Newspaper of The New York Herald, November 1, 1845, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated November 1, 1845 Page 1
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- - - T HE NEW YORK HERAL J). Vol. XI., Mn. !4hi -Whole No. 4 I.VI. NEW YORK, SATI RDAY MORNING, NOVEMBER !, 1845. I'rl.-e Twu China and lite Chinese, ??y the Hon. t'nlcfr Cushliif{? The Hon. Caleb Gushing, the late Minister to China, Ins lately delivered three lectures?one in Newbury port, one in Boston, and one in Saletn on the character and policy of China and the Chinese. We sent a special reporter to attend them, and the following is a full and exclusive report of Mr C 'a remarks at each lecture, which we have thrown into one: TIIK LECTURE. Before commencing my remarks upon the subject of the Chine re F.mpiie, 1 must ut the outset beg you not to (eel disappointed if you find my observations somewhat rambling a-id desultory. From the nature of the sub iect, the infinite variety of details connected with it. the immense fit-lrl of obser vation, the great interest and im portance of the topics 1 am expected to touch, 1 must ne cessarily be, in a measure, superficial. Rhetorical orna ment, and eloquent declamation, are likewise out of my power. A plain statement of facts, and u few of the ma ny observations they naturally would elicit, will he all that it is in my power to otter To an American or l.uro pean, cast for tne fir;t time into the midst of Chinese so cicty, everything seems contrary to his own established usages Not only does lie lind him-elt at the antipodes, geographically speaking, but equally so witli respect to manners, customs and morals. The thronging myriads everywhere around their strange costume--the inces sant clash ol gongs tlie junks with mat snils?ttie carts on shore driven by sails, as well as the ciaft on the wa ter every thing combines to make a scene ot, to him. the utmost novelty And the more particular his obser vation, the more is he struck with the total dissimilarity from all he before has witnessed. Does he look at the pilot directing the vessel under his charge, he finds the directing point *f the compass at the south instead of llio poi tti pole; does he receive a letter, he finds the wri ting running in lines from top to bottom, instead ol Itori zontally, and to tie read from right to left, instead of left to light. The language, too, he perceives to he ideogra phic. instead of alphabetic; that is. the characters, of themselves, represent distinct ideas, whereas with his own lunguuge a combination of characters is resorted to before an idea is conveyed. A family mourning for the death of a relative, dresses in white, instead of black ; shuttlecock is played with the feet ; the saucer is placed in the cup, instead ol the cup in the saucer; shoes are polished with whitening, and not Mucking; their ladies compress and distort the feet?ours the waist; the upoer side of the head is shaved, not ttie lower; in their books, the leaves are cut and trimmed in binding, on the buck instead of the front; in swimming, the hands and arms are moved up and down, instead of sideways; the cavalry are armed witli the bow and arrow, the in fantry with the matchlock; a colonel of dragoons on horseback at the head of his troops, may lie seen fan ning himself very zealously, and Hon risking his fan in stead of a sword; men lly kites rather than t tic boys; mo thers curry their infants en the back rather than ut ttie breast; all the loahutn ou the livers are women; as a sub stitute lof cock-pit.; and horse races, ttie Chinese fight a main with two crickets in a howl; a Iriend accosts you in the street and instead of shaking your baud, he shakes his own ut you. besides all these ex ternal differences, the stranger finds that nobility and lotfeiture ut blood go upward instead of downward, so that if oiio lie enobled or degraded it affects his father and nut his son, his ancestors and not his descendants. The various extraordinary appearances and customs will ut first, most forcibly and ludicrously strike the foreigner, but he must take a very different and more serious view oftlie topic submitted to him.orotiierwise he will do much Injustice to u great and polished people. The porcelain, ttie tea the silks of < 'hiua have rendered tier name familiar to our ears,but lew have any adequate idea of the stupendous ri atity of that vast'empire. We, of America, receiving oui language, and many ol our ideas from Europe, speak ol ourselves, as if we, and our brethren in Europe, were the eldest, nay, the only great collection of civilized men on the globe. Every thing we regard from tliis ene point of view, and tilings beyond ttie liorison of our sight, are to us as if not existing. History to us is complete, if it he our history; to us the <.reeks and Romans ore the an cien , our usages are civilization?Europe to us is the world Theologians have fallen into a similar error. They speak of the Hebrews as if tliey, a small tribe in one corner of Palestine, deriving their origin from one older nation, the Chaldees, and their arts from another.the Egy ptians. were the gicat original primitive people of the ?world their language the root of all others their sacred books the exclusive record of the history of Asia. Ac cordingly we talk familiarly, in all our histories, of the first voyages to the Eust Indies as discoveries; a? if the teeming millions of India and China were hid, or did not exist, until a wandering Italian merchant or Portuguese navigator had found his way out of the darkness oi Europe into the comparative eff ulgent light of Asia, but in lact, nearly all our modern arts had their day in China centu. ries since Ilercivil /ation, ai ts, literature,and language, are of the highest antiquity and longest duration.? From her we have derived, to say nothing of tea gunpowder, the mariners' compass, silk, porcelain, paptr printing, (both with blocks and moveable types) newspapers, bank notes and paper money.? All these tiling- are ot modern use with its?not sc w ith tin :.i. The language of Confucius, the contempo rary of Herodotus, is jet the vernacular tongue of the Chinese- -and, in short, I do not know ol anything now possessed by u?, except the steam engine, which thej did not possess anterior to history. While our lathers were rkin-ciad barbarians, roving in the woods of Bri taii, Germany and Norway, thousands of years ago < hiua was a populous empire of polished men, clad ir> silk, living in cities, huving colleges ol education, fre quenting ciowded theatres, drinking from porcelain publishing hooks, and engrossing all tiie chief arts of ci v ill;ation, just as it now is in Europe am i America Our word China is Portuguese, and like the Latin .Sunt, it is unknown in the country itself as a designation of the land. It is supposed to fie derived from the Tsin dynes ty,a family which once reigned in the empire, but is o! comparatively modern use, since, in the loth century the name was Cathary, us we lcarri from Colitnihus am. others Their own names are three in number : l Ta tsing?frequently translated " Great Pure." ?i?("liung-kwoh?" Central I.and " ;t ( liung-hwa?" Central Flowery." These are sometimes combined into 4 Ta-tsing ( 'hung kwoli?" Central Land of the Great This ln?t i* tlie tine political designation of China, while No*. 1 and 3 aro the literary, and No. 2 the popu lar names. The error of translating these appellations givos them an air of strangeness. The Chinese is a pri mitive language, anil of course all the words are signiS cant; these are proper names and should he used as such ?to translate them is as if an Knglishmati should speak of sir Mark Vetch, Cord Mayor ol strength, in stead of Marcus Cicero, Consul of Home The i luncse Kmpire, as Kuropo has known it for noar Iv hve hundred years, consists of two great masses ol men viz : the t 'hinese, wiio inhabit eighteen provinces ol ' hina proper and tbo Tartars, divided into Mstichus Mongols, Mohammedan and other Tartars, inhabiting n vast Ulterior country, called lli. Add to those, 1st. Tibet, under the protection of china, and -2nd. Tributary re gions influenced more or less by the Chinese govern ment such as C'orea, Cochin China, Siam, Sic. The po pulation, exclusive of merely tributary states, by the . cn'iis of the Chinese, is put down at MO,000000-hut this is disputed simply because it is large, anil the amount is rodureu, conjeclurally, to 260,000,0011 by most foreign ers Vet this is without good leason, ?s we may under stand by a view of the circumstances of the case, and a companion of the lenitory, manners and customs of the Chinese with Hunc of other nations The immense throng* of people everywhere presenting themselves to the O) e are all extremely Industrie us, making tho coun try appear one vast bee-hive or ant-nest. I,et us consi der ? teat two crops per annum are produced in the popu lous legions ol < hina proper, whereas, here anl in Ku rope, hut one is raised. We, consequently must produce tood for twelve months in six, besides the provision foi our rattle in winter, and occupy much of our space in lis storage till wanted for consumption. It is not so w ith them. That there are no boasts of burden in Southern < hina to consume tood which men might use Horses aic unknown, except in small numbers for the troops, there are no cows, no sheep, and only a very few buffa loes lor the plough. All transportation is either on ca nals and liveis, or on the hacks of men, and men are also employed to diaw the cunul boats in the country, and carry tho sedan chains which are used in the cities That there are no ford*, occupying vast extents that might bo devoted to cultivation. That there are n> broad highways lor carriages, nothing but narrow frotpaths for meu and animals, and that thus the wholel-urface of tho country can ho and is cultivated almost like n garden?except the grounds reserved loi burials That the women labor as much as tins men '1 hat the people are very abstemious living upon almosi nothing and eating almost everything in toe shape o* lood the very poor consuming cats, rats, mice, dogs, andiniact everything that has lilo. As an illustration of the cheapness of subsistence, 1 may here mention thai I liited servants lor live dollars a mouth, they finding themselves and feeding on rice and fish That there n a large and constant importation ol breadstuff's into China That article* ol loo I in tho tropic* aie far more produc tive than with ii*, in lor example the yield ol the hauant to that of wheat is as 133 to I, and to that ot the potato (our most productive vegetable) n? It to t. That there is an immense emigration from China to Manilla, to ilor noo, to Singapore and to all tho Asiatic island* That vast numbers ol tho Chinese live, not on land, but on water rafts, in boats, Sic , which toim streets ami w lirlo Cities on the livers. That the laws ami usages ol ( hina promote in the very highest possible dogree, the progress ol population. \nd, finally, that the I Itin I mpire is gieater ill extent ol surface than the whole ol Knro| e, comprising 6,260,000 square miles, while Kuro| has but 3 725,000, Why not, then, should China c intaiii h* largo a proportionate population as Kuropo ' It in elude to he sine, the less populous regions of Tartar} but still it leaves ample room, considering the much more populous regions of the south, for the imputed po pulation tit I ai 000,000 Nobody thinks it strangr that K.ti rope should have two or thiee hundred million* ol in habitants?Why is it strange that an equal ntimhei shout I he siistuii c I on an equal space called I hina ' VV hat has led so many Kttropeun* to doubt the alleged populousncK ol the country, is because they aie loth to a unit, and run scarcely tealizo the lenmrkuble led ol a I iq,ulation equal at least to that of the u hole of Ku rope being u tide i om I iovernment. 'they ran baldly inia gine-iirh a slate ol things when they look at Kmojie, and behold hr-i millions distributed among sixty five independent States, or, counting only Ihc linger ones (I should rather say those only which have the honors ol loyulty) into twenty sepaiate Governments, llut\vii nie at once enabled lo ronqnehend the (set, it we sup pose fur a mom* lit the empire of Alexander lo HI this day, or even yet the floman empire to ho now in being If stability of Government, civilization, ait*, manners, applied to a vast muss ol men, he proof of wis iluin in institutions, the case ol China exceeds anything in Europe, or elsewhere in Asia, compared to whirb, indeed, the kingdom* ol Europe are hut as of yssterday in origin, jnd as !.ut province* in power and population Yet change* of dynasty have occurred in < lnna from period to period, having been for a long series of cen times pure Chinese, then Mongol, an l then Chinese again, and now Manchu. The form of government is hereditary monarchy. The sovereign i< called Ta-llow ang'Te, commonly translated liy the Roman title of Em peror. But this translation is erroneous, and inade quately repre-ents the force of Ta-llowung l'e, which imports something divine, aacred, celestial in addition to the idea of mure temporal sovereignty. The term is Chinese, ami is employed by the Tartar and other sub jects of the empite as a proper name, without translating j'; that is, To-llowung-Te is the appropriate and pecu liar designation ol the sovereign of China, just as Emperor is of the Romans, Czar ot the Russians, Sul tan of the Turks, Calif of the Arabs, Pope of the modern Roman State. Like Pope, it implies both temporal and spiritual power and sovereignty. The reigning sove leign is commonly culled 7'nr Kwanti hut this illus trates one peculiaiity of the Chinese it is not tho name of the sovereign, but that of his reign, since it is consi- i dered a sarreTigious act to pronounce the name ot the ' sovereign on the throne during his lifetime The mean ingot the title is, " Illustration of Reason.'' The princi ple of g< vernment is the paternal relation; the sovereign is the father of his people. This is the radical idea which runs through all the laws, usages, habits and morals ot the Chinese. And though a fiction, it 11 quite a- true -is the fiction of loyalty in Europe, under covnr of which the aiistocracy of landholders and rich capitalist-- carry on tho government; wtiilo as a sentiment, motive, 01 1 principle of action, it certainly is higher, purer and bet ler than that lurious bigotry of party spii it which eon stitutes the prevalent principle of action, and, at the same time, the blot and shame of the United (states The ve neration o' parents is, in China, the leading idea ot so cial organization. It is common to ennoble a parent or other ancestor for tho good deeds of the son; and it is a , part of the religion for children to make annual offerings at the graves of their deceased ancestors. Rel miles* punishment also a waits any failure of respect or duty to parents on the part of children. This feeling the pa rental and filial relations is constantly inculcated by go vernment, likewise. The empire i- tne family, of which the Ta-ilowang-Te is the head 1 tiling as such,and as such regarded with religious veneration The organization ol the government is us complete and perfect, as far as regards the details of law und its admiuisti ation, as that of any in Europe. It is detailed in a work called Ta Tsinz Ihrung Tun, or Collection of the Ta Tsing Sta tutes. This oignni / ition consists of - 1st?The Sovereign. 3d?The Ning Ko, or Cabinet Council, Composod ot four principal and two assistant ministers, who are one half Tartar* and one hall Chinese. To assist these in this, ihe highest function of government, thero are ol course many subordinate officers 3rd ?Tho Kwong-ke Chu, literally "council of the ar my" but in fait performing tho functions of a general council ot government, on the principle common to all the Tartai people, of considering the nation as a camp This is 11 numerous body of high officers of state, anala gnus to the British I'rivy Council 111 character and tunc tions, consisting half of < hiueso and half of Manchus. Tne council is also aided by a groat number of inferior officers. tth?Tlio sis 11 nli-I'u, or Supreme Boards for tho ad ministration of China Proper, vix: 1, Board off ivil Office or appointments. 3, of Revenue. 3, of Rites ; or more properly, Public Instruction. 4, of War. ft, ol Punishments, ft, of Public Works. Those Boards are all constituted, as in the ruse ol the Cabinet and General Councils, of half Manchus, half Chinese; their functions are sufficiently denoted by their titles or designations. 6th?The Li Kan Yuen, a separate Board for the admi nistration of the Mongel and other Tartars, composed wholly oi Tartars. Oth?The Twocha-yuen, or Censorate, for the gene ral censorship ami inspection ol public ulfairs, with some duties ot police. , , . , 7th?The Tung-ching-sze and 1 ale-sze, which are in the nature ol high courts of appeal. , . , Hth ? The Hanliu-yuen, or Imperial Academy, which is a branch ol the political administration, and in the exa mination and presentation of candidates for ollice, excr etes important functions in the government. 9th?The government and other local otlicers ol the twenty-one proviuces of the Manchus ami of China. 10th. ?The llans, commonly called by its Khans ; that is the Chiefs of the various tribes of Tartars. llth.--The army, composed of the troops of the Em piro, divided into Banners, tot the saleguard ol the tiom tiers, the gari isoning of the fortresses, ami the maintain ing the authority of the Emperor, especially in Chmn Proper, where the great military otlicers and a luigc pro portion of the troops are Tartars. . Such is the political machinery of the Empire. Letup now devote some observations to its practical opoiation There is, however, a curious fact, which should he heie mentioned, and that is the expedient adapted by the Tar tar dynasty, on its accession, to secure its own power ? The ' hinese officers were pei milted to remain us before, but a Tartar was placed in olti e for every ( hinese, and ind thus the supremacy was insured. The nature o< the sovereign jiower is illustrated by the I act that ho mage to the sovereign i? a religious as well n* a political it consists in three successive prostrations, at tub length at each prostration touching the ground thro, times with the forehead. This is the Turtai ceremony, so called, the question on which so many ol the European embassies have tailed. It is a ceremony tno same in substance which in China one seei every day performed by worshippers ut the temples, ut the shrines and altars of their religion, and at the tombs of then ancestor. The submission of the subject to his prince, of the child to his parent, is as that ,1 men to n dcmi-god, and the ( hinese are imbued with ibis sentiment from infancy to the grave, not merely l y he punishments indicted on theni lor disobedience to ,r disrespectful treatment of their parents, but also in ?ho only universal religious worship of ( liinu-tliat ol lecaased parents and ancestors. The functions of go vernment ate professedly and to a great degree, in truth aostowed upon merit, intellectual and moral. AH tm ! idices aie open,to ail men; there are no hereditary rulers ind legislators, as in Europe; titular rank is, indeed, possessed by a few families, cbiedy among the Tartars nut it is unaccompanied by power. Learning and virtue ire the things held in the highest estimation. Scholars .-onstitute the first rank in the empire, ami intellec tual nnd moral qualities and acquisitions, ascertained by public examinations, arc the established road to ilistin. lion ol all kinds. These examinations are op-n to all the poor arid the humble, as well as tho rich and the titled; they are conducted by the government, ami those candidates w ho prove themselves the most mentouous are selected for appointments to the vacant offices ol the first or the lowest degree. They attain promotion gradually, through time and merit, just as oui oilicois in "he army and navy; and, il guilty ol improper conduct, are dcgiaded sometimes through one or more, some times through all the degrees oi the political hierarchy but can again recover their position by deserving it again To compiehend this fully, suppose that in out navy a captain who had incurred punishment, instead oi being suspended or deprived of pay for a term ol years, viiould be degraded to tho lank of lieutenant or ol m <1 shipman witn, however, the right to work himself up if he can, by merit, to his former tank This is the uni versal system of government in ihinn. The rank of otlicers is denoted by their costume, and more espe cially by n knob worn on the top ol the hat, or rathei cap. The rank called Mandarin by tis is unknown in | < hina, and is purely a " port" v ord. The general terra I among the Chinese is public officers. Tuhiic opinion is I regarded habitually by the government ol ( liina as j much as in (iieat Britain or the ITiited States, and all public questions ure as much arguod to by the people. Newspapers abound, and it is frequent to obseive namt bills posted on the walls containing elaborate di-cus sions arid defences of important public measures. They nave their red-hook, exhibiting, -like our blue book, a list ol all the public officers, and the Tuiig-cliing-s/.e i? j ?i branch of the government specially appropriated to the j reception of complaints against officers on the part of the people Besides all this there are periodical addresses made to the people by the sovereign, inculcating moral as well as political duties, and some ol the monarch? have been voluminous and sitccosslul authors. Eurther to guard against evil on the part ot the rulers, the Ivo rhr, i/ni-n. or censorate, is bound to watch and reprove, it need be, the sovereign as well as ull otheis in ?u thonty. (Ine feature in the policy ol the countiy is the great annual agricultural ceremony, at which the Emperor takes the plough in the presence ol the issembled myriads of people and great otticeis ol state snd armv-to testify his respect lor agriculture, the nrimaiy art ol human lite, and the true foundation of the opulence and power ol the empire, the wn lings ol Confucius upon leligion, isc., consisting chiellv, however, ol moral and political precepts, art univc'i sally leati by all scholars, nnd expounded to those unable to read, and they have had, 1 think, even moie iiiMiienro in I liina thaii the Bible in < hristetidom lli-ri-iu wo rnny see one efficient cause of the stability ind subordination which clittiacteri/ - the social organi zation ol the empire The Chinese literature is veiy copious. They publish as much, and at as cheap ? rate, as in the I lilted States. Ml moo read and wnte, Mi beyond what we find to ho the case i? Europe , that i>. there ure very inaiiy more out of every thousand mm hi Europe, who cannot read and wnte, than in I bina The language is wholly peculiar. Originally in pail hieroglyphic, by abiidgument tho picture c aruetcr oi the language has entirely passed away. Signs are to the e\o aibitiuty in feim us much as our letters, but each sign represents a thing, or rather an idea, and the primitive signs are variously combined lorsignsol new or complex ideas. There is no alphabet cacti character being a wo id denoting an idea or a class ot ideas 'There ?ie said to be eighty thousand of these separate charac ters oi combinations of characters, a knowledge of at lea it ten thousand ol which is necessary to a tolerable iciiuailitance with the language. Ilonee the vast laboi oi learning to lead ami wnte, w hich has converted the whole empire into a gieat school ol education, and cause a- it weie, the m wards Hint punishments ol cot leae-niaiks to continue thiough lile. The eltect ol the system ?-l education is still lurther increased by the lact iliat tlieie an great dilteieiice in the dialects spoken m various parts ol a. so that persons Hem distant pro vinces cannot understand each other any better than in Italian call n aid, or a I'oiiuguese a Henchman Hut the wiiiteu signs uie the same, un.l convey to all the same ideas, just as the Arabic numerical liguies convey the same nleu to divers nations, while in s,,ohei langoagu ihey give them dillsn'nl names, two i nese, therefore, iiualile to couip.'eheud each oil ei s ma left, ii sail to the e\p ilient ol inukilg signs wuh then hands ol tho ideas msy wish to convoy, and ate inti enabled to undeisbind. I am persuaded that these and other peciiliaiilie* of tho macli neiy ol thought speech, und wiittcu coniiriitilcatioii in < liina, giving them an unchaiigeahlo identity ol literature, ol ulcus of mental ami moiui constitution, have constributed moie than any other cause to maintain the stability ami long dm at ion ot the peculiar civil institutions ol tho Em pile. The mantlets ol the < hinese aie eminently com teuus. they exhibit not only ttie substsiiee of high civili zation, Unt it1! exterior alio to quite as gloat a degree us is found in Europe, except. perhaps, in the single fact that ladies do not enter into society, whereas laboring women are abundant in the streets The people are fond of theatrical representations and of music, ami means of gratifying th ir propensities in this respect are very ire nuont. Another frequent element of their amusements is a festival, or a procession, religious,political or domes tic. As to their morals, I am not prepared to say that they are any higher than in Europe or America, but they themselves have, at any rate a very low idea of foreign morals?derived from seeing the conduct of Europeans, especially English soldiers and sailors in their seaports. Missionaries, particularly the Trench vho have been u l mitted into the interior,have olten spoken of this to me as one of the great obstacles to the making proselytes to Christianity amongtho Chinese people As well ascour teous, the Chinese are an eminently intellectual nation. They make vast use of books, and the country abounds in public libraries, and shops lor the ale of literary works. I have acatalogue ol the imperial library, which alone oc cupie' ten considerable volumes, and in every respecta ble dwelling house, book , are found as a necessary arti cle of furniture. The peoplo generally reason well, both in their conversation and in their stale papers but they have sulfated great injustice from imperlect or errone I Otis translations, especially at the hands of the Kngiish Krom the intercourse it was my lortune to nave with them, I formed a high opinion ol their capacity, and in deed the organization and stability of their government is, to a considerable degree, a proof in itself, of their ability, intellectual and political In lact, talent can 1 scarcely I,ill to obtain among the higher classes, since socially speaking, the scliolais constitute the tirat order in the empire. Alter them come the agriculturists, and then the soldiers, artlzans ami merchants. Pacific habits of intellectual, literary and artistic refinement, are in deed the great characteristics ofthet'hinese natio?;while one chief aim of the government is the piomotion of tranquillity. Hence the facility with which a hand ful of Kngiish troops were enabled to dictate terms j to this great empire. And this example should be a warning to us of the United States not to be | incited by Utopian visions ol continual peace, to I lose our martial spirit, and with it, our independence, j The prevalent religion is nothing but the worship of I ancestors?if that be a religion- and of the sages and saints of the Empire, the same word, sAing?signifying ' both sage and saint. Thus the great body ot cultivated ' men in China, are destitute of religion in one sense of the word, as implying certain sentiments ol faith and d to worship, applied to the Deity. Meanwhile, specific re ligion.! are tolerated and oven protected by the govern ment, from causes of state. As, 1st?Budhism. There are multitudes of temples of this religion, scarcely dis | tinguishahle in inteiior arrangements?in the altars, the burning of candles, the processions, the images, inc.; from the churches of the byriac,Greek and Roman deno mination of christians. The principal temple near'Canton is an example, and at Macao theie is a temple dedicated to theHoly Mother,wonderfully like the Roman churches to the Y'ir giu. Saints, likewise, have shrines in the tem ples as Among the Ureok and Roman Catholics. And it has been demonstrated that these forms were either co pied from, or copied by, the early christians of Asia. ?>. Worship of the elements. Temples, shiines. and pro cession-- abound, dedicated to the propitiation ol the spiiits of the elements and the passions The lorm ot worshp consists iu prostration, us before described; the burning of incense in the shape of gilt papei, and com position sticks of perfumed wood, called.loss-sticks; the beating of gongs, and the burning of tire-works. These things are going on before the eye at all times and places 3 ?Mohanwnedauism, Jewism, and all other religions, except Christianity, the reason for proscribing which, a ill be mentioned heieafler, are freely toleiuted, jusl as among the ancient Romans. 4?Lamaism. The pcculiui and strange religion of Tibet prevails extensively among the Tartar and other interior nations of the Empire, uml is somewhat favored by the Emperor himself, as a means of authority and influence among the Torture. ? j?The special ador-i'ion paid to the Emperor himself. Such are the chief religious creeds. The dwellings ol the rich, in China, are built of brick and stone, and are richly and taste 1 ill 1 y furnished, objects of taste being as much in request as in Europe, or with us; the houses ol vuu puui uro "i wuuu, 11>1111 no J |>reuoin milling, on ar count of its value ami cheapness us a building material. The favorite and chief staple of food is Woe, very little of wheat, inui/.c or potato being used; food is eaten with two sticks, and it lequires some skill to dexterously pick it up und convey it to the mouth by their means; evert thing is served cut up, in small bowls; and it is consiu ored a compliment to hand a morsel to your neighbor with your sticks, he taking it on his own. In setting the table, they decorate it with (lowers, and bottles ol scent ed water,and musicians are employed to play during the repast. The Chinese are excellent cooks, and, in tins respect, may he regarded the French of Asia. The greatest luxuries served on the tables of the rich,are,1st Pirjiang, or bicha tie mar, a large sea-slug, six or eight inches by one, found on the llats ol the tropical islands: it is of a dark color, and is purified into a tich gelatinous substance. - Shark's litis, and fish maws. 3. The edi ile bird's nest. This is the nest of a swallow, formed ol i gelatinous matter, which the bird procures and eluho ates, it is supposed, from some marine plant, l'uritud, it is worth its weight in silver. They dress it in soups, v: , like our >e.rmacelli To eat some of those things nayseem strange,but may it not be asked whether he was aot as bold a man who first swallowed an oyster? The I'urtar dinners are very different. Tney make their re casts on animals ?deer, sneep, bogs, Sic , cooked and served whole. The tit-bits are chipped oil'by the hand, uid passed round to the guests. The common drinks ire tea, which is seen on all occasions, and sum stino, a liquor distilled from rico, which is min gled with hot water, and served in small covered ves sels with a glass to drink from, quite iu the manner ol not whiskey toddy at some of the lashionahlc hotels in this country. TheChinose ple.Jge healths in drinking,and : ?mpty and reverse their glasses. Many of the drinking | vessels now in use among us are copied from ( hina.? Itegurded commercially, the Chinese Kinpne is complete j within itself, without aid from Kurope. As to the arti ?le of food : For the production of necessaries, bread- 1 stuffs and the like, China has every facility in her vast i territory and extremely productive soil; in her great va riety 11 climate, langingirom the cold through the tem- I perate, into the tropical latitudes; and we see that she | produces immense quantities ol these necessaries, im porting hut little,comparative; though perhaps positive- j iy considerable amounts; she might, however, with lit- I !e more exertion supply herself entirely. Then as to -emi-necess.ilies. such as tea, sugars, liquors, ixe :Oi the lirst, she lias the complete monopoly, supply ii g not only aer own consumption, hut the rest of the world besides; of the others, she has every facility tor pioducing as nuch as she pleases, and doe now produce them in vast quantities. As to her arts and niauutactures: 1 It r fume i. universal for fabrics ol silk,w oilen, cot ion, grass, ai.U he raw material of these piodurts; for the shelter of liei people she has abundant supplies of stone, brick ami wood; sho has ships and every requisite tnatciiul lot tlieirconstruction ut navigation; for the manufacture oi utensils, she has iron, copper, and coal; ol the pieciults metals, she has gold and silver, and her people have long been celebrated for the peritenon ol tlieir work manship in the art of maii'ituctunng from them; lor mill Ury defence, she has the metals and gunpowder, and she nas almost uncounted myriads ol men. Accordingly we nave seen that the course of the trade of F.urope with | lima, was, for centuries, that F.urope paid in money for the silks, porcelain, spices and teas ol china; a change in this course of trade lias been brought about by means ot opium, which has proved manifestly an evil, especially to the i liinese.but in a measure to all concerned. Another ha g ? is now beginning to beetle* ted by means of the col on iiidunluctutes of Knglaud und oftheUnited States. Our otton manufactures, and our cotton?whether munulac ured at home or in < heat Britain?are working a sure alteration in the system ot trade, which will be eminent ly beneficial to both nations, but particularly so to Ami ica. The use of machinery gives Kurope and America me command of the market ol China; because, using no machinery in tho cotton manufacture herself, wo can supply her wants cheaper than she ca- ; and the expor tation ol inann lactuied cotton to that market, whether direct from this country, or through Knglaud, must be ol especial importance to us, since ail our owu and a very propoiUou perhaps as huge as six-sevenths ol ilie British manufacture is Irom the American raw mate rial. But the ultimate effect ol tin- change w ill he inju rious to < hina. It must .serve to bieak up, in a gieat de gree, her handicraft arts and manufactures, throwing ttiose engaged in them out ol employ ment, and pioduc ing want, distress and misery. I alike tho Tinted States, < liina has no untried, vast and lertiie West, lor the sur plus ol her continually increasing population to occupy and cultivate when tue throng ui aggregated uumheis necomes ton gieat at home; uud the consequent opera ion of the change w e are considering, may be, when lully effected, to lead to political changes in the vtnpiio i'hu Imperial < onunissionei has often and truly siml, nat China did not want to have comm. rceor trade with .mope or Ameiica But tho result, whether lor ulu nate actual guoit or evil, is yet in the unexplored fu ore, and to that it must he left lor development As ie .puds ourselves, the 1 nited States will have, lor the sup ply ol tlie Chinese market, cotton manufactures; raw eoiton, lor ours is better than the Asiatic article,and can >e sold there as cheap; ginseng, and lead. Tin question j is, can < hina continue to pay ! To do this she lias an immense accumulation of specie, the drain of even a por- j lion ol which would ut once cause a change in tbu icla- j live value ol commodities, and productive gold and nl I ver mines of her own. There net d he no immediate ap prehension on this point, for the balance ol trade is stdl j igainst the Cnitod States, although including Knglish opium the balance is against I hiuu. Wo come now to a console! ation oi the aversion to foreigners, entertained ny the t huie-e nation. 1 heir feelings towards uthei people were oiiginally simply those oi disrespect. They I -aw themselves gieatly superior in every if-pectto ail other Asiatics, w nich nourished their seif-prioc and led them, naturally enough, to look up uud cull the others uaihatiuiis. The same was the case with tho.t?reeks i'tie t hinesc considered all foreigners in the same hgut, nut they had no absolute hatred ol Kuropeans till the piracies of the Portuguese, Dutch and Knglish. The na vigators oi these nations, when they could not soli to profit, resorted to plunder and piracy to make upcaigoes and swell then gams And I suppose it to he a tact, that lue Knglish Cast India i umpany lias committed a greater iiiioiint of wrung hi tho Kust Indies, it sell uloiio, Hamuli me wrongs which all Kurope together has mllicied on tlia red ami black races in both Americas Welcomed lo lima until alter the commission ol these a t* ny the Knglish and Dutch, ami especially ol the Portuguese; tnese foreigners weie then expelled from all but < .niton and ill lu igliliortiood 1'lie quarrels of the foieiglt in s loiiune.i iimong themsclve-weie anolhei cau.-c id tins nailed, i he Mongols and Manokus were lovers ol sci ence and a, i. tvevei al we re eminent lor their protei lion .ml cultivation ol letters, as the books they wrote, tie libraries tney collected, the educational uud scientific asl ial'shnieuts they founded, aiiundaiitly attest. Vc coidtngly, the eaily missionaries weie as wail re ceived in the Tartar Kmpire as any ol their Chi nese ot Mohammedan subjects. Toleiutiou fur ull I wiii tlm policy ol the government . urnl consequently Kuropcuib rose as high and a- rapidly in the seivice ol the empire as Mr Gallatin did in tins country. Two, .Marco I'olo and Gubillou, were made ambassadors, others cabinet counsellors, and others ngairi were called to various high offices in the State The missionaries likewise mane converts by hundreds ol thousands. But then there grew up among those missionaries controver sies on points of faith They were argued warmly, nay, furiously ; the couveit* were dtawn into the dispute , civil commotions ensued, follow ed of course by loreign interference. M this, public jealousy was aroused, na tiveisin became the fashion, and all Europeans were ex pelled from China Here h the reason why sovereigns, wise, intelligent and liberal us many of the Chinese mon arch# have been, have refused license to Christianity and Christians, while they have tolerated all other religious. I believe the sole motive for their expulsion was. and the only reason for their continued exclusion has been, to avoid internal troubles and prevent domestic convul sions The American and French treaties hate changed this l et the christian missionaries, reintroduced into ( hina by those treaties, take warning from the past, and beware ol substituting quarrels on petty sectarian ques tions, in place of the propagation of those great truths of religion, which are common to all the followers of the Saviour ' A word upon the propects ol China under the new aspect of loreign relations, and I shall have done. The Knipuo is opened to loreign commerce by the Fug li li treaty it is opened to loreign li* -ratuio, religion aril cultivation by the treaties ol America and France. Tne effects of ttie cliaugcs wlucti those measures will produce, must necessarily ho gra dual and slow, because of the immense mass of men to he acted on, as well as because of the character istic lixednes, an 1 immovability of their customs, man tiers arid character. If those elfects be peaceful, if the change be tranquil, then great and universal wilt be the benefit But if otherwise, if the people be ron deie l warlike and torn by political convulsion-, they will invade India, overrun Central Asia, ami penetrate into Europe as they did umlor the Tamerbeg and Geng his Hail. To the I nited States the result will be of pie eminent importance We are now second in amount of commercial intercourse with the English alone, ami se cond in amount ol missionary and other inlluence only to the French. Our futuro secures to us the ultimate pre dominance over each. Before the close ol the lifetime of the present generation, the population of the I nited States, and with it our commerce and productive arts, will exceed those of either < ireat Britain or France We have the necessary staples and metals lor China, which Great Britain and France now derive from us, and in fur nishing which they cannot longcompvtc with us. There is at present no great navigating power in the im mense Pacific Ocean Wc are destined to be that power, ami then to have predominant influence in Asia a well us Europe. May wo prove worthy ol our high destiny, in the wise use of those transcendent faculties, for good or for evil which Providence has placed in the hands el the 1 nited Hiates of America ' SiiPimGAN.?Tiiis is a village on Lake Michigan. Its ploi i- elevated thirly or forty fuel above tin- level of the Cake and river, ha- no marshes or deep ravines to fill up, it being already well graded by uatute affording a commanding view of tfie Cuke as far us the eye can reach. Vessels can be seen fifteen or twenty miles dis tant. In regard to the marine, it gives the following as belonginp to that place?-steamer enterprise, liiOtuns. Rchoonei Rainbow, l*iO; Pilot, ?M), and sloop Friendship, ! 4i tons. Land speculators are advised to keep away, j but mechanics ina laborers are much wanted. Cvory ' man who bus any pretension to being a carpenter, oi even to handling an axe, can find plenty of work there. Mason?, mechanics of all kinds, teamsters all will liud ready employment. There is also a goof opening lor a brickniaker and a tinner. To give ad <111ioiihi interest to the place, trie whole Sheboygui rivet affords fro in ten to eighteen feet fall, three mile. west of Hie village, and a saw mill is now in active ope ration there. Tfie water may at any f uture time be easily brought by u race-way to the back part of the village. Three miles farther west, or six iniles from the mouth of tfie river, there is fifteen or twenty feet more fall, which is already highlv improved. Here the pleasant village of "Sheboygan halls,-' is situated, in which are two sua mills, a grist mill, a circular saw, lor cutting luth. and other valuable improvements Four extensive White Fisheries are inactive operation on the lake shore, in the immediate vicinity ol the village, and plenty of room lor more. Carge numbers of that great delicacy, the white fish of Cake Michigan, are caught ami barrelled there every year for exportation, together with Macki naw Trout, weighing 10, -20, and 30 pounds each. Plenty of good pine lumber can be furnished at the month ol Htielioy gan river lor five dollars per thousand. It pays a handsome profit to ship it to Miiwaukie, Kacine,South port, and Chicago. Great Fire at Eastpout ?We are indebted to a slip from the b astport Sentinel for the particulars ol a tire which took place at Fast port on Monday night The following are the particulars :?"The scene of con flagration was the block of wooden stores oa Mnrko' wharf, owned by B B Leavitt, and occupied by Win Thompson, A Tucker, A K. Bradford, B B. Leavitt and David Perkins, merchants. The fire was first dis covoreil in the second story store occupied by Mr Thorn son. The total loss was about $12 000. A considerable portion of the stocks was saved. David Perkins was in sured $2(>0n on bis stock, and $000 on wool, which covers his los-; vVm Thomson was insured $2000 which covers his loss. I! U Leavitt was insured $3000 on the build ings, and $1 100 on his stock, ilis lo s was much greater. A. Tucker, fr , loss $800, and is fully insure I. 'J iie lo on li<|uois under A. Bradford's agency is stated at $1200 and is supposed to bo without insurance. All the insur ance was effected at the New Vork offices It is some what singular that this fire destroyed almost the only block of stores which was spared in the conflagration ol 1830, and that the causes ol both are equally enveloped in obscurity. Mfriier Most Fowl and Diabolical.?A most atrocious and cold blooded murder was committed in this place (Crockett, Houston county, Texas) on the evening of Monday, the Sth ult.,a little uLer usual sup per time, oo tfie person of Charles Henry Nelson, the clerk of our county court; luavmg behind, in unuttera h|e distress, a wile soil in iter teens, and two small chil dren The perpetrator of this hellish deed was a man named Robeit T.Gage, born in Geo.,who lived tfie great er pait of his early youth in Green county, Alahami. resided afterwards in Holmes county, Mississippi, and caine thence about is3!(, to Harrison county, Texas ? From there lie removed to Foit Houston, in the northern part oi ibis (Houston) county, thence to this place; pel naps about tmec y eais ago. About a year since, fio and Ins family left tlus part ol the county, and we learn wem back to Mississippi. Last spring he suddenly reappear ed among us again, having losided a short time pieviou in Liberty couuty, as we understand lie bionght i. small stork ol illy goods, kc with Idm. and mid been engaged, up to the tune of doing ttie due l, in mercantile pursuits. Gage is perhaps a little over 3U years ol age between five feet ten inches and six teet high, span made, red or sandy hair, his beard quite red, and a good deal of white in his eyes, and a notorious braggadocio wherever known. All expenses, and a liberal rewurd will be given to any person apprehending and delivering the murderer to the sheriff of this county. Mr. Nelson was a native of Maine, near Bangor.?Five Citizens nj Houston county. Moke ok the ok the New Postage Law.?8ub|oined is a comparative view of tlie pos tages at the several ollices named below, showing the difference in the postages for the quarters ending the 30th ol September, tni-1, und 30th September, 1S45: ? 3d Qr. .Id Qr. 18)3. Deficit. 1811. Phil ide Ipliia. (Viinsi |\ .una 319,795 11,311 31. i s I.uuisvdle, Kentucky I.MJ 2,6r6 1,319 Sarailuah, Ueoigui 1,131 2.310 3,730 Hagerstown, Alary land 281 266 317 Lowell, Man, 1,383 8111 2,229 B uigor, .Vlaiue 1,012 333 1.373 Columbus, Ohio, 181 310 82t I'o tsmi llln, N. II 583 222 807 Watrrvlitt, N. V 213 99 112 Allegheny, Pemi 21.1 i? Chilicothe, Ohio, 120 ?49 775 ( ircleville, Ohio 280 160 132 Coopemtown, N. Y 171 177 118 Fort Towson, Arkansas Kill 109 239 .Jackson, Mississippi .162 112 771 Total 428,808 22.62 1 51,132 In these dozen or more places, it is perceived that the deficit is a little less than one half. There is one leatuie in this, however, that is not a lit tic singular. To an ex treme point, Fort Towson, in Arkansas, lor instance, the decrease is not neurly so great us w e expected it to be. Another Mcrder.?We lind the following ac count ol a murder committed in Green county, Ohio on the 14th instant, in the Washingtonian William Smith and Hiram llozier, citizens ol Green county, weie returning from Jeffarsonville to Jamestown, and on the way passed a number ol movers who had pitched their caoip by the road side. Smith and llozier stopped at the camp, and being somewhat intoxicated, perhaps, began to blackguard and insult the movers, one ol whom, John Mcl.ung, oidered them to itde on or he would whip them both, flic) did l.otdcsist, however, but as lie approach ed tuey rode foi ward some distance, hitched their bor es to the tenco, and piocured clubs, ami as Mcl.ung came up they both tell upon him, und beat hiiri in a most biutal manner, (ractuting his skull McLung lingered till three o'clock next morning, when be died, lie w as from Greenbrier county, Virginia. The perpetrators ol this bloody deed wo-e bound over, in the sum ot $300 each, to appear at the next term of the Court ot Common I'leus to answer te the churge of murder. New Mail Arrangements ?Vc.?As we noticed some weeks since h contemplated change hi ilit* trans pollution ol the great Kastein 'tail, we are now enabled to infoiin our readers that the arrangements, we then detailed them, have been made '1 he mail is now continued to the terminus of the Georgia Uailrc..d instead ot leaving it at < oviugton, and is thence tian ; poited through West I'omt (instead ol Columbus) to ciiebuw, thence by our Railroad to this place This will complete the schedule from Augusta to Mobile in tw elve hours loss than formerly. Our office lieie has been made a distributing oflice in the new arrangement, instead ot ? otumbus, Ua Our ? vei is hi noble older and peilectly alive with steamboat*. Good* landing, diays lattling, meuhants rrceivmg und unpacking, ladies-hopping, speculators thinking, curiosity staling ill every direction Is this Montgomery or Sew 5 oik.'?MantKuinny ) Intlt fan hut, Oil. '1. Si ciii mi: Coi Kr, Gel 2R ? N'ti. S2. 1Jcriry Gog gill vs. flume I Lcd\itt, Great \c. Mr. Noxoti con cluded for pluiutiil 'the people, vs. James II. Waid. Vr. ltrady was heard for tho defendant. Mr. Patterson lor the people. Mr Biady w as hcaid in reply No si Nathaniel Tompkins ot al ads John Huukcl Mr. ' P. kukiand was heard lor the delendant I ii I ?'re it I ill; Hartli uImisiiI Hie Murdtlfrt i'Vimilt in iIuhIiiii ! Pre:n Boston Mai!, Oct. It seems thai Mau i A. Bickford, formei i> Maria John* , , tro- i the town ol Oldtown, ti few ion, came to this city, Tiiilea fiom ti ingor, a few year* ago. ami obtained a situ otion in a cigai mariutHctury, near Botton, where she w orked very industriously lor more than a year She there became acquainted with Bickford and was marrie I to him Acci lent soon after introduced her to one of the most depraved ot her sex, whose meretricious oriiaments da/.zled the unsophisticated gitl. and in an evil hour promiited her to violate the sane 1 oath ot mariiage, and a train ol intemperance hlameahle to both husband ami w ife, led the misguided woman to sacrifice the invalua ble principles ot virtue and her own honor tor the purpose of ministering to lliu too common wan's of her sex in dress, and finally led to a separation. She was then thrown upon the wide woild, bankrupt in character, though rich in beauty, an i her walk became with the courte/ans of the city i rea !y ? iciifi ?? t ? gut l Her youth, her beauty, her personal charms, ere otten subjects et admiration, and were so nicely lueti le I with a native modesty, that hal not yet been eradicated by vice sel lorn betrayed to the passer by the character which vice was stamping Her acquaintance with Tir rell we learn, has b?en upward* ol a year, and (Hiring that time she has had the reputation of being his mistress Intemperance sooner or later is the sure follower ot incontinence, and it was eminently to in this case This vice added to others. aud assisted by a passion naturally resolute, and an impulse unwe-mog, produced upon the deluded one u certain degree of recklessness, and an mi governatde temper, Which daily grew more strong It led her onto the very brink of tue fnghtlul precipice ol utter degradation and ruiu, and there, it we may judge Itoin what we have hem t and are authorised testate, re solution determined her to pause This purpose was fixed upon another event in her hie. which renders her unhappy late (till more mournful A young gentleman who had known and loved her in the lay s ol tier youth and innocence, and who had been lost to her for many, many years, saw her recently, and the old love, that love whose tire bad nearly gone out, was again reh nulled in his heart. He made trequint visits to the hou-e where she lived, and although knowing her history, was wil ling to forgive the past, and to become hei husband.? (?'very thing had bo.n arranged lor their tnRrriige, it be ing settled that she would remove with him to his resi dence in the western part of New York. The most con vincing proof of sincere repentence lor past errors had been recently manifested by Maria; of late she seldom went out during the day or evening, and scarcely any one was encouraged to see her. Her purpose of mar t iage and removal from Boston was often talked of among her several acquaintances, and a few days before the deed ol death was committed, Maria left her hoarding botMe in the afternoon, the last time that stie ever was seen in the streets, and made purchase ot a new dress and a number ol little trickets, which she showed to one ol the girls, and stated that she ws< tired of the wat she hau been living,and was resolved that her luturc life should atone for hor past tollies. The tie>s sh. sent to a Mrs. ' ', dress maker, in Washington Street, with un order that it might be finished in one .veek. These facts were narrated to us in the presence of the deceased She lay before us a ghastly and bleeding corpse. IIcr dishevelled hair aud hut toin and lacerated body, and the strange disorder ol things near the bed, gave evidence oi a dreadful struggle between life and death A little distance fiout the bedside was a small woik-table, the drawei ol which wa partly open, exhi biting several tings and turikets worn by her tho day be fore; and upon tho mantel were arranged with tho most scrupulous neatness, \auous costly articles ol perfume ry and cosmetics,used to add something to the attraction ot that once beautilul person. \ small uper. trunk stood beneath the mantel, in which were discovered a bundle ol letteis, which appeared to have been but recently re ceived?several of them were addressed to Maria .and postmarked Oldtown; and one was written in language the most endearing and refreshing to the soul, and signed, "An Affectionate Mother." There was another bundle tied with a piece of white ribband,a part of which were post-marked Boston, ami the others New Bedford and Providence, and addressed to "Maria Johnson Bos ton, .Mass., in haste!" Several ol these weiu ol very re cent date. Upon the wall near the bed weie hung a num ber of prints, in neat gilt frames; and over one ot the pil lows, yet wet with blood, lay a daguerreotype miniature of the deceased, exouted by Mr. Plumbe. It was taken in a riding-dress and cap, and looked uncommonly lovely and innocent. Who knows the thoughts that but a few hours before filled that breast, now scathed by tho element of lire. Who knows the jovs, the promised hope, that ret ealed itself for future file, and whispered to that closed aim doomed heart, peace and good tidings of great joy; thai said, "Be ol good cheer, thy sips aro forgiven' go and sir, uo more " she was the victim of jealousy an t revenge and lie who committed the bloody act, cannot go in, punished We have more facts connected with the recent histo ry of this girl, with which are several letters, which tv. shall publish another time. Mr. Bickford, the husband of the unfortunate lemali who met with so tragical a death,art ived in this city from Bangor on Thursday. Varieties. Spkaking of Twins, we know of a fanner in Connecticut who has ;i pair of twin daughters of whon a capital anecdote is told They hoth attended the satin school, and not long since one of them was called up by the master to recite ? lessen in geography .which she l<a< learned very imperfectly, and in lact could not go on at all The teacher who was getting quite out ol patience, was called to another part ol the room, and just at that moment the twin sister sprang to the floor unobserved and pushing the delinquent scholar to her scat, took het place. The master proceeded w ith the questions, which were answered with a degree of promptness ami accura cy which, at the close, drew forth from him a few words of commendation. The joke was not discovered hy the teacher until some days after. Of course it was too good and successful to occasion any otlencc. - Hostoi 11 mt v Dr. Douglass Houghton, Stale Geologist of Michi gan, was drowned near Kagle River, hake Superior,dur ing a violent snow storm on the night of the 13th inst He had four men with him, two of whom were alst drowned. .Most ol Ins papers were saved. I'p to tht tune our informant left that region, October 21, his body had not been found Dr. 11. was nearly ready to rnaki his Anal report, and close his laliois. which had occu pits! In in lor the i st eight y ears. Although a you og mat Dr. 11. had acquired a very respectable rank among tin scientific men ol the country, and his estimable peisonal qualities endeared him to h large circle of ineuus a.u! acquaintances.?Huffalo .idv. Captain Thomas Duhng, who has been under tiiai tor the last ten iluyi in the I 8. District ( ourt, charged with serving on hoard the brig Washington s barge on lie coast ol Africa, w hile -ant vessel wa engaged in tin lave trade, and ol usin the American tlig.tne Ameri can crew uud Ins American papers to cover said trade was yesterday acquitted by the jury. The ground upon which the prosecution origiuated, was, that he w as com tiiaiuler of the vessel, sold her to a Portugese slave dea ler, ami that shortly utter ho had relinquished command ami gone on hoard ol another vessel with his crew and papeis, she sailed from poit with u cargo ol slaves tor Uahia in Brazil The American Consul at Bahia had the matter certified home to this government, ami the case resulted as above statod.?Hhtta. Ledger, (Jet. 31. We received at our counter the other day a cent having on it the follow ing impression, " V ote the land free " VV'i think this squints a little at Aliti Rentism.the advocates ol which seem to have adopted this device to keen it before the people, and thus make it current.? Kiuderhnok Sentinel. The Governor of Georgia has issued his procla mation, ordering an election to bo held in the third I. on grossional district ol that State, on the tilth day of Janu i y next, to fill the vacancy in the twenty-ninth Con gtess, occasioned by the resignation of Washington Poe. John Cook, a painter, of Wrentham, about lo years old, and having a w ife and five children, eloped with a Miss Forreat, o! the same town, aged Id, about ten days ago It is said that a reward ol d<100 is offeree for his apprehentiou?Huston Host. We see hy the New lied ford papers that the llev Kphraim IVabody of that town, had been invited to ac cept the pastoral charge ol Kiug s C hapelin Boston, with auannual salary ol $3000. The l*eUrsbui$ lirpuhliain announces the death ol of the Iter Vndrew Svine, I' D . aged !>2 years, the old est clergyman in Virginia. Hon William Mitchell, of Nantucket, declines being a candidate lot re-election to the State Senate. John McAuley, ;m only son of honorable parents, and a graduate ol* Princeton College, died in the Otangi county, N. V , poor house,ou the 21st iust, aged 66 yeais Me is said to have beun u w it and humorist, and the love ol company and die k appears to have been his ruin.? lie was in the army during the last war. The resignation of the Mayor ol Boston has been productive o?ii world of trouble. Legal opinions in great quantities have been taken as to the mode by w hich llu city shall he extr icated front its difficulties. A city with nomayoi is worse than a church without a bishop I'hitad. Key Stone. The citizens ol Savannah have appointed eighteen delegates to the .Memphis t onvention, and requested the Governor of Georgia to appoint two or more delegates Irom the State at large. The indictment lor lib 1 against Kx-Governor Thomas i? expected to he tiled during the second week of next month at Washington. The cuiiosity-mongerr anticipate a rich treat on the occasion. lion. Sv S. Prentiss has been ml mi I led to practice in Louisiana, by the Supreme Court now -uting at Vltv andria. llonuKRY asp Prompt Ahkf.xt ?About ? oVIoi l> on 'l'liursday evening a young man with a tl.irk patch upon on" of his cheeks ami a black sik handkei chiel tied oiei his iiiouth. doubtless to act as disguise, went into the jewelry store ol Mr V (uvea ill Bioad way, Albany, and under pielonce ol making a tuning puu iiasc, seized lour valuable gold watches and made oil The alaim was inatautly raised hj Mr. G , unil chase given to the scoundrel,who was arrested in James street by \11 Joseph \V atdwell and ill I)odge, a i iei k j in the stoie of Prnjn, Wilson tx Vosburgh. Part of the stolon proiiert> was found on brm lie was hm led ovt io Justice Cole When arrested he relused to give hi* name Me stated that lie came Ironr New York to tins city on Wednesday l'i..a iiKl.lTIIA. \ri .egiel to |> ,,ril that the KtV Joint McDowell, l>. D , l ong and lavor.tbly known ! to our citizens, as the pastor ot the Central Proab) tonai! I hutch, has lec enllj resigned Ins ohnige ol that church [ and congregation I S. (Jazette Orl. 11 ill ? >??!} i\ i it j iiit, I licence. A.nkihih I'' i, \ |, i, ? ? | f,j luri'.'i fi i/? lately ,ft thorn-wive tu mhU uuglarions de inoiistmuons upon the l?w .it,-,. ()f Brooklyn nnwisalr supposing that there ia even , t,, mhability ot their labors being attended with pecani irv advantage. O .?? or two aucH foolish attempt ,;t robbery have already been reported in tile /fern V during the pn- ent week, and we have now to record another On Thuraday night, the office of Messrs Rockwell .1 l Martense was entered by thieves, who forced ojieu a '<inu ,/ , > succeeded in getting some articles valued it about eighteen dollars including some wt-am g u ;-rel be longing to a clerk in the establishment with w inch they made their escape. Poinn Vit infamous scoundrel, calling himself Ito hei't Hambridge, wlio has been for some day s in the h rut of insulting f- m ilea, was luoiiglit up j esterilay morning, !,y a young married female name 1 mtrnh Monroe, charg ed with pinning up her dress from behind Keeling the prick of the pin -lie rushed into a neighboring house, w het e the rascally conduct of tiie lellow was exposed. She alao charges him with pursuing her two daj s alter ward, while in company with her sister, and catching her hy her heel It is said that he is guilty of insulting various other female lie is committed to jail, to stand farther examination to-da? . when it is expected that otkei complaints will be entered against him lii'MOaiu Wisdi ? i..?There was a report in Brook iyn, yesterday,that i we.ilthy individual, formerly a resident of New York, who recently died in New Or lean- has bequeath- I an immense lor tine to be divided as follow . : fi<hHi i-00 to the Baptist Bible Society, and *1(10,040 in ei|ii,.l share to two sisters, w ho are at pre sent at service in this city. Airttin Tc oif.Ai -On Thursday afternoon, Mr. Larigworthy, w ho owns a dock at the foot of Gold street, discovered a man in a boat communicating with one ou shoie by signs ; and having lus suspicion- aroused, caus ed a watch to be kept during the night, Yesterday morning, about 4 o'clock, two oarrels ol ilour wete seen standing on the wharf, and a couple ol men looking lor a curt to take them away. On being told hy the watch that he would provide one for them, thpy both fled leaving their booty behind The barrels are marked thus : " Krastus Sparrow, f.rie Mills, Black Rock. Ohio wheat.'" They al-o left a boat nt the wharf, which is a long, six oared rait, with a green bottom and green waist with a red stripe \l*o a piece of junk and one bar of pig iron. Owners are wanted for all these articles U'hi . Mkk nst ? A large and respectable assemblage ot whigs took place at flail's Buildings last evening, to make arrangements for the great political contest w inch is to come off on Tuesday next. It is expected hy many that the Native American candidate* lor Assembly and Senator will retno from the field, and, if so, the whig party will stand a good chance ot triumphing over their more lorninlahle opponents in Kit g'g ( ounty. sm.u i. S.ii.ariis?The narrow-minded and indiscreet economy practised by the constituted authorities ol Brooklyn in relation to same of their officers, may be guessed at from the fact that to the hack and cab Inspector ? only paid the paltry annual sum of P1, notwithstand ing that his duties compel him to travel three or four i times every day ol the w*ek lrom Catherine to Kulton anil South Kerries. How, oi in what manner, the inem heisol the Common Council expect the arduous labors imposed upon this individual to he performed for a sti pend so contemptible,, is a question which even the most learned and ingenious of that august body w ill find difficult to answer to the satisfaction ot those who look tot oidei and regularity among ihe community of " whips." Nati'ivai. Rkioxmcrs?This curious and medley cluas of politician- a ere to hold a meeting in Brooklyn last evening, at a place in Kulton stunt, to resolve upon such measures as would beet promote the success of theii candidates lor the Legislature; F. (.'. Tread well having been nominated lur Senator, and James < lark, of Brooklyn, and Samuel D, Mills of tVilliamsburgh, lor . Assembly. Wii.liamsbi h.~Some of the landed proprietois of this tow n, have commenced in good earnest to build upon their farms and helm, ?? nd ere long this now small and unimportant place w ill become one of the laig? nties of the Union. A tew unsophisticated an-l very credulous indivi luals have been led into the belief, that Brookly n and M'illuimshurgh are to be annexed forthwitn. The proposition is too palpably absurd for the credence of any sane person, as Brooklyn already stands too proudly pre-eminent over its comparatively small and obscure neighbor, either to desire or consent to such a union. Hoi:it: Kaisini. ?This science has obtained much te puto in Brooklyn, and those who are actively engaged in its practice must bo realizing large fortunes, il the busi I ness be as profitable as is generally represented. The i great increase of stores demanded by the continually accumulating population of the city, has induced the owners ol many private dwellings to raise their build ing-, so thut warehouses and shops may be placed be i ncathand so rapidly is this operation now performed, that a single week will, in some instances, suffice to metamorphose a whole block ol houses. If some of these" House Moven,"as they style themselves, would visit the Ku rope an cities (where their peculiar handi ?ialt is unknown) they would, w bit proper industry and . appl ation, Inevitably become eminent and wealthy | mi ,n ini or i km vt r 0' O h u i x a v i i - ?The most violent jo" litical opponents of the present Mayor of Brooklyn con* J cede to hire gieat, re lit for trie determination he has manifested to enforce a recent ordinance of the CStgimou 1 tuncil in rei itioa to remr.n.g swine irom the public. 1 streets. If the same worthy and esteemed functionary w ill u.- e equal vigilance, and exercl-e a ke fearlessness in carry nig out ihe municipal regulation- whii n inter diet the use of the -ide walks tor the exhibition or stor age of merchandise and other marketab.e commodities, tie will renderto his constituents, and to the public gen erally, a service which they will not hereafter he tin ! mindful of, or ungrateful for. Dutkation ?The train over the Long Island Road, yesterday moraine, lor Boston, was detained by tlie breaking of one oi the springs of the locomotive, about AO miles out. They w ere overtaken by the accoinmoda tiou nam, which pushed them along at . low rate, until ttie damage was repaiied, as the car- went along. This detention would prevent the passengers from teaching Boston until a late hour last evening, md pn-vented tin train from Boston reaching Brooklyn until half past I o'clock. I'ihk - Another lurge tiro occurred in the pine woods on Long Island, on Thursday last, uml continc. d through he night. It was supposed to hat e-cap-ed from a coal pit, or n om some person shooting in the neighborhood, it ran some miles and it would, n. was supposed, reach the country seats of Henry Hone cud s.imut-l Sitong, in which direction it seemed to be steering It commenced .' out two miles from the tatltoa Farming lale, so :hat on tl is occasion the cuarge will not test on tno rail [ mod company. Iiii a r Hai i The Long I -land freight train brought in on Wednesday, among other count! y produce eight and a hall tons ol bass taken in one day by three fishing i companies. Tobacco Grot ?We have recently been much gratified with p eight ot some beautiful samples of segars made from the Flotilla tobacco of this crop In Color and appearance they are similar to the ben Nor man and he-man tliat ate now in such high favor with the smohmg community. We have tried several, and can say without hesitation, that in ftav they equa' any ot the Spanish Segars, that command such high prices in the American maiket. Age is all that in wanted to make them received as such. As the cultivation of this pro duct luds lair to open a profitable avenue lor the euer I gtes ol our agriculturalists, we sincerely wish lor its successful growth. This is the first year that ttie plan* I ters ol Kast Florida have cultivated it extensively. The ; season unfortunately, has been 1111 unlavorablo 0.-0, but us those who have cultivated tobacco, inteud generally, i we believe, to havo their crops manufactuied into se | gars, they will reap an ample reward lor their labor and perseverance during the experiment. Those who have 1 examined the growth of tobacco throughout the State, pronounce that of Kast Klonda, to he superior in strength, i color, and llavor to any they have seen in other sections O! the Soutll -St. ?dwglivtinr -Vrti v, Ot I. lb. Common Pt.kas, Hoston, Oct. 80.?Price or an I'm nits mmatRTi CottRTsiiir ? In the case ol .lane Miliay against diaries H. Suwin, of Surewsbury, for breach ol promise, the jury this morning returned a verdict lor the fair plaintiff, giving (.300 damages. The conversational pait oi the courtship occupied fifteen hours, which at the time w era deemed and taken to he the plea-antest part of two November days. Twenty dollars an hour, ho . ever, is t higher price, piobably, than the defendant expected to pay for lus portion of the enjoyment It is supposed that lie is worth about ?1000, and, it it should tut 11 out to be so, the lady will g. t her "thirds," without the inconvenience of having had to marry and bury a "poor fellow, with but small talents,'' us he described himself in one of hi< letter- The bre vity 01 the oral intercourse between the paities was ad mirably and wittily handled by < miries It. Train, Ksq., ol Framinghaiu, who was counsel lor the defendant ? K.dariing to tne lormei connection of the parties with ttic society of Hi other Hime he maintaine 1 that this in teiview was only 1 .mmunion 01 the ints on celes tial topics, and could have non lereuco toutuiion 111 tins world. J. 1- English, Ks.p, the other NlJc. thought that Sawin'N desire fo "united in heart and band" with 1 Jano, and to gra-p he: ifl'ectionate hand," in winter,had aveiy terrestiul twa g. No exceptions were token to Ju.lga Merrick's rulings or charge lie too'. 1 humane and common sense view of tJio case, in nil it? bearings.- fait. StirarMR and Melancholy Affair.?jVIr, Hora tio hawrence, ot Rye, Westchester county, New 1 oik. has been arrested for the murder ot his wile I'liebe, to ? bom he was married last June, and who was found dead m her bed on the 17th inst. 1 to 1 death had evident ly been produced by 11 gash cut in ,.er irin with 1 razor, u in. 11 severed the arteries and caused bci to bleed to death. The wound appeared to be inflicted in the gar ies. w here there w as much blood, and a bloody miot and hammer. The stairs, parlor,t".J bodroom, were also bloody, but the bed w ?? not. Noothern.s k ol violence was louud about hei md tu ' oronci's nrv iound a ver .1 ict ot suicide, nevcrtliele- Lawrence lias been arrest* ad on suspicion of having III>1 ? eivd liel PiHl in T.u nt.i\ UVIc .ru fhat a fire broke out in the Ikiioiuc house connected wiili the haeto ry known as tlm Buck Mill' owned and occupied by 1 hailea Richmond. K-q The engine lion- win de - troj e.l, a1 I hI'.i tl ?? mo i i"t of the lactoty, ? itl. the ma chinery VC. Loss sstlD.ate.l at liom 3i t.i $40,'nil In sure.) at one ot the WorcesMM oflires, $10,000 We re gret to lein " that ll.e los- w ill tail In avily on \ 1 Iti.-h ntond who is well known as one ol the most eutnipii sing c'ftt 'ens rl Tliuntotl, On ! had jn t complete I all I n IniMi.ess arrangements tor the apprMchmg i-u. flu.I011 Tmnmifit Oct.

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