Newspaper of The New York Herald, December 10, 1845, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated December 10, 1845 Page 1
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THE NEW Y O R K H E R A E D . r ? ? V ? Vol. XI., No. 310?Whole \o. Price Two Cent*. The Oregon Correspondence. All of the correspondence that took place be tween the American and British governments, on this troublesome question, accompanies'the Presi dent's Message that was lately delivered to Con. press. It commences in 18-12, and ends in 1845. We give a condensed sketch of the preliminary correspondence, but publish in full two most important communications which passed between the representatives of the respective governments, viz .?Mr. Culhoun'a, of the 3d Sept. 1814, and Mr! Pakenham's of the 12th of the same month. Mr. Fox to Mr. Webster, Nov. 15, 1812?Mr. Fox writes to Mr. Webster a letter, under this date, which, contains an enclosed despatch from Lord Aberdeen, stating that he had exchanged ratifica tions of the treaty of the 9th August, with the I nited States Minister; also, requesting Mr. Fox to propose to the American government to empow er the American Minister at London to enter upon negotiations with regard to the Oregon boundary. Mr. Webster to Mr. Fox, Nov. 25, 1842 Mr Webster, in answer to the note of the' 15th, states he had referred Mr. Fox's note and the Earl of Aberdeen's despatch to the President, and he was directed to say that the President concurred in the expediency of negotiating on the Oregon boundary, and that at no distant day a communication would be sent to the American Minister on the subject. Mr. Pakenham to Mr. Upshur, Feb. 24,1844?Mr Pakenham expresses the anxious desire of his go vernment to come to a satisfactory arrangement with the government of the United States on the subject of Oregon, and acquaints Mi. Upshur that in fulfilment of his commands, he is ready to con fer with Mr. Upshur on the subject, at Mr. Upshur's convenience. Mr. Upshur to Mr. Pakenham, Feb. 26, 1844 Mr. I pshur appoints Feb. 27, (the next day,) at 11 o'clock, to receive Mr. Pakenham. Mr. Pakenham to Mr. Calhoun, July 22, 1814. Mr. Pakenham alludes to the death of Mr. U(>shur, and referring to his note of the 24th February, re-' peuts the desire of his government to make a satis factory arrangement of the question. Mr. Calhoun to Mr. Pakenham, Aug. 22, 1844. Mr. Calhoun was unable to upjioint a time to confer with Mr. Pakenham before, but now appoints the n*xt day at 1 P. M., if convenient for Mr. Paken ham. Mr. Pakenham to Mr. Calhoun, A*g. 22,1844 ? Mr. Pakenham says he will have great pleasure in waiting on Mr. Calhoun at the hourproposed. PROTOCOLS. On the 23d August, 1844, a conference was held by the respective ministers. After some prelimina. ry assurances by each minister, on the part of his government, as to its desire to approach the question in a spirit of compromise, itec., tfce., Mr. Calhoun desired to receive any fresh proposal which Mr Pakenham might be instructed to make, Mr. Pak enham, in reply, stated that he would be ready ut the next conference to make such proposal, and hoped that Mr. Calhoun would be ready at the same time with u proposal from the American government. Adjourned to 2Gth August. Conference ot August 26.?Mr. Pakenham offered a proposal which Mr. Calhoun declined. The re active ministers agree in submitting written state ments of their views. The proposal offered at this conference by Mr. Pakenham, was, in addition to the proposals already made, to make free to the United States any ports they might desire on the main land or on Vancouver's Island, south of latitude 4i)?. Conference of September 2, 1844.?Mr. Calhoun presented a statement of the claims of the. United States, marked A. Conference of 12th September, 184-1.?Mr. Pak enham presented his statement, marked D, counter to that of Mr. Calhoun's. Conference of 20th September.?Mr. Calhoun de livered to Mr. Pakenham a statement, marked B., in rejoinder to Mr. Pakenhatn's, marked A. a Conference of24th September.?At this conference Mr. Pakenham stated, that he had read with care Mr. Calhoun's statement, marked B. ; that it did not at all weaken his views, and declared that he did not feel authorized to enter into a discussion respecting territory nonh of 49". Conference of 16th July, 1845, between Mr. Bu chanan and Mr. Pakenham.?The negotiation was resumed at this conference. Mr. Buchanan present ed a statement, (marked J. B.) made in compliance with the request of Mr. Pakenham, in his statement 1 (marked D ) (A.) WAiHiftnTo.*, Sept. 3, 1844. The undersigned, American plenipotentiary, decline* the proposal ot the British plenipotentiary, on the ground that it would have the effect of restricting the posses sions of the United State* to limits far more circum scribed than their claim* clebrly entitle them to. It pro poses to limit their northern boundary hv a line drawn from the Uocky Mountains along the toth' parallel of la titude to the noitheggternmost branch of the Columbia river, nud thence down the middle of that river to tho sea -giving to fireat Britain all tho country north and to the United States all south of thflt line, except a de tached territory extending ou the Pacific nnd the strait* Of Kuca, from Bulfinch't harbor to Hood1* caual. To which it i* proposed, in addition, to make free to tho United Slates any port which the United State* govern mont might desire, either on the main land or on Vancou ver'* Island, south ol latitude 49 degs. Br turning to the map heretofore annexed, and on which tho proposed boundary is marked in pencil it will be *een that it assigns to Great Biitain almost the entire region (on it* north side) drained by tiie Colum bia river, lying on its northern bank. It is not deemed necessary to note at large the claims of the United S ntes to thi* territory, and the grounds on which they rest, in order to make good the assertion that it restiicts the possessions of the United States within narrower bound* than they are clcatly entitled to. It will bo suf ficient for this purpose to show that they are fairly en titled to the enure region drained by the river, and to tho establishment of thi* point, tho undersigned propose* accordingly to limit his temaiks at present. Our claims to the portion of (he territory drained by the Columbia liver may be divided into those u e have in our own proper right, and thoso we have derived from France km] Spain. Wo ground the former, ns ngninst Great Britain, on prioritj of discovory ami prioiity of exploration and settlement We rest our claim to dis coverv, ?? against hsr, on that of Captain Gray, a citizen of the I nited States, who, in the ship Columbia of Bos ton, pasted its bar and anchored in tho river, ten miles above it* mouth, on tho 11th of May, 17<ii: nnd who af terwards sailed up the river twelve or filteon miles, and left it on the 30th of the same month, calling it ?' Colum bia, " after his ship, which namo it still letains. Ou these fade, our claim to the discovery and entrance into the river rest* They are too well atteitud to lie controverted. But they have been opposed by the alle ged discoveries ol Mearca and Vancouver. It is tnio that the formei explored a portion of tho coast through which the Columbia flow* into tho ocean, in 1788 (fivo ?r* (iroy cr?s*ed tho bar and anchored in the river,) in order to ascertain whether the liver,as laid down in ihe Spanish charts, and called the St. Roc, ex ' n!nr0r?l'0On,.,i,t"Bq"ally <rU0 thal 1,0 d'<> noteveu dis S mir ?! i t J I!,,ort thMl there is no Spanish chaits," and, a* if perMt^at^hu'"^'^"'i" men., he called the promontor^l^ng^^'o 'ZCet where ho oxpocted to di*cover it Cam 11..L . ? . . i and the inlet itself, Deception Buy ii i Vancouver, in April, 17W, explored tho ^ 1 It is no les* ao tfrnt ho failed to discover the riVnr ?! which his own journal furnishe* the most conclude "7 deuce, as well a* the strong conviction that no such ri*Vr existed. So strong waa it, iudeod, that when he fell j?I with < ?pt. Gray, shortly alterwaid*, und wa* Inlorm'!* ! by him that bo had been off the mouth of a river il/u? 46 degrees 10 minute*, whose outlet wai so stron'ir Jto prevent hi* entering, he lemained incredulous nnd otrongly exnre.sod himself to that cflectin bis Journal it wa* shortly after thi* interview that ( apt. Gray again visited it* mouth, orowed it* bar, and sailed up the river ! as ha* boon stated. After he loft it, ho visited Nooka hound, w here he communicated his discoverie* to Una dia, the Spanish commandant at that place, and gave him a chart and deicnption of the mouth of the liver After bis departure, Vancouver arrived there, in September! when hu wa* informed ol the discoverie* of Contain ha'lfeftwhh'h'im 'l,0m (i""'l,a C0,,i*" 0f lhB phRrl he had left withi him. In Consequence ol the infornmtion thus obtained, he was induced to visit again that i.art oT the const It wa. during thi* visit that he emered the river, on the -JOth of Octot-e., and made his *orvev From these facts It is manifest that the alleged Ji.cov erie* of Me.rea and Vancouver cannot, m tSe .lighte.t .leg,co, shake the claims of Captain Gray to priority of d'MOvmy. Indeed, io concluafre la the evidence in his l.iyor, that it has been attempted h> evade out claim on | SSfJETtiSu ""tenable ground that hid discove ry wai made, not in a national, but private vessel. Such, riCOn nSt e' the evidence of our claim ax against 'Teat Britain?from priority of discovery, as to ?s??lin? . ?. rivor' crosging its bar, entering it, and ?ailing upi its stream, on the voyage of Captain Gray alone; without taking into consideration the prior dis covery ol the Spanish navigator, Hecota?winch will be more particularly leferred to horealter. .u ?r ev',le,?se of the priority of our discovery of the head branches of the river and its exploration less conclusive. Before the treaty was ratified by which w e acquired Louisiana, in 1803, an expedition was planned nVi.rii ,?. TWch were P^ced Meriwether Lewis and VVilliam t larke?to explore the river Missouri and it* principal branches, to their source*, and then to seek and trace to its termination in the Pacific, some stream whether the Columbia, the Oregon, the Colorado, or any other which might odor the most direct or piactica bie water communication across the continent, lor the purpose of commerce " The party began to ascend the Missouri in May, 1804. and in the summorof 1806, reach ed the head waters of the Columbia river. Aftercross jng mafty of the streams falling into it, they reached the Koosko4>skee, in latitude 43 degrees 34 minutes?de scended that to the principal southern branch, which they called Lewis's-followed that to Injunction with the great northern branch, which they called Clarke? and thence descended to the mouth ol the river, whore they landed, and encamped on the north side, on Cape Disappointment, and wintered. The next spring the v commenced tueir return, and continued theii explora tion up the river, noting its various brunches, and trac ing some of tho principal; and Anally arrived at St Louis in September, 180fi, after an absence of two yeais and four months. ' t,^..WiaS|U"!lri'nJ,or(#nt,ex,1e,'ition wh'ch brought to the knowledgeof tho world this great river-the greatest by?lnr on the western side of this continent?with its numerous branches, and .he vast regions throurti which it flimi, above the points to which Gray and Vancouver h*d ascended. It took place mauy years before it was visited and explored by any subject of Great Britain, or ol any other civilized notion, so far as we are informed. It as cleuily entitles us to the claim of priority of dis covery, as to its head branches, and the exploration of the river and region throuub which it passes, as the voy age* of Captain Gray and the Spanish navigator, Hoceta, U? priority in reference to its mouth, and the entiance into its channel. isJ?Zr ""r ?[ settlement less certain. Estab UshmenU were formed by American citizens on the Co lumbia us early as 1809 and 1SI0. In the latter year, a company was formed in New Vork, at the head of which was John Jacob Astor, u wealthy merchant of that citv, I'hm ,? ? w'"ch to form a regular chain of estab lishments on the Columbia river and tho contiguous coasts of the I ucific, for commercial purposes. Early in the spring ol 1811 they made their first establishment on the south side ol the river, a few miles above Point where they were visited in July following by 1 hompson, a surveyor and astronomer of the North k-S.t?.0mpnny' 8,1(1 !}'" - Tll(,y ha<> been sent out by that company to forestall the American company in occupying the mouth of the river, but found themselves < e.ea.ed in their object. The American compat im od two other connected establishments highe the river: one at the confluence of the Okanogan h the north brant^i of the Columbia, about six bun : mile! above its mouth; and the other on tho Spoka stieam tailing into the north branch, some fifty mile above. I hese posts passed into the possession of Great Britain during the war which wu? declared the next year, but it was provided by the first urtiele ol the treaty of Ghent, which terminated it, that "all territories, places, and possessions whatever taken by either party from the other during the war, or which may he taken after the signing of the treaty, excepting the islands hereafter .nentioned (in the Bay of Fundy) shall be restored with out delay. Under this provisian, which ombraces all the establishments of the American company on tho Co lumbia, Astoria was formally restored, on the dth Octo ber, 1818, by agents duly authorized on the part of tho British government to restore the possession, and to an agent duly authorized on tho part of the government ol the United States to receive it?which placed our pos sesion where it wa? before it passed into tho hands of British subjects. Such are tho facts on which we rert our claims to pri ority of discovery and priority of exploration and settle ment, ns against Great Britain, to the region drained by the (. olumlua river. So much for the claims e have, in our own proper right, to that region To these we have added tho claims of France and spam. 1 he former we obtained by tho treaty of Loui nana, ratlfiod m 1803 ; and the latter by tho treaty of F lorida, ratified in Is IP. By the lonner, we acquired all the rights which France hod to Louisiana "tothe ex tent it now has (1S03) in the hands of S|<ain, and that it lia.1 when trance possessed it, and such us it should be " treaties subsequently entered into by Spain and " coH. M f.* ,, Uy latter, bis Catholic Majesty ceded to the United States all his rights, claims, and to the country lying west of tho Rocky Mountains, and north ef a line drawn on the 4id purallel ol latitude, from a point on tho south bank of the Arkan [ *as, in that parallel, to the South Sea ; that is, to the whole reg>on claimed by Spain west of those mountains, and north of that line. rof '-0U'B|Hna gave us undisputed titlo west of the Mississippi, extending to the summit of tho Kocky mountains, and stretching south between that iiver and those mountains to the possessions of Spain, the line between which and oun was afterwards deter mined by the treaty of Florida. It olso ad.led much to the strength of oifr title to the region beyond tho Kocky mountains, by restoriug to us the impoitant link ol' con tinuity westward to the Pacific, which had been sur rendered by the treaty of 1703?as will be hereafter i flhown That continuity furnishes n jiut foundation for a claim ol territory, in connexion with those of discovery and oc cupation, and would seem unquestionable. It is admitted j) all that neither of thom is limited by tho precise spot discovered or occupied. It is evident that, in ordei to inuke either available, it must extend at least some dis tancei beyond thnt actually discovered or occupied ; but how-lar, as an abstract question, is a matter of uncer tainty. It is subject In each case to be influenced by a variety of considerations. In the cose of an island it has neon usually maintained in practice to extend the claim ol discovery or occupancy to the whole. So, likewise, in the case of a river, it has been usual to extend them to the entire region drained by it?more especially in cases ol a discovery and settlement at the mouth ; and emphatically so when accompanied by exploration of a..8, i rAverL ,*nd , region through which it flows. ? ucn, it is believed, may be affirmed to be the opinion and practice in such cases since the discovery of this continent. How far the claim ol continuity may extend '"??i* ^er ,ca*e*i 's 'ess perfectly defined, and can be ? ottled only by reference to the circumstances attending each. YVhon this continent was first discovered, Spain claimed the whole, in virtue of the grant of the Pope ; nit a claim so extravagant and unreasonable was not ac quiesced in by other countries, and could not be long maintained. Other nations, especially England and F iance, at an early period, contested her claim. They fitted out voyages of di*covery, and mado settlements on the eastern coasts of North America. They claimed ?or their settlements, usually, specific limits along tho coasts or hays on which they were lormed, and, gener ally a region of corresponding width, extending across the entire continent to the Pacific Ocottn. Such was the character ol the limits assigned by F.ngland in the char ters which she granted to her former colonies, now the inted States, when there was no special reason lor vai j ing from it. How strong sho regarded her claim to the region con >eyed by these charters, and extending westwaid of ber settlements, the war between hor and France, which was teiminated by the treaty ol Paris, 1763, furnisho* a strik ing illustration. Thnt great contest which ended so glo nously for Midland, and effected so great and durable a change on this continent, commenced in a conflict be tween her claims and those of France, resting on herside on this very right of continuity, extending westwaid from hei settlements to the Pacific Ocean, and on t!:c purt ol France on tho same right, butoxtending to the region drained by the Mississippi and it* waters, on tho ground ct settlement and exploration. Their lespective claims, which led to the war, first clashed on the Ohio Kiver, the waters ol which the colonial charters, in their western extension, covered, but which France had been unquen lionahly the first to settle and explore. If tho relative Mieiigth of these different claims may bo tested by the result of thnt remarkable contest, that of continuity westward must be pronounced to bo the stronger of the i>" jgland bas had at least the advantage of the re sult, and would seem to bo foreclosed against contesting the principle?particularly ns against us, who contti iuted so much to thnt result, and on whom that contest, and her examples and pretensions, from the first settle ment(Oi our country, have contributed to impress it so deeply and indelibly. ' tr?"ty ol )7?3, which terminated that memora ble and even ul struggle, yielded.as has been stated, the "J1, 0,0 ch*rtered rights of tho colonies be >onl tho Missi sippi. The seventh article establishos mat river as the permanent boundary between the nos sessions oi Oreat Britain and France on this continent. -I? ..,5? relate* to tha subject is in tho following wordsj? J he confines between the dominions of his Britannic Majesty in that part of the world ttho conti nent of America) shall he fixed Iriovocably hyaline ! 1 ? of the river Mississippi, from its source to tho river Iberville; and from thence, by a line drawn Hlong the middle ol this river and the lakes Mnjirpas and,! onchartruin, to the sea,'' fcc. JI hi* important stipulation, which thus establishes the , i . .'PPi "" {he line ?' fixed irrevocobly," between tho dominion* ol the two countries on this continent, inef ? ?^t'">f"'ahe* in favor ,of Franco whatever claim :ro? B,,U|" ",,,y havc to the region lying west of the MiMiuippi. It, ol course, could not nfiect tho rights ol Spam?tho only other nation which had any pretence ol claim west ol that river; but it prevented the right of continuity previously claimed by Great Britain from ex tending beyond it, and transferred it to France. The ,,0,ty ol Louisiana restored and vested in the United state, all the claims acquired by France, ami surrender }'Y Uteat Britain, unde. the provisions of that troaty, nth!!? west ol tho Mitsiisippl, and, among thoono in question. ( ertuin it is ttiat Fiance had 1 nf i r*1>t of continuity, in virtue of her possession I F tho ottinguikhment of the right of, we5t ol IjiL 2 trouty of 17??, to the whole . ou.itry Louisiana ?. ? Mountain*, and lying west of | conh11 v which England had to the Hffaiiist Kraurn " in? the Alleghoiiy mountains, as nothin* to om.o7.^' .* <lifference, that Spain had the ilthtVCl,alm of ^nce, at the time, but denied while France ho/?" *ven h ?s since in her'ca*e, 'nfe'11? ?f ment. It is, therefore, not nt x'll .n'rrJi' .i"n. r" ' should claim the country we*t of th.PR?i^ t R:a,,fe (as may bo inferred from her man. ^or! ,h^.l^ l , pie that Great Britain had claimed and dispoisewed 'hor ol (lie legions west of the Allegheny or tl.J? ?k? i ?. edHtate*, tisoon ?* they had acquired the ngVu o< I France, should assert the tame claim, and take mea tmen immediately after to explore it. with a view to occupation and settlement. But since then we have strengthened our title, by adding to our own proper claims, and those cf France, the claim* alio ol Spain, ny the Treaty of Florida, as ha* been stated The clainm which we have acquired from her between the Rocky Mountain! and the I'acille rest on her priori ty of discovery. Numerous voyage* of discovery, com mencing with that ol Maldonado in 1MB, and ending with that under ttoliauo and Valdes in 17!t'2. were undertaken by her authority, along the northwestern coast of North America. That they discoveied and explored not only the entire coast of what is now culled the Oregon Terri tory, but still further north is a net too well established to be controverted at this day. The voyages which they performed will accordingly t*> passed ovor at present without being particularly alludetito, with the exception of that olHeceta. His discovery of the mouth of the Co lumbia river has been already referred to. It was made on the 16th of August, 1775 many years anterior to the voyages of Meares and Vancouver, and was prior to Cook s, who did not reach the northwestern coast until 1778. The claims it gave to Spain of priority ol discovery v/ere transferred to us, with all others belonging to her, by ttio treaty of Florida; which, added to tho discoveries of Captain Oray, places our ii:ht to the discovery ol the mouth and entrance into the inlet and rivor beyond all controversy. , It has been objected that wo olaira under various and conflicting titles, which mutually destroy each others Such might indeed be the fact, while they were held by different parties; but since wo have rightfully acquired both those of Spain and France, and concentiatea tuo whole in our honds, tr.ey mutually blend with each oth er, and form one strong and connected chain of title against the opposing claims of all others, including Great ^lr^'order to presont more fully and perfectly the grounds on which our claims to the region in ouostion rest, it will now be necessary to turn back to the timo when Astoria was restored to us, under the provisions ol the treatv of Ghent, and to tiace what has since occur red between tho two countries in relerence to the terri tory, audi quire whether their respective claims have been affected by the settlements since made in the terri tory by (ircat Britain, or the occurrences which have since taken place. , , A1_ Tho restoration of Astoria took place, under the pro visions of the treaty of Uhent, on the 6th day of October, 1818-the effect of which was to put Mr. Provost, the agent authorized by our govornment to receive it, in possession of tho establishment, with the rijjht^ ot all times to be reinstated and considered the part) lu pos session, as was explicitly admitted by Lord t.astleroagh in the first negotiation between the two governments in reference to the treaty. The words of Mr. Rush, our plenipotentiary on that occasion, in his letter to Mr. Adams, then Secretary ol State, of the 14th of February, 1818, reporting what passed between him and hi? lor - ship, are, " that Lord Castlereagh admitted in the most ample extent our ;ht to be re-instated, and to be the party in posses'- while treating of the title. That negotiation terminated in the convention ot the ?20th of <> or, 181 the third article ol'whichisin the following words : - ... atri. ? 1 that any country that maybe claimed by either party on the northwest coast of America, weft ward of the Stmiy mountains, shall, together with its liurliors, bays and creeks, and the navigation of oil rivers within the same, be free and open, for the term often years from the date of the signature of tho present con vention, 'othe vessels, citizen*, and the subjects of the two pov s: it being well understood that this agree ment i-i >t to be construed to the prejudice ol any ciui wh.r itherof the two high contracting parties ma, v v of the said country : nor shall it hoi' laims of auy other power or StH lid country ; the only object ol the Uj, , artiea, in that respect, being to provent differences amongst themselves." The two aci', Hie restoration of our possession and the signature ol the convention, were nearly contempora neous?the latter taking place but fourteen dayB subse quently to the former. We were then, as admitted by Lord Castlereagh, entitled to be considered as tne party in possession; and tVio convention which stipulated that the territory should be free and open, lor the term often years Irom the date of its signature, to the vessels, citi zens, and subjects of the two countries, without preju dice to any claim which either party may have to any part of tho samo, preserved and perpetuated our claims to the territory, including the acknowledged right to be considered the party iu possession, as perfectly during tho poriod of its continuance as they were the day the convention was signed. Of this there can be no doubt. After an abortive attempt to adjust the claims of the two parties to the territory, in 1824, auc'.her negotiation was commenced, in 1826-which terminated in renewing on the 6th of August, 1827. tho third urticle of the con vention of 1818, prior to its expiration. It provided for the indefinite extension of al! the provisions ol the third article of that convention; and also that either party might terminate it at any timo it might think fit, by giv ing one year's notice, after the 20th of October, 18.8. It took, however, tho precaution of providing expressly that ?' nothing contained iu this convention, or in the 3d article of the convention of the '20th October, 1818, here by continued in force, shall be construed to impair, or in any manner affect the claims which either of the con tracting partios m.iy have to any part of the country westward ol the Stony or Rocky Mountains " 1 hat con vention is now in force, and has continued to lie so since the expiration of that of 1818. By the joint operation of tho two, our right to be considered the party in possession and all tho claims we had to the territory while in possess ion, aro preserved in as full vigor as thoy were at the date of its restoration in 1818, without heme affected or impaired by the settlements since made by tho subjects of Great Britain. . . . Time, Indeed, so far from impairing our Claims, has greatly strengthened them, since that period; tor, since then, the treaty of Florida transferred to us all the tights, claims, and pretensions of Spain to the *no.le territory, as has been stated. In consequence of this, our claims to the portion drained by the Columbia river ?tho point now tho subject of consideration?have been much strengthened, by giving us the inccntestible claim to the discovery of the mouth of the river by Ueceta. ihovo stated. But it is not in this particular only, that it has opciated in our favor. Our well founded claim, grounded on continuity, has greatly strengthened, dur ing the same period, by the rapid advance ol our popula tion towards the territory?its great increase, especially m the valley of the Mississippi-as well as the greatly increased facility of passing to tho territory by more ac cessible routes, and the far stronger anl rapidly swelling tide of population that has recently commenced flowing '"when tho first convention was concluded, in 1818, our whole population diJ not exceed nine millions of people. The portion of it inhabiting the States in the great valley <if the Mississippi was probably under ono million seven hundred thousand?of which not more than two hundred thousand were on the west side of the river. Now, our population may be safely estimated at not ess than nine teen millions?of which at least eight millions inhabit tho States and Territories in the valley of the pi, and of which upwards of one million are in the States md Territories west of that river. This portion of oui population is now increasing far more rapidly than ever, ?mil will, in a short time, fill tho whole tier of States on ifw u'Pctorn tiAiik To this great increase of population, especially in the volley of the Mississippi, may be added the increased ta cility of reaching the Oregon territory, in consequence of the discovery of the remarkable pass in the Hoc ay mountains at the h ad of the La I'latte. 1 he depression is so great, und the pass so smooth, that loaded wagons now tiavel with facility from Missouri to the navigable waters of the Columbia river. Those joint causes have had the effect oftuming the current ol our population to wards the territory, and an emigration estimated at not less than one thousand during the last, and fifteen hun dred tho present year has flowed into it. 1 he current thus commenced will no doubt continue to flow with in creased volume hereafter. There can then be no douot now that the operation of the same causes which impell ed our population westward from the. fhores ol the At lantic acrosstho Allegheny to the valley >?' the Missis sippi, will impel them onward with accumulating lorce across the Rocky mountain* into the valley of the (Co lumbia, and that the whole region drained by it is destin ed to be peopled by u?. Such are our claims to that portion of the terntoi) , and tho grounds on which they rest. Tho undersigned i believes them to be well founded, and trusts that the Hri I tish plenipotentiary will see in them sufficient reasons why he should decline his proposal. Tho undeisigne l plenipotentiary abstains, for the pie sent,from presenting the claims which the United States may have to other portions of tho territory. The undersigned avails himself of this occasion to re | new to the British plenipotentiary assurance" of his high I consideration. J. C. t-ALMOi N. I H Takkmham, Ksij., &c., &c., &C, SrrTr.MH?:R 1*2, 1841 The undersigned, British plenipotentiary, ha? studied, with much interest and attontion, the statement (marked Al presented by the Ameiicau plenipotentiary, setting tnrth the grounds on which ho declines tho proposal i I I fored by the Biitish plenipotentiary as a compromise ot the difficulties ol Ihe Oregon question. The arrange ment contemplated by that propositi would, iu the eatl ! million ol the American plenipotentiary, have the ettect of restricting tho possessions ot the I'nited State* to li mits far more circumscribed than their claims clearly entitle them to. . ..... The claims of tho I 'nited Stntos to the portion ol tern toiy drained by the Columbia river are divided into those adduced by tho I'nited States in then own proper light, and those which thoy have deiivod liom Franco and Spain. . The foimer, an against Great Biitmn, they ground on priority of discovery and priority of exploration and set The claim derived from France originates in the treaty of 180:1, by "which Louisiana was coded to the United States, with all its rights and appurtenances, us full) and iu the same manner as they had been acquired by the French republic; and the claim derived liom Spain is founded on the tieaty concluded with that power in the year 1819, whereby bis < atliolic Majesty ceded to the United States all his rights, claims and pretensions to the territories lyi:ig east and north of a certain line ter ininatlog on tho Tucific, in the forty-second degree ol north latitude. Departing from the Older in which these three separato claims are presented by the American plenipotontiatv, the British plenipotentiary will fir?t beg leave to ob serve, with regard to the claim detived from H i?ce, that he has not been able to discover any evidence find ing to establish tho belief that Louisiana, as originally possessed by Franco, afterwards translerred to Spam, then retroceded by Spain to France, and ultimately ceded by the latter power to the United States, extended in a westerly direction beyond the Rocky Mountains ? There i?. on the other hand, strong reaaon to suppose ! that at the time when Louisiana waa ceded to the I ni .ed Sates, its acknowledged western boundary wus the ftocky Mouutaiiw. Such appears to have been the opi nion of President Jefferson, under whose auspices the acquisition of Louisiana was accomplished. In a letter written by him ia August, 1803, are to be found the following words: The boundaries (of Louisiana) which I deem not ad mitting question, are the high lauds on the western side of the Mississippi, inclosing ull its waters?the Missouri, ol couue-and terminating in the line drawn from the nort . west point of the Lako of the Woods to the nearest

source of the Mississippi, as lately settled between Great Britain and the United State*. another and more formal document, dated in July. 1 hot?that w to say, nearly a year niter the return of Lewis and ( larke irom their expedition to the Pacific,and fifteen years alter Gray ha l entered the Columbia river? is recorded Mr Jefferson's opinion of the impolicy of giving offence to Spain by any intima ion that the claims of the I nited States eitei.de I to the Pacific ; and we have the authority of an American historian, distinguish ed tor the attention and research which he ha? bestowed on the whole subject of the Oregon territory, for con cluding that the western boundaries of Louisiana, as it ; was coded by France to the United States, were those in dicate 11 by nature-namely, the high lands separating 1 Pacific Mississippi from those failing into the i ^ r?m tho acquisition, then, of Louisiana, as it was re | ceived from Fiuuae, it seems clear that the United States , can deduce no claim to territory weat of the Rocky mountains. But even it it were otherwise, aud if France ! ?,.avf." l>???cssed or asserted a claim to territory west , ot the Hocky mountains as appertaining to the territory ol Louisiana, that claim, whatever it might be, was ne cessarily transferred to Spain when Louisiana was ce ded to that power iu 170 J, and of course became subject to the piovisions of the treaty between Spain and Great Britain oi 17P0, which effectually abrogated the claim of Bpuin (to exclusive dominion over the unoccupied parts of the American continent. i o the observations of the American plenipotentiary res|>ecting the efl^ct of continuity in furnishing a claim to territory, the undersigned has not failed to pay due attention; but he submits that what is said on this hea l may more properly be considered as demonstrating the greater degree of interest which the United States possess by reason ot contiguity in acquiring territoiy in ofright801'011'tiia" 8H attecti"fc' inanJ w?>'. question ? undersigned will endeavor to show hereafter that in the proposal put in on the part of Great Britain, the natural expectations of the United States, on the ground ol contiguity, have not been disregarded. Next comes to be examined tho claim derived from I Spain. i r'.'JVn *1'1,6 acknowledged, that by the treaty ol 1819, Spain did convey to the United States all that she na.l power to dispose of on the northwest coast of Vmeiica, north of the Hd parallel of latitude: but she j could not, by that transaction, annul or invalidate tho rights which she had, by a previous transaction,acknow ledged to belong to another power. i i V1.? ,raut>' 2?th October, 1700, Spain acknow | lodged in Great Britain cortain rights with respect to those parts of the western coast of America not already I occupied. This acknowledgment had reference especially to the teiritory which forms the subject of the present negoti at,on. If Spain could not make good her own right to ; exclusive dominion over those regions, still loss could she confer such a right on another power; and hence ureat Britain argues that from nothing deduced from 1 the treaty of 1819 can tho United States assert a valid claim to exclusive dominion over any part of the Ore gon territory. Th?r.e remains to be considered the claim advanced by tho I nitcd States on the ground of prior discovery and prior exploration and settlement. In that part of the memorandum of tho American ple lontiary which speaks of the Spanish title, it is stat ed that the mouth of the river, afterwards called the Columbia liver, was first discovered by the Spanish na vigator ileceta. The admission of this act would anpear to no altogether irreconcileable with a claim to priority or discovery from any thing accomplished by Captain ? rey. I o ono, and to one only, ol those commandcrs, Can no conceded the merit of first discovery. If Ilece ta s claim is acknowledged, then Captain Gray is no longer the discoverer of the Columbia river. If, on the other hand, preference is given to the achievement of aptain Gray, then Heceta's discovery ceases to be of auy value. But it is argued that tho United States now represent both titles -the title of Ileceta and the title of Gray; and, therefore, that under one or the other, it matters not which, enough can bo shown to estublish a case of prior discovery, as against Great Britain. This may tie true as far as lelates to the act of the first seeing and first entering tho mouth of the Columbia river; but ii thn Spanish claim of prior discovery is to prevail, whatever rights may thereon be founded, ate necessari ly restricted by the stipulations of tho treaty of 1790, which forbid a claim to exclusive possession. It the act of Captain Gray, in passing tho bar and ac tual y entering tho river, is to supercede tho discovery ot the entrance -which is all that is attributed to Hece ta?then, tho principle of progressive or gradual discov cry being admitted as conveying, in proportion to the extent of discovery or exploration, superior lights, the operations of Vancouver in entering, surveying, and exploring, to a considerable distance inland, the river Columbia, would, as u necessary consequence, super j |ifc,e the discovery of Captain Gray, to say nothing of the act of taking possession in tho name of his sover i eign?which ceremony was duly performed and authen I ticafjy recorded by Captain Vancouver. This brings us to an examination of the conflicting claims of Great Britain and the United States on the ground of discovery, which may be said to form the es sential point in the discussioii; for it ha* above been ! shown that the claim derived lrom France must be con iderod as of little or no weight, while that derived from , P'Jf, }" as 1,lr as relates to exclusive dominion, is ueu .ralised by the stipulations of the Nootka convention. It will be admitted that when the United States became an independent.nation, they possessed no claim, direct or indirect, to the Columbia territory. Their western boun dary in those days wm defined by the treaty of 17S3 ? I Great Britain, on the contiary, had at that time already | directed her attention to tho northwest coast of America ? as is sufficiently shown by the voyage and discoveiies I ?f C aptain Cook, who, in 1778, visited and explored a 1 gr.?S '>oHlon of U' !rom latitude 41 deg. northwards. 1 h i, reat Britain was the first to acquire what may no callo.l a beneficial interest in those regions, by com merciaiI intercourse, will not, either, be denied. In proof ot this fact, wo have the voyages of severul British sub jects who visited the coast and adjacent islands pre viously to the dispute with Spain ; and that her com merce, actual as well as prospective, in that part of the world, was considered a matter of groat national impor taiice, is shown by the resolute measure* which she took tor ;t* protection when Spain manifested a disposition to interfere with it. The discoveries of Meares, in 1788, and the complete survey of the coast and It* adjocout islands, from about latitude, 40 deg. northwards, which was effected by ? aptain Vancouver, in 1792, 1793, and 1704, would an I il?a.r 10 give to ?r*at Britain, as against the LTnited States, as strong a claim, on tho ground of discovery and exploration coastwise, as can well be imagined, limited only by what was accomplished by Captain Gray, at the mouth ol the (elumbia?which, as far as discovery is concernod, forms the strong point on the American side ol the question. In pomtof accuracy and authenticity, it is believed j nat tne performances of Cook and Vancouver stand pre* ! eminently superior to those of auy other country whose vessels had in those days visited tho northwest coast; while in point ot val ue and importance, surely the dis. covery of a single harbor, although at the mouth of an important river, cannot, as giving a claim to territory, ne placed in competition with the vast extent of disco very and survey accomplished by the British naviga tors. As regards exploration inland, entire justice must be done to the memorable exploit of Musts. Lewis and n . ii hut those distinguished travellers were not the lirst who effected a passage across the Oregon Territory from the Kocky Mountains to the PacifTc. As far back a* l<93 that feat had been accomplished by Mackenzie, a British subject. In the course of this expedition, .Mackenzie explored the upper waters of a river, since called h laser's river, which, in process of time, wa* traced to its junction with the s> a, near the 49th degree ot latitude; thus forming, in point of exploration, a counterpoise to tho exploration of that partot the Colum Ma which was first visited by Lewis and Clarke. I riority of settlemout is the third plea on which the ( American claim proper i* made to rest. In 1811, an establishment for the purposes of trade was formed at the.south side ol the Columbia river, near to its mouth, by ceitaiu American ci ize ?. Thi. establish inent passed during the war into the hands ot British subjects;but it was restored to the American govern ment in the year 1818, by an understanding between the two governments. .Since then, it has not, however, been in reality occupied by Ameticans. This is the case of priority of settlement. The American plenipotentiary lays somo stress on the admission attributed to Lord Castlereagb, then principal Secretary of State for foreign Affairs, that "the American government had the most ample right to be reinstated and to he considered the party in possession while treating of the title," The undersigned is not inclined to dispute an assertion resting on such respectable authority. But he mast observe, ip the tirst place, that the reservation implied by the words "while treat ng ol tho title, excludes any inference which might otherwise be diawii lium the preceding words prejudicial to tho title ol Great Britain; and fuitnci.that when the authority of t he \morican minister is thus admitted for an obser vatioa which is pleaded against Kngland, it is but fair that, on the pat t of tho United States, credit should be given to Kngland for the authenticity of a dospatch from Lord Castlereagh to the British ministor at YVashington, which was communicated verbally to the government of Hie I mted States, when the restoration ol the establish ment called Astoria, or Foit George, was, in contem plation,containing a complete reservation of the rights ot t.nglan I to the territory at the mouth of the Columbia? I ; i?jatemeut of the British plenipotentiaries, I-)ec. liWfl ) In tine, the present state of the question between the i two government* appears to be this : Great Britain ' possesses and exercises in common with tho United States a right of joint occupancy in the Oregon ' eriitory, ol w hich right she can be divested, with re- ! spect to any pait of that territory, only by an equitable partition el the whole between the two powers. It is, for obvious reasons, desirable that such a parti tion should take place as soon as possible; and tho dull- ? culty appears to be in devising a line of demarcation which shall leave to each party that precise portion of the territory best suited to its interest and convenience The British government entertained the hopo that by the proposal lately submitted for the consideration of the A me i lean government, that object would have been accomplished. ,i.ACC2.lLdinSutoth? therein contemplated, the northern boundary of the United States west ol tho Hocky mountains would lor a considerable distance M earned along the same parallel of latitude which forms their noitberu boundary of the eattern aide of thoso mountain*?thus uniting the present eastern boundary of tho Oregon Territory with the western boundary of the United States, from the 49th parallel downwards. From the point where the 40tn degree of latitude in tersect! the uortheastern brjoch of tho Columbia river, (called, in that part of its course, McGillivray's river,) the proposed line of boundary would be along the middle of that river till it. joins the Columbia; then along the middle of the Columbia to the ocean?the navigation of the river remaining perpetually free to both parties. In addition, Oic.it Britain offers a separate territory on th^ Pacific, possessing an excellent harbor, with a farther understanding that any port or porta, whether on Vaucouvier'l island or on the comment south of the 40th parallel, to which the United States might desire to have access, shall be made free ports. it is holioved that by this arrangement ample justice would be done to the claims of he Ui.ited States, on whatever ground advanced, with relation to the Oregon Territory. An regards extent of territory, they would obtain, acre for acie, nearly half of the entire territory to be divided. As relates to the navigation of the prin cipal river, they would enjoy a perfect equality of right with Grent Britain, and, with respect to harbors, it will be seen that Great Britain shows every disposition to consult ttieir convenience in that particular. On the other hand, were Qnit Britain to abandon the line of the Columbia as a frontier, and to surrender her right to the navigat on of that river, the prejudice occasioned to her by sucti an arrangement would,beyond a proportion, exceed the advantage accruing to the United Stales from tho possession of a few more square miles of terri tory. It must be obvious to every impartial investigator of the subject, that by adhering to the line of the Columbia, Grunt Britain is not influenced by motives of ambition with reterer.ee to extent of territory, but by considerations of utility, not to say necessity, which cannot bo lost sight of, and for which allowance ought to be made, in an arrangement professing to be baseu on considerations of mutual convenience and advantage. The undersigned believes that he has now noticed all the arguments advanced by the American plenipoten tiary iu order to show that the United States are fairly entitled to the entire region drained by the Columbia river. He sincerely regrets that their views on this sub i ject should differ in so mauy essential respects It remains for him to request that, as the American plenipotentiary declines the proposal offered on the pin t of Great Britain, he will have the goodness to state what arrangement he is, on the part of the United States, prepared to propose for an equitable adjustment of the question; and more especially that he will have the goodness to detino the nature and extent of the claims which the United States may have to portions of the territory, to which allusion is made in the concluding part of nis statement, as it is obvious that no arrangement can be made with respoct to a portion of the territory in I dispute, while a claim is reserved to any portion of the . remainder. The undersigned, British plenipotentiary, has the honor to ronew to the American plenipotentiary the J assurance oi his high consideration. R. PAKENHAM. [To be continued.) Marine?Loss of Life?Outrage upon our Sea.ue.n.?A number ol vessels have arrived since our last, among others the propeller I'hirnix, Captain Sweet, from St. Joseph and Chicago, from whom we gathei farther information of the lake maiino. Captain Sweet reportH the schooner Pilot, upward bound, with merchandise, aahore at I'oint Wabisbanka. The tact wu ascertained at Mackinaw, hut nothing was known of the fate of those cn hoard It is a rocknound and de solate coast, with scarcely any means of affording assis tance to disabled vessels. Captain Sweet further states the astounding fact, that not h solitary light was risible on Lake Huron ! and the only upologv otterf-d bv the keepers of light houses, was that the quality of the oil furnished by Government was so poor, that it would not withstand the frost. Wo append the memorandum fur nished us by the ofllcers of the Phoenix From Mr. Fox, who returned bv the P., we learn that the steamer Lexington was detained at Cleveland, in consequence of having her false sides knocked off by the ice while returning from Detroit. The It. Crooks, Uni ted States, Webster, Caroline, Scott, Oregon and Mo hawk, were there hound up. The brig Cobb, together with six schooners also there bound down. They have since come in. The particulars of the loss of the Bolivar, and other vessels on lake Michigan, we gather from the Kalamazoo Gazette:? D. Hubbard, of this village, has just arrived in tow" from the mouth of the Kalamazoo river, from whom WS leai n that on Saturday morning lust, (Nov. MA the schr. Mint, Capt. Buttorfield, left that haibor under a heavy north west wind, which, soon after ahe left, in creased to a perfect hurricane. Captain B. put about and attempted to make the harbor again. At the same timo the sclir. Ltna appeared, en deavoring to run into the harbor. The Mint drifted south ol the Etna, and struck on the south bar. Captain B. was the first man to leap ir.to the water, his vessel I'oing about ten rods from tho shore, und although urged b) Uie citizens who had run to the beach, to :ome out of the water, he retused to leave the schooner until all hands were off and salely ashore. The schooner Jesse Smith ran ashore about six miles north of the mouth of the Kalamazoo River. Schooner Mahala was reported ashore .about 25 miles south of the mouth?crew all saved. Schooner Nilos about two or three miles to tho leeward of the Mahala, and another RChoouor ashore, namo not known. The Nile saw the schooncr Bolivar to windward outside in the breakers going ashoro. Tho Connraut Reporter of Thursday says, " The schr. Wolverine struck the pier on enteiing Black River, yesterday morning, and partly filled with water. We hear ol tho Wabash being near Huron, with both an chors out and thumping thu bottom." P.S.?Wo have since learned that she ran ashore about eight miles north of the St. Joseph river, and broke in two. Three of the crew were found drowned on the beach, and it was supposed that all on board perished.? Buffalo Jldv. Dec. 6. In Supreme Court?Special Term?Mr. Justjfe lewett presiding?L)ec. 6.?Boswell uds. Stark. Motion for judgment as in case of noil suit: grunted, by default. Dunning ads. Lee. Motion to change venue; granted. Bull vs. Clift. Motion to refer, granted, by de idult. The People e? rel. Dunham vs. The Judges of Monroe Common Pleas. Motion for mandamus; granted, bv default. Hayes ads. Higham. Motion to set aside in quest; denied, with costs, without prejudice. Fowler vs. Crosby Motion lor certiorari; granted, ex parto. Kowler vs. Oanun, do do do. Parent vs. The Superinten dents ol Poor ol Putnam county, dodo. McBurney vs. Carter. Motion to refer; granted by consent. Rod dington vs. Brower. Motion to set aside judg ment ; douied, with costs, without prejudice.? The People as. rel Hicki) vs. the Judges of Warren Com mon Pleas?Motion for mandamus; denied, with costs.? Palmer ads. Butler?Motion to set aside default, Sic.; granted, on terms. Chichester vs tho Agent of the Mount I'leasant State Prison?Mction to amend pleadings, Sic., granted, on terms. Bank of Chenango vs. reck, Jr.? Motion for leavo to issue a new execution in place of one lost: granted. F.lsbre et al. vs. The Rector, the. of Kmanuel Church, Norwich?Motion to have service al ready made on defts. to be deemed good; pranted. Han merads Bostwick, President, &c.? Motion to set aside inquest; granted, on terms. Tooley ads. rage, do. do.? Kelly ads Sheridan -Motion to set aside inquest, Sic. de nied, with costs. (Jaullnudett ads. Lawrence?Motion tor judgment as in caso of non suit; gianted, by default. Ilalsted ads. Sbinerla?Motion to vacate order to hold to bail, Sic.: granted, by default. Myers et al. ads. Duram. Motion for judgment as in case of non suit; denied, with costs. Rich et al ads Davis, Receiver, kc ?Motion for ludgment as in case of non suit; denied, with costs, with out prejudice, and former rule vacated. Lansing, irop'd ads the Wutervliet Bank, and another cause Motion to consolidate ; denied, with costs, and former rule vacated. Corning ads Lawrence?Motion for judgment as in case ol non suit; granted, unless plfl's. stipulate and pay costs. .H orning ads Leitch, et al, dodo do. Baldwin ads Post, et al, do do do. Oris wold ads Post et al?Motion for judg ' ment as in case of non suit ; granted, unless plff. pay 1 costs, *10. Jenkins ads same, do do do do. Bacon ads same, do do do do.?jllhatxy Jlrgut. Railway Accidents.?On Saturday afternoon, Mr. Hayden, of South Newmarket, N. H., wan n ding in a sleigh in company with his wife and child, and another lady. When he came to the railroad crossing at Newmarket village, the downward Portland train was just about to pais, and he stopped his horse. The ani- | mal, however, became fi ightened, and plunged forward, so that the sleigh came in contact with the engine and was smashed to atoms. Mrs. Hayden and the child were killed instantly?the child's head being cut completely oft, and remaining in the bonnet, with the strings tied un- | der the chin The other lady was considerably injured, but Mr. Hayden ? scaped unhurt. Tho Stwhuryport lirrald states that a young man by tho name ol Horace Banning, who had been employed Mimrtiiue in the Kssex cotton mill, was ran over by the : ? ailway train between Rowley and Ipswich and killed. He bought a ticket in Rowley,for Boston, and must either have attempted to jump oft the cars while they weie in motion, or nave gone out on the platform foi somo pur pose, and accidentally fallen oft. He was a native of Hartford, Conn., and about 2:1 years of age. Mr. J. Connor, one of the Lowell constables, slipped down and lell across the railroad ut Wilmington, on Sa turday forenoon; the cars passed over him and crushed both legs in a shocking manner. He was not cspected to i survive. ,\ hrakeman on the Norwich road was crushod be tween the cars at Norwich, Thursday morning, while a<l|usting the shacklo by which they were connected. His injury was considered mortal.? fVorcettrr Spy. On Monday a man accidentally fell between somo railroad cars and a platform, near Boidentown, and the c?r?being started, he was rolled around in tho contract ed space until his body was completely crushed. The name of the sufferer is Wallace, and ho is supposed to be from Boston. His injuries were so great, that he sur vived only a few miuutes. Murder at Schuyi.krvilli.? A brutal ca?c of murder occurred af or near Schuylerville, on lues day last, the particulars ot which aro as follows :-Two men by the names ol Abraham Wilcox and Samuel Mc Kinstar, got into a quarrel about a sister of McKinster s who M. Wilcox wanted to marry,.against the wishes and advica of her brother. Alter a lew angiv words, ? il cox took out his jack-knife and stabb,,t McKinster six. ? P|W| or eighteen timos, inflicting several fatal wounds in hii abdomen, from which he ilie?l almost instantly. Wil cox then attempted to hang himsell, but was discovered and taken down before he accomplished his design. Af ter an examination, he was committed to jail to await his trial for this horrible deed. The Oyer and Terminer is now in session, and ha will be imlictod, and parhapa triad at this term.? Saratoga Smtinrl Albany, Dec. 7, 1845. Effect* of the Foreign. News on the Markett?Opi nion* on the Menage?Guv. Wright's Menage? Ijjve and Lead?Theatricals, Sfc, The important foreign news in yesterday's Herald, brought by the steamship Cambria, lias had a tre mendous effect upon the flour market. Holders are paralyzed. The British ports will not be opened, and the present duty will continue to be imposed upon American bread stuffs. Thousands of barrels of tlour were purchased here by speculators upon the arrival of the Britannia, who would gladly be rid of it at a loss. Flour has actually been purchased here at higiier rates than it will bring in Liverpool. Expectancy, of course, induced capitalsts to buy at such enormous prices, and any quantity of money will be sunk by them, because the prices are poei ; tively higher here than in England, and, us a natu 1 ral consequence, their expectancy will have to bear discomfiture. It will cause a miniature convulsion in tae market here. Mr. Polk's extraordinary mesrnge continues to be the principal topic of conversation and speculation. Some say he is a " bold bad man," and that ho has assumed a terrible responsibility, altogether unparalleled in the historv ot any republic under the sun. Others declare that Mr. I'olk is a moat singular man -a remarkable in stance of political vegetation-that he was a third-rate county court lawyer?that ho it the greatest statesman, the most finished diplomatist, the most polished gentle man, that ever was heard of. Home think " the country is safe,'* and some say that there will be war, and famine, and extermination, and a cometicel train of innumprable evils, awful to think of, profoundly to be deprecated. At any rate, poets and philosophers, editors and lawyers, and merchants and doctors, and almost every bodv else argue upon one point?to wit: that President Polk has feelingly demonstrated " who is James K. Polk?" and that he i? an able anil profound President, who will, by t his fearless and sublime stroke of his genius, astonish Uritish Premiers aud Cabinets and amaze the civilized world. The first Hue of Governor Wright's Me'sape was writ ten last evening. Though nearly one month will elapse before the Legislature as.-embles, yet this document is in a degree of preparation. Klagg and Benton and five Senators were closeted with thn Governor last evening until a lato hour, as n ir ai a line of presumptive infer ence can be drawn, 1 believe that Wright will jump over State limitation, and that the document will be rather national in its character ?that it will be a singular papei, aud that it will abound in originality in all its features, remember, I have a strong inferential evidence for tell ing you that it will be a most remarkable document; that it will evince a policy altogether modern and without any sort ot precedent. Silas Wright is not the man to let a prospect for the Presidency slip through his fingers carelessly. Every line he writes, every official act he performs, will be one of the moves in a politic game, played with the most consum mate tact and ability, for his ultimate succession to the Presidency. Remember, 1 say again, this is not simple prediction, unsustained by evidence, but confident asser tion, founded upon proper pi oof. Albany is a most extraordinary city. The prominent characteristics of the people here, are unlike those of any other community in America. Money is an agent of infinite power in Albany. Society might be re-modeled ?lnws violated?life sacrificed?pulpits and presses pro ! l'aned?in fine, anything can be done here with money. 1 This is probably one of the most aristocratic cities in the 1 Union: there is an exclusive aristocracy here which ba ses its excellence and exaltedness upon the noble attri butes of birth and wealth; and no man, it is said, can be come a member of the honorablo order, without these indispensable requisites. Out upon sucnrepublicanism. Shame on it, and shame upon any system or institution in America, political or social, which is anti-republjcan, and which does not have a tendency to individua'.ise prosperity all over the Union. There is a lemale academy in this city, enjoying a high degree of prosperity. Some two or three hundred young ladies constantly attend this academy. They come from all pacts of the United States, and some from the city of Havana, some from Canada and Nova Scotia, and from other distant points. Their studies are all the languages, music, drawing, histories of countries, philo sophy. astionomy, and all the sciences and arts calcula ted to make a lady accomplished anywhere, and to All any society with grace and female elegance Such pub lic institutions aie amoi:g the redeeming feature* of a community not eminently distinguished lor benevolence and charity, or any of that noble and philanthropic spi rit which ensures it honorablo mention everywhere ? For communities, as well as individuals, are culpable. A most extraordinary excitemont was created here some time ago, in fashionable society. The affair was hushed up lor the time being, but it was so rich that the Herald must have it. Two young bloods were mutually paying their addresses to a young lady, of respectable aionts and good standing. They were hot-headed fel lows, aud, an a natural consequence, terribly jealeus of each other. A challenge was sent by one of the parties and promptly accented by the other. The preliminaries I were arranged, anil the combatants met on a cool frosty morning about a mile from the city?weapons, pistols? I iistance, ten paces. The pistols were charged with j potato bullets, of which the challenged individual was ?ware, and the challenger not aware?at the first fire the challenged fell mortally wounded, and the chal lenger, horror st:uck, fled ; but was subsequently in duced to believe it was all a hoax?whereat he was so r-hagrined, that he sailed for China and is now on his vo> age. The challenged removed to Brooklyn, and the poor girl, who, by the way is an arrant coquette, ia, I ?;ar, doomed to perpetual celibacy. The aflaii occa sioned an awlul excitement among the nobility. Mrs. H. Hunt commences a new engagement to-mor row evening, at tho Museum. She is good in "Mrs. ; Ilaller," " Lady Macbeth," " Juliet," and " Desdemona,'' > Uc., but we have nothing in the shape of a tragedian to I sustain her. Warren is a good comedian and will stay | the winter out. ; Major J. B. Douglass delivered the second season lee | fure before the Young Men's Association?Subject, " Ni agara Campaign of 1S14 " Very interesting lecture, and calculated to promote the objects of the association. ! Prof Whitnev delivered an elocutionary lecture at the chapel of the female Academy, last evening. His im | personation of Randolph, and Clay, aud Mcl)uflie, was : liie-like and thrilling. His oratorical powers are very | Miperior. He will visit New Vork next week. Weather is cold?river is closed down to Coxsackie. ' The sleighing is grand, and the beautitul girls are avail ; ing themselves ot the snow, for any quantity of fun and ; enjoyment. Conji. Affairs of Buenos Ayrcs. New Vokk. 6th December, 1944. t In your paper ot this morning, under the head of "Bue i nos Ay re?? European intervention in South America," I find the following paragraph " We now understand for the first time, that th ? Argentine government despatched an agent to the United States, in the person of Amory Ed wards, Esq., a highly respectable man and a citizen of ihe United States, to our government, to solicit the aid and support of the United States in their resisting the improper demands of the French and Knalish?but that Mr. Polk declined acting in the matter, thinking that the United States had no business to interfere.'* Your paper is so widely d'Stributed, not only among the American public, but in othei parts of the world, that erroneous statements which, naturally without your knowledge, might sometime* tind themselves in the He raid, anil by their wide circulation might do injury, have need to be, as soon as possible, corrected. Permit me, therefore, to request rou to correct the aforegoing para graph, which is totally and completely incorrect from ihe beginning to the end. Permit n>e also to state that .Mr. Amory Kdwards, the gentleman spoken of in that paragraph, was formerly the United States Consul at Uueuos Ayres?another has been appointed by the Ame lican government iii his place. Mr. Kdwards has not, and has not had, any c m mission from the Argentine go , vernment to solicit the aid and support of the United > states, fk.c. Sic. Mr Kdwards has neither commission nor appointment from tho Argentine government. Please in : -en this letter in the next H'rald, and I remain, Sir, your most obedient serv't, CARLOS UK ALTKAKY, Argenti. e Minister to the United States. ToJamks Ooano* Bkinkti, Esq., Proprietor of the New York Harald. The City Hall Fire. To Thk Editor or the Hkrald : With your permission, I wish to make an expla nation in reference to a part of the published pro ceedings ot the Board of Assistant Aldermen, as appeared in the Htrttld ot yesterday, alluding to the re|>orted fire in the office of the Clerk ot C oinmon Pleas and County Cleik Carelessness is attributed to the incumbents of the room occupied by the tin dersigned. It is singular that all the accounts of the tire, which I have noticed, are incorrect, though correct information could have been obtained in a tew minutes. Now, I wish to deny positively that any blame ought to be attached to either or any ol the incumbents ot the room occupied by the above clerks The stove iu use is one of new construc tion, and has only been used a few weeks, and was put up by the manufacturer in a manner that appear ed perfectly sale in all respects. Yet from its con struction,producing a strong draft downwards, it re quires that some substance?a non-conductor of heat?be placed under it. The heat is so strong downwards, that it passed through a sheet iron pan, and a plate of zinc, and communicated to the floor, without the stove being in the least overheated A stone platform is now placed under it, which makes tt perfectly safe in future. Thus much the under signed has thought it his duty to state, in justice to those implicatea. JamiwCowiskr, County clerk. Firk at Skankatkla*.?The Drying House at tached to D. Kellogg'* woolen lactory, at Skaneate les, was burnt down last night. 'Ihis building was a laigo storm one, und contnined a large quantity ot ciothf, ami the loss is probably Heavy. What amount of pro ?city was s^ivod wo are not inforinafl. All of "*ivlr. Jiol* logg's property is insured. ? Syreewsf Jturnal. Mkxico'The Mexican schooner Yucateco.Prats arrived yesterday from Taropico, whence she sailed on the lath inst. She brought no papers nor verbal lnt??>'i aence ? N. O. Picayunr, Son. 3n

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