THE NEW YORK HERALD. Vol. XI., No. 974?Whole No. 41IVL NEW YORK, SATURDAY MORNING, OCTOBER 25, 1845. Prtee TwoCerti. THE NEW YORK HERALD. JAMES GORDON DENNETT. Proprietor. Circulation?Forty Thousand. DAILY HERALD?Every day. Price 2 cents pee copy?$7 115 la-r annum -payable in advance. WEELY HERALD?Every Saturday?Price 6'4 cents per cony?t) I2J. mm per annum?payable iu advance. ADVERTISEMENTS at the uiual price.?always cash in advance. 1'RI NTI NO of all kind, executed with beauty and despatch fCr-AU letter, or communications, by mail, addressed to the establish . shnirnt. must lie po.t p.id, or the postage will be (ft ducted Irani the subscription innney remitted JAMES GORDON BENNETT. Proprietor ol the Nkw Yoiik Hkhai.ii E.i ahli.hmb.nt. Northwest corner of Kuluio s*d Nwuu .tract.. PEOPLE'S LINE OK STEAMBOATS cepted ? from the FOR ALBANY?Daily. Sunday* E.cepted ? Throneh Direct.?At 8 o'clock P. M.I' pier between Coiirilandtaud Liberty atreeU. Ht.ainh.iat HENDRICK HUDSON, Uapt. R. G. Crimen den, will Ica.e on Mouday, Wednesday and Friday evenings, at 8 o'clock. Steamboat K N'lCKERBOCKKH, Capt A. Houghton, will leave on Tuenl ty. Thursday and Saturday eveniujt*, at 6 o'clk. At 1 o'clock P. M., Landing at luteimediate Fiacrs?From the foot of Barclay .treet? NORTH " Steamboat NORTH AMERICA, Capt. R. H. Furry, will leave ou Monday, Wednesday, Friday and Suuday afternoons, at i o'clock. Steamboat SOUTH AMERICA, Ce.pr. L- W. Brainard, w ill leave on Tuesday, Thursday and SaVlrday afternoons, at 4 o'clock. Passengers taking either of the above Lines will arrive i Albany in ample time lor the inoruii ,6 lrain of cars lor the east or west. 1 he tlo ts are new an'!, substantial, are furnished wit t new and elegantstate room-., sad forspend and accommo dations i-e unrivalled ou the Hudson. Freight taken at moderate r ,t,?. All persons nre lorhtd trus?.,U(t any ?f the Bonis of this line. without a writteu order fro'.o the Ca'ptaiua or Agents, cor Passage or p reight apply on board the Boat., or to or 1 iUJjgt; or r reignt apply on board the Boats. or to arc P. C. SC I tULTX, at the Office on fin* Wharf. NOTlCi'V?HOUR CHANOKD. T'rfK U. S. MAIL LINE FOR ALBANY *?'d the lnterm-diale Landings, on and after AVduesdnv, Oct. 2>J. will leave the foot of 11 itcl.iy street f Albany, Daily,at 4 P. M. instead of live, as heretoture. ?g-j JSOT1CA' STAT F.N ISLAND FERRY, FOOT OK WHITEHALL STREET ^ n aud after Monday, October 24th, ouly our boat will run on this Ferry, and the trips will be as follows:? Le.vc Btaten Island. Leave New York. 8 A.M. 9 A.M. Id do II do 12 M. IP.M. Jo 2). P M. Vi do 5 do 6 do u!6rc REGULAR U. S. MAIL LINES BETWEEN CINCINNATI AND LOUISVILLE. MORNING LINK at 10 o'clock A. M. BEN FRANKLIN Ne.7, J. B. Summons, .master. PIKE No. II, J Armstrong, master. EVENING LINE at6 o'clock P M. SIMON KENTON, W. Mcl'lain, master. BEN FRANKLIN No.6, W.McClellan, master. These boat*, forming two daily lines, will run regularly, lea ving punctudiy at the hour, and will take freight and passen gers to and from intermediate landings, at Die usual rales. Freight will be received for these line# at the Mail Wharf Boat, loot ot Broadway. Every effort will be used to accommodate shippers and pas sengers. 8TRADER Ik GORMAN, ) . ol lui'rrc ROGERS Ik SHERLOCK, FOR. SAUGERTIES AND CATSKIL. THE Splendid Steamboat JAMES MADI SON, Capt F. J. Copperly, will leave the foot f Cedar street, every Monday, Wednesday, ami Saturday, at 6 o'clock, P.M. For freight or passage, apply oo hoard, orto O. F. Wasnwright, Agent, on the wharf. ?19 Im'mc NEW YORK. ALBANY AND TROY LINE. FOR ALBANY AND TROY DIRECT. ? from the pier at the foot of Conrtlundt _ .street. the Passengers taking this boat will arrive in time to takeorth Moruing Train of ( nr> from Troy west to Buffalo, and n to Saratoga and Lake George. The low pressure steamboat EMPIRE, Captain R. B. Ma ey, every Tnesdsv. Tharsdaynnd Saturday ut 8 o'clock. The steamboat COLUMBIA, Captain Win. H. Peck, every Monday, Wednesday arid Fridttv afternoon, at 6 o'clock. I< or Pessary or freight apply ou board, or to C. Clark, the olftc- OH rue wnsrt Freight taken on the inn it reasonable terms. Freight must he put in charge of itie Freight Agent, or the cu ^vany will not l?e responsible for loss- No freight taken a*'^r J, o'clock. n23 it uic STEAMER GREAT BRITAIN. IN conteijuence of delay occasioned by repairing the Pro^i,, uf this Mill', it is Hjiind necessary-to_ j,er *ai|nig till Tuesday, the |,1S(. ou wliicli day, at 2 o clock, she ViH positively sail. R'^H'D IRV1N, 98 Front street t,V1'? KEY WEST AND AI'ALA I' "II^OijA. to sail on the 30th Oct. The 4"u stnrr FLORIDA, Capt. Clift, will sail as above. She can accommodate c limited pe*uumberof cabin and steerage passengers iu the most com'orta manner, on moderate terms. Persons in teudii g to ' .mbark for either of the al?ove ports, should em brace tin s. ery favorable opportunity, by making i application on hoard, foot of Beekuian street, or to trWL-l.u \l..MITI?lt a v ?' JOSEPH McMURRAY, corner of Pine <v23rc and South streets. KOR NEW ORLEANS? Louisiana and New ? York Line?To sail Sum ? day. lit Not.?The elegant iliwt sailing packet barque GENESEE, Miuot, inss ser^will positively sail a* above, her regular day. Kor freight or passage. having haudioine furnished accom modations, apply nu board at Orleans * liurf loot of Wall at., or to E K. COLLINS (k CO., 56 South it. I'eaitively no goods received on board after K riday evening, 31st Oct. Packet shin OSWEGO, Johnston, master, will succeed the Gcueice, and sail lot It November, her regnlarday. Agent in New Orleans James E. Woodruff, who will promptly lorward all goods to his address. o'llm FOR MOBILE?Packet of the 1st (November? ? The splendid fast sail tug packet ship TALLAHAS aSe-E, Capt. Stoddard, will positively sail as above, tie-1 regular dvy. The accommodation i of this vessel for cabin, second cabin and sleerace praseiigers cannot be surpassed. Those wishing to secure bei iIk, should not fail to make early application ou hoard, foot of Wall slreet.or to W. 8t J. T. TAPSCOTT, 75 South street, o23mc corner Maiden lane. NEW LINE OK LIVERPOOL PACKETS.? ? Regular packet of the 26tli Ocmber.?The elegant nfatt sailing | acket ship GARKICK, It. G. II. Trask, inistei, nurtheu 1100 tons, will sail as shove, her regular day. The accommodations lor cabin, second cabin and steerage |ws seugera are misurpussed by any other vessel in port, and as a number ol her passengers are already engaged, those desirous ol seenriug berths should make early application, to Joseph Mr MURRAY, ?22 Corner of Pine and South streets, New York. newl;neokpa( ketskorLiverpool ??Packet ol 26th of October.?The splendid fast sail gins and favorite packet ship OARitICK, ll.Otons bin in. ??? i.apt. B. J. H. Trask, will sail ou Monday, Oct. 27th, hrr regular day. 'i'U- .L: . The ships of this line being all 1000 tons and upwards, per sons aboi'i to embark for ihe old couut.-y will not fail to see the advantage* to be derived fioin selecting this line in prefe lence to in, othr", as their great capacity renders them every ore ctuniortabl* anil couveuieut than slops of a smaller Way more class,and their accommodations for cabin, second cabin and strrsge passenger*, it is well known, are superior to those of any other line ol packets. Persons wishing to secure berths, should not tail to inake early applicatiou on board, foot of Wall stieet, or to W. it J. T. TAPfSCOl T, 75 Sooth street, KOR LIVERPOOL?The New Line-Regular ? Packet of 21st November.?1The auperior fast sailing .naeket ship HOTTINGUER, 11150 tons burthen, Ira ilur.ley,master, will sail ns above, her regular day. KorIreiglit or passage, having spleudid, large and comfortable ?lute rooms and cabin, apply on board, west side Burling slip, or to WOOUHUlL (k MINTURN, 87 South street. Price of rassace $100. The packet ship Liverpool, 1154 tons, Capt. John Eldridge, will succeed the iiotiiiiguer, aud sail on her regular day, 2lsl December oHmr KOR GLASGOW?Regular Packet The well ? known last sai'iug Br. harr|ue ANN HAHLEY. ^^bKh art Scott, mailer, 450 toll*, daily expected, will lot ei ? nil i|ui> k despatch. Kor Ireight or pssia-ge, hiving excellent accommodations,ap ply to WOODHULL U MINTURN, o22me 87 South ?trret ?- KOR NEW ORLEANS?New Line-Positively ? Kirst Packet, or Freight or Passage b rer?The splen ? lid and wll known lirst clasi and very fast sailing jvtCael snip HIN OOO, will positively clear on Kriday and sail without fib She Ins very superior accommodations for cabin, 2d cabin and steerage passengers, having elegant state romns. Kor freight or passage, which will he ttkeu much lower than by any other vessel, please apply oil board, foot ol Wall atreet, Murray s wharf, or to JOHN HEHDMANIkCO 61 Sooth street, N. B.?The packet ship Caludooia will succeed the Hindoo, and positively sail ou Wednesday, 29th Oct. or passage free. Apply *? shove. o22mc KOR LIVERPOOL?The new and apleudid ? packet shin RAPPAHANNOCK, Captain Drum jiniind, burthen MnO tons and upwards, will positive I y Kriday, the 25th instant, tier regular day. This ele gant vessel offers a must desirable opportunity for those about Inrinbark lor the old country; having superior accommodatious to any alnp now up for the above port. Kor passage in cabin, second Cabin or steerage,at the lowest rates, please apply on board, pier No. 3 North river, or to JOHN HKKDMAN k CO., o20rc 61 South street near Wall stieft ^ Hilt LIVKHPOOL?Regular Packet of 6tn Nov. Jcliw well known fast sailing packet ship IN HE bPENDENLE. Lantain Allen, will sail as above, ben g ncr regular day. Having superior accommodations for cabin, second cabin and steerage pnsseiigrra, persons wishing to embark should make immediate application on board, foot of Maiden lane, or to JOSEPH McMUHHaY. Kl'R NEW ORLEANS?Kirst Regular Paekei? ? With Despatch?Ths first class fast sailing nseliet eshin HOSE STANDIBH, Capt. Spencer, will sail as knove, tier regular day. The aecoininodaiioiis lor cabin, second cabin and steerage jmsre'igers arc uuaurpatsed hy any vessel in |>ort, and aa a num fs r1 ' passengers are already engaged, persons desirous olaeen rj?g le-tths should make immediate application on board, writ (ifBnrling slip, or to ,il?rrc JIWhrH MeMURK AY, cor Pine and Month sts. KOH LI VKJU'OOL?New Lie? Regular, Packet gut the hit 11 Oct.?The elegant (ait sailing Target (.ship G \ Rltli K, B.J II. Trask, master, of 1 loo 1 ? of ns above, her regular day. .'oi fright or passage, having accommodations iinrqusllrcHor splendor or comlort, apply ou board, at Orleans wharf, loot ol \Vd street, or to 0 E K. COLLINS k CO., 56 South stre?t. Pr.ce of passage $100 ..., , Packet ship ILpsciiis, Capt. Asa Eldndge, 1200 tons, will sue eeeil Ibe te.rrick anil sail 2Hth Nov . her icgnlarday. s28 PACKETS KOR HAVKE?Second Line ? ? Ike packat ship ONEIOA, Cnpt. Jsmrs Kunck, -Will sail nil the 1st Si November. b or freight or SSSrrfpplyto jo YD It H1NCKKN, ol mc No. 9 Tontin* Ba lding, 88 Wallet suit Nm< Temperance Convention. I Rochutm, N. Y., Oct. 22, 1845. 1 hasten to akotcli a brief account of tbo Mais Tempe rance Convention, now in session in this city of mills and manufactures. This Convention convened to-day in the Washington street Church, Vice Chancellor Whittlesey, of this place, in the ahair, assisted by Henry Dwight, Esq., of Geneva, and He v. Dr. Luckey, of Niagara, and Mr. War ren as Secretary. After prayer, by Rev. John Marsh, the delegates were called, when it appeared that twenty six counties were represented. On motion of Dr. Dwiuht, a business committee of seven was appoiuted, as follows E. C. Deluvnn, of Saratoga ; Rev. John Marsh, of New York; Rev. Dr. Luckey, of Niagara; Rev. llenry Dwight, of Geneva; Judge Vauvalkenburgh, of Chemung ; Judge Haskell, ol Genesee ; Charles llartlett, of Dutchess. A communication from J. I). Husbands w as read. Mr. Husbands is President of the County Temperance So- j ciety. Mr. Gouoh, of poisoned cordial notoriety, having been ' invited to attend the convention, a letter was received I and read, declining the invitation, en account of previ- 1 ous engagements. Rev. Mr. Marsh, from the Business Committee, re ported the following resolutions : ? 1. Resolved, That in re assembling as a Temperance Convention for the State of New York, we feel the re sponsibilities resting upon us, by tire excise law refer ring tbo question of liconse or no license, in the towns and cities of the State, to the ballot box. 2. Resolved, That the more we contemplate the act of the legislature, in answer to the prayer submitting the question of license or no license directly to the people of the several cities and towns of the State, the more fully are wo satisfied with its justice, as truly democratic in principle, recognising the people as the suitable regula tor ol their own police, as submitting to the electors one of the most important questions ever brought beloro them, and therefore, with the exception of the exclusion ofthe city of New York from the same privileges granted to the rest ol tho State, demanding our support, and most prompt and vigilant improvement. 3. Resolved, That in the acknowledgment of the good intentions of legislators in the enactment of license laws we are satisfied that the license system has proved an en tire failure ; that it has neither secured the best men for the retail of intoxicating liquors, nor restrained intempe rance, nor brought reveuue to the State : but, on the con trary, by legalizing the traffic, has made it respectable, and poured over the land a desolating tide of evil; and that the good of the community requires that in the towns and cities ol the State of New York, do licenses be ?[ranted by the people lor the further sale of intoxicating iquors. These resolutions were for a time laid upon the table, to hear an address read by Mr. Blatchford of your city. This address was written by a committee appointed by a Convention held in Albany last winter. It is a long,able, eloquont poper, and is to be published and scattered broadcast over the State. It was impossible for me to send you a copy, or 1 should have done so. After the reuding of the address, the Convention ad journed until 2 o'clock P. M. iVTMSOOS SESSION. Dr. Luckey moved that the Supreme Court and the members of tho bar attending the same, be invited to at tend the sessions ot the Convention. After which, the first resolutiou in the abovo series was taken up. Rev.Mr. Marsh expounded the new excise law, and cainestly urged upon the Convention the importance of seizing upon every advantage it ulfords. Connecticut, ho said, had a similar law, but by some meant it had been repealed. The traffic in ardent spirits had thoreupou become equally general as before. The ]>eople saw the folly of it and asked and obtained a law, referring the question to commissioners to be chosen by tho people. 1'his election has recently been held, and tho number of towns voting for license is 20, while 220 voted ugainst it. It was his opinion that if we do our duty in this State, we may have a similar law here. The eyes of the world are upon us, and men look with interest to the issue. A short time since the cause appeared dark and discour aging?now all is bright and cheering. The old country is moving?Germany and England are setting brilliant examples. Ifftv. Mr. Dnnot approved of the spirit and tone of the resolution and its high design. He thought the cause of . Temperance owed its present high position to the zeal and self-sacrifice of its true, consistent, perseveiing [ friends. Our State Legislature had given the friends of temperance the right to labor, and they ought not to neglect to do their duty. While in some towus King Alcohol has bean conquered, in others he still hears the sway. These towns must be besieged, mid the traffic broken up. Prudeuce, as well as zeal is requisite?and the time for action is now. If alcohol is allowed to triumph now, the cause will retrograde rapidly. Mr. D. mentioned some towns where tho public expenses had been reduced more than one-third by the influence of temperance. Mr. Graves, in speaking upon the resolution snid, the time bad come when we must do something more than inctely to talk and pass resolutions. A lew men must be appoiuted in each town to act as committee of vigilance and action,?to move the masses to work. Our minis ters must take hold of the work. They have stood back for a few years, for public opinion-and to give way to the YVashingtonians-but they must stand back no more. They are bound by every consideration ol morality and religion to work faithfully. Asa U. Smith, an eccentric and eloquent Quaker far mer, snid he hal not much fear of the ultimate triumph ol this cause. It is a triumph to have a Convention like this? but u greater triumph to have secured the law passed by our Legislature last winter?to have an oppor tunity fur carrying this great work to the ballot boxes, where the power of the people may be felt We must make the people feel that their politics are a part of their religion?that it is not a good religion or good tempe rance to observe the duties of either all the days of the year, except one, and on that to violate the principles of each. If all the good and intelligent men cf our country keep away from the ballot box, we shall soon hnvo u loaler dispensation?but if all good men do their duty, we shall have a Christianity and ballot-box justice alike ?and, better than all, a temperance triumph. The stone is removed trom the mouth ol tho well?all wo have to | do now is to draw. Mr. Blatchford, of New Y'ork, said, if he had ever despaired he should despair no longer. The occasion for it is gone. The two first speakers spoke ot their " fears " I The last of his " hopes " These two are the springs of ' .ill action. Both fear and hope nerved the arms of our I fathers in the revolution. They feared their liberties might be taken trom them?but they hoped to triumph ? ihey fought, and did triumph. Mr. B. made a very inte resting reference to the progress and triumph of the cause. The people are convinced, and when this con viction is brought into practical action, our success will be speedy. Tlie present is an important crisis. Judgo Brown, of Monroe county, felt his responsibili ties. He had both hopes and fears. In his town licenses lind been refused, and yet more liquor had been sold than before, although prosecutions had been instituted. Mr. Jours, ot Rochester, said it was mueh easier to get people to attend large conventions, than to induce thorn to act consistently. Dr. Bartlett, of Dutchess county, did not doubt that tho rumiellersjwould oppose the movement contemplated by the resolution, because it would annihilate their bu siness. YVe wish thorn no harm, although they accuse ns of wishing to ride over them. If we do ride over them, we will do it smoothly. They have rode over us "rough shed;" and he had no doubt every foot of the soil ol this town had drank in the blood of those who hud been crushed by this monster vice. Yet there are innny others, good citizens, engaged in the traffic, who, he hoped, would be convinced that it was their duty to vote with us. In the course of his remarks, Mr. B. said it was not sufficient that we vote " no license;" we must do all other duties growing out of our obligations in the cause. Mr. Bradley, of Tenn Y'an, deemed the course of tem perance men inconsistent. They see death and pauper ism scattered over the land, and honor tho men engaged in it. They should not do so. Rumsellers are criminals ?murderers?and worse than all others. I'oor fellows, lie pitied them ! Other individuals spoke upon the resolutions, to little effect, when the Convention adjourned until evening, at which time the long address was read again, and follow ed by remarks of an eloquent character, from J. A. Spen cer, Esq. of Utica, and Millard Fillmore. Those gentle men were eloquent and imnressive, and listened to with intorcst. But the mail is closing, and I most defer other notes till to-morrow. Grkat Flood ?The Luzerne Democrat of the 13th iriHtant, mentions that the null of Measrs Whites, at Providence, Ken., mod tor the manufacture of scythes and axes, deuuminated the "Star Works," was swept by the flood from its foundation, and not a single vestige is now left to mark the spot where it stood, to gether with the saw mill, which was just finished and their fluishing shop, with their wholo contents, consist nig of a large quantity of ready made work, tools, ma chinery, lie., Sic. The up|>er story of the axe factory was occupied with machinery for manufacturing bedsteads, and was owned by Messrs tiennet Si Throop.with a large quantity of manufactured work; and also, by Mr. H.Kast i too k with machinery, for manufacturing carriages, wa gons, Sic. The whole contents of the building were taken away. The building of Messrs. White was also destroyed, and the hiidges near to it swept away. The blacksmith shop of Mr. Abraham Williams, the shoe shop of Mr. Staples?tho new two story house occupied by Mr. staples, and owned by Mr. Tripp, was completely under mined, and was left standing in the middle of tho new chanuel upon one corner, at an angle of forty-flvc de grees. Upon the onposito side of the river, Mr. Jeffrey has sustained considerable damage by the injury done to the bull-head and raceway to his flouring mills. Strangb Disappearance?A person named John McCauly, alias George Thompson, arrived in this city on Friday last from New York, in company with bis wife and wife's sister, the latter party being from llrooklyn, New York. On Saturday tho whole took pas sage on board the Wiskonsan for Detroit, but returned, in consequence of the disabling of the atcamiir. On their return here they took lodgings at the llenessoo County Mouse. Meanwhile the husband had made ar langements to go forward by the St. I.ouis. Two small trunks, containing the apparel of the fomalcs, were taken to their lodgings, and the other effects wers mil in a warehouse. On Monday evening the man left homo to attend tlia theatre, as he said, since which time nothing has been heard of him. He is an Englishman, oliout thirty years ot ago, about Ave faet six, sandy hair, and slightly pock marked, and it is believed he had con siderable money with him. Previeus to the present time, lie has been engaged |in trafficking cutlery, and has connection* at Toronto. H* has bean married only four months.?Buffalo Courier, Wtint id*y. Caleb CtrsHifwi on China.?The lecture before the Mercantile Library Association oi Boston, on Wednesday evening, wai delivered by the Hon. Caleb Cashing, his subject being "China." Mr. Cuihing in commencing his lecture, warned his audience against uny disappointment that might be ex perienced, as'he should proceed in his address, as, from the nature of his theme, covering such an Immanso field for comment, he should necessarily be brief and desulto ry in his remarks. The vastness of his subject, the thou sand details connected with it, the topics of importance and interest upon which he must touch, would exclude all use of rhetorical ornament, and his audience must content themselves with a plain recital of facts. To an European or an American, continued the lectu rer, just landed in China, every thing appears strange. He Hilda himself hot only at the antipodes, physically speaking, but at the antipodes in 11 moral sense, lie sees around him countless myriads of men in a strange garb, and with a general appeuranco unlike to all that to which he has heretofore been accustomed, lie observes the most studied uniformity among tho various classes, and the progress of every thing which falls under his obser- , vation, so slow and so unvaried, strikes him in singular contrast with our own changing manners and locomotive j speed. A thousand things admonish him that he is in a 1 strange land. He hoars the constant sounding of gongs, | ho observes innumerable boats on the rivers, the dwell ing places of millions of Chinese? Carts moved on land by sails, as well as boats on the water. If the pilot looks te the compass to direct his course upon the nnep, iie looks to.the pointing of tho south polo?If lib receives a letter, ho'will find it written in lines running from top to bottom of the sheet, reading from right to loft, with the date at tho bottom of the letter?no alphabet being used but idiographic characters. The mourn ing, instead of being black, us with us, is white with the Chinese?tho shoe even is whitened with some sub stance, to correspond wit*1 other portions of dress.? lie seos the saucei pieced on tho cup, instead ol the cup on the saucer-shuttle cocks played with the feet instead of the hands?ludies' feet compressed, instead of fneir waists?leaves ol a book cut open and trimmed on the back?a person swimming strikes his hands vertically and not horizontally?the ton of the head shaved?and when a friend meets you in the street, he does not shake your hands, but shakes his hands at you?the infantry armed with matchlocks, the cavalry with the bow and arrow?and a Colonel at the head of his regiment not unfrequontly brandishing a pan instead of a sword. He will net only note these exterior forms of difference, but will learn that nobility is not inherited from the father by the s^n, but rather, if one may so speak, by the futherfrom the son?good deeds reflecting back upon a remote ancestry. Corruption of blood, for crimes com mitted, affects ancestors long since dead and gone, though it does not necessarily affect posterity. All these things will strike one, upon a cursory view ; but it is just to treat the subject in a different manner, or in justice will be done to a great and polished people. We in America receive our language, and unfortunately too many of our ideas, from Europe. We apeak as if we were the descendants of the oldest nation on the globe of history as complete, if thnt history is ours?of our civilization as the unique idea of civilized society?ot the first voyages to India as discovories, as if the teeming millions of China had no existence till discovered by a Portuguese navigator. He, the lecturer, would not speak of Chinese civilization alone, also ol its high antiquity. China had for ago* cultivated the arts, lite rature, and the sciences. Tne language of Cwducius, the contemporary of Herodotus, is now tho vernacular tongue of this great people. The discovery of gun powder, and of the mariner's compass, the manufacture of silks and porcelains, tho invention of tho printing press, and even the circulation of bank notes, had their day in China, centuries ago. The lecturer did not know ot any thing that was not possessed by the Chinese an torior to the history of Eurojie, except the steam engine. Our word " China," as designating the land of the Chi nese, is unknown to their language, and is ol Portuguese origin. Mr. Cushing here gave the three names by which the Chinese designate their country, and also the English translations of them, which he suid were quite faulty. Two of them are translated, one the "Central Land," tho other the " Central Klowery Land '?the third escaped our ear. The ChiDete Empire consists of trvo great classes of people?the Chinese,! who inhabit eigh teen provinces of Cnina proper, and the Tartars, divided into the Manchou, Mongul Tartars, Ike. It las been es timated that China contain* a population of 350,ooo,wo souls?by many this estimate is doubted, but those who doubt concede a population of lJ5l)t000,000, deducting nd libitum from the census taken by the Chinese themselves. V slight analysis of the facts in the case, will put an end to all speculation. One will seo in China a vast multi tude ot human beings, all active and industrious. A com parison ol the territory ot China, its climate, its laws, customs, and habits otthe people, witli those of other na tions, will soon convince one that tho empire is the seat of a vast population. A portion ol China lies on the tro pics, whore two crops are easily produced overy season No boasts of burden are to be seen in southern China. All transportation is carried on on the canals, or on the hack* of men. The boats on the canals are tracked by men?no horses are to be seen, except what are in use for the Tartar cavalry, and but few buffaloes, which are used lor ploughing some peculiar soils. These facts prove that the country is capable of supporting a dense popula tion. It is not the case in China as in this country?they have not to produce in one crop sutticient to support them the year round, or to sustain beasts ot burden, that consume as much as men of the agricultural products ot ?he country. The land is one entire cultivated garden, except the'large grounds left for the burial of the dead. These facts would leave nothing to deduct from the esti mation of the Chinese as to their own population. But there are others. The abstemiousness of the Chinese is one. They also eat cats, rats, dogs, Sic.. 1 here is ai^im mense emigration constantly going forth. In Southern i :iiina there are more productible articles of fruit than in almost any other section of the globe. (We under stood Mr. Cushing to say that tho banana produces as 133 to 1 of our wheat, and 44 to 1 of our potato.) To recall to mind the population of Europe, will serve to dispel any doubts one may entertain as to the correct ness of the estimate of the population of China. < hina rovers as large a space as Europe, and why not contain as large a population I?if the nomadic regions of the north are scarce in population, the tropical regions ol the south make up for the deficiency?if Europe is capa ble of sustaining 250,000,000 of people, why not China a larger population possessed of superior advantages to Europe? To an European, accustomed to look at Europe divided into 65 distinct governments, with a population of but 260,000,000, the idea of a country under one gov eminent, witU a population of 350,000,000, is peifectly astounding. . .. When we consider the facts of the immense population ol China, that its government and laws have endured lor centuries, we come to ask what is the torm of its gov ernment, and what the principle ol its social organiza tion. The exterior form is a hereditary monarchy . The reigning sovereign bears a particular name, not his own name, but the name of his reign, as it is deemed sacrile gious to pronounce the name of the sovereign alter he ascends the throne. The prominent, and it may bo said, ilinost the only, principle of government is the paternal relation?the emperor is called the lather of his lieople, and the idea of the paternal relation runs through all the habits, laws and customs of the people. It is a fiction notwithstanding, but a beautiful one. The radical idea in the social organization of the Chi nese, is veneration of parents. Annual offerings are made at the graves of their ancestors, and children are most relentlessly punished by their parents lor any dis respect shown to them. , , The government consists of the Sovereign?a Cabi net Council?Council of the Army, the great General Council?six supreme boards ol Revenue, Rights, sic. Council for tho Tartars?Council for the general inspec tion of Officers?the high < ourt of Appeals?Council for examination of Candidates lor public offices?t oubcii of the Governors, See. of provinces, and the Army. There is one curious fact in this organization, and that is the expedient adopted to secure the full submission ol China to the Tartars. The Chinese were permitted to remain just as they were previous to the invasion, nut a Tartar was appointed for every Chinese in the govern ment, and this secured the Tartar power. The sovereign power is of a religious as well as a po litical character. When presentedto the Emperor, the individual must prostrate himsell three times to tne ground, rising eacn time, and touching the ground each time he prostrates himself. This may lie seen gaing on evory day among the common people in the streets, who are constantly bowing at their altars, idols, Ac. The ce remony carries with it the idea of total submission, min gled, it may be, with religious devotion. The offices of government are bestowed upon merit, intellectual and moral?they are not hereditary. l|Lcre are but few titular families; and they are among tho Tar tars : they, however, enjoy no special privileges. Scholars constitute the first rank in tho Empire After passing the examinations, which are most "'9. most meritorious are appointed to the inferior offices ol government employ, destined through good behavior to rise to the highest inthe gilt of the government. In < hi us an official is punished by degrading hiin from his rank In this country, in our navy for instance, the case is dif lerent. If an officer behaves badly he is suspended with ?ii without pay, Jus. j but an olficer is never degraded, a* lor instance, from a Captain to a Midihipman. In t tuna this is the mode of punishment ; it ft the universal of office. Andaman has to commence anew, eligible again to tho highest offices, 11 he conduct* well. Public opinion is as much regarded in China as in Great Britain, or tlia United States. Newspapers abound, and are read as much as in this couutry. The Chinese have their red book, as we have our blue book. Pamph lets, labored arguments are published as with ??, and in Urther analogy, periodical nddicases arc made by the ?sovereign to the people, which, however, inculcate mo rals as well as politica. The stated agricultural festivals are a great feature with the Chinese?it is at these times that the Emperor drive* the plough before his whole court, an example to hi* subjects. The works of Confucius are read by all, and their in fluence upon the public mind is unbounded. They pub
lish as much, and as cheaply as in the United States ; ana (he people read and write as generally as they do in this country. Their language, which was at first hierogly phic , ha* become one of arbitrary signs, but not letters ihere is no alphabet, but each separate sign stands for a i particular idea ; thoro nro hh.Oimi characters in their dic tionary, and from this it may bo interred what an im mense labor it is to learn their language, and w hat il is which converts ( hina into one great school. Gral lan guage dillors in different provinces, hut the written Ian ^uage is the same throughout China. 'The Written language bears the same relation to the oral languages of the provinces, as the Arabic numerals do to the vari aus languages of Europe. When persons from different prov Hires cannot comprehend each other, tlioy resort to willing or making figures in the air. This language giving unity to the people, laws, Ac., has done every tlimg for the stability of the government. The manners of the Chinese ere eminently courteous. Ledles do not mingle in their public eeeemblies. The lecturer would not pronounce their morals of a higher or lower standard than those of Europe He did not be lieve it the province of a transient visitor so to do. The Chinese estimate the morals of the Europeans at a low rate?they have learned them from English sailors and soldiers within the past five years. When the Missiona ries remonstrate with the Chinese upon sin. they signifi cantly point to the morals of the foreigners. The Chi nese are eminently intellectual The country abounds in books, public libraries, and shops for the sale of books. A catalogue of one of their libraries comprises ten vo lumes. In every dwelling house books are a necessary article of furniture. Great injustice has been done to the Chinese and their writings by bad translations. Mr. < ushirig had formed a high estimate of their intrllectual powers from his in- I ten.onise with them. Indeed, officials could not fail to exhibit intellectuality, as scholars take first rar.k in the empire. The literary character of the Chinese hits de generated to some extent. The stability of their gov ernment is evidence to a certain extent of their intellec tual and moral character. Tho prevalent religion is | worship of ancestors, though specific religions, such as doodhism, I.umaisin, .Mahomcdanisin, fcic., ure tolerated. All important events by the Chinese ure celebrated by prostrations, burning ofi cense, heating of gongs, and burning tire works. The staple food of the Chinese, is rice. Inthedeco- ' rations of their tables and furnituie of their houses, traces of a high civilisation may be found. The luxuries | of the table consist of biche de nor, shark's tins, and 1 edible birds' nests, the latter the highest cost astute of food in China. The food ofthe Tartar, is game which is roasted ami served tin whole,while the Chinese is served in small dishes. Their drinks are tea; and a spirit dis tilled from rice. Many of the drinking vessels now in use in the U. S. are copied from the Chinese. Commercially speaking, China it complete in herself. She raises her bread stuffs, except some littlo rice which she imports. She has tea, silks, materials for utensils of iron, and wood, coal,precious metals, &c. Her commerce was changed by the course ofthe opium trade, yhich is very prejudicial to China. It would soon however, have been changed by the introduction of cotton, large <|uantities of which, of the raw kind,she imports from the United States. She also imports the manufactured article from the Unite'1 States and from Great Britain.? The use of machinery is prohibited in China. The trade, whether it goes direct from this country or from Great Britain, greatly benefits us, as perhaps 0-7ths of British manufactured goods consist of American cotton. We now come to consider the question of what will be the ultimate effects of this change of commerce on the Chinese themselves. Two hundred and fifty millions of people, up to this time, have manufactured their own articles?now ours will take the placos of their own fabrics, and of consequence large numbers of men will be thrown out of employ. In China, as in the United States, they have no vast West to retire to, 110 immense fields of agricultural occupations to employ them when their means of livelihood fail them. These thing* being so, must produce want, misery and perhaps political agitation, throughout the Empire. Mr. Cunning was re peatedly told by the Imperial Commissioner, that China did not desire'trade with foreigners, but that it waB forced upon her. We must not only look to the benefits accruing to the United States, through tho supply to China of raw cotton, and a successful competition in the manufactured article, but also to tho supply of ginseng andlead. Mr Cushing knew of no other question con nected with this subject, except the drain of the specie from China, to pay balances of trade Against her. He said no fears need be entertained for the present?the balance is against the United States?betides there are stores of metals in the country, and the immediate effect of a Mow of specie trem China is to change the relative value of commodities in that land. Mr. Gushing next proceeded to treat tho topic of the hostility ofthe Chinese towards foreigners, lie said it was originally simply disrespect, and did not degenerato into hate until the conduct of foreigners had become so outrageous as to forfeit the good esteem of the people.? The Chineso suw themselves surrounded by other Asiatic nations, vastly their inferiors in every respect? they naturally looked upon them with disrespect, ulso upon foreigners who visited their land. The early trad ing voyages of the Portuguese, were rather piratical ex peditious than commercial speculations. The expulsion of the Christains from China, (is also connected with the subject of the hostility of the Chinese towards foreigners. We are naturally led to ask how monarch! as wise and liberal as many of the Chinese monarchs have been, have prohibited the practice ef the Christian religion in Chino, when all other rel gions are tolerated. At first foreigners were well received in China. Marco Paulo and others had high employment under govern ment?there was no objection to their penetrating to the interior of the country. Great numbers of converts were made by the early Christian missionaries. What has effected a change in all these things 1 The mission aries indulged in mtter contests among themselves, on articles of l.iith?furious controversies were carried on, and violent pamphlets published. From the teachers of religion the contests spread among the aonverts, and ex citements and agitation were the consequence. To prevent domestic convulsions, the Emperor inter posed his authority, and it is the belief of Mr. Cushing that to prevent internal troubles, was the only motive operating upon the Emperor to exclude Christains from china. Mr. Cushing urged the missionaries to take warning from tho past, to cease their quarrels upon minor articles of belief, and to unite in the one groat work ofthe redemption ol'thc heathen. Mr. Cushing said although this vast empire was open to commerce, literature and religion, too sanguine ex pectations must not be entertained?tho progress of the Chinese is slow, and vast multitudes are to be affected. It the effects of the change of commerce are pacific, the benefits to the world will be great?if not so, and civil convulsions ensuo, the spirit of aggrandisement will again take hold of the Chinese, and foreign invasion will he the consequence. The Tartars have several times overrun Asia, and carried their conquests even to Europe. The present Emperor of China is a lineal descendant of a Tartar Emperor who once sat upon the throno of Moscow. We are second only to the English in point of commercial intercourse with the Chineso, and second only to the French in missionary and intel lectual intercourse. We soon shall surpass both nations in our intercourse. Mr. Cushing, in closing his address, spoke of thero being as yet no commerce en the Pacific Ocean, and that ultimately thore mast be some powerful Anglo Sax on power settled on the shores of the Pacific. Should America plant it, the trade of China would be invaluable to her, aud it would naturally flow to the western shores of this continent. The Outrages in Greene?.Strange Develop ments.?The Norwich Telegraph gives the follow ing, as a reliable statement of the circumstances which are supposed to have some connection with the two re cent attempts to murder Mrs. Burdick and Mrs. Vars A Mrs. Bolt was abducted?as is believed?from a farm owned by John Johnson, lying in Triangle, and occupied by J. 9. Bolt, (the husband of the woman) in May, 1S44. Sne has not yet been heard from, and probably never will be, alive. Mr. Bolt and family had just removed from this town, where he had worked several years for Mr J. Mrs. Baxter, mother of Mrs. Burdick, who was taken from the swamp three years ago, nearly dead, and now under arrest, occupies and has occupied a small house on Mr. Johnson's farm, a few rods north of the main farm house, for a long time past. On finding Mrs. Bur dick, (lately married) the .10th September, by Darby, Ju liand and others, in the situation above alluded to, Mrs. Baxter exprossed a suspicion of one Samuel Vara, living at Smithviile Flats, saying that he paid his addresses to Mrs. Burdick, who refused his hand, and that he had said in her presence that "Ann Augusta should not Uve to be enjoyed by any one else," or words to this purport. The citizens ot Oreene sent a man on Wednesday morning to inquire Vars' whereabouts on the day of the outrage. The messenger went one way, while V. and his wife were actually coming down to visit and sympathise with Mrs. Burdick, by another. It was ascertained that he had been at home about his business on the 29th and 30th of September, and that Mrs. V. and Mrs. B. were inti mate and confidential friends?that Mrs. B. had been spending some two weeks, a boarder, with the Vars, go ing through a courso of medical treatment under the care of Dr. Clarke. Vars was ustonished and indignant, on learning what intimations "old mother Baxter" nad made with regard to him?that he had never made such threats to her, or any other person?that lie paid attention to nI rs. Burdick, and should have married her if her family were not what they are thought to be?that he always respected her, lee. Vars' wile is a highly respectable young woman, a niece of W. Gray, Esq.; her father is Bethel Gray, Esq.: her mother is the daughter of He man Carter, and sister of Aaron and Hainan Car ter, Junior, good and truth loving citizens, all resi ding at Genegunslet comers, about three miles west of Greene village. Mrs. V. had been staying over a week, at her lather's, in ill health..This Mrs.V.was on Wednes day abducted, and the particulai s of her seizure,to which she has testified, are mainly as follows: 9he took a case knilo and went into the field, in sight of the house, to get a certain kind of bark, a constituent part of a syrup she was about to make?her mother advising her to send, ra ther than to go, as she was unwell. Thinking the air snil exercise would benefit her, she resisted the entrea ties. She diil not find the bnrk where she expected got two thirds of the way to the woods, was tired, sat down on a log, facing her home, the school house, tic., about doom. It was considerably windy, and she heard no other noise until bands were laid upon her from behind. ' A quilted hood she wore was wrappod tightly round her mouth, a handkerchief tied over it, and then she was hurtied oft" by her assailants, who dragged her part of the way. When they stopped, they bound her hands behind her, and tied another cord around her legs, over her dress -then one of the ruffians made certain demon strations, when the other said; " Stop that, or I will split ; your d- d brains out," and he desisted. They then re- ' moved the covering from her mouth, and compelled her j to swallow a liquid, by holding her nose and a hand over ( her mouth. At this time they talked of their luck in getting her, how much better than to have made the attempt the night before, Sic., one saying to the other,"now hand over The rei" the twenty dollars. The reply she could not distinctly hear. One remarked, " we had better put her in a Con vent!" The other said, " No?dead men tell no tales." Before stopping down to the water, (the Geneganselet,) enesaid, "By G?d, she shan't go with my handker chief." he having used his own on first Minding and gag ging her. They then took hers from her side pocket, anoadjusted it in the place ot the other. On approach ing the water, the one having her by the shoiihlera threw her from him, and she wont under head loremost, the other appearing to hold on to her legs, and she thought his companion pushed him. She knew nothing after this until she found herself on the ground, her heed lying in some one's lap. She cotild breathe and speak, but not see. She heard but oae voice after this. The man said, "If I spar* you, will you tell ?" She replied, "If I live to get home, I wilt tell how I have been used." lie said it might cost his life, kc. He then unfastened the cord with which her legs were bound. Shu enquired what they bed compelled her to swallow 1 Ha answered that it was nothing that would hurt her, as she puked it all up ! Hlie says slie hat tasted laudaaum, and|tbat this was not so (titter, lie then put on her hood, backside fore most, piiiaad it hack with several pins, very tightly?un bound her hands, and she heard him go ofl through the bushes. She saw neither ol the men?loosened the hood and handkerchief?saw and knew the place where she was, on the hank ol the stream, and found her shawl, (not wet,) and the two cords, lying there also. She ga thered them ap, and made the best progress she could to the house, something less than a quarter of a mile. The lumily had become considerably alarmed at her absence?which was about an hour.? She entered the dwelling dripping wet, her hair dishe velled?comb, beads, pencil atid knife gone, dress torn, kc She said, " You would not blame me if you knew what I ha?e suffered since 1 went out," fell on a bed, and swooned. The cords are not like any known by the fa mily or neighbors;a light linon linewas used.wc believe, on the wrists, Iroin the size ol the "wales" on them.?she wbs exhausted, hut has her reason entirely. It is thought that she knows certain things that .Mrs. Burdick knows through her, hut if so it has not yet heen divulged that this something (if anything) is the cause of her "taking ofl '1 The citixeus of (Jrecne rallied with promptitude and proceeded to the place ol the murderous assault, hut did not succeed in finding the culprits. Their tracks were discovered, and two men were seen that afternoon skulking behind fences in lotshy individuals uniulormed of the facts. Mrs. Burdick is now a maniac, and will not probably live long. Her mind now, as when sane and testifying, is on the horrible sceDes of the day she was taken, gagged and placed in the swamp to die. No doubt seems to exist in the town where the crimes were com mitted, that they are in some way connected with the disappearance of Mrs. Bolt. How far, or in what way, we have no means of judging. Of one thing, after un derstanding the particulars of the late outrages, we are convinced, thflt two deliberate an 1 premeditated at tempts at murder wore made. But the whole is shroud ed in mystery, dark and impenetrable. Yet time may briug facts to light and the guilty to punishment, and I ?od grunt, speedily. Naval Court or Inquiry. Navv Department, ) Washinuton, Oot. !N, 1845. ) Before the adjournment, last evening, Lieut. Thomas | T. Sloan, ol the U. 8. Marine Corps, was recalled, and the following answers to questions to Bnswers propound ed to him, given by him: Lieut Thos. T. Sloan?By Lieut. McLaughlin?The men's accounts were settled by Lt. McLaughlin: Lieut. Tansill superintended the settlement of them: the sut ler's and washerwoman's bills are always first settled, under the superinteudance of an officer: a sentinel was placed at Mr. Hick's store, on Indian Key, to prevent the men from going there without permission; Lt. McLaugh lin did not forbid the men from trading with Mr. Hicks, nor were there impediments put in their w ay of trading with Mr. Hicks, il they chose, either by Lt. McLaughlin or myself; the men could have traded with Mr. Hicks in preference to Mr. Center, if they had chosen; the men were Dot allowed to trade with either Mr. Center or Mr. llicks, witiiout permission. Pursers l)r Bree and Cahoon were then called; and in reply to certain interrogatories propounded to them in writing, about two weeks ago, submitted a paper, con taining their answers, which, alter being sworn to, ware appended to the record This morning, A. O. Dayton, the fourth Auditor of the Treasury, was recalled, By the Judge Advocate?In relation to the tenth in quiry contained in the precept, Mr. Dayton said: lt has been usual to allow to au officer commanding a squadron the pay of a captain; in what constitutes a squadron u a military question, which, as an officer belonging to a civil department of the government, 1 do not feel myself competent to determine; it has been decided, however, by the Navy Department, that two vessels are sufficient to forma squadron; I do not know that it has been set tied by that department of what size those vessels must be. If that question should arise in the coarse of my official business, 1 should refer it to the Secre tary of the Navy. As regards the question of what num ber of vessels constitutes a squadron, 1 will refer to the regulations of tho Navy Department contain ed in what is ordinarily called the red book, chapter -23d. I do not now recollect any precedent which 1 can say is exactly adapted to Lieut. McLauglin's case. For a his tory of tho Fourth Auditor's action,upon the claim of Lt. McL augblin for pay as captain commanding a squad ron, 1 refer to my letter of January 25th, 1844, to the Sec retary of the Navy, (which letter was read by the Judge Advocate from the Hon. J. R. lie,line's report to Con gress.) When Lt. McLaughlin was allowed the pay of captain commanding, 1 was not aware that he was actiDg under the orders ofthe commander of the West India sta tion, and of Commander Mayo, nearly fourteen months of the time. The accounting officer of tne Treasury, in set tling accounts for disbursing officers, do not exercise any control over the articles or quantities of articles pur chased, and the price paid lor them. It is not their pro vince to determine either the kind or quantity of articles that should have been purchased, or the prices given for them. As officers of the Treasury, they cannot bo sup posed to be acquainted with the exigencies of the naval service. They have not the means ef judging, nor a right to judge what articles are required in any particular case, or at what expense they have been procured. That light belongs only to the head of the Navy Department, and is ordinarily delegated to the commanding officer under whose immediate direction the purchases are made. His approval of the bills is a suffiient voucher for the accounting officers. Their duty is to see that officers in their disbursements conform to the laws of the coun try and the regulations of the Navy, and 1 need scarcely say that there is a law or regulation which attempts to prescribe the quantity or price of the pur chasers for each ship or squadron under the va rious circumstances of the service. The pur chases are of necessity discretionary, and the discre tion belongs not to the Treasury, but to the Navy De partment. The accounting officers have never inquired into the necessity or reasonableness of the purchases made by Lieut. McLaughlin. If they had done so, they would have exceeded their duty and their authority. By the Court ?I do not know of any specific instruc tions to commanders or pursers serving abroad, in re gard to the drawing bills of exchange on the Govern ment, or the procurement of money for public use, be yond the regulations of tho Navy Departments. 1 have iio means of judging what the profits of Lieut. Mc Laughlin may have been while acting purser for com mand. Parsers were not required to render an account of their profits, which are derived principally from their vales to the men. [The witnesses all being discharged for the present, and the examination of the documentary evidence being resumed, the Judge Advocate (among other papers which were presented) presented to the Court a certified paper, signed by the Chief Clerk ot the Quartermaster General's office, in relation to the char ters of vessels, and the prices of freight to various points of Florida.] [Two important missing letters have been identified regularly filed away ir. tho Navv Commissioner's office, and produced to the Court, nn<l the proper disposition made ol them.] Purser Du Bree was next called by Lieut. McLaugh lin.? In the examination of Lieut. McLaughlin's accounts (which 1 have just given to the Court), I did not disco ver anything to cause me to believe that there was a want ol care, attention, or fidelity to the interests of the Government on the part of Lieut. McLaughlin To pursers Du Brek and Cahoon, who wero both pre sent- answer by the former on the part of both : 1 think wo cannot make any estimate from the exhibit of the rolls, as to a fair purser's profit under the old system of | allowance to pursers, from the number of men in the Florida squadron, and the disbursements for them on ac count of pay. In a regular cruising ship it would be about $10 per man per year, if the men got their supplies from the purser. In the vessels of the class that Lieut. McLaugUn commanded it would he greater, lt is gene rally understood that the bills of the guager's marks on whiskev, transferred in barrels from navy stores to ships, are filled to the guager's mark ; but they are fre quently deficient from 6 to 0 per cent., from 1J gallons to about 3. [There being no further desire to detain pur sers Dubree and Cahoon, and as they had been here two weeks closely engaged in examining and preparing an swers in writing to certain interrogatories relative to the accounts of Lieut. McLaughlin, and performed the duty required of them by the court, the court, through their president, decided, in secret session, in a very com mendable manner, thanked them for their attention, fee., and also apprised them that it should be communicated to the Secretary ot the Navy ] Lieut. Tansh.l's evidence is expected here to-morrow. The Court, the Judge Advocate and Lieut. McLaughlin cannot much longer proceed without it, as it is important to have his evidence before proceeding to the other branch of the subjects to be investigated. Varieties. The mail hag containing the Hartford mail, whs stolen ou Wednesday in Worcester, while on its way from tlio I'ost Office to the depot. It waa found ill the evening in an out-house, rilled of the letters. A. J. McCannon.who was some months since a|> prehended near Jackson, Tennessee, upon a charge of murdering a whole family in Tippah county, Miss., has been tried and condemned to he hung on the 1st of No vember. Lurge quantities of Cunnel (? candle) Coal have heen discovered about a hundred miles from fc'rio, t'enii sylvnuia, just over the line between Ohio and Pennsylva nia The Governor of Pennsylvania has appointed Thursday, the J7th of November, as a day of thanksgi ving and praiso. The shares in the Cunard Boston steamers, which originally cost ill000, sell in Kngland at ?if>00. The company invest thoir proceeds in new boats, fcc ? PKila dtlphia S'orlh jImtriean. When Eugene Sue had finished his " Wandering Jew," the Gazntf'de Ftancc maliciously yet epigramati rally remarked that the Wandering Jew had " finished" Hugeue Sue Mineral Riches ok Virginia.?Bituminous coa' occurs at intervnls over the tract of thirty-five miles from South Anna river, near its mouth to the Appama to*. In some places the coal seam is lorty-one teat thick. It is found in abundance within fifteen miles cl Rich mond, in Henrico, in ( hestcrfiobl, in Goochland, in Pow hatan, on James lliver, and on the Tnckahoo. At Midlo thian pit, in Chesterfield county, a shalt has been sunk seven hundred and twenty feet below the surface, and a seam of fine coal hss been penetrated eleven feet. Iron is found in abundance in various parts of the State.? There are seven mines of it in Spottsylvania, near the junction of the Rappahannock and Uapidan rivers. Of gold mines, generally less valuable than iron, there are twelve in Goochland,fifteen in Orange,oleven in Culpep per, twenty-six in Spottsylvania, ten in Stafford, and si* In Kauquier. Total gold mines eighty. There are also fl>e copper mines in Kauquier. The mineral resources of Virginia are truly extensive and valuable.?fCarrm len 7Vi?*?. Court Intelligence. Okrerai. Seisiors, Oct.'it ?Before the Recorder end Aldermen Stoneall and Charlick. M. C. Peterson, Die trict Attorney. Trial foi Burglary.?Arthur Spring waa put on hie trial on an indictment for a burglary In the first degree, in breaking into the dwelling of John Uicason, of No. Mi Centre street, and stealing $136 and two watches, on the night of the 6th inat. from the evidence adduced on the part of the prosecution, it appeared that the premises were entered ftv a rear second atory window, which was broken, a ladder being raised for that purpose. A small desk waa taken from u room to the wood house, where it was kronen open with an oyster knife, and the money abstracted. iiicKAon, alter the commission of the burglary, sent word to Spring that he was known to he the robber, and could not ami should not escape, whereupou Spring re turned $M of the money; at another time $36 more, and subsequently the two watches; all ot which property was returned by the medium of a sou of Spring's, about twelve years old. There appearing some doubt in reference to the entry of the dwelling having been n forcible one; in consequence of which the Jury gave the prisoner the benefit of that doubt and rendered a verdict of grand larceny only. The Court sentenced him to be imprison ed in the Slate Prison for the term of eight years. There was also unother charge ol similar character against the prisoner, hut the District Attorney, from feelings of clemency towards him, did not press it to trial. >,The District Aiiokjh then took occasion to state that he had tried all theiprison cases, with one excep tion, which could not be tried for the present, aa alao the case of the Clinton barge robbery, and a case of con spiracy. ?jThe Court then dismissed the petit jury, at the aame time remarked that forty-one cases of felony,and about 300 Special Sessions cases, had been disposed ol during the present term. The Court then adjourned until to-morrow morning. Superior Court. Before Judge Vanderpoel. Oct. 24.?Jlrnsthall vs. Livingston, el alt.?The jury in this case, already reported, rendered a verdict for plain tiff, $433,61 and 6 centa costs. Muses Isaacs vs. Major Schultz.? Trouble in the Camp ?f Israel.?This was an action to recover damage* for talsu imprisonment, and also for assault and battery. The parties are Jews, and defendant keeps a store in the vi cinity of Chatham street. Plaintiff and hia brother went to defendant's atore to trade, and in payment of the charges in the course of business, paid him over a $3 bill, which he alleged was bad, and he had the defendant and brother arrested and taken to the station-house on a charge of endeavoriug to pass counterfeit bills. It ap neured that a broker was sent for, who pronounced the bill to be good, when Isaacs and his brother were dis charged. It was set up in defence that the bill waa bad, notwithstanding the opinion of the broker. The case of the brother of Isaacs was also put to the jury, subject to the decision in the case ot the plaintifl in the first action, and involving the question ol assault. Ver dict for plaintiff $6 damugea in both suits. Hlanchard, Eitner 4- Co. vs. Eugene Groussett?Action brought by a firm doing business at New Orleans, to re cover amount of two liills of exchange?one lor $1800 and the other for $6000, which were protested for non payment, and returned to plaintiffs. Verdict for plain tiffs, subject to the opinion ol the Court. a Before Judge Oakley. John Galer vs. John V. Tittyou.?Action for excessive levy for rent, under a landlord's warrant, already refer red to. Defence?justification under the statute. Ver dict for plaintiff $653 damages and casts. Defeated Claim on Insurance.?Naphlali Ettkitl es. The Croton Insurance Company.?This was an ac tion?the first case ever contested by the Croton Insu rance Company?to recover $3,750, the alleged amount nf a loss sustained on a night in the month of April last, by a fire on the premises ol tho plaintiff, a cigar dealer in Nassau street, opposite the office of the New York Herald. The amount insured for was $3,600, and the balance waa asserted to have been lost by the fue. On the part of the defence, it was alleged that the claim waa fraudulent on two grounds?first, that|thejitore waa fraudulently fired, and secondly, that the amount laid far exceeded the ac tual loss sustained. Mr. Bell, keeper of tha Ram's Head Tavern, was called in evidence on the first point, and tes tified that the fire originated in the store of the plaintiff1? that on forcing the door, the fire was seen to be in the middle of the floor, surrounded by cigar boxes and other combustible materials. One of the assistant engineer* and several other witnesses corroborated the evidence. It was likewise contended, on the second point, that tha actual valuation of the goods in tho store at the time did not exceed $1,000, and it was ottered in evidence that what remained after the fire sold only for $33, although but partially destroyed On the part of the plaintiff, bills of purchases lrom different persons to the amount of ?4,601 were showed, and it was acknowledged that) the -ales had amounted to the amount of $1,850. The books were not produced, however, in confirmation of these allegations, to which circumstance the Court directed the attention of the jury. The Court, in its charge, stated to the jury that if they considered fraud to have existed in the tiring of the premises, they must find for detendant, provided they think plaintifl himself was a party to the fraud. If they lo not so consider, they must go to the other point, and -ee if there was an overcharge. If there was,and made with a design to defraud the Insurance Office, then the "olicy is wholly void ; but if the over charge, in the ipiuion of the jury, arose from a mere mistake, they are ? t liberty to correct it. As regards the Insurance Com iany, under the circumstances of the case, it was their luty to defend the suit, whether thsy succeed or not. The jury, after being out an haur or two, returned a ver dict in favor of the Company (defendant). Kor plaintiff, Mr. Kdward Sandfoid and Mr. H. P. Bar ber ; for defendant, Mr. S. Sherwood. Common Pleas. Before Judge Daly. Oct. 24.-George Hayes vs. Robert Boyd?This was an action of replevin to recover the value of a horse and wagon, seized by defendant under an execution. It ap peared that in June last defendant sued parties named Stewart and Samuel Hayes, (the latter being the brother of plaintiff,) in the Marine Court, on a case in which he ,ccovered a judgment for $87 50. Execution being issued (thereon, he placed it in the hands of one of the ?larshals, (Richard Chamber*,) who seized the horse and wagon in suit, And plaintiff claims that said horse and w agon belonged to himself individually, though found in the possession of his brother who was connected in business with him. Verdict this forenoon. M Norton vs. E. D Brewer, impleaded with T, Johnson -Action wasbroughton bail bond to Sheriff,dated in June IMS, given in a suit tor unlawfully takiug and carrying ? way plaintiff's property?the bail to the Sheriff having mile'd to put in special bail to the action, thia suit was nought. Veidict fer plaintifl, $300 debt, and six cents 1,images and six cents costs. D. Major for plaintiff. Q. '.V. Niles, for defendant. In Chancery. Before Vice Chancellor McCoun. Oct. H ?John E. Pyt et. als. vs. James Swain et. alt.? Phis was a case which cane up on demurrer to the com plainant's bill for a portion ot the estate of Mr. Pye, de eased. whose estates on his demise, were valued at f 190,MO, and were left to the management of defendants is trustees for a period of fifteen yeurs after his disease, t appeared that the heirs of the deceased filed their bill or a partition, contending that the will and testament vere void, being drawn in violation of the provisions of ? he statute in the State of New York. The Court held hat a willwhich restrained property for a term of years, unless to provide for a minor or for the wife of a legatee wider the will, was void, as not being drawn according :u the provisions of the statute. The complainants were ?ccordingly to have the benefit of the immediate partition of the property. Court Calendar?Thla Day. Srpr.RioR Coitrt.?Nos. 98, 7, 189. 73, #9, 96, 78, 88, U, 37 , 64, 107, 188, 73, 104, 35, 36, 47, 59, 18, 41, 74, 8, 77, 33, 35, 138, 3, 1, 9, 4, 38, 81. Supreme Court?Rochester, Tuesday, October 11.?Present,Chief Justice Bronson, Justices Heards loy and Jewett. No. 3?James Thompson ads. Abner P. Downer. Mr. McCall continued for plaintiff. Mr. Kirk and was heard in reply. New trial denied. No. 103? ituscell Chappel, agent of the State Prison at Auburn va. Henry Polhemus impd, ice. S A. Goodwin was heard :or the plaintiff. W. 3. Wordenjlor the defendant. October 33, 184.').?No. 3. Sally Gilbert vs. Artemas fohnson. Mr. Miller concluded fortheplaintiff C. P. Kirkland was lieurd for the defendant. Mr. Miller in re ply. Judgment lor the defendant. No. 4?Jerome J. .!rlggs ads. the Board of Supervisors of Onondaga. Mr. ilriggs was heard in person. Conviction or 1Iuntkr Hill.?On Monday this case was submitted to the jury, who, after a retire ment of just one hour. returned into court with a ver dict ol guilty of murder in the first degree The judge, ihen, alter a short, bat very impressive address to the prisoner, pronounced the awful sentence of death, to he urried into execution, by hanging, on Kriday. the 3d of lannary nest. The prisoner appeared to be much af focted; he spoke a few words previous to hit being led out, saying he hoped Hod would forgive him, and that the people would forgive him: and that he had no thought of lulling Major Smith, when lie asked him to wa|k with tiim. The prisoner's counsel moved for a new trial; but the judge overruled the motion. Several bills of excep tion were signed anil sealed by the court during the tri al, and we learn that a petition will probably be sent up to the general court, which meets at Richmond in De cember, for a writ ol error to bring the case before that tribunal, should this be granted, and the verdict of the jury set aside, the punishment for murder is the second degree is confinement in the penitentiary, the longest term of which is 18 yean.?Norfolk Herald, Oil. 33. Small Pox ?We have taken some pains to as certain the extent of this disease in Alexander, and learn that the whole number of cases from its first ap pearance has been about thirty. Ot those cases two only liave proved fatal?seventeen have recovered, and eleven are under medical treatment, none of which are consi dered dangerous, and most of them convalescent We also learn that many ol those cases have exhibited but very alight evidences of genuine small |>ox, haying !>een ol a very mild character, or of a modified loroi. No great danger ia now apprehended from a further spread of the disease, as every reasonable precaution has been used to prevent it, not only by vaccination but by a rigid non-intercourse with those who are effected.? Solano Spirit oj the Times. Vermont Buttkr Aoain.?A Vermont merchant came to the city last week to sell his fall supply of but ter? ninety tons : I'relty well lor a single trader, in a small town among the mountains. -Boston Trav.