Newspaper of The New York Herald, October 29, 1845, Page 1

October 29, 1845 Tarihli The New York Herald Gazetesi Sayfa 1
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THE NEW YORK HERALD. Vol. XI., No. 978?Whole No. 415U. NEW YORK, WEDNESDAY MORNING, OCTOBER 29, 1845. Price Two Cento. ARRIVAL OF THE STEAM SHIP GREAT WESTERN. HIGHLY INTERESTING NEWS. SEVEN DAYS LATER FROM EUROPE. STATE UP THE HARVEST. More Orders sent to America for Food. ANOTHER SLIGHT REDUCTION IN COTTON. Progress of the New Religion in Continental Enrope. INTERESTING RESULTS. ATTEMPTED REVOLUTION IN ITALY. French Reverses in Morocco. ABD-EL-RADER AGAIN IN THE FIELD! THE REPUBLICAN IMPULSE IN EUROPE, ITS RAPID 8TRIDES. CONTINUANCE OF THE RAILWAY MANIA. The Fresh Movements in Ireland. ?Stc, i!bc, The steam ship Great Western, Captain Mathews, arrived early yesterday morning, alter a passage ol sixteen days and a half over the ocean. Our ndvices by her are to the llth inst., inclusive, from Liver|>ool, and 10th from London. She brings 128 passengers. The news is important, especially in a commer cial poiut of view. The crops in Great Britain are short. There is hardly a mistake about this now. Owing to this de plorable occurrence to the poor laboring classes of England, more orders for food have been received by the Western. This failure ol the harvests in England continued to have its effect on the cotton market. That arti cle, in consequence, had experienced another Blight reduction. The accounts from the manufacturing districts are, upon the whole, encouraging. In the Woollen dis tricts of Yorkshire business was brisk, and the same may be said of business in Manchester and the neighborhood. Apart from the'commercial intelligence, the ad vices, politically, are interesting. The spirit of re publicanism seems to be spreading in all parts ol Europe. Tins is seen in the new religious refor mation in Germany?the recent attempted revolu tion in Italy?the organization of secret societies in Switzertand for the overthrow of crowned heads? the new Protestant impulse in France?the riots in Spain?and even in the efforts of Abd-el-Kader to rid himself of the. French in Morocco. The Yorkshire, Captain Bailey, arriyed at Liver pool on the 4th instant, and the Southerner, Palmer, on the 9th. The Produce markets generally exhibited a firm and buoyant feeling. The price of iron continued to advance, and on the manufactured article the dealers in Staffordshire have demanded, and obtained, an extra 20s. per ton, and pigs 10s. per ton. It is said that Her Majesty, Queen Victoria, is again "in the state" See. The crops of wheat, barley, and peas in Holstein, Denmark, and Pomerania are said to be satisfactory, both as regards the quantity and the quality. The Prussian government has prohibited the ex portation of potatoes from Westphalia and the Rhenish provinces. One of the manufacturing firms of Sheffield, apo logizing to a customer for not having completed an orJer, attributes it to the injurious effects which he affirms are resulting to the trade from the railway pleasure trips and gipsey parties, now so frequently indulged in. There is a rumor in town that the quit and Crown renta of Ireland, valued at about ?30 000 per annum, are to be given to the Roman .Catholics of Ireland, ior liie building and repair of their churches. In the United Kingdom there are 363 judges, with salaries amounting to .?402.032 per annum. Of these, 145 in England receive ?208,976 : 124 in Ire land, ?W6,086; and 84 in Scotland, ?76,970. The railway fever rages as violently in France as in England. The sum drawn out of the Paris Sa vings' Bank, last week, principally for puriwses of speculation in shares, was 2 367,727f., whilst the de posits amounted only to 501,1351. The Mining Journal repeats the story that ( Jov trnment has determined on transferring the North American Packet Station from Liverpool to Bantra Bay. Scientific Expeditions.?Mr. Ilartweg, who has I r some years been employed by the Horticultural Soeiotv in milking collections for their .-gardens in Memco and Guatemala, lias just been sent out to t alifornia, which was explored for the same purpose some years since by the late Mr. Douglas. The fate of ttm last traveller was very tragical; for on his re ? i n MM. by way of 'he Sandwich Islands, he fell into a pit dug for catching wild bulls, in which there hsp|>ened to be one, and the infuriated animal gored him to death. Saiujcuoe AciRicirr/iiMiAT, Laborers for North Awkru a ?On Saturday, the 4th instant, the Toron to, 700 ions burden, Captain Tinker, sailed from the St Katharine's Docks, London, having on board 60 steerage passengers, all agricultural laborers, from the counties of Bedford, Buckingham and Oxford. On board the same vessel the collection of wild beasts belonging to Van Amburgh, proceeded on their voyage to New York. The Iron Trade.?Short and Mahony, in their circular of the 7th instant, state, with reference to the exj?ort o{ British iron for the last 10 years, that it has steadily increased " from about 219,000 tons in 1835 to 460,000 tons in 1848, and 472,000 tons in 1814. So that the exports in the last year are much more than double those of 1836; and it is worthy of remark, that higher prices prevailed in 1814 (the year of the largest export) than in 1843 ; so that it may be fairly inferred, thnt a rise in prices, when the article is WHnted,does not necessarily check de mand ; indeed, on the contrary, it may safely be as uerted, that in 1844 the demand caused the rise. If this be an accurate view of the question, it is well worthy the attention of producers and purchasers to consider the probable effect on prices of the present prospects of great additional demand for iron of every sort, in consequence of the many rail ways projected in the United Kingdom, in Kus din Germany, Italy, Spain, and Portugal ; as well as in our East Indian empire, and our colonies in North America, the West Indies and Australasia." Towards the month of March last prices were run up to 51. 10s. forScotch pig iron ; 9/. 10s. to 1<V. for Welsh bars, and 12/. 10s. to 13/. for mils- In April, May and June, prices gradually re ceded to 60s. for Scotch pigs: 71. for Welch bars ; and 81 10s. to 9/. for rails. Ths decline brought out the right class of buyers and the trade, the found ers, some exporters, and some railway companies, began to purchase. Nearly all the weak holders have parted with their slocks ; most of the iron masters are full of orders ; prices have steadily advanced to 96s to 100a. for Scotch pigs, 91. for Welsh bars, and 11/ to 12/ per ton tor raifsj and the market has as sumed a wholesome position, while no disposition is evinced by makars to run up prices beyond whst the demand upon them fully justifies, and u steady trade may be calculated upon for some time to come. Arrest and Committal ok aw American Froi tivk.?On the (ith inst., a dark-featured middle aged man, described as John Comstock Clinton, merchant, of Somerset, Whitechapel, was brought before Mr. Hall, on a warrant granted by his wor ship under the act of treaty between her Majesty and the United States, for giving up criminals iugi I tive from justice, Jcc , charged with being concem ; ed in the forgery by which the Messrs. Little it Co. ! bankers and stockbrokers of New York, were de frauded of 23,000 Mexican dollars in 1811. The | prisoner had been arrested before on the same i charge.butgotoffanthe ground of some informality. Mr. Chambers, Q. C., who formerly defended the prisoner was retained on this occasion for the 1 preeecution, and Mr. Clarkson apprared for the de fence. There was a good deal of argument on points raised by Mr. Clarkson, who urgently pleaded for a remand, and demanded for his client the privilege ' brought of disproving the charges thus irregularly brougT against him. Mr. Hall, however, declined Mr. Clark son's request, and certified the committal ol the pri soner to the Government. An application lor the copy of the depositions was also refused to the pri soner's counsel. We find by the London papers of yesterday, that with reference to the evidence of the prosecutor's clerk, it appears that the check itself was presented elsewhere, and that the 2000 sove reigns paid by the clerk to the prisoner were in ex change lor Union Bank Notes, supposed to be the produce of the check. A writ of habeas corpus has been obtained, so that the points raised by Mr Clarkson will be shortly argued before the Judges of the Queen's Bench. A letter from Frankfort in the Cologne Gazette, states that the different governments of the ZoJlve rein are to decide in common how far it will be use ful to prohibit completely, or only to restrict, the importation ofpatatoes and corn at toe present con juncture. Railway Dkkosites.?As the end of the yeitr is now approaching, numberless conjectures are afloat as to the time and manner in which the large depo sits accruing upon railway projects must be placed in the hands of the Accountant-General. At a mod erate estimate the sums which will thus have to be provided amount to no less than 30,000,000 sterling, more than the whole circulation of the Bank of Eng land, and, perhaps, three times as much as could be withdr^-n at any one time without seriously embar rassing the whole currency of the country. There is not an individual, however experienced in mone tary affairs, who is able, satisfactorily to his own mind, to explain how this money is to be provided, especially if a large proportion is called for at the same time, which is likely to be the case The ques tion, therefore, universally asked, and which would probably puzzle, the Accountant-General himself to answer, is, how much would be wanted at once,and what would be done with it when in his possession! At present the money arising from railway deposits instead of making any scarcity, rather increases the previous abundance,because it passes into the hands of the various bankers to the railway companies, who, of course, employ it again to the extent to which they consider they may safely and prudently do so. According to general conjecture, the month of February being that in which Parliament o|>ens, will be the time on which a large portion of the money will, in due course, be required; but the sub ject will demand the most vigilant attention on the part of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, in regula ting its progress, and it is thought by many that it may prove an over-match for the utmost degree of j caution which the Treasury can exercise. lMrm.SK given to Newspapers by the Railway Mania.?The railway mania knows no abatement; it appears, on the contrary, to increase. The daily press are reaping a rich harvest by the prodigal out lay. All the leading organs of opinion are obliged to stint their readers of their customary quantity of intelligence, to make room for the lengthy prospec tuses which set forth in tempting colors how speedi ly a fortune is to be made by dabbling in their wares. The diurnals give every day a supplement as large as their regular sheet, stufled with these an nouncements, and on some occasions a second daily supplement is found insufficient. The proprietors of the daily press are " making hay while the sun shines." Their charges on these announcements would be deemed incredulous in any country but England. A leading morning paper receives, in the course of one week, at the present time, from the source to which ve allude, as much hard cash us the chief magistrate of the Union is paid annually for his services. How many German princes would gloat over the revenues of u single newspaper estab lishment. As to the weekly ana semi-weekly influx of newspapers, that spring like mushrooms into ex istence, devoted to railway purposes, their name is "legion." When so much money is to be made there is every temptation to fraud?and it is pretty well ascertained, that some of the new railway schemes deserve that appellation in its fullest itali cised sense. Attorneys, with little practice and less character, are found, who, with a secretary ol the same calibre, set the bubble in motion, and, by a process perfectly well known to the initiated, get a batch of persons, of seeming respectability and high sounding names, who sell themselves to the concern on the understanding,that it it fail.theyjure to be held harmless?if it succeed, they are to share in the spoil. " Herewith 1 send you a fat goose?pluck him," was the quaint introduction which a lawyer once gave to a client when he introduced him to a brother shark ; and the same description applies, at the present moment, to many an unconscious votary of Plutus in the purlieus of every stock exchange in the kingdom ?lAverpool^Times, Oct. 11 The Steamship Massachusetts.?The steam ship Massachusetts arrived here on the 3rd instant, after a passage of 17? days Irotn New York. She is a new and beautiful vessel, rigged for a sailing ship, with the addition of fhe screw propeller. Her first passage across the Atlantic proved most satisfactory in every respect. When oft Liverpool, a letter was addressed to Mr. Forbes, and other proprietors of the ship, by Colonel Perkins of Boston, and the other passengers on board. The testimony of so able and experienced a gentleman as Col. Thomas H. Perkins is of the first importance. He has been >ne of the greatest travellers by sea and land, and life after a long and honorable life devoted inerce, he again, at the advanced age of 8ft years, visits Europe with a view of farther extending the commerce and intercourse of the two countries. Increase ok Nations. Wealth.?In an article on the annual accumulation of capital in the Econo mist's RaUiray Monitor of the 4th instant, we meet with the following extraordinary instances of ex tension : In 1820. the whole of the shipping belong ing to the United Kitigdom was 2 648,003 tons : at the commencement ot last year it had increased to 2,588,387 tons, notwithstanding all the ships which during that 24 years had been worn out or lost at sea. In 1820 we had cotton factories capable of working up 151,000,000 lb. of cotton wool, and now we have extended them so, that last year we work ed up more than 700,000,000 lbs. In 1820 we had wooljen factories capable of working up 7,691,000 lb. of foreign sheep's wool, and now we have in creased them till they have consumed last year fW, 496,000 lb. of foreign wool, inde|>endent of the in. crease which has in the meantime taken place in the home growth. The silk, linen, and other ma nufacturing pursuits have extended in a similar way, and this has all been done by the annual invest ment of the savings of the country, cither in abso lute extension of nulls, or in improvements in the productive power of machinery. The declared va lue of our exports in 1820, was ?35,568,000, and the official value of our imports ?31,484.000, but last year our exports had risen to ?58,584,000, and our imports to ?75,441,555. The Harvests In Europe. The Mark I-anc Express of the 6th instant, says; In the northern and eastern parts of the kingdom there is still a good deal of grain in the fields ; and as the weather seems to have been quite as unset tled there as with us, the conclusion of the harvest must be still further delayed. The chances of the remainder ot crops in the later districts being se cured in even tolerable order, are, therefore, very slight. In early seasons the northern counties sometimes.fare better than the south ; Buch was the esse last year, and the enormous produce of wheat in Lincolnshire and Cambridgeshire did much to swell the general yield. This season the deficiency is likely to be much greater in the backward than in the early counties ; the corn was not ripe there ) till the weather became decidedly broken, and the i quality will, we fear, prove even worse than the , yield. We cannot, therefore, calculate on anything like the large supplies we have been in the habit of drawing from the east coast. The western side of the island has been the more favored this season, but even there the produce of wheat to the acre is complained of, while the weight i>er bushel is cer tainly two pounds less than lust season, it is, there fore, too certain that the total produce of the king dom must be regarded as short of usual years, and a steady and progressive rise in the vnlue of bread stuffs must be expected. The upward movement may, and probably will, from time to time, re ceive checks; buion the whole, wheat will, we think, advance in price until next spring. After that time much will depend on the then appearance of the crop, the probable extent of the spring ship ments from the Baltic, and other causes, of which nothing can at present he known. The Grain marketa, both in l.iverpoo and elsewhere, it will be seen, were on the rise. The London market advanced con siderably?nearly 2s. ner quarter. The remarks which we have made on one or two occa sions recently, still apply to the Corn market. The II yi ~ present harvest will yield indifferently, and this, combined with the failure ol the crop on many parts of the Continent, from which, in lormer years, has been drawn a large portion of the supplies, cannot fail to send the price of "bread stuifs"up to a higher figure than they have yet seen. The general failure of the |>otatoe crop is, as we have before stated, one ol the primary elements, in this upward tendency of prices. It may be observed, however, that, as re gards England, the disease in the potatoe, in many districts, has nearlv disap|ieared,leaving only a small scab behind, which will not materially injure the properties of that valuable esculent Letters from Hungary inform us that the Royal Viceroy has given orders to the various comitatsor counties to lay up stores of provisions and corn ma gazines, in ordertonieet the famine anticipated here next year, I rom the failure of this year's harvest We regret to say that even this humane order meets with opposition from the aoi-diaant liberal party in several comitate, although nil parties should support a measure so beneficial for ths country and the people. Progress of KAllroads In the World. [From the London Railway Monitor, Oct. 4 J We cannot but regard railways as a great branch of commerce, standing in regard to our home trade and internal traffic in the same relation as shipping does to our foreign trade. We must, however, most emphatically express the distinction which we make between railways themselves and stock exchange j speculation in railway shares?they are two things j as far apart as things can be, both in their tenden' cies and utility. The first inquiry on the subject of railways, to ail'ord us the means of forming an ac curate opinion, not only as to their existing extent and importance, but also as to our probable means of carrying those great internal improvements into ef fect in the future, is to know what has been done in the past. The first application to Parliament for a bill to construct a railway was in 1801,called the Sur rey Railway, to be constructed between Wands worth and Croydon. A bill for that undertaking was |iassed in the same year. From that time to ihe end of 1825, ucts were obtained for twenty eight railways, only some of which, however, con sisting chieliy of short lines in the coal and iron districts for private use, and the Stockton and Dar lington (extending from Stockton to Whitton Park Colliery), for which the act was obtained in 1823, were carried into execution. The following shows the number of railways for which acts have been obtained, to be constructed in Great Britain, and the amount provided to be raised by those acts for the several works, in each year;? Jlcls pa lied. I U2'i. 1027. 1020. 1829. 1810. 1831. 1812. 1813. ,4m't tmpow .'htt't, 4"<". powered to 1831 10 2,312 053 lit raited at 1835 1,812,831 .Vo.ii/ capital and 1836 22 874,998 *ictn. at loans. 1837 13,521,799 . .. 29 Xl.253,100 1819 2,096,108 1,687,653 1839 6,155 797 251,608 1840 2,495 032 424,000 1841 3 110,686 904,125 1812 5,311,642 731,650 1843 1 861,'450 .. 9 1,799.875 1814 14 791,994 567 685 1815 56,613,529 5.525,331 lour hundred and twelve nc's.. X151,7:6 97" ? Compiled from Tarliamentai-y Returni JVo. 159, 1844, and No. 637, 1815. The result of which is, that up to the end of the last session, the total number of acts passed was four hundred and twelve, for the construction of two hundred and seventy-eight railways ; the great er number of acts being accounted for by the fact, that for some lines several acts have been obtained in different years, for extensions, deviations, in crease of capital, &c.,fand that the whole sum em powered to be raised by these acts, amounts to ?154,716,937, which sum may be thus divided :? Amount provided as capital XI 14,513.035 Amount empowered to borrow... 40,203,002 Total amount from 1801 to '45, incl. X'151,716,937 These undertakings may, however, be usefully di vided into three eras?first, the period from 1801 to ls2ti, when railways were only a subject of specula 'ive contemplation, and scarcely a reality ; second, from 1826 to the end of 1843, during which period practical effect was first, to any extent, given to | ihose undertakings, and most of which may now be j considered as in full operation ; and, lastly, the years 1844 and 1845, which mayjustly be termed, and will in the future history of the country be recognised, as the commencement of a more general and extensive tpplication of the systeal. No. Ii'wayt. Capital. 'Loans. Total. Kintera, 1801 (0 1826.... 29 Xl.263.100 1,263,100 Second ere. 1826 to 1843,. . 119 57,387 735 21,658,582 79,046,317 Total 148 56,650,835 21.968,582 80,309,417 Tli rd erm, 1814 and 1845,.. 130 55,862,200 IB,Mi,320 74,407,520 That |?? Rail ways compleud or relinquished, 1801 to 1842... 80,300,417 Railways now in progress, and about to be begun,for wliich acts are obtained 74,407,520 The railways actually completed, from 1823, in which year the Stockton and Barlington was open ed, to the end of 1844, comprise altogether sixty four lines, of an aggregate length of 2,069k miles, and have been constructed at an actual cost of ft!, 238,600/; being an average ol 31,048/ per mile. The following is the order in which these railways have been completed:? l)nte of Number of Isngth, Completion. Kail-cays. miles. Cost 1823 One 38 i-756.'#0 1830 'I hree 47X 1,780,000 181 1 Two 14 V 185.000 181 2 One 16 175,000 1834 Two 35 375,400 1815 One 6 38,400 11137 Two 27 156 000 18)8 Ten 357V 11,471000 1819 Six *8 2.692,2<:0 184 0 Sev n 219 8.405,701 184 1 Twetre 423 17,452.900 1812 Eight 355V 10.472 600 1843 Two 66 V 3,052,800 1814 Seven 302V 5.588,000 No date given.. .Seven 83V 2,137,000 Total 64 lines 2.069V 64,238,600 ?Compiled from Report of the Hoard of Trade. JOf this (>4,238,600/, as nearly as we can estimate, tie sum of 60,000,000/ was expended in the twelve years, beginning January 1st 1833 and ending De eenibcr31st 1814; or at tne rate of 5,000,000/ annu ity. The present actual position of the railway sys tem, as far as lines have been completed or sanction ed by Parliament, may be thus stated:? victual cost, or sanction No. Miles. to raise. Railways rumplt-tvd up to 1844 , 69 2,069V ?64,238,600 Railway* in progress ?? 130 3.543 71,407,520 The country in Kurope next in importance to Great Britain, as respects the introduction of the railway system, is Belgium, which was the first to idopt a general system to embrace the whole king dom. This was done by two laws, one of the 1st of May 1834. and the other of the 26th of May 1*37, tnd which laws authorized the government to un dertake their construction. These two laws com prehended a system of 343 miles in length; and for (his act on the part of the government, which must lie considered h bold one, when we remember how much the system was then in its infancy, the Belgian people are entirely indebted to the individual opin ions and determination of Leopold. The first part that was opened, was the fifteen miles from Brussels to Malines, in May 1835, and which was completed to Antwerp in May 1836. The whole was comple ted thus:? At the end of 1837 88 mils*. 1838 169 " ?' 1840 210 " 1841 383 ?' " 1843 391 " " 1843 343 " And the cost of the whole has been 5,872.160/, or on an average 17,120/ |ier mile. Some considerable jx>r tion, however, of the distance is constructed in a single line The railways now in progress, and con templated, are to be constructed by private compa- \ nies, authorised by the government. In France, the first law authorizing a railway was passed in 1823, from St. Ltienne to Lyons, a distance ol 37 miles, but which was not completely opened until 1832. The next law which was passed was in 1829, and from that year up to 1842, various other lines were sanctioned, in all amounting to 19. Up to the beginning of last year, the railways actu ally in operation in France were : Number. J.ength, Capital. miles. ? 19 663 10,378,000 And (here are at this time in the course ol con struction, under grants made between 1842 and 1815, twelve lines, of the aggregate length of 950 nules.? The whole system of railways uuthonsed by the French legislature in 1812, over snd above (he 562 iniles already stated as completed, embraces 2.410 miles of railway, and are estimated to cost 18.617/. |x*r mile, or 44,*66,970/, of which it is provided that by that act the government shall advance one half, and the undertakers of the several lines the remain ing hull. In Germany, up to the beginning of last year, 1,381 miles had been completed, 1,227 miles were in pro gress, and 1,784 miles had been protected, and are now more or less in progress, making a total ol 1,345 miles. The cost ol German lines has been very various, fluctuating from 1,700/ to 30,000/ |>er mile ; but the neareet estimate which has been made

as to the average cost, is 7,000/ for a single line, and IN Kailwata. .1ftrage per utile. 61.VIS 600 ?31.048 3.873.100 17,170 io,rs,owi 18,017 13,500,000 7,500 17 703,400 4,000 113.509,16(1 13,131 ! amor for a double line, per mile. At this rate the in ?/L'> i!rwo h.!!e8' u'' ,ol?st year, will have cost about l(),ouu,U(XV, those now far idvanced in progress will represent a further sum of 10,000,000/, and those par tially commenced and projected will cost 13,000,0001 more, and, reckoning that one half of the middle class are completed as far hs expenditure b ? n ' have been invested, fh. infiri W1 rw,u,re 'W.OW/ more to complete 'rH 1 T ayslem as at present determined upon.? 'L*Zi?V"C,uderr ut Dun>erous projects which have beea made during the present year in America, up to 18-10, the total number of rail way companies incorporated was 176, whose lines embraced altogether 9,321 miles, of which 3,000 had been completed at an average cost of 4,800/ ner mile enH^f^RU n'hCle|U kt0 e"fore rec?nt period (the end of 1R1-L) we hnd that R4 lines are opened, em of'nwI'Stf m ti8' e b*en made at ,hf* cost . *1 ' Tl'e remaining 5,624 miles, to com plete the projects of the companies alluded to part of which are now far advanced, will reuuire a fur ther sum of 26,995 200/, without including any of the new projects of 1844 and 1845 The following re sume, therefore, shows the whole amount of capital ut present invested in completed railways in actual operation,and that required to complete those in pro gress, and tor which acts of the legislature have been obtained, and exclusive of all the new schemes. Total Casual intkiti , _ . Milet. | (treat Britain J.OWfi, , Brlginni '3at France Germany 1 -184 > | Do. half of 1,227 6IJK I America J,688 I Grand total 8,630 Thus, exclusive of the short lines in Holland, and similar unimportant lines in various countries showing that the whole completed railways in the world embrace 8 650 miles, made at an aggregate cost of 113,589,160/, and at the rate of 13,131/ per mile. ' Casual sxqiisun to comslhtk Railwati in PHO/i/uss ok Ai THORiiEn iir Law. Mi Us. Jl mount. Great Britain 3,^43 74 407 ^20 J Under acts obtained lw ? * 1,1 nu<* Belgium. . - ) T!'c co,>ce?iion? of the jireient year are f not included flnc'adinK 9)0 miles ?.?>? 41,866,97#| the" I luihoriasd by the uorSdfyof\a,\: \ li%i Mm) SS'on&f America 5,634 26 995 300 S Not including any __ J / projected iu 1845. 13,9344* 164,369,690 Showing that the railways now commenced, or tor lepiBlative acts have been passed, embrace i/-V^on^i8' thV8tlmated cost of which will be l(?4,2f?9,6!H(/, without including any of the pro jects in this country which have'yet to go to Parlia ment and independent of all the projections in Ame rica, Belgium and Germany, in 1844 and 1845, many of which are either begun or on the eve of being so 1 his sum, however, includes all the recent conces sions in France, and the further concessions whmh will be made in accordance with the law of Progress of the Religions Reformation In Continental Europe. We have received from our German cor respondent the following communication re lative to the religious agitation in Saxony ? Our readers will probably recollect that immediate ly after the delivery of the King's speech upon the opening of the Saxon Chambers it was proposed to form a committee for the consideration of the reli gious questions which had led to so much excite ment, as testified especially by the fatal riots at l-eipsic. To this committee was also referred the question of German Catholicism promulgated by , ^Pon tbe latter question, with regard to which the public mind throughout Germany is so deeply affected, the committee have returned a re IKirt, the main features of which will be found de scribed in the following paper forwarded to us by our correspondent:? It results from the report tnade by the select com mittee ot our Chamber of Deputies, that the latter approves of the temporary regulations which have ately been issued by our ministers concerning the ' ^jrnwn Catholic ehurch and its members, with the addition, however, of some particular privileges ? I he re|H)rt begins with the following general obser vations. The movement which has lately taken place in spiritual things, and more especially in those winch relate to religion, in the whole of Germany, has been followed by a series of events, which could not but interest every thinking mind, as well as the governments of the various countries in which they occurred. One of the most prominent and also most important of these occurrences is, however the se paration of a considerable number of Catholics from he Roman Catholic church, and the formation of a German Catholic church, the communities of which are continually increasing in various imrts of the country. This newchurch is not on.y different with regard to its dogmas and church organization from that from which it has separated itself, but also from all the other churchesand communities of Germany professing however, at the same time to be a Chris', nan church. Our government had therefore to keen in view, with regard to the new church and its members, which are now become verv numerous in our count?, first, the principle of religious liberty as adopted by the constitution of our State ; and se condly, the right and privileges granted to the other Christian congregations; and according to these considerations, the ministers have thought it advisa ble to decree the following temporaiy regulations with regard to the German Catholic church and its communities, and which are?1. That in all such Places where in consequence of the great number of Term an Catholics or other local circumstances, the allocation of a particular place of worship should become necessary, the use of an evangelical church , should be permit'ed to the new community, with |Pl" "[ lhat cliurch, tec. 2. The doctrines , preached by the ministers ot the new church must not militate against the constitution of the State ? ?I J he ministers of the new church are permitted to pertorm in their communities the ceremonies of baptism, marriage and burial, on the condition, how- I ever, that a Protestant clergyman he always present on the occasion, but that the latter shall not be oblig ed to afford his attendance. The committee is of opinion that, considering all the circumstances, and in order that these temporary regulations shall be more effectual, the ministers of the German Catho lie church ought to be allowed to perform in their communities tlie ceremonies of baptism, marriagp, and burial, having onjy to indicate tho same to the resident Protestant divines; and that with respect to marriages, the former should only perform the re ligious ceremony. The committee points further out the following two ODjects for the future considera tion of the Chambers and the ministers, viz:?first whether the members of the new Church will have' to continue to pay in the meantime church rate to the Roman Catholic church 1 secondly, whether they will continue to enjoy the same rights and privileges as before the separation? The committee also approved of the proposal of the government to allow all the new Catholics to maintain for the present their political and munici pal rights. This unalysis will show that the legisla ture and the government of Saxony attach conside rable importance to the religious movement in Ger nnny.and that a spirit of concession is already ma nifested by them on certain points which havs hith erto given rise to much discontent. Our German Catholic church in Schueidemuhl will shortly be under roof, and we most heartily wish that the reformation festival, the first heid un ?Un^h.nmbMUPUr'Tl .7tLch is ,0 be ??l?mnized in it in the middle ol October next, may assemble here all those valiant champions who were raised by the cry for help, which once went forth from this lit le place in order that they may thus receive the hanks of the liberated, and that they behold (he first erected German Catholic place of worship which is destined to consecrate to future genera tions their heroic achievements. The leader, Ronge,arrived at Frankfort on the 4th inst., from Ofienburg; amidst the acclamations of an immense crowd. The German reformed church was placed at Ins disposal. At Oflenburg he was obliged to celebrate Bervice in the open air. It is as frf l .h?'? ,bat ,be Senate of the city has refused to forbid Honge preaching in public?such a prohi bition having hern made, it in said, without effect by the president of the (iermanic Diet, Count Munch belltnghHiisen, who is still here. I he ministerial journal, the Epoqut, formerly the (Hone, slates that M. Ronge having intimated his intention of visiting France, received a communi cation through the French Charge d'Affaires, that he might travel in France as a private individual, but would not be allowed to celebrate worship accord ing to the lorms of German Catholicism. To sum up the whole matter, the latest accounts tell us that the new reformation ,n Germany? spreading rapidly. The Gazelle of Elberefeld "fates that the conversion of Catholic priests ^ daily increasing. A converted priest has been cho sen pastor at Saarbruck. At Bre.lau n sfles.a a most important meeting had been held to discuss which dpl'uties attended Irom more than 40 Silesian eommunitiea At Frankfort, I in wttSEjreh'!Ti? IhJ!"1 Site of H*"" OMA 1 and on the alert. M Ronge u"'/'''1"8 are alarmed Hesse, the Austr.anau&L^ Mm. Candle's Curtain Lecture. Mli. jJalYdU\*u*P*r^ that Mr. Caudle ha* made hu unit, i? only anxious a* a ici/?" to know it* provutomi y '?* youUk3fou'd 11 ?ron? mtnd when I you lined, Caudle , and what you ve just been doinu Sleuth; L. ^?me i>eo& won'1 make a will, becausf : ?k tfl<7 muft d'e directly afterwards. Now l you re above that, love, arn'tyou ? Nonaenae ? vml know very well what I mean I know rou?wiU's Mim r? We!l7.,y*t0,d ?tu?. Whtt 1 You don,t J " r 1 Wel1' 1 m sure ! That's a pretty thine tor a man to way to his wile. I fcow he's too much a nan of business to talk ; but I suppose there "away I out f'h5 *8 Wlth?ut "P^akmu them. And when the lace toUdenynitt0 'laWyCr 88 he ia' he hadn>t 'NO, Mr. ( audle; I ahan t survive you ? and?th..noh a woman's wrong to let her affection for a Z t known, for then she's always taken advantage of? though I know it's foolish and weak to say so still 1 don t want to survive you. How ffll j no, don tsay that: I am not good for a hundred r shun t see you out, and another husband too ? What a gross idea, Caudle! To imagine I'd ever hink o marrying again. No-never. What! nJtTwhZ ??* all say N?t at all; quite the reverse To me wm Ttm? U a thm?.,18 {mmble, and alwavs was. Yes, I know veiy well, that some do mar'rv te^0 UghS y're madeof'1>m sure I can^t " There are men, I know, who leave their oro mnH 'a 8 Way tbat ,be'r widows, to hol?f it must keep widows. Now, if there is anythina n the world that is menn and small, it is that Don't ??u ,thl?? loo, Caudle I Why don't you speak love. That 8 ho like you! I never want a littiJ! quiet rational talk, but you want to go to sleep Hut vou never were like any other man1 WhaU How do Iknow? There now?that's so like your ag gravating way. I never open my lips upon tin; ujeCh butnyou try t0 Put me I've no doubt when Miss Prettyman speaks, you can answer her properly enough. There you are, Main" U? my lite, ,t u odd; but I never can fn the most inno ?nn'/ rU/V me5!tion 'hat |>erson's name, that? Why kai tt'jrjsrfrAs. A,nTupaherTame,ll8ay 8?melhing that'B Certaln' "What was I saying, Caudle? Oh, about the way some men bind their widows. To my mind there is nothing so little. When a man fbrbids his wile to marry again without losing what he leaves it s what I call selfishness after death Mean m wifhTm1 Khl'ikre his wile mtothJ grave with him. fch? You never want to dot/iati No 1 m sure of that, love; you're not the man to tie a woman up in that mean manner. A man who'd hfm If Wh?eUld uVe hi8 w,dow burUt With 1"?' he could-just as those monsters, 'hat call themselves men, do in the Indies However, it s no matter to me howyou've made WhniT / aUw " may be t0 your 8ecoi>d wife ? What ? I shall never gtve you a chance > Ha ' vou don t know my constitution after all, Caudle. I'm w.Bha> lhe woman I was. I say nothing about em, but very often you don't know my feelings And as we're on the subject, dearest, I have only one favor to ask. When you marry again?now it's no use your saying that. After the comforts you'll ?after ?th!?la,.rniTf7Whal are you 81?hing at, dear ? r comforts, you must marry again?now don t forswear yourself in that violent way, taking an oath that you know you must break?you couldn'1 help it, I'm sure of it ;'and I know bette? tff vou know yourself. Well, all I ask is, love, became h's t m '"f your 8ake, and it would make no difference to mc then?how should it??but all 1 ask is don't marry Miss Prett There ! there ! I've done 1 won t say another word about it: but all I ask is don t. After the way you've been thought of and' and a'ter the comforts you've been use/to, Ca'udle "b* wouldn t be che wife for you. Of course f could then have no interest in the matter?you might !o m7 t?QT.en 0f.Eng,and' for what it would be then?1 m only anxious about you. Mind at afi ^'bu^there^'a "if ^nythlnS against her; not' at an, but there s a fiightmess in her manner?I mu? i8ay' Cu?r th'fg. ane means no harm, and it "ij^ b,f; 88 tbe 8aying is, only her manner after all? tillj 'here is a flightiness about her that, after what you ve been used to, would make you very wretch u ^l?' may boast of anything Caudle it has been my propriety of manner all my life i know that wives who're very particularL thought as well of as those who're not?.till it i? Ld' ?mue,0re,,H1rn,0US' S ^ d?n't seem so. And virtue, Caudle?no, I m not going to preach about virtue, for I never do. No; ancf 1 don? go about With my virtue, like a child with a drum mi king all sorts of noises with it. Hut I know'your principles. 1 shall never forget what I once heard ) ou say to Prettyman: and it's no excuse that you'd uken so much wine you d.d'nt know what you were saying at the time; for wine brings out men's tink?dn.<>8BJU8tas hre brings out spots of grease ? Vi'mt Wr"? Myf Why you ^ this-'^irtue is a beautiful thing in women, when they don't make .minucli "hout it; but there's some women who think virtue was given 'em, as claws were gi ven to cats'-yes, cats was the word-'to do but scratch with.' That's what you said. You don't In Jf i 0fit} No' tha,'s whpn you're '. good thmg ["do618?' V?" reCOi,eCt n?'hing: but i,a "Hut we won't talk of that, Iove-that's ail over 1 dare say you meant nothiug. Hut I'm glad you agree with me, that the man who'd tie up his wi/ow not to marry again, is a mean man. It makes me happy that you ve that confidence in me to say that > ou never said it? That's nothing to do with it louve just as good as said it. No: when a inan I Maves all his property to his wife without binding lL;lrnp/rhTh'narry,nf aga,B' he ^ows what a dependence he has upon her love. He proves to nil tue woHd what a w,^she's been to himl and how after his death, he knows she'll grieve for him ? And then, of course, a second marriage never enters her head But when she only keeps his money so I ong as she keeps a widow, why she's aggravated m take another husband. I'm sure of it, many a woman haa been driven into wedlock again, only be cause she was spited into it by her husband's will - It a only natural to suppose it. If I thought. Caudle | you could do such a thing, though it would break S.h'f-5 'id" "->? J? i r e.f' V T youJ ? 8 8P,nt? Knd marry again di t rectly. Not hut what it's ridiculous my talking in f ?h a way, as I shall go long before youf st.,1, mark ny words, and don't provoke me with any will of bed 7*d dolt " lt_a!' m 8 llV1"8 Womun in ,his "i did not contradict her," says Caudle, "but suf fered her to sleep in such assurance." Ireland. Yoitno Ireland and Old Ireland.?Thes< two sections of the Rei?ealers are likely soon to be at dagger-drawing. The Nation, of Saturday, outra geous at the prospect of a new (taper, founded ex pressly to oppose itsell, has a fierce denunciation of certain repealers, whom it accuses of pitiful hypocrisy, in their pretended mourning for the late Mr. Dimes, and threatens terrible exposures. The new paper is to be under the direction of Mr. Barrett, of the Pilot, ol whom, and his paper, the editor of the Nation speaks in these terms: " The Most Rev. Dr. Crolly. A diabolical libel has api>eared in the Pilot newspa|*er, stating broadly, that this illustrious Pre late s insane ! and forging a chain of circumstan tial evidence, in which there is not one solitary word of truth. The infamy of this fabrication is heightened by the fact, known to all men who have watched the course of that abandoned journal -that the lie was systematically invented, and propagated for temporary factious purposes. Beyond <fouht, it was calculated, with nice inauiry, what propor tion of the people might be deluded by such a slan der; and the chances of impunity were weighed, as a poisoner or a stabber weighs thetn, before he falls upon his victim. [Here follows allusions to the for mer career of Mr. Barrett, which, being rather libel lous, we omit ] It is scarcely necessary to say, that at the very period at which the slander was written, ( Dr. Crolly was here, in Dublin, engaged in ecclesi- ' astical business, ana in his usual health and spirits " Rare pros|iects of union amongst the repealers! Kepeai. Association ?At the weekly meeting, on Monday, the dtli instant, the proceeding of most | importance was the reading, by John O'Connel, of j a letter from Thomas Campbell Foster, (the Timet ! commissioner.) denying the authorship, and totally disclaiming all knowledge of, and all connexion with, the letter previously read in Concili ition Hall and attributed to him; and the retraction on the part of J. O'Connell of all the observations he had made respecting Mr. Foster in connexion with that letter, and tendering him an ample apology. The rent for the week wan announced to be #232 6s. 4d. The present is an eventful period in the history of Ireland The repeal agitation, thomeetings and pro tests of the ultra Protestant pfty, against the late proceedings of the Irish Exrgfuve, and the tru ly wonderf ul railway spirit which# t present is abroad in that country, presents subject^ worthy the consi deration of the statesman, the philanthropist and the Christian. O'Connell, the wonder of his age, has, as we be fore announced, emerged from the solitudes of the i wilds ol Kerry, and once more entered the arena of ' political agitation. Some ol the London journals ' ly put forth articles which lead to the conclusion, thai the Government had come to the determination ; of interfering with the doings ol the Conciliation Hall gentlemen. This, however, seems highly im probable ; their last legal crusade against its leaders was so unsuccessful, that nothing but desperate ne cessity can alone induce the Premier to commission Smith, Brewster. Co. to take proceedings. The rent of the repeal association is very unsteady, indi cating that the "people" are tired of such regular and constant tieecings. It resembles the last flicker nigs of the almost consumed candle;, last week it was announced at JC600; this week it is only one third of that amount. It would require the Liberator to " go circuit" to keep up the funds. In his speech on Monday se'nnight, Mr. O'Connell,speaking upon the Oregon question, said? " YVhult America has the canker worm of negro ala very working et her heart's core?while a remnant of siavarr exists in America, she never cen be streng or prospering in war, or able to hold her own egeiasta hos tile nation. There is within her the plague-spot of sla very and God forbid that any country should ever be permanently powerful, thet is tainted with that infernal ?ys'em." On the seme occasion, he alluded to the con cession which the government were making to his party; not, however, before he had applied the " repeal screw" to Sir R I'eel and his colleagues. The Premier, whom he designated as the monarch of England to all intents and purposes, was endeavoring to truckle basely with the Orangemen of Irelaud. From this topic he passed to the proceedings connected with the late State trials, heaping upon judge*, counaellora, and jury, the ueuel abuse for the view which they happened to take of the affair. Alluding to the sympathy received from foreign nations, the Liberator took occasion to criticise rather ae vereiy some remaiks contained in "BrownaoD1* Quar terly Review," published at Boston, and entered into some details to prove his great anxiaty for the abolition of slavery throughout the world. He quoted an extract Irom the " Jefferson Republic," and concluded his re marks on the subject in the following terms Recol lect that this is not the statement of a calumniator, or a li beller, or foreign emissary, but it is a statement published in the darkest hole of slavery, New Orleans itself.? (Hear hear ) Let them blame me?let me be exeorated by them?let their support be taken from Ireland? slavery, I denounce you wherever you are. lb?ua cheers.) Come lreedom, come oppression to Ireland let Ireland be as she may, I have my conscience clear before my God. (Continued cheers). I abhor the ty ranny of man and iU demoralizing, biutabzing, torturing practises. (Cheers.) It is not I wl.o calumniate the Amencans, if they be calumniated-but the American who writes this document and publishes it. I ?P*?* only the words of that writer, and come good or evil, i am the enemy of slavery in every form." ,Cheers.) Th? meeting of the Repeel Association, on Monday last, was an exceedingly dull affair. The Liberator was absent?but hi* place was supplied by his son John, who acted as commaBder-in-chiet upon the occasion. He apologised to the " Times Commissioner" for the at tack na had made on him on the previous Monday , after which he entered into a history of the ???e*?V?? ? Texas, observing that the slave owners in the Southern states had, for their own base puipoaea of spreading ana loitering the ilave system, and, what was worse, ol slave breeding, annexed Texas, in order, by the addition of a few more Southern Statea, they might be able to outvote the Northorn, who are opposed to slavery, ne also characterized the proceeding as a barefaced wrong" and a " notorious swindle. Mr. O ConneU was t.iken to task by a person sitting in the body of the hall, who told the honorable and learned gentleman that he was better acquainted with the States than he, Mr O'Connell, could be. He said that the object of annax jrijr Texas was not for the purpose of promoting slavery, but to prevent England from ever having the P?*??*? making a successful attack upon American independence The rent was announced at ?232 8s. 4d Francs, The interest oi the news centres in the accounts from Algiers and Italy. Abd-el-Kader, who seems determined to struggle while he can wield a sword for the independence of his native land, has alrea dy proved a sore scourge to trance. Nothing but lie hand ol death, it seems, can subdue the indom itable perseverance ot the fiery, high-souled Arab. The fruits ot the French expedition to Morocco 1 ist year may now be seen in the destruction of the French force at Djemira-Ghezona, amounting to 450 men. Tne commanding officer was inveigled from ins post on the frontiers of Morocco, and cut to . isces Only fourteen escaped. Flushed with this triumph, the successful Abd-el Knder rushed it higher game?attacked General Caraignac, at the dad of a considerable force, and, although repuls i d, succeeded in making the enemy feel the weight of his prowess. . This disaster has produced much depression, and not a little anger, in France. The King, especially, is annoyed at it; and the government, it is said, are now resolved to hunt the Arab leader from the face of the earth. Twelve thousand men, or six regi ments of troops, are to be instantly despatched to Algiers. Ilugeaud is ordered to rejoin the army and i reparations ure making on a large scale for carry ing " the pride, pomp and circumstance of glorious war" into the heart of the country. But what will 11us avail 1 The climate will continue to mow down t'le invaders, if the natives cannot. The desert will . fl< rd a home for the hardy recusants. Abd-el-Ka der, as heretofore, will escape pursuit, and ever and snon will" drop down" upon the Frenchmen when iney least expect it. Africa, in short, will prove the urave of Louis Philippe's troops?the mausoleum, it may be, of his dynasty. This unfortunate French colony in Africa is one I the legacies which Louts Philippe received with his throne. It has been kept up and sustained from i desire to flatter the national pride, rather than irom any conviction of its relative value as an ap pendage to France. The Paris Coast it utionnct, says the "medical men . f France have ordered to Algiers persons afflicted villi pulmonary diseases. The Minister of War has 'irected a scientific commission to proceed to Uiat ?onntry to examine whether it might not be adviaa tije to establish at Algiers a military hospital tor sol : .iters so aflected." A report was current that an expedition wti to be dispatched against Madagascar, under command of t'te Prince de Joinville. Spain. Our accounts from Madrid are of the 2d mat. The I'rogressitas were in active preparation for the ap proaching municipal elections. The Gazette pub lishes a royal decree for the formation of a squadron <>l cavalry to be called ihe squadron of Majorca, and to lie permanently stationed in that island. The rials of Senors Cortina, Mono/, and other mem hereof the Cortez, accused by the administration of Gonzales Hravo of having been implicated in the insurrection at Alicant, commenced on the 1st inst., tnd were exacted to terminate in their acquittal. Two sergeants were shot on the 26th ult. at Madrid or an imputed particijwtion in the late military con j -piracy in that city. The Madrid Gazette publishes the text of a treaty l |>eace concluded between Spain and the Republic of Chili. A full and complete amnesty is granted to ill Spaniards and Chilians who may have taken part in any of the late dissensions between the two countries, and the Independence of the Republic of Chili is fully recognised by the Queen of Spain. The negotiation with the See of Rome was progressing, though slowly^ A courier had been despatched Irom Madrid with the reply of theGovarnment to the lust demands of the Papal Court, and with a decla ration of its wish to see the questions in dispute brought to an issue. The Gazette of the 29th ultimo contains a decree countersigned by Senor Pidal, announcing some very important changes in the universities, as order i ed by the new svstem, the principle of which it would seem, is to add to the power of the crown. The depot companies of the infantry have been sup pressed by an order from the war office. The pro pessista |>arfy have lately held a meeting in order to making arrangements for taking an active part in the approaching municipal elections. Twelve men, who were sentenced to death by a court martial for robbery, have suffered the extreme i?enalty of the law. On the 26th nit. the execution of a bandit called Pedro Vinals, took place at Geronn It appears he had for a long time been the terror ot the province, and when hardly pressed had made his escape into France, but was delivered up by the au thorities in virtue of existing treaties. After his con viction he contessed that during his ?hort career.for he was only thirty-four years of age, he had murder ed nine persons and wounded many more. He had joined the Carlists at the age ot fourteen. Marriaok of thk Qrutf or ."rAiN ?The Madrid papers place beyond a doubt the tact that the French court is carrying the matter triumphantly through. The Duke de Rianzares has returned in Madrid Irom Pans, where, with M. Donozo Cortes, hs went to arrange the marriage question with Louis Philippe in person. The Augebarg Gazette states that the Cabinet ol Vienna had given in its adhesion to the marriage ol Prince Ferdinand of Maxe Co burg with the Queen of Spain, and that the obieet

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