?for British lines alone? would involve an expenditure of upwards of sixty millions sterling. If continental and colonial lines were added?and they all look to Knglaud for large proportions of their capital?the amount would pro bably not tall very far short of hundred millions sterling. Many ot these projects?and some of the greatest magnitude?will, no doubt, be carried into effect, with every pros|?ect of proving profitable; but more than half of them may he set down us ephemeral schemes, got uo, in many instances, lor mere 8|iccuIhIu>?, and with 110 idea of any |<r.icttcul result. National Sports?(in the very same day that seven hulls were slaughtered before the Queen of Simin, fifteen men were butchered in the streets of Madrid ; another proof that Spaniards are treated in their country like beasts, only not half so well. The rate ol exchange ot human life in Spain seems to he 1 bull3^= 2 men. When are these national s|?ortH to cease ? Her Spinish Majesty forgets that what may he very good sport to her is death to others. She should be careiul, for she is teaching her people one of those games, at which, it is said, two can play Punch. ! .Phiunthrophy ok England.?The jealous an xiety exhibited by the English press and jieople re specting anything which can be tortured into a pro slavery tendency, is last becoming a disease of the i national mind. The ingenuity which is exhibited in this way, show? the morbidity ot the feeling. It is philanthropy run tnad. For instance, a rumor , prevailed some two months ago, that manacles, .-imi 1 lar to those used by slavers for securing the safe transit of the victims whom they kidnap, had been found amongst the debris of the American frigate Missouri, that sunk some time ago off Gibraltar. The notice of this circumstance has been revived, during the last three or four days, by our London namesake, who founds on it a most seriousand un charitable charge against the American govern ment, to the effect that the sunken steamer, al though ostensibly a vessel of war belonging to the United States, was covertly engaged in the slave trade ! Now, the least acquaintance with the re quirements of the British?which, in this instance, are tlie same as those of the American?navy, would have prevented the possibility of an assump tion, on the i>art of the "leading journal," as un called lor as it is unjiardonable For the prompt suppression of mutiny, every vessetot war?British, French, American, and all others alike?carries some hundreds of these iron peace-makers ; and the " manacles,"! which the jaundiced philanthropy of our conteni|>orary designs for the wrists and jambes of its black proteges, were only intended, if the necessity arose, to preserve order and discipline amongst the republican sous of Neptune on board the Missouri.? IVilmer'e Times, Sept. 27. More or the Phii.anth rocky ok England.?The Hobart 'Ibwn Advertiser of the 1 Itli of March, has

just come to hand. It contains the names of 201 convicts who have received at the hands of the Lieutenant Governor tickets of leave, and condi tional pardon, available within the limits of the Aus tralian Colonies. The editor of the journal above quoted, makes some admirable remarks upon the condition of convicts and the poor of England, and argues that the latter are driven to crime by the se vere operation of the poor law ; and he might have added, by the combined influence of the Corn and (fame Laws. With regard to thepauperand the con vict, we showed about a fortnight ago that the latter is much better fed than the former, even in this country ; but in Australia the convict actually fares sumptuously, while his work is by no means labo rious. The HoUhrt Town Advertiser thus places the nutter in juxta-position:? A PACPKR. A CONVICT. A man guilty of poverty, A man convicted of bur the most unpardonable of- glary, highway robbery, or fence to the British Senate, any other crime, a trans is incarcerated in a modern portable offence, is sent to Bastile.sutijoct to the great- Van Liieman's band, fed and est hardships, and receives kept in idleuessl'ora period for seven days the lollow- of probation, and then ing food, viz : ? found a master who treats 7 pints otmcal porridge. him kindly, pays him wages 3 do pen soup. at the rate of 3s. (id. per 3 do broth. week, and givos him in ad 4lh 14 oz luead. ditiou for food for that pe A oz bacon aud ti o/. boil- riod, the following articles, ed beef. viz : ? 3 lb potatoes. 7 lbs meat. 1 lb suet pudding. 10} lbs bread. This ration is reduced when 7 oz sugar, nut at bard work. 7 oz roasted wheat. 31 oz soap. Jlj oz salt. " Look at this picture and on this."?The amount of dietary is in addition, be it remembered, to 3s (id a week, with occasional scraps of food, and an al lowance of beer from his master or mistress, and frequently from a good natured servant. The very announcement of the tact is sutiicient to induce a hard|working|agricultural laborer,with half a bellyful of food, to commence sheep stealer, or turn poacher, with the view of getting sent abroad. We are told of the " horrors ot transportation" in the penal set tlements, but even there, the convict is by iar better fed than the |>easant, who scarcely knows the taste of anintul food, and the paui>er in the workhouse is in the same plight. For our own parts we have long since ceased to wonder at the increase of crime in iliis country; for when we reflect upon the fact that so richj a man as thejQDuke of Buckingham thinks Us a week a sullicient allowance for a man with u wife and family to subsist upon; and thul many inferior landlords |>ay even less wages than Us a week, the cause of incendiarism, poaching, rob bery, and infanticide, is at once traced to its only true source. Then, again, the treatment ot the poor, in other respects, is sullicient to induce the utmost contempt for our legislators, and those who administer the laws. Take the following as a sam ple:?At the Buckingham Petty Sessions on Satur day, before two parsons, the llevs. A. Paynes and W. Andrews, Thomas Stokes, a laborer, of Barton Hartshorn, did not appear to his summons to an swer to the information of Thomas I>wett, of Fin mere, a game keeper to the Duke of Buckingham, charging him with having, on the 7th instant, been with a gun in pursuit of game, in the parish ot Bar ton Hartshorn. Joseph Neale and John Savin, two lookers out for the Duke ol Buckingham, were call ed to prove the offence, and the charge was gone into in Stoke's absence. From the statements of the witnesses, it appeared that at about the middle of the day in question they were on the lot.k out, and saw Stokes, in company with another man? against whom proceedings have been commenced ?cross n stubble field and a meadow, with a gun between them. They had not a dog or stick, or any thing else besides the gun, which one carried across one field and the other across the other field. They did not lire, nor did they start any game; but one of the persons said to the other, "If any had flew up we should have had a cut at them." The witness said, after the above two persons had left some time, they heard a gun tired four timesat a distance, which gun they supposed was tired by Stokes and his compa nion: "but they did not see them fire, nor did they know tliut it was they." The Magistrates consider ed the offence proved. They inquired if Stokes had been previously convicted, and was informed that he had not. In consequence of this, the Magis iratessaid the fine would be mitigated. They order ed Stokes to pay a tine and costs of ?2 2s (id in four teen days, and in default one month's imprisonment in Aylesbury Jail. It may be urged that the fact of Stokes's non-attendance was a proof of his guilt!? (He was seen carrying a gun.) But surely it would have been more decent and becoming it the two Reverend Magistrates had waited a little, and issued a second summons. Without imputing falsehood to the informers, we maintain that they ought, it possible, to have been confronted with Stokes, with the view of eliciting whether his accusers acted from malice. AItogether, our agricultural population are most crueily treated; and when driven to despe ration by bad laws, they become reckless and des perate, and seek an asylum in a foreign land, though it be at the expense ot transporation. The excellent treatment of convicts sent to Van Pieman's Land, actually oflers a premium to our bone-gnuwing anu otlal-eating peasantry to commit crime, and must disabuse all pre conceived notions of the "horrors of transportation," if we except our very penal settle ments at Port Arthur and Macquarrie Harbor, where none but the vilest of the vile, the feculents, and the scum of society, are sent.?Aorn/tm Dcejmtrh, Sept. Cotton Opinion or a War with America. [Krom the Liverpool Chronicle ] Hut after all it would be the very wantonness of lolly and pugnacity for two such countries as Eng land and the United States to waste their strength and energies and means in fighting about a distant, bleak, and barren country, which an amicable ar rangement could so divide between them as to find ample room and to snare for all the settlers whom they can send into it for generations to come. But we will not antici(>ate that the troubled spirits of the Polkites will be able to drive their more sober mind ed countrymen into any such extreme madness A war between England and the United States would be the greatest calamity which could alllict the civi lized world. Although under ditrerent forms of go vernment, iliey are the two guardians ol freedoms yet in store for nil mankind, and it would be a feast to the des|H>ts of the earth to see them weakening and tearing each other to pieces in nmd and sense less hostilities. It must not be. We are only not American, because we are English, but next to the prosperity and welfare of our own country, our as pirations and wishes are for the happiness of our brethren in the United Stales. They are of the same race, the same blood, and the same language. It savors of fratricide for two countries so relateif to each other to talk of drawing the sword under al most any provocation. Foreign Theatricals. M. LuoroM) Dk Mkyek.?M. Leopold He Meyer was born nt Vienna on the 20th ol December, 1816. He is of noble descent, and Ins family is ol high rank, and was, at one time, jmssessed of rawer and aflluence. I lis father was State counsellor and knight at the Austrian court. Ilia brother Johan do Meyer, formerly held the rank of court physician at Constantinople, to Abdul Med sclnd, iHte Sultan of Turkey, and is now court phy sician to the reigning prince of Wallachia, and alao one of the most celebrated geologists of his day.? Ai an early age he was sent to the University of Vienna, where he prosecuted his studies until his seventeenth year, being educated for the legal pro fession, and left the University at the close of that year, having completed his studies. Bred up with liigli eX|*ctationa, and educated in the Ian of luxury, and case, he was ill-prepared to meet the sudden wrench that awaited him. His father died suddenly from an attack of cholera, and, left to the bent of his own inclination, he determined to prosecute mu sic, which was the delight and desire of his youth. Fortunately for the youthful lipoid de Meyer, his musical genius did not conceal itself among luxury and ioreign occupations. While quite a child he had an extraordinary fondness for the pianoforte, and was continually playing everything he heard by ear, after his own fashion ; arid before he had reached his sixteenth year he had become so wonderful as an amateur performer, that his company was eager ly sought in the most rwhtrcM* salons ofVienna.? At length his name reached the ears ol the Etnpe* ror. Ilia majesty having heard (hat a young noble man, whose father was attached to the crown, had obtained, as an amateur pianolorte player, an extra ordinary success in the drawing-rooms ol the aris tocracy of Vienna, expressed a desire to hear him, and accordingly the young pianist went to the palace and performed before their imperial majesties, the emperor and empress of Austria, Hnd the court.? From this circumstance and from this day we may date the commencement of the brilliant career of the future great artist. For nearly two years he ap plied himself to study and practice with the most in defatigable zeal and industry under Francois Schu bert, professor of the Conservatoire of Vienna, and Czcrny; and before lie was nineteen years of age he determined to travel, and create for himselt a name that would blazon farther than the proudest an cestral banner, and fructify a talent that would prove to hint a dearer source of wealth than the mines of Golconda. * * * * * Of his introduction Ht the imperial palace we find the following anecdote in the journals o, the day :? .Some days after the count Witte's arrival at St. Petersburg, having the honor to dine with their im perial majesties, he related that he had journeyed from Odessa with a young pianst of extraordinary merit, whereupon the empress, enchanted with the account, instantly despatched one of her coaches for M. de Meyer,determined on hearing him that same evening at court. lie accordingly came to the pa lace and played his fantasies from themes on San nambula and Anna Bolena, which produced an as tonishing effect on every one present. The empress, after hearing the first morceau, rose front her seat, and approaching the piano remained standing behind the cliair during the whole performance, uttering aloud frequent demonstrations ol surprise and de light. * * * ? 0 * * k After this concert Leopold de Meyer received from the hands of the emperor and empress testi monials the most flattering to an artist; lor, at the same time that he was presented with a magnificent diamond ring both from the emperor and empress, he obtained the nomination by diploma of /einniste extraordinaire to the Russian court, and was enrol led honorary member of the Philharmonic Society ? ? * # i of St. Petersburg. We may also quote, as referring to this period, the following quaint anecdote from the Sunday Time* and Musical World : "Uponthe present young Sultan coming to the throne, not only wine was forbidden throughout his dominions, but even music ! But the taste for the magic god lias, within the last tew years, spread so rapidly throughout Turkey, that the Sultan's com mand has gone forth unheeded. The Turks will assuredly never abolish music, however they may discountenance wine." We can answer for the above. Since the Sulton made the acquaintance of the jovial pianist, Leopold de Meyer, he has been music-mad?and many a bot tle have they quaffed together, under the rose. The fact is the Sultan is, at heart, a bon vivant and a boon companion. He loves a good dinner and a tlask ot Rhenish as mnch as the humblest of his subjects.? He loves also, a pretty girl?but his taste that way is sufficiently notorious. In Leopold de Meyer he met one after his own heart?and the first night of their acquaintance they got "jolly" together. De Meyer played the Sultan intp ecstacies?and bottle after bottle so raised the spirits of him of "all the Tur keys," that he fairly threw his arms round De Mey er's neck and hugged him. Since then music has been at a premium in Constantinople?wine is in statu ejtio?womrn more thun ever adored?and in honor of Leopold de Meyer, a statue will be forth with erected. ????*?? At every concert a |ierfect Italian furore wan crea- I ted, the natural phleghmatism of the Germans fa ding away before the miraculous powers of the pi anist. Hitherwn he had seldom or iiever played with out encore, but the people ot Franc fort encored him twice at every performance. * * * Leopold de Meyer gave four public concerts in Fa ns?two at Ererd'B grand saloons, and two at the Theatre llalien. He performed at the monster con cert of that wonderful and versatile genius, Hector Berlioz, held at the Cirque Olimpique, in the Champs Elysles, before eight hundred musicians; and in a place where, from its immensity of size, no other pianist had ever dreamed ot playing before. An accident occurred to him on his way to this concert, which had nearly put him liort de combat, being Hung from a fiacre, and receiving a severe contusion in one of his fingers, winch quite incapacitated him from using it with any effect. But, as one of the French journalists remarked, alluding to the acci cent,and his performance immediately subsequent? " M. de Meyer seemed to us to have been able to spare moie fingers than one, for we never heard such showers of notes, even from four hundB, elici ted on the piano, as he produced in his |>erforman ces at Hector Berlioz' concert." Leo|>old de Meyer was encored twice at the monster concert, and the favorite piece, the Marche Mnroeaine, which he played there, was arranged by Hector Berlioz tortus whole grand orchestra, and performed at the next concert with tremendous effect. It was the first time M. Berlioz found any modern pianoforte mu sic worthy to be transferred into orchestral score. * * * * Wherever he goes Leopold de Meyer per forms on no other instrument than one of Erard's (intent seven octave grand pianofortes. He is ful ly justified in this selection, tor it is now universal ly acknowledged on every side that there are no in .-truments in Europe like them. For beauty of ap pearance combined with strength ; tor delicacy and facility of touch; for power and purity of tone,they far suriwss any pianos we have heard. The two huge establishments belonging to this house in Paris and London, we are confidently informed, can hardly meet the increusing demands for their new instruments. Leopold de Meyer lias sent one of these, inunutactured purposely for himself, before him to New York. A foreign tidier to whom the Queen presented a diamond ring, is stated to have sold it to a Jew for ?3. The Krnns are said to have made it a stipulation with the southern managers in the United States, with whom they have concluded engagements, that their line ot characters shall not be played by any other " stars" prior to their appearance. Three of the greatest ornaments of the British stage in its palmy days have been staying at Brigh ton tor some time past, namely, Charles Kemble, Charles Voung, und Liston. The two former are in good health, but the latter, we regret to say, is la boring under a depression ot spirits which cuts him off from the usual enjoyments of society, and makes life at best but a burthen. Miss Elen Lane, late of the Liverpool Theatre lloyai, makes her debut at Drary Lane Theatre this evening. A girl named ElizabethMillington,aged eighteen, attempted suicide in the pit of the Adeiphi Tneatre, on Thursday evening, by taking oil of almonds. Unrequited love is said to have be?jn the cause. Ireland. O'Connell was shooting grouse on Kerry Moun tains. The Irish Collegiate Hill is again being revived in all the intensity and virulence of discussion, by a protest, on the part of the Irish Catholic Bishops and Archbishops, against the measure. It appears that seventeen of these ecclesiastics are against, and nine in lavor of the bill. The former have pub lished their views to the world, and have thus shown tite divided councils to which the uew mea sure has given birth. Amongst the minority is the Primate, Dr. C roily, and the Archbishop of Dublin, Mr Murray. The Government, in the meantime, nothing daunted, ara taking prompt measures for the erection of the new seminaries, and in the course ol twelve months Irom this time, they will probably be in existence, if not in operation. The unanimity which has long marked the proceedings of the Ca tholic body in the sister kingdom is thus broken,and the heart-burnings to which the new act, and the Bequest Act, have given lise, are pregnant with im jHirtant consequences us regards tne future. Mk. O'Connell at Darrynane?An English gentleman, with whom we have conversed, has gi ven us a very animated account of a day at Darry nanc, the great episode of which was a hunt with those celebrated " little beagles," which have bo of ten tormed the theme, and we believe with justice, of the agitator's pr.use. Nothing could be more complete than the transformation of the "embodied thunderbolt of Conciliation Hall"?-anch was the figure made use of bv our English friend?and the merry hunter of oar Kerry mountains " inhaling the ocean breeze that comes freighted with health and vigor from the coast of Labrador." In the evening n|large party of Englishmen, Irishmen, Frenchmen and Italians?Tories, Kadiculs, Conservatives and Kejiealers. sat down to a board which, said our friend, "bore all the characteristics of that, of an I Irish Prince.** " It was," be eided," a iwel (*4Wi liation Hall,from which all tho?<- tiqare with which this extraordinary man sets tlw world Hv th* ear were carefully excluded Kverv m?n Wt Home with hia neighbor, and, sbovr nil, * ih hi? H. ?*, a ad when the old man retired lor tb* ai?Ht.w h that bland and affectionate expression which h*thr?w> into his lace at his own rirewde, thom who would have battled with him loot to foot on Mi* ? ? al ..r religionsarena,cmiM not restrain the wi?h that hw lot had been east M MSI MM scenes >.t hm| life which he aeeane,hheie* Ml 1 IMM m.?t ?o.< ed to adorn " Siity strangers were e*irri?.a. I .??< slept at Hurrynane Ahbry iia Wrdw-daf iiflu Tralre Chronicle. ?pala. The troopa were all under arm a at Nifugt am >?* the seventh and sulise.pjenl days and lar*r deta*ft menta were statmned in the jiriMt ijwi atreeia, and three pieces ol artillery, with two????? M >? tar.try and some cavalry, occupied T??rrero >?? the ninth. -Home disturbance took place on the at*fc( <4 the seventh, and stones were thrown al the troopa, but it did not appear that any thing nn?? mftunm hot occurred. Madrid papers of the Itafi in?t?al stale thai the capital had resumed its ordinary state id ty, und that there is no loafer any appreheaauw ?4 an outbreak. The Castellano publisin - an extra* t trout a Lis bon paper, which states that the bsarnl Iriarte had landed at a small place m tn? neighbor hood of Oporto on the lat <?t August, where ho pat himself in communication with the >|mntah ran grants in that quarter, among w hom he distributed money and arms He endeavored to |>rocar< , am port for the S|<ani*li frontiers, but tailed II,? arnva having come to the knowledge of the authoritiew, steps were taken to arrest him, but he mo eedrd ia getting away, and ia suiipoeed to have embarked on board a packet bound tor England Nrnir |>eo|>b supposed, however, that he waa Mill concealed ta the neighborhood ol (>|iorU>. The Htruldosays a conspiracy has been diacovrr ed at Ahcant, and that a lieutenaut-colonel in re tirement, cousin of Zurbano, waa to have fieen at the head of the movement which was projected, but which has been prevented by the vigilance nl the authorities. Several persons have l?een arrreted (Mrmnny, The "religious" excitement in Germany con tinues at its height. The progress of M ltonge, not withstanding the attempts of the governmeni to MM down all demonstrations ol enthusiasm, is a species of triumph, On the 19th, he left Stutgardt for llm, and he was accompanied out of the cttv by a vast crowd of inhabitants. Some of the most enthusiastic of his admirers accompanied hint all the way to Ulm. In the Saxon Chambers the opi>osition to the {overnment, on account of the recent events at leipsic, are so strong, that the government cannot depend upon the supjairt of above one-third of the members, and it was thought that the Cabinet would be obliged to dissolve the Chambers. Letters from Vienna state that the religious excitement has ex tended to that capital. A German catholic congrega tion has been formed, and at its first meeting up wards of 3000 persons attended. The meeting ha ving been called without the leave of the authorities, it was disjiersed by a battalion of infantry. Saxony. The Lower Chamber of Saxony passed, at its first sitting, on the 13th, a motion for the appointment of an extraordinary commission to prepare an address in reply to the King's speech, but to withhold the presentation until the Chamber should again discuss the propriety of such a step, as well as to give an opportunity to the Upper Chamber of joining the Lower in its project of address. This act of oppo sition to the will of the government, which had con veyed an intimation to the Upjier Chambers net to address the Crown, was curried by 57 to 1-1. Switzerland. The Courier Suisse of the 16th ult published in the Pays de Vaud, gives the Icllowing account of a club, said to have been organised by "Voung Germany," for the overthrow of religion and royalty, by means of atheism and regicide. It in probably much exag gerated :?"Some arrests recently made in a small town of the canton of Neufchatel, and the avowals obtained of the individuals thus captured, have led lo the detection of a vast plot organized in Switzer land by the members of the 4 Young Germany' as sociation. The present centre of the assuciation is Lausanne, but Barne, Zerich. Bale, Geneva, and twenty-lour other minor towns, have lodges of the same conspirators. It is aWo affirmed that there are German clubs connected with the society in several towns of France, including Stratsburgh and Mar seilles. The object of the association, as is clearly proven by the writings and correspondence of the leaders, and the disclosures just obtained, is to ef fect the subversion of the religious, political, and so cial organization of Getmany, and, successively, that of the other states of Europe, by the preaching of atheism, the gradual demoralization of the people, and, if need be, the assassination of public function aries. The principal leaders are Hermann DoJIeke, of Erfurt, a public teacher in the canton of Vaud, and formerly a teacher of languages in Neufchatel; Max Hodman, a Bavarian pharmacian ; Wilhelm Marr, late editor of a German anarchic paper, caUed the Journal of the Clubs, and who is not only sur uamed by the men of his party 'Robespierre,' but also adds thatname to his signature; Julius Standaw of Gotha, professor of German at the college of Chaux-de-Fonds, in Neufchatel This adventurer lias been arrested there, and expelled, with four of his associates, from the territory of the Swiss con lederacy, where he had lived as an emigrant for five years past. The authorities have been justly alarmed at the active and crafty perseverance with which these propagandists have enlisted under their ban ner a considerable number of the twenty to twenty live thousand German workmen established in tne several cantons of Switzerland. Marr's hideous journal had lately procured as many as five hundred subscribers among them." Poland. There has been great suffering in the ancient pa latinates of Sandomir, Plock, Lublin, Augustow, .is well as in part of the palatinate of Cracovia.? ("amine and all the evils in its train had been felt.? In those unfortunate provinces, entire masses of people, deprived of every necessary, wander about ihe country, divided into bands, in search of the most loathsome food, wluch isoftener more adapted to soother their hunger than to afford nourishment. Numberless diseases, the unavoidable consequence of destitution, rapidly dimmish the number ol these unfortunate men, and despair sometimes drives them to acts of violence which the authorities are not always able to repress. An interesting letter from the banks of the Vistu la,give an account of the visit of theEmperor Nicho las to Warsaw 7 The letter says that all the Empe ror's time at Warsaw was engrossed by military t>onyi and parade. He repeatedly visited the citadel, is if to convince himself with his own eyes that it is in a good posture of defence. The rest of his lime the Emperor spent in reviews, military exer cises and ceremonial levees. He also paid a visit to the Students of Warsaw, on the following occasion. One day, the Emperor, pernambulating the streets of Warsaw in his car riage, fell in with two students, who neglected to uncover their heads in his presence. He immediate ly ordered his coachman to overtake them, and he, himself asked them it they did not know who he was? One of them having answered, MNo, my General." He abruptly retorted, "What, then, not know your Sovereign?" ThiB apostrophe struck the two young men with terror, white his Majesty added, "Look at me well, that another time you may not torget the iierson of your Emi?eror, but I "hall take care besides, to make myself known to til the students." Next morning all the schools re ceived an order to ap|>ear before his Majesty, with due solemnity, their governors and prolessors at ?heir head. lhe Emperor walked slowly through their ranks enquiring of Marshal Paskewicx whether he was satisfied with the students of Warsaw. The Marshal, always on his guard, and knowing well his master, cautiously replied, " that he was not altogether quite satisfied. The Emperor then cast a frowning look ovar the >oor students, and fixed his eye ii|>on one of thein, unfortunately a plain-looking youth, whom he point ed out with his fingers to his suite, saying, " Mark, what mouth, what snout?I will wager that he is a wretch, ca|>able of any crimes." The unhappy|stu dent thus described happened precisely to be re markable for his good conduct and proficiency; and ?s the professor ventured to whisper the fact to the Counsellor of State, Muchanow, who is at the head of public instruction in Poland, Muchanow thought it his duty to repeat it to the Emporor, but his Majesty r? linked him in no gentle terms, anil told him to hold his tongue, while lie himself gave vent to his angry feelings, inn lecture to the students, in a tone and spirit very similar to his celebraied speech bestowed on the municipality of Warsaw. On this occasion iic closed his paternal admonition to the students with the exhortation that they were henceforward to behave in such a manner ss to deserve the good opinion of the marshal, as otherwise he would close their school and distribute the students without dis tinction among his different regiments, where they would be obliged to serve as common soldiers and recruits. It is not difficult to imagine the conster naiion which this imperial speech has spread iq every Polish family