Newspaper of The New York Herald, December 8, 1845, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated December 8, 1845 Page 1
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THE NEW YORK HERALD. Vol. XI., No. 338?Whole Wo. 4190. NEW YORK, MONDAY MORNING, DECEMBER 8, 1845. Price Two Cents. MORE EXTRACTS AND TRANSLATIONS nox THE FOREIGN PAPERS Received at the Herald The Duke of Montibello, ambassador from France, to the court of Naples, has gone from the latter place to Palermo, (where the Emperor Ni cholas of Russia now is with his imperial contort,) in order to Bolicit the favor of a private audience with the autocrat. It was said that the King ot Naples endeavored to dissuade him irom taking the ?tep. Loais Philippe has demanded of the court of Rome two cardinal's hats ; the first for the arch ?bishop ot Aix, the second lor the arch-bishop ot Bourgea, and it is said that the Pope has agreed to confer this honor, according to the request ot the King of the French. The marriage of Mademoiselle, daughter of the Duchess of Berry, and sister ot the Duke of Bor deaux, (the claimant and legitimate heir of the crown of France,) with the hereditary Prince of .Lucca, was to be celebrated on the 10th inst., at Frohsdorf. It appears certain, after all, that has been raid upon the subject, and the variety of reports as to thu happy man who is to become th? husband ot Isabella of .Spain, that there is now no longer any doubt that the son ot Don Carlos is to be the favored person. The following anecdoto is in circulation among certain circles,:the truth of which it is believed is not to be disputed. A Carli^t bHicer, residing at Toulouse, went some short time back to pay a visit to some of his old trie^ds at Madrid. While stay ing in the capital, he went to see the husband of Queen Christine, with whom he had formerly serv u- "u KVdt du coryt. He was well received by ?18 ?T."Uito*de/ who in the familiar outpourings of 8111 him that " the services which "? ?d render*! to his king would now soon be re warded, tor >ae marriage of tlie Queen with the son ot Don (>arlos was already accomplished." It is utv' that the marriage took place by proxy, u a'te K-wnwarea acting as representative of th?. young prince. The news of tniB important fcvent has been circulated in Spain in the shape of rumors, no official acknowledgment having yet been made, and it is said that the results are already shown to be a high excitement and extreme discon tent in the public mind. This event may lead to a counter revolution in unhappy Spain. A dispute has been on foot some time in Germa ny, in relation to the title ot certain petty Dukes of that aristocratic country. The Diet of Frankfort has had the settlement of this "great matter" before them, and it iB said has at last decided that the Dukes of Anhalt and Saxe,and the Princes of the house ol Coburg, shall be entitled to receive the high appella tion of"Their most Serene and Royal Highnesses." The ratifications of the treaty of amity and com merce, concluded on the 24th October, 1844, be tween the plenipotentiaries of the King ot the French and the Emperor of China, were exchanged on the 26th of August last, at Taiphani, near the Bogue, in the palace of the Mandarin Admiral, who commands the Chinese force in the Canton river. The speech of the King of the Belgians gives a positive contradiction to the reports relative tq the shortness of the grain crop. In other resp^ts, the tenoi of this document is considered as favorable, among mercantile men. Seizure of American Cuicr^?-"Last week, up wards ot 660 American clocks were seized, in coil sequence of the importers undervaluing them, and on Saturday tbey were s*ld at Revenue-buildings, tor a much higher amqant than they were originally valued at. They we,fB disposed of in lots of three each, and the average price was from forty to fifty shillings per lot. *-.Liverpool Mail, Nov. 15. The Crises jr England.?The Leeds Mere wry of the 8th ulv, has the following suggestions, which ?e well worthy ot attention " W'j have, not for a few weeks merely, but for inann months, been continually warning our read ers, {hat the railway speculation was quite extrava gant. and must lead to mischievous consequences. " Now that the fever is giving place to collapn*, we feel it as much our duty to caution the public against unnecessary alarm, as we did before to warn them against imprudent speculation. "* We do not pretend to say that much difficulty "will be experienced. No doubt money will be scarce and severe losses will be sustained, es|>e ' cially by the holders of shares in imprudent ar.d ridiculous railway projects. We shall nave failures in the share market, and perhaps beyond it. But undue alarm would immensely aggravate the mis chief, and cause an unnecessary and unjustifiable sacrifice of share*, possessing the most substantial value,as well aa embarrass men of undoubted sub stance Our recommendation to the mercantile community is, to take a manly and rational view of the statQ of the country, to act with calmnet-s, steadiness, and forbearance, and not to sacrifice their property in order to obtain relief from imme diate pressure. The circumstances which induce us to believe that the crisis, though it may be severe, will be short ?but it will nut plunge the country into anything like ruin?that, after a gale, which may carry aw.iy topgallant masts and top-masts, and try the strength of the good ship, she will still hold her own, and ride securely on the wave?are as follow:? " 1. We have the resources accumulated during threr years of prosperity to fall back upon. "2. There nas been little or no speculation in trade or manufactures, and not much over tradinz with foreign countries. " 8. Stocks ot manufactured goods are not large in any hands. "4. The harvest, though below an average, h is been very fur indeed f rom being like that of 18H>, or even of 1838. The grain suffered more in qualny than va quantity. The chief difficulty will arise out of t^ie failure orthe |>otato crop. *4 5. It is impossible that we should have an over whelming importation of corn, to take away our bullion ; we could not get the corn if we wanted it; thia is nn evil which will gradually tell upon trade and the working class, but at all events we need not expfct any eudden derangement of the currency from that cause. "6. As prices of manufactured goods are not high, we shall be able to export goods to a consider able extent, in payment for whatever grain may be imported. ?'7. The Bank of England has still the very larye nmount of ?14,001,293 of com and bullion in her coffers, being tour millions more than used to lie considered a full sum " 8. Tiie foreign exchanges are still in our favor wub France, and not against us with Germany Twe exchange with Hamburg has improved sinre last week, and it is now at par "9. There has been no over-issue of country bank paper ; and the banks are in a good condition " 10. The established railways have been proved by experience to be excellent investments, and their income io now such that the shareholders would be throwing away money to sell at present prices. "11. Perhaps there is scarcely one of the mil ways now in progress that will not yield a go?d re turn to the shart holders when opened. " 12. Moat of the projected railways (except the purely competing lines) are betwixt towns and through tracts of country which must, beyond all doubi, sooner or later enjoy the facilities of railway communication. They have been brought forward too tart; but there are very few that will not in ihe course of years be constructed. " These are considerations which, taken together, seem to us to forbid anything like despondency. When bankers, mercantile men, and capitalists lonk at the whole case, they will see that our present dil ficulties are temporary, brought on by the egregious folly ot railway speculation, and for which we must pay One penalty of a good whipping, but not likely in a -.flhterial degree, or for any lengthened period, to Arrest the progress ot the national prosperity. ?* As a matter of prudence we would suggest that those railway companies which have only just been formed, and ot which the deposits are not yet paid up, should postpone the call, so us not to increase ?he scarcity of money, and should put ofl their ii|v plications to parliament to another session. It would probably be a mere waste of money to press their bills next session, and it would be much better that the money should be in the pockets of the share holders. Railway directors, whose works are in progress, will no doubt see the desirableness of ob taining the money necessary for their prosecution (as far as practicable) from the Urge capitalists who have it to spare, and not drawing trom the channels of trade, already too much drained." The Paris correspondent of the Liverpool Timet says: " The Ojibbieway savages have concluded their performances, and are on the eve ot returning to the United States, ?n route, to their own back woods. Juat previoua to the conclusion of their pub lic performances they exhibited before the King and his family. Mr. Catlin, the enterprising traveller, who brought them to Kurope, exhibited yesterday his portraits of Indian chiefs, representations of In <finn customs. sketches of Indian scenery, and his unrivalled collection of Indian curioaitiea, to Louis Philippe. in the galleries of the Louvre, where they were placed expressly tor hi* majesty's inspection. Louis Philippe is said to have been much pleased, nnd to have promised Mr. Catlin to bring the Queen and all his family to see the collection also. His majesty had previously done Mr Catlin the honor of inviting him to breakfast at the chateau of St. Cloud. Catlin is said to be anxious to persuade Louis Philippe to buy his collection of paintings, &c., for one of the public, or his own private galle ries ; and as Louis Philipe is a most magnificent pa tron of art, it is not improbable that he may. But certainly the collection would be of greater value and interest in a museum of the United States than here. A peer of France having lately published a pricit of the History of the United States from their crea tion to the present time; the Journal dcs D(batt gives a long critism upon it, in which it attacks re publicanism?declares the constitution of the United States to be faulty in many respects?to be based on error in supposing every citizen wise and prudent, and a whole people able to govern themselves by reason alone. It goes on to say, that the exaggera ion of the elective principle, as it exists in the etates, destroys not only authority, but mdepend tnce; and remarks on the efforts of Jackson to break down the principle of inequality of ranks, which was beginning to gain ground. It describes the United States as "a decapitated society, (wne tociiti dtcapitie,) a multitude, a presumptuous be ing, ignorant, imperious, which will not permit it self to be conducted by reason, and which rules it self by passion, by prejudice, by caprice, and by monstrous vanity. "The multitude," the article continues further on, " is under the name of the people, a sovereign not less absolute than was the Great Mogul, or the.ancient kings of Persia, on their golden thrones, in the midst of their tatrapes. The same adulations are made to it as are made to ori ental despots. Before the p? opte no one has a will, and, publicly, this baseness (bastetise) is made a vir tue. The multitude reigns without control and with out check. This despotism has perverted public manners, and commences to pervert private mau ners till now remarkable for their purity." Reli gion, it is remarked, had. heretofore, been a check, but religion has not had the influence it iB supposed to have " Thus the political combination imagined by the great men of the Independence has served its time, and I have heard more than one enlightened American declare ' It is a failure.' Northern Ame rica is in the way of anarchy, and from anarchy to despotism is not far." The critic subsequently ob serves, that the irue title to be given to a book con taining political studies on the United States would be, ?' How a new people prepares itself for the Mo narchal regime. (Comment un veuple nouveau a * prepare au regime Momarchigne.') He then adds some flattering observations on the condition of the working classes in the United States, and con cludes. I do not think the citations here given will be very acceptable on fhe other side of the Atlantic, but they are interesting as showing what is the opi nion of the Journal de$ Dfbatt, the principal newt paper of France, whose proprietor is a peer of France, whose writers are deputies, and the moat eminent literary men of the day. Romance of Real Life.?A young American planter, named I)a Costa, of immense fortune, re cently came over to this country in search of a wife, and after visiting some of the most fashionable cities, and " spending his money like a prince," without meeting the object of hiB search, he paid a visit to Birmingham, and was standing one day at the door of the Hen and Chickens, when, as old wives would say (and circumstances in this case proved the truth of the saying), the very person he came to England \p look for walked across New street, nearly opposite where he stood. Struck with her appearance he followed the lady, and with much politeness, expressed a wish for a better acquaintance, and a desire to see her home. The young ladv, a Miss Rimmer, of Alcester, was at that time on a visit to Mr. Heely's, Bristol road, to whose house the stranger accompanied her, but his partner in the walk not much liking such a roman tic visitor, referred him to her parents. The travel ler was not to be diverted from an obiect in search of which he had travelled so far, and the little tov. ii of Alcester was shortly after well nigh frightened from its propriety by a carriage ana four driving up at full speed to the house of Mr. Rimmer. Aft. r many wonderings among the inhabitants who >t could be, it turned out that it was Mr. Da dfet.-, come to request of the parents permission to pny his addresses to their daughter. Advice was askv.l of those with whom they usually advised, and con sent was given; and the stranger gave tfich evi dence of the strength of his attachment, that he whs not long in finding his way to the heart of Mi-s Rimmer; and though many tales were afloat of what the modern " Blue Beard" would do, he mm ried her at Alcester Church on Saturday week, three carriages and four conveying the parties who graced the nuptial ceremony with their presence. The people whose daughter has thus become a wife, are worthy people, in moderate circumstances; tl e lady possesses good senee as well as personal at tractions, and the stranger has shown himself by munificent presents, to be really what he passes for, a man of vast wealth, and a gentleman, we under derstand that the eldest brother of Miss Rimmer is to accompany her to her new residence across tl.e Atlantic, when his fortune, as well as hers, will l?e made.? Birmingham (Eng ) Advertiser. The Famous Elopement or Ladv Adela Vil liehs.?We have it in our power to unnounce that all the mystery appertaining to the disappearance of Lady Adela Villiers, the youngest daughter of the Earl and Countess of Jersey, is now cleared u,>, the information regarding the fair fugitive having been brought to town by the Hon. Captain Fred - rick Villiers, from the north, on Saturday after noon. The plane of the " runaways" were so well ar ranged that, thanks to the railway, to overtake ihem was an impossibility. It seems that,unknown to the Earl of Jersey's family, a clandestine com munication has been maintained for some month* past by the youthful lady and her gallant admirer, but so secretly that not the slighest suspicion Whd excited even among the closest attendants of her ladyship. A strict investigation was, on the return of the CountesB of Jersey from Arundel Castle, in stituted, the haad of the police at Brighton ben>.; present; and although not the least clue wai to If; obtained from the governess of the young lady, the lady's maid, who invariably accompanied Iter lady ship in her promenades, said that a tall fair gentle man, of military bearing, had occasionally, t? t il appearances accidentally, met Lady Adela, when, as they conversed in French, she could not compn - bend the substance of their discourse. It has subsequently transpired that shortly aft<T five o'clock on Wednesday evening, as Lady AdeU left the lodge eates, a public tty was in readiness, by which her Ladyship, in company with a gentleman, whs conveyed to the railway terminus, and procero ed to town by the half past five o'clock train tor London. On their arrival in the metropolis they must have gone direct to the Birmingham railway at Eiston square, and left by the mail train for New castle, en route to Carlisle, on their way to Gretna freen ; so that when it was discovered at East iodge, Brighton, that Lady Adela had so unaccoun tably disapjH-area, the lovers were on their road 10 Scotland. It was also ascertained that her Lady ship remained in the fly at the station till the b< II rang for the train to 6tart. The Hon. Captain Fre derick Villiers having heard on Thursday morning, of the absence of his sister, immediately started by express to Gretna, it having been only surmised that Lady Adela had eloped. On his arrival at Carlisle he there gained the information that a young lady, answering exactly in description to her Ladyship, and a gentleman, had passed through that place.? On his arrival at Gretna-green, or more properly Graitenev, the rendezvous of fugitive lovera, the Honorsble Captain was informed that on Thursday afternoon, atjlour o'clock, a marriage waa solemn / ed and lawfully concluded between Captain Charles Park Ibbetson and Lady Adela Coriander Mane Villiers. Thus, within twenty-three hours after their departure from Brighton, the nuptial ceremony was performed. It was understood that after the performance of the ceremony^ the Captain and her Ladyship, repair ed direct to Edinburgh. Captain Charles Parke Ibbetson entered the 4th (Royal Irish) Regiment of Dragoon Guards as cor net, 24th April, 1885, and in June, 1837, purchased a lieutenantcy in that regiment. He subsequently changed into the 11th Hussars (Prince Albert's own) in winch regiment he holds the commission ol a captain of the date of June, 1843. We understand that the gallant officer is son of Mr. Henry Ibbetson, of the firm of Ibbetson & Son, proctors and notaries of Great Knight Rider street, and of Chester-ter race, Regent's Park. We learn that a letter was received by the Earl of Jersey on Saturday morning, announcing the mar fiage, but it was not until the evening that the Earl ana Couniesa were possessed of all the details of the elmwment. The Hon. Captain Frederick Villiers arrived at an early hour in the afternoon on Saturday from Car lisle, and was bearer of all th? information that could be obtained at Gretna. " Prince Nicholas Esterhazy and Viscount Villiers, shortly atter the Hon. Cajitain's arrival, proceeded by the express train to Brighton, to acquaint the Earl and Counteaa of Jeraey with ail the circumstances relative to the marriage The Earl and Counteaa of Jaraey and Lady Cle mentina Villiers are expected to arrive in town to- I day, from Brighten. It is rumored that her Ladyship and the Captain first met at Almack'e during the laat season. Foreign Theatricals. Madame Anna TLillon is at present at Mons, in Belgium, where her performances are highly sue- i cesaful. The journals of the continent mention the death, at Cartenazzo, in the neighborhood of Bologna, of i Madame Colbrant Rossini, the wife of the illus trious composer. Madempiselle G'jerinot, the pretty danseuse who 1 performs at Drury Lane in the "Marble Maiden," is only 16 years of age. She is as good a musician as she is a dancer. Helen Condell, is, we observe, a great iavorite at Bordeaux. Her performances are continually crown ed with Moral offerings, or, in otherwords,-a shower ! of bouquets is an ordinary compliment to our amia ble countrywoman. Taglioni has lately been in Manchester, drawing overflowing houses at the Theatre Royal. She left Manchester^ on Sunday, for London. On Monday evening she*appeared for the last time on the British stage, at the Theatre Royal, Brighton ; and she pur poses quitting England immediately for Paris, where she spends a week with her friends ; but, we believe, does not gladden the gay city with any pub lic performance. She then hastene to Como, where hermother is awaiting her ; and intends to |>ass a few weeks in Rome, during the Carnival. It may not be generally known that, though her father is a Lombard?his native city Milan?she is a Swede, having first seen the light in Stockholm ; but she quitted Sweden in her childhood, and France has been her adopted country. She has visited most of the states ot Europe, and been honored with presents from many ot its crowned heads ; yet, strangely enough, with the exception of Milan, Bologna, anil one or two other cities of less note, she has not yet made her ftpi>earance in Italy. This winter, we be lieve, she will visit, for the first time, Rome. Na ples, Florence, and other cities, but whether she ap pears in public, or enjoys the ample fortune she has realised, in privacy, we cannot say. Her cheerful kindness, genuine courtesy, and good nature?ever manifested to the humblest of the ballet corpsaround her?have left in these, as in all who knew her, mingled with sincere regTets, the best and most dis interested wishes for her future prosperity. At the Dublin Theatre Royal, during the perform ance of "Fra Diavolo," one night last week, Mr. Reeves, in springing from the rock, unfortuuately sprained his ancle, and has since suffered consider able pain. No serious consequenaes are appre hended. Risly, after a most successful career on the conti nent of Europe, is about to return to England. At the latest dates he was at Vienna, previous to which he was in Paris, reaping a golden harvest. His youngest son now joins him in his psrformances.? One of his most astonishing acts, that has excited particular attention, is throwing his youngest sou upwards, and catching him on the soles of his feet. Several other feats, eqaally wonderful, have created the most marked attention wherever he has pro gressed. He is expected to perform, towards the close ot the present month, at Drury Lane theatre. The second amateur performance, in which Doug lass Jerrold, Charles Dickens, Mark Lemon, ami other literary gentlemen performed, for the benefit of the Sanatorium, took place on the evening of Saturday last, at St. James' Theatre. London.? Prince Albert and a large number of the male and female aristocracy, were present. The play was the same as at Miss Kelly's theatre?Ben Johnson's "Every Man ia his Humor." Another amateur per formance, by (he same parties, for the benefit of Miss Kelly, is on the tapis. The play will, it is said, be "The Alchemist." Theatre Royal ?There has this week been in troduced to the notice of the playing public the greatest novelty of tnis or any other season, in the person of the African Robcius, who commenced an engagement of five nights on Monday last, in the character of Othello. The announcement that a native of Senegal would appear as the Venetian Moor had drawn, with the exception of the boxes, a crowded house, and wc understand so successful was the character represented, that the African Ros cius was called for at the close of the tragedy?a compliment generally paid to favorites at our thea tres. On Tuesday evening the opera of the "Slave" was perfo rmed, the part of Gambia being sustained by the African Roscius. We must confess we visi ted the theatre that evening with strong misgivings us to the powers of the actor, but yet there whs something strikiag and impressive in the fact that one of Afric's sun-burnt sons was, in this land of liberty, to represent ihe character of the Slave. The* piece had not proceeded far before we were aston ished at the histronic powers of the Ethiopian. There is a kind of untutored wildness in the manner in which the African Roscius portrays the character, which, however it may be at varience with the course usually adopted by actors, displays originali ty of conception, and powers of embodying it of no ordinary description. It would be unfair, perhaps to judge the subject of the present notice by the usual standard, aud yet we fiel persuaded he would suffer little by such a mode of estimating his qualifi cations for the stage. As a whole, we never recol lec seeing the character of. Gambia better played. It was a perfect development of the emotions of the devoted, noble-minded slave, struc sling between passion and duty. In the scene where first he meets with Zelinda's child, he dis played great depth of feeling, and when, overcome by gazing intently on the face of the boy, he rushed from the stage, there were few dry eyes in the thea tre. The overpowering effect p.oduced by the an nouncement that he was free, was judiciously repre sented, and his apparent efforts to give utterance to hie feelings electrified the audience, who rewardtci him with a spontaneous burst of applause. The other characters in the piece were well sustained. In the comic opera of the "Padlock," the Afri can Kosciur has an opportunity of displaying bin powers in another line of character, and as the mischievou'-||nigger Mungo, his broad humor and whimsicalities, nigger melodies and eccentric characteristics of the negro race, kept the house | continually in a roar oflaughter. As the African Itoscius is the onlv actor ot color that has appeared in England, the following sketch, which we take from the bills of the theatre, may not prove unin teresting :?" The Africans progenitors, down to the grandfather of the subject of this memoir, weie Princes of the Foulah tribe, whose dominions I were Senegal, on the banks of the river of that name. The fatner of the present individual whs sent for his education to Schenectady college, near New York, in the United States. Three days after his departure from his native shore, an insurrection broke out among the tribe, arising chiefly from a wish on the part of their king, to exchange prison ers taken in battle, instead of adopting the usual barbarous custom of selling them for Blaves. His humanity, however, interfered with an established perquisite long possessed by some of his principal officers. The grandfather of the present African lloscius, throughftheir interested policy, fell a vic tim to his mutinous subjects, Deprived of the means of asserting his birthright, and to a certRin degree cast upon the world as a cosmopolite, the fa ther became a clergyman, and officiates in New York. The subject of this memoir was born July 24,1807, and was destined for the sani'* profession, but preferring the sock and buskin, he departed lrom his father's roof, and wended his way to the shores of Old England. Supreme Court of the Unttkd States?Thurs day, Dec. 4, 1846.?No. 4. Win, M. Owin, plaintiff in error, vs. Buchonan, Hagan It Co. This cause w.n argued by Mr. Mason for the plaintiff in error. No. 13. Tombisbee Railroad Company, plaintiff in error, vs. W. I , H. Keeland. This cauie was submitted to the Court on j I the record and printed argument by Mr. Mason for the plaintiff in error. No. 16 Jamei Payne, et al, plaintiff I in error, vs. Sandert Neely. Thii came was submitted to the Court on the record by Mr. Mason, in behalf ot the defendant in error, who prayed the Court for ten per rant damage* under the 17th rule oi the Court. No. 19 ii the first caae for to morrow. Fridat, Dec. ft, 1S4A.?John A. Rockwell, Esq., of Norwich, Connecticut, and George W. Brent, Esq., of Virginia, were admitted attorneya and counsellors of this Court No. 10. James Payne, et al., plaintiffs in er ror, vs. Sanders Neely. Tha plaintiffs in error in this cause having bee a called, and not appearing, this writ of error was dismissed with costs, on the motion of Mr. Mason, of counsel for the defendant in error. Nos. 31 to 'JO. McKean Buchanan, plaintiff in error, vs. James Al exander and Mai y Ann Anderson. These rases were argued by Mr. Attorney General in behali of the plaintiff in error. No. 27. Hugh A. Garland, plaintiff in error, vs. George M. Davis. This causa was argued by Mr. Coxe for defendant in error, and submitted on printed brief by Mr. K.J. Brent in behalf of tha plaintiff in error. Adjourn ed till Monday morning, 11 o'clock.

"The Mysteries of Greene."?We learn from a passenger that passed through this place en Mon day evening, that the examination of witnesses at Bing hamton, in the case of Johnson, arrested for the murder of Mrs. Bolt, had been brought to a close, and that John A. Collier and Abial Cook, Esq*., the former in behalf of the prisoner, and the latter on the part of the people, were to sum up. Several day* may yet be occupied. It is generally thought that Johnson will be committed to wait his trial for murder ?ATerwigA.y. V., Ttlrgraph. Constitution of Louisiana.?The new constitu tion of thia State has been adopted by a vote oi 12,178 a?unat 1,246. The Peculiar Poaltlon of Affair. In Knrope. I [* oreign Correipondenc# of tb? Herald ] fL f, ?.. . ? Paris, Nov. 15,1846. The Critical State of Thing, in Europe-The Fre 9utnt Lub,net Council, in England-Their Re turn to the Famine and Oregon <*?,tion?-fVhat ha, been done?-The Food Crui, m Europe, JwTJTS? tIrdand-^ Potition of the French Lab,net-The Singular MiniHerud Ana and Fr??-I?fre?ting 2!Zl"ZT*n' *?? There ib at thin moment a striking analogy be ?fs<- '7'. 1 lock Thp'i? C,?mt' 091aPolitiM' dead Iock. Their pnncipol wheel, are impelled in con trary directions and the necessary mechanical con _quence the absolute suspension of progress-has of course ensued. In both, an antagonism has taken j place between the civil and the military elements In both, the head de facto herniates to assume that decision of conduct which springs from firmness i and clearness of purpose, and a consciousness of! ?upport and concurrence from without. Thedissen- I ?ions between Marshals Soult and Bugeaud have I led to the aetual resignation of the war portfolio, I and the proffered resignation of the presidency of Ithe council by the former. M. Guizot, the head de , facto of the cabinet, has thus been involved in cruel embarrassment. He cannot venture to assume his proper position in the President's chair at the Coun c H,18 colleagues are against such a step, and his unpopularity with the constituencies of the extreme eft forbids it. He therefore has induced, by abso lute supplication, the old Marshal to retain, for the present, the Presidency of the Council, but ihe war vvirlrlt?1l'H ?c '>jpr political accidents that such a descends so unexpectedly upon a soldier r ihi'nt\ho,^ever' (important as he is to the French Dnkl nPw Mnm-a-ureabJy '*? influential than "he Duke^of Welhngton in the Cabinet of St James ?he Duke ? supported by the prettigi of succew' not only military but political. He is the idol ofX [''Fh aristocracy. He is the link, and the onlv one s t0r!7 parly ,0 ,he present gov rnin?nt. fcir Robert Peel is repudiated bv th?f party, and trusted by none. He holds his position by a singular and fortuitous combination of orcum stances. He is the mechanical centre of a n S of reciprocally repulsive forces, all of which are H i' reeled against him, but which he has hitliertn I !i the dexterity to keip in equilibria^ "? had sksT? yKSsxssss fitsSfK: es jaSRSjET Si the shadows which approaching events proftcT de sirea to give way, before the irresistible We ?f the pressure is rendered glaringly manifest Hi* the latter would utterly stultify him with th^nril de. generation and posterity To abandon ? would be merely to yield to L i^ gency, and would, m fact, be no more than a i*-n r??hn|t0 course of conduct ou the subject of Catholic emancipation. "uuject oi ?,ifii.eKlro? Duke aJnd 'be.landed aristocracy, on the other hand, seem determined to defend their mono! poly to the liiot, and in fighting against the bellies of the people-either to give or To take quarter ' cfc"wt]'l^WhateVer be thLe final decision of the Cabinet, clouds continue to thicken on everv aid!.' around the nation. It is now discovered That many of the other countries of Europe corn is either actually, or likely soon to be, aVd'ear ? in attended h .h'S otthln8? will necessarily be in the face of our ecarcity of food in Enirtand KV English politicians have suddenly discovered rh,, he Oregon Question and the corn laws ar7i?t1m?, V connected*. " The Oregon wi? queSriin "s^ m! p Af P?Whr in America ; it was favored bv Sti. hk n r in?u8ural address, and is received lh shouts of applause. But by whom? Not bv the merchants of New York and Boston ?,hnl.y so profitable a trade w.th England N?5v ,h! planters of Virginian tobacco. Net by the cotton bv1hiC? ''r?Pr,<,tor8 Carolina and Georgia Not '8H^ePr?8l>ect?f.an Oregon war popular it Amer? I w ? ' cerfkmly witn the agriculturalists of ill ? commercialt 5 Jiritam? and nothing to gam by the main L " liluCf'r '0'0Se by the contingency of war. But |? an Irish famine and an Enefiah w?r city annihilate the monopoly of the British Ixnti owners and establish once and ferever a free ,~d :"br^d ????, and the voters of Oh1o, Ke?tuckv'' Illinois, Missouri, and the other agricultural mwi loPonT Produc,n^ates, will sen/their defegates to Congress, bound hand and foot to maintain iSee ?t every cost, consistent with the maintenance of he national honor. It is not a distant and worthless territory that will move them to suspend thp tin? r prosperity whi.h such a wolid produce. It ib assumed, also, that the importation of bread stuffs troin the West, which must necessarily fol ow the abolition of the corn restrictions in England, would be further stimulated by two causes. Firtt, the restrictions on tlie exportation of corn and otht r provisions, which some States ot Europe have alrea dy established, and which others are likely soon to adopt; and secondly, the expected modifications of the American tariff, thus encouraging the exchange of the produce of British industry for the produc tions ot the American soil. But still the Cabinet of London hesitates. Jn this dead season, when by long established usage, officials are set loose to wander about the country, and visit here and there?grouse shooting in one place, and sharing a battue in another?the whole Cabinet were summoned to London. The premier, stretched on the couch in his library in privy-gar dens, unable to cross the street to the Treasury, had ti?ur successive meetings of the Cabinet summoned to his private residence, and each meeting continued in close conclave for five hoars! And what came of this twenty hours grave consultation 1?the^e councils, during which the people of England, and more especially the people ot Ireland, waited in breathless expectation 1 Why, these SHge council lors, these " potent, grave, and reverend stignors," came to the wise resolution to do?nothing!!! The best informed jwrsons behind the scenes of the ministerial stage, declare that the differences in the Cabinet have been irreconcilable; that the premier inclined to an immediate opening ot the ports, but that the Duke and the more conservative members steadily and obstinately opposed this. In the end, the expedient of all weak and vascillating councils?procrastination?was resolved on. A further and more extensive inquiry was ordered to be made into the result of the harvests, ana the ac tual supply ot provisions, with a view to ascertain whether there be a physical possibility for the impu tation ot that great country to sustain life throagh the coining season, without supplies from abroad. It that possibility be found to exist, the agricultural imrty will cling to their monopoly, from which they will not willingly disengage their grasp, unless their lingers be relaxed by famine. There ia a power, however, which when its voice goes forth, will speedily make these monopolists quail. That power once already made itself felt when the reform bill was jeopardized, and Lord I Grey's cabinet dismissed, lhat power is the awful voice ot the masses. This voice is not raised, as in America, on comparatively trifling occasions. It is sparing of its power. It leaves more ordinary | events to be governed by more ordinary influ ences. but in proportion to its unfrequency, is the vastness of its might. When that voice is 1 raised, j>eople in high places tremble, and us man- i dates are irresistible. It wisdom, prudence, and | foresight, do not make those in office soon yield to the impending emergency, that voice will, as surely 1 as the recurrence of night and day, be raised, and if raised, who will withstand it I In expressing those strong opinions, 1 may be charged by some with rashness, and it certainly is within the scope of possi bility that I may be wrong. If such should be the case, however, I shall be wrong in good company.? Out of a mountain of contemporaneous authorities, I will quote two, who are, on other points^generally as opposite as pole to pole. "Whatever difference st , opinion may exist on the extent of this vegetable | disease, and the best mean* of arresting its progress and remedying its effects," says one eminent con temporary, "one fact seems universally admitted that a considerable portion of the population ot ire land will shortly be deprived ot their ordinary means of subsistence Some extraordinary means must, therefore, be provided, and the calamity being na tional, the provision is naturally looked tor at the hands of government." "The amazement, ex claims another, "with which one contemplates the reckless and daring hardihood of this decision of Sir K Peel's, rejects, as totally inadequate, all the ordinary language of mere political censure Indig nation is, for the momeit, lost in astonishment.? We did not believe that the man lived out of Bed lam who would dare to assume the responsibility of thr< # winter months of famine pnces and prohibits rv duties. Least of all, could we have imagined tha Sir R. Peel?a statesman so nervously irritable at The bare mention of "responsibility,* and so tho roughly well cognizant of the nature and power of those terrible realities with which hia legiBlation has brought us face to face codd be the man to cfurae himself with this burden. That Sir K. reel has a heart, after all, we did not take ituponour selves to atfirm very positively; but we certainly never supposed him Vhave tUe nerves of iron which he will need between now and ?e*^ebru would venture to disappoint a uational pres^uraeni so strong and general as that which has this country during the past fortnight. which reiterated and protracted Cabinet meetings had raised into a sort ol certainty, we freely took tor granted to be^morallv and pohtical^jmpossibk^ from Ireland have, in the main, been more gloomy and ominous. The last intelligence is ever the worst. Every day cuts off many days tood from four millions of Irish people, and accelerates, by many days the arrival of tne last horrible reality. " " # ? It is now for the people of Great Britain, from one end of the country to the other, to protest in a tone which no minister can dare pretend not to hear, against the insane and criminal obduracy of maintaining the prohibitory duties in the very face of famine. That protest nnust be prompt, loud, unceasing and unsparing. We waro the country?though the wannng is now sir perHuous?that it will take a most determined effort to bring to his duty the minister who shamelessly abdicates the f unctions of government, distinctly acknowledged the urgency of the crisis calling for their exercise, and who manifests a hardened indifference to the reality of lhat reBi>on sibility,' the mere allusion to which he affects to re sent as an outrage." ., , This is strong language. It would be atreng uttered in the heat of a parliamentary debate, but u a thousand times stronger when deIl^"tXl.yv^! at the desk of a journalist. It is not, however. one whit stronger than the emergency demands from every writer who lias a heart to feel and the power to give expression to his feelings. I told you 1B my last that the same mail would probably take to> you the gazette ol the order in council opening the porta I was mistaken. But you see that my companions in error were the whoie British nation There is not, as yet, it is said by the monopolists, any manifestation of distress; tor the returns ot Mark Lane show that corn has not approached a starvation price. This is true. But it is like the mockery ot the fiend?true only to the e"- " i, market is a large quantity of badi with a srnah quantity ot good grain. The latter alone is nt tor such wholeBeme bread as the Engh?h worka^ classes are peenstomed to eat. But the marke price of wheat is taken from the average, which in this case is produced by the fusion of the thousands ot quarters of bad with the hundreds ortensofgood corn ; the mixture of the "lew grains ot wheat with I h WhUe^h^E^fsh Government is standing stilK the French nanon is taking the alarm. lherari? press teems with warnings against the consequenceh which must visit France if the ports be opened in England to foreign corn. In France there nas been a fair average harvest, but not one which has yielded any excessbeyond the amount of the actualwan ot the country. In the normal condition of things there would be nothing to apprehend. The sliding scale in England would necessarily have restrained importation into that country, so as to giye full pro tection to the French consumer. But if the estab II shed cereal laws of that country are to be suddenl} abolished or suspended?if the English consumer is to seek for food in the Freneh market wnere t is contended there exists no .supplies to ^listy h'? demands-nothing can retain the '?eceeeary food I in France except a rise in prices; in other words, the people of France must outbid the English bnyei in tfieir own market-and when the relat.ve length, of the two purses are considered, it is not difhculi to foresee the result of such an auction. In 1839, there was an abundant harvest in rrancf, and an exportation took place, amounting, accord ing to some, to four, and according to others to te.i per cent of the whole corn production of the[coun try It is asked, then, whether France, havin, only lust what she requires, can, with impunity, a. low the exportation ot ten. or even four per cent. of her gross production 1 Tne former would b . e(*ua to the support of her population for six weeks th latter for two. But, whether it be two or six, can she live without bread for such an interval . Think of exposing the i>eople !" exclaims afading journal, " for such a time to the most direful extremity to which a great people oan be reduced . , ._ Besides, it is contended that the corn-producin. i?art of France is exclusively those northern de wartments, which either border on the channel, or are in easy communication with it. It is on the#^ that the wine-producing provinces of the south d - pend. But from the peculiar position <of:de partments, the transport of their corn to Englan will be easier, and cheaper than its transmission t<> the southern population of their own country, ? cannot subsist without it. the event ?| pension of the corn laws, every thing would.ther. f ore, favor the English buyer mth- F'rench ",arkrr; Sucfi, and many others too prolix t? explain, a. the grounds on which a large and influenitta po> tion of the French press urges on the executive th oolicv nav even the State necessity to exercise [he power with which the laws and constitution have invested it, to interdict the exportation ct grain, Hour, or other food. Meanwhile, the prohibition on exportation ib be ginning in other porta. Sardinia has already inter dicted, and the other countries of the Mediterra nean will fellow. Th? discussions on the contingency of a genen: I scarcity in Europe have led to some developments, which probably will not be destitute of interest for your reader*. It is contended that the advance ment of civilization and the diffusion of knowledge, causing improvements in agriculture throughout Eu rope, render the population of this continent more and more independent of those atmospheric vicisf i tudes, which formerly were attended by scarcities or famines. Thus, while in the last century these visitations were comparatively frequent and attended by severe public suffering, there has been within th last forty years, but one example of a harvest in France decidedly bad, and even that one, the harvest of 1817, was little more than 20 per cent less than the average annual production. This general secu rity arises, at least in France, not alone from the im proved cultivation of the soil, but from the fact that not one, but a variety of kinds of subsistence are rai - ed. Thus, the very states of the season which may diminish tlie production of food of one kind, "Viy even stimulate that of another, and a combination nr meteorological conditions which should destroy or deteriorate all equally, is scarcely conceivable. It follows from these views, that countries in which the population is accustomed to limit the production to particular species of food, to the exclusion of this variety, are more exposed to the consequences of the vicissitudes of seasons. England, and still more Ireland, afford examples of this In England, the production is in a great degree limited to corn and cattle. In Ireland, to the potato. When one or the other of these fail, the safety of the country 13 jeopardised, and relief must be sought from abroad. Divide the soil, and when industry and skill produce more varied subsistence, the occasional failure of some crops will be compensated by the fecundity of other*. To secure this inestimable benefit to any country, it is only necessary, therefore, that human intelligence should be duly applied to bring the laws of nature into subjection to the uses of our specie*. In connection with these enquiries, some tacts have been brought forward, curiously illustrative of the domestic habits and economy of different peo ple. Not only do the populations of different coun tries subsist on different species of food, but they consume different quantities. It has been ascertain ed that the annual consumption of corn in the fol lowing countries,is at the subjoined rates per head of the respective populations: rouno? or conn rtn hiad awhcm. Auitrinn Dominion* ? '<190 " In England, the estimated annual consumption oi meat per head is sixty two pounds ; in Bavaria it is 14 pounds, and in Austria only 28 pounds. The greatest local consumption of meat known is that of the city of Munich, where it amounts to 280 pounds annually par head, and is nearly equal to tn? con England Russia. France . Bavaria Saionr . 440 pound*. 800 400 440 3?0 sumption of bread in the Mime city. The consump tion of beer in that city is of extraordinary amount, being at the rate of above 180 gallons per head, per annum, or nearly two quarts per day. The con sumption of the aame beverage in England amounts to only a pint per head, per day, whichis generally regarded as a large allowance It will naturally be asked whether those great differences between peo ple and people in their sustenance, has any affect on the duration of life. It would appear not. The Austrians, who are indisputably the most temperate population of Europe, are not deficient in phynical vigor, and enjoy good average health. The mean duration of lite in Prance is not muoh interior to England, and is superior to other countries of Europe, in which the standard of subsistence is higher. The attention of the Cabinet, in the late protracted pitting*, has not been confined to the eora question. The Oregon negotiation has largely shared it. and serious apprehensions are expressed at the difficul ties which the adjustment of this question offer*. On this question it is also believed that disaensioa exists in the councils of the crown. ? persuasion is entertained by eome that mere diplomacy will net lead to a settlement. Notwithstanding the power entrusted to Mr. McLane, no advance in the nego tiation has actually been accomplished, fend it is feared, from the tone of Mr. Polk's inaugural ad dress, that his approaching message to Congreae will only tend to make a settlement still more diffi cult and complicated. Some maintain that the question can only be adjusted by reference to the arbitriment of a third i?wer. It is contended that this ought not to be objected to by any party equitably disposed ; yet it is admitted that a feeling against this exists in America. In such a decision would an European sovereign, ii selected as umpire, lean towards England ? Monarchical prejudice ana the feeling against the great democracy ot the West, might induce such a feeling; but, on tne other hand, no power of Europe has any very strong disposition to extend the power of a neighbor already ?o formi dable as Eugland. These discussions of the British Cabinet have terminated for the present, nor is it probable that any thing more decisive on these subjects will trans pire before the departure of the mail which will place this letter in your hands. Meanwhile, your merchant* may rest assured that the English corn laws are doomed?that many weeks cannot, according to all present appearances, pass over, before a market for American breadstuffa wid be opened in all the ports of Britain. They will, therefore, do well to act on this information before the communications between the western corn States and the Atlantic cities skall be closed. Bread has already risen fifty per cent, in England, and very little less here. This is an evil which will produce its own increase.? Wages in England have not risen with the price of food. The laboring class? therefore, after provid ing tor its necessary sustenance out of its low wages, will have a less surplus 10 spend on the pro duce of the manufacturer, and the latter will conse queatly have to contract his operations, and either reduce wages or diminish his hands. Thus, distree? will augment the very causes which produce it. In a former letter, I mentioned the lmproyemest in art, which has been effected, by transferring en gravings, etc. to plates of zinc, and which is called glyptography. A still more wonderful effect, resem bling this, has lately been produced in Prussia, the process of which, however, is still secret. The attention of the King of Prussia, and his ministers and councillors has Iately'been called to it. An in habitant of Berlin is represented as having discover ed a method ot producing, in the most perfect, easy and rapid manner, exact facsimilies ot documents and writings of every kind, bank notes, and, in short, of every paper document, whether written or printed. The most surprising part of the thing, is | that the inventor requires, to execute the copy, no more time than an ordinary printer would take to i make an impression with a common press. One ot the public functionaries of the government gave the inventor an old document to copy, which seemed, from its age and worn condition, incapable 1 of being imitated. The artist took it to his atelier, and in a few minutes returned with fifty copies of | it! The imitation was so perfect, that it filled the monarch and his council witn astonishment, amount ing to stupefaction and even fright! At the foot of this document were affixed a great number of signa tures, which it had received at various epochs, more or less remote, all very old, and written in- different inks. The copies gave all these, with the mott ex act precision. Several Treasury notes of the highest value were then given to the inventor, to be copied. He took them, as before, and returned after some minutes, having mixed the originals with the copies, and in vited the most competent judges of such documents to select the originals from the collection ! It was impossible to do it!! The government are nego tiating with the inventor for the purchase of his secret. Algiers, or as it is now called, Algeria, (in which term is comprised a portion of northern Africa, limited by a radius of a certain extent round the city ot that name,) continues to engross the atten tion of the public here. For many reasons it ia ex tremely difficult, indeed, it may be truly said to be impossible, to obtain a true account of the condition of the French power in that colony Abdel Kader, ! working on the national feeling ot the native tribes. adroitly availing himself of their fanaticism, excitea ' the present insurrection, which has spread in a ! greater or less degree throughout the country. The contest partakes ot all the bitter unrelenting spirit ! of a holy war; a w*r in which, moreover, civihted ? arms are opposed to savage hordes The Emir, Abdel Kader, has shown himself a consummate | adept in the Fabian tactics. His retreats have been disastrous to his enemies. Victory has brought to the French neither glory nor advantage. If the move ment be quelled, they will be in the midst of a sul i len population, kepi in subjection by forcc alone, and to restrain which, a standing army ot one hundred , thousand men will be necessary, the ranks of which, thinned by the curse of a pestilential climate, must be continually filled from the flower ot the French nation But whether there is a near prospect of re ducing the native tribes eveu to this reluctant and rebellious subjection, it is impossible to say. We possess no maps of the country. Except immedi ately around the city of Algiers, there are no road* or other civilized routes. It is, therefore, impossi ble, from the bulletins, to comprehend the real na ture of the operations reported in them, or to esti mate the worth ot the advantages thev lay jiaim to. Moreover, we h?*ar but one aide of the question. No bulletins of Abdel Kader reach us. It is not in human nature or character to suppose that the bulle tins of the Frerch commanders do not gloss over reverses, mitigate defeats, and underrate losees; or, on the other hand, magnify successes, and exagge rate the reverses of their enemy. From these causes, the bulletins are really, so far as public in j formation is concerned, little better than waste pa ; per. The horrors of the Dahra did not reach the Cblic through the pages of a bulletin Neve rthe is, it is now admitted on every hand that the i* conquest of Algiers is not going to be the affair of a week or a month. One of the European events which has created a sensation in diplomatic circles, is the proposed mar riage of the Grand Duchess Olga, favorite daughter of the Czar, to the Austrian Arch Duke Stephen. This alliance has been on the tapis for the last two years, and has been obstructed by the questions ari sing out ot the difference of religious faith between the two imperial families. Nicholas required that tlfs daughter should continue in the practise and ob servances ot the Greek Church. Metternich, on the part of Austria, made it a stne fuenon thit th* Grand Duchess should, on her marriage, renounce her national creed, and join the Church of Rome On this point, the proposed alliance was once, it not oftener, relinquished. It is understood that in the hist instance it was not very strongly wished tor by the Cabinet of Vienna, but the appearance of the growing amity between the Court of St. James and the King of the Barricades, and the much talked of cnUntt cordiale, have at length induced Metternich t? view more favorably the policy of es tablishing a counterjKJise on the other side ot the Rhine, to the united influence ot France and Eng land. Meanwhile, the Emperor Nicholar has given t way on the religious question, and consented that his daughter should conform to the religion ot her proposed husband, and accordingly the marriage will be solemnized, it is said, early in the ensuing year, unless the death of the Empress?an event by no means unlikely?should be the cause ot its fur ther delay. The grand duchess Olga is in her twenty-thini year, and is a noble looking woman. Nicholas is devotedly fond ot her. She is an expert equestrian, and appears on horseback in th* Imperial Staff, on field days and at reviews. The Emperor has given her the command ot a regiment of Hussars, ot which she is named the Colontllt' You will have learned through the papers that the Empress of Russia, sinking ander the fatal effects of consumption, has gone to reside for the winter m Sicily, where the King of Naples plays the part ot host to the imperial family. The thing has proved an exciting event in the torpid societv ot Mesmna and its neighborhood. To your readers, who so little sympathise with the etiquette of courts, the following particulars, received here to-day, will per haps be amusing. , . ? The health of th* Empress is so much improved since her arrival, that she is now able to walk on