Newspaper of The New York Herald, December 20, 1845, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated December 20, 1845 Page 1
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M ? ~ L ? THE NEW YORK HEHAI Vol. XI., No. 330?Whole Wo. NEW YORK, SATURDAY MORNING, DECEMBER 20, 1845. Prtr? Two Cratl. MPKCIAIj BXPIIHSS OV ADAMS ?fc CO. HIGHLY IiyiPORTANT mom, eprope. Arrival of 'jie Ste?.?ship Acadia, AT BOSTON. hal;p- a month later. T42KFORAXIY WAR PANIC, IN Z2NOLAN9. Important Peace Intelligence. Effect of the Oregon Negotiations in England and France. ARBITRATION "STRONGLY RECOMMENDED. The Famine in Great Britain. MORE CABINET COUNCILS. Meetings throughout the Tfngdom. for the Opening tif the Perts. FALL IN The PRicI oF FLOUR. Commercial Crisis in France. THE RAILWAY PANIC. Tcrriblo Depression in the Cotton '?larket, in the Fac0 of War News. STATE OF THE MONEY MARKET. AGITATION IX THE CORN LAWS. Affairs in Ireland, AMERICAN FEELING IN FRANCE. iTASHI 0.\S AM) THEATRICALS. MARKETS, &C. The steam thip Acadia arrived at Doston at one o'clock yesterday morning, and we received our despatches by Adams & Co., over the Long Inland Railroad, at half pa?t 8 o'clock last evening. The advict'H from 1 lverpool are to the 4th, Lon don to the 3d, and Paris to the tat inst., inclusive. The intelligence, in every point of view, is impor tant. Among the passengers are Mr. Gaillardet and wife, II. Wykoll, and John L. O'Sullivan, of New York. The temporary war panic in England, on the Ore gon question?the effect it produced in France?the opinion of the press relative to a war?the scarcity of i'ood iu Great Britain?the commercial crisis?the railway panie?the frequent cabinet councils?and. finally, the peaceful aspect which the opinion in England a.-v?iimed, in the early part of this mouth? ere all important. There had beea a cons'derable comparative de cline in cotton?a fall in flour?and a depression in the money market. The iron market was still active and buoyant, i> .J(? h pi ices had somewhat receded. The American provision market partakes, to some extent, of the reaction which has been recently witnessed The general state of trade in Manchester was much d 'pressed. The corn nwrkets of Northern Europe are in a state of great activity. The grain marts of the Danube art: said to be much excited, and prices range from 2Di to 31s 6d. per quarttr. The railway panic has not subsided. On the con trary, it was 111 lull force. The extent of the injury which the potatato crop has sustained, forms, as usual, -tii unfailing subject of inquiry and anxiety. The accounts are, upon the whole, of a sad and melancholy character. Thsre was not much news stirring in (Termany; the religious excitement continues, and in Switzer land, there will again be lighting this winter. Food wns scarce and high, and ail this leads to make the people emigrate to the United fit rites, where th??y are permitted to choose their own road to Heavsn, and have plenty to eat. Accounts have been received from New Zealand of another defeat of the British by the natives. The new religion of Rouge continues to make progress in nil directions. The church of Rsme, now thoroughly frightened, is taking measures to oppose it. Rumor points to the resignation of Lord Stanley, and his retirement from the government, probably? at least for a time?from public life. The disaflection among the subjects of the Roman pontiff appears to bt on the increase ; the prisons Icing nearly all full, and the general police doubled. Quite a number of incendiary tires have recent ly occurred in the counties of Cambridgeshire and fi jtTolk. The Russian government has issued another uknse against the Jews?forbidding them to sell wine or spirits in the empire. A vessel sailed from Havre, on Saturday, with *<.vtr"*l missionaries to the Marquesas. Die King of Sardinia has just promoted, to the rank "f Colonel, the infant Don .Inan, second son of Don Carles. The amount of booty taken in Scinde, is stated to lie little l> ?8 tnan half a million sterling. The (treat Western has left the Mersey, for Bristol, -tin winters there. The i,ord '' m< elior, who has been so seriously indisposed i i v i. ? despaired of, is gradually recovering. TheBoniil <1 Ilealtii, at Genoa, has abolished the qua t an line on ve?eeis from England. A number ol individuals have been arrested at Pose i, on suspicion of l?ein.<4 engaged in a conspi racy in lav* r ot Polish nationality. The government of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg has just publi tied a decree, declaring that in future the sittings ot the states will be public, A letter Iron Naples states that the King has giv en permission to have a railway constructed from Capua to the Roman frontier, near Caprano. !Hiring recent violent tempts off the coast of Morway, eleven pilots lost their lives in attempting to board vessels in want of their aid On Monday week, Dr. Samuel Wilberforce, the new Bishop of Oxford, was elected with tlie usual formalities, by the Dean and Canons of Christ Church. * A new American story is announced for lmrnedi a'e publication, the production of the daughter ot the celebrated novelist, J. benitnore Cooi?er, under whose edltorsuip it will appear. Two or three suicides have lately been committed by parties who have been driven to the act by their pecuniary embarrassment arising from railway si>e culution; one of the suicides from ttus cause was a chimney sweep ! The prize money about to be paid to the heroes of Sciniie has been lodged in the Bank of England. The stamp duty on it ha? been paid into the stamp ?ftice, and amounts to the immense sum of ?21, W The docks and harbor of Hull aic now crowded with shipping. The blue flag has been ll>tn? the^e In. t two or three d.ty.i, signifying that no more vis ed can he allowed to enter the port. The, Poor-law Commissioners have issued a ge r. i c*<jef forbidding the employment ot paupers in bq^e-cruehtng, 01 any other process by which b aea are ieduced to dust. The order takes eflect fiointh* first ol Januiiy next. The late Lady Holland has left an annuity of JL-!,0C> to Lord John Russell, an expression ot the In ;h ri spect which her ladyship enteitained for the noble lord. On his lordship's death, the annuity will be equally divided among the children ol her late ladyship's daughter Lord Jersey has made an overture tor reconcilia- I lion with hit daughter and son-in-law, to the lather ot Captain Ibbeisua. A subsciiiition has been opened for the purpose of presenting Lieutenant Wagfiorn, the opener of the overiand route, with some mark tf tckiiovvledg m>nt for his great servicesto the commerce of Ei-g* land and India. The King of Prussia lias just chargedM. Theodora Kulnde, a young Prussian sculptor, with '.he execu tion of a marble statue of the celebrated antiquary Winckelmann The statute is to be placed 111 tlie Royal Museum ot the F:ne Arts in Herlm. The establishment for the poor at Glasshouse street, London docks, ha? now completed the firot six months ot its experiments, and during that pe riod the warm baths, wash tubs, and drying appara tus have been used by 29,080 persons A continued stream of emigration is still pouring into Algiers from Minorca- On the 20th ult, the French government steamer Acheron touched at Mahon, on her way to Algiers, mid took on board a number of settlers. Ii is found that the climates ot Algiers and Oran agtee much better with the Spa nish emigrants than the French ones. TttK Corn Laws.?With the country in this frame ot 1111 nd?hariassed by the fears ot scarcity, and listening daily to the; most eloquent and emphatic objurgation of the corn Kws, to the operation ot whicn the evil is more or less attributed?has ap peared a letter addressed by Lord John Russell to nis constituents, the citizens of London, 111 which he emphatically condemns the sliding scale, and declares himsejf an unconditional repealer. The sensation which this letter has excited, is propor tioned to the station of the writer, to the imi?ortant interests at stake, and to the new combination of parties which it involves. Many regard it a* the doom of the existing ministry; it is certainly the doom of the com laws. There is a hearty frank ness about the letter which wins regard and conci liates res|>ect. ilis lordship has long been known aa the advocate of a tixed duiy on corn ; tti? whig budget of 1SI1 fixed the duty as high as per quar ter; but the intervening years have witnessed a con siderable declension from this figure oil the part of Lord John Russell, and now, selecting the present moment of scarcity and apprehension, he repudi ates all duty w liatever, and goes as tar in his con demnation of the present corn law as Cobden him self, or the most enthusiastic leaguer. A* a stroke of policy, this movement of the whig leader is ad mirable, and as it would appear, has been followed, without concert, by Lord Morpeth, who has not only declared for total repeal, but has joined the league. For months, nay, for years past, passing events have pointed to the extinction ot the duty on corn. Public opinion has set in against the exclu sion of the first necessary of life, and many respect i able conservatives, taking the initiative, have tore [ shadowed the extinction of the monopoly?Liver I pool Times, lhc. 1 | ok Wak.?Within the last few days a survey lias been going on, under the direction of a naval officer high iu rank, of the large mercantile steamers in the mail service of her Majesty, with a view to ascertaining their capabilities for carry ing guns ot the largest calibre. An arrangement has also been entered into, in virtue of which these steamers are to be placed at the command ol Govern ment in the event of their being required as vessels of war. These fine vessels were examined as to their strength for carrying guns and capabilities as war steamers iu the event of their services being required, by competent persons from Woolwich Dockyard before they left the KaBt India Docks at Blackwall for the convevanee of the mails, and copies of the reports were lodged nt the Admiralty relattve to them upwaras of two years ago. Indeed the Admtndty have been for some time in |H)sseg siuii ot sufficient information to be able to arm j them, and the GeneralSteam Navigation Company's and other large vessels, on?the shortest notice. Cabinet Councii*.?Another cnbiaet couueil was held oa Tuer.dav, at the foreign of lice. The Duke of Duccleuch arrived in the for .-noon in town from the North, to attend the meeting The ir nisters ! present wer<?Sir Robert Peel, the Duke of \Velling i ton, Lord Wharnclille, the Duke of Buccleuch, the Earl of Aberdeen, Lord Stanley,Sir James Gra n:un, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Earl ol Haddington, the Karl of Kipon, Lord Granville Somerset, the Earl of Lincoln, and the Right Hon. Sidney Herbert. The Couucil sat three hours and a-half. Tuk Boknko PirATKi)?The stronghold of this ucst of lawless beings has been destroyed by a squadron under the command of Sir T. Cochrane The leader of the pirates, a fierce Arab, escaped, but about twenty of his followers were killed. The loss on the aide ot' the British was seven killed and two wounded. Egypt and thk Coiin Tradk.?The ViceroyV; Prime minister, Artim Hey, issued a notice on the 23il inst.. thnt Ins Highness. ever studying the wel tarc of Egypt, has decid'-d on prohibiting for the present the exportation of nil grain and pulse, in consequence of the short crops. Thk Brazilian Si aveCask.?Yesterday morning the case ot the Brazilian slave traders wns ordered belore the lilteen judges at Sergeant's Inn. The Court having heard Mr. Sergeant Maiming und Mr. Collier for the prisoners, aud Mr. Godson, the coun sel lor the Admiralty, in support of the conviction, have directed a second argument by the civilians Sir .lolin Dodson, the Advocate General, with Dr. Fhillimore, for the crown, and Dr. Adams and Dr. . Harding for the prisoners. British American Lawd Comvany.?A social ] meeting of the propnetors of stock in this corpora ' tion, formed to extend emigration and promote agri j cultural pursuits in Lower Canada, was held, on Sa i (urdtiy afternoon lust, at the company's house, Barge Yard, Bucklersbury, to r? ceive a report from the Court of Directors The Governor, Mr A. Gilles pie, junior, took the chair. The tutal sale of lands amounted to ?7:{o7, during the last nine months ? The other parts of the report were satisfactoiy ? I The cemmisssioner of the company has been in j England since July, endeavoring to establish a iine of railway from Montreal, via ^herbrook, to Port land arid Boston. Mr. Gait gave an encouraging ac count of the Company's o^ierations, and tlie report ol the directors having been adopted, and th^jiks voted to Mr. Gait, the meeting separated. General Consi'mition of StiGAit.?The Zollver ein, with a population of 29,006,(XXI souls, consumes annually 70,000 tons of cane, and 10,500 of beetroot sugar. Belgium, Holland, oidenburgh, Hamburgh, Biemen. Lubcck, Hanover, and Mecklenburgh, with a gross population of 10,349,000, consume al together S(.(KXi tons of cane, ana 5000 of beetroot sugar. Kussib, with a population of 50,778,<MX>, con sumes 62,400 tons of cane, and 0000 ol beetroot su gar. France, with a populntion of ;{5,4"0,0<X(, con sumes 89.IXXI tons of French colonial sugar, 11,000 tons of foreign colonial sugar, and 28,<KM) ions of beeiroot sugar. Portugal,with a population of 3,412, IXX), consumes 10,(XX) tons of sugar. Spain, with a population of 13,786,(XXI. consumes JWi.lKX) tons (36, liHltons of Cuba-sugar in 1H4 4 ) Sweden, Norway and Denmark, with a total population ot 6,509,000, conB ime altogether 12.(MX) tons ol' sugar. t ireai Britain iiii'lflieUnd. with u population of 38.$?{,000, consume 2 10,01X1 tons of sugar per year ; the Ioniun Inlands, Gibraltar, Cracow, and Switzerland, con sume altogether about Hi,(XX) tons of sugar ; Tur key and Greece, with a population of 10,7lX),(XX), consume only l.OtX) tons ot sugars ; Canada, and other colonies, with a population of 1,544,000, con sumes, it is estimated, noout 15,000 ions ; aud the ! United States, with a population of 18,700,000, con I sunie 150,000 tons of sugar. The gross total popula tion of the above sugar-consuming countries, amounts to 278,033,(XX| souls, and the total an mm I consumption of sugar to 815,900 tons. In the Zoll ' verein the proportion of sugar consumed by each ! individual per annum amounts to 6 1-Mth lb; in the German States, not therein included, to 12 116th lb; in Russia, to 1 1 -Kith lb; tn France, to 8 2 lOths lb; in Portngal,|to ti 0 lOths lb; in Spain, to 0 5-10ths lb; in Scandinavia, to 4 110th lb; in Great Pritaiu to 19 lb; and in the U S. of America, to 18 lb. Skcsssion prom i he Protestant to tiie Roman ' Faith ?The Church and intate Gaztttf announces ! more secedera to the Roman Catholic faith: they I are?the Rev. F. VV. Faber, late Fellow of I'niver ! sity College, Oxford; the Rev. W. U. Richards, M A , Exeter College; Mr. Johu Jaines Caiman, B.A., Worcester College; Mr. E. Earle Wtlby, j M.A., Fellow of Magdalene College; three, if not lour, clergyman of the Church of England, and a voimg gentleman from Little more, and Mr. T wood, a barrister and member of Mr. Richard's congregation at Margate t Chapel. The Rev. Mr. Coffin does not yet join ihe Church of Rome, but remains in lay communion; and he is to reside with Dr l'nsey hi Christ Church It is exacted that Dr. Fusey will, in like manner, abstain entering the Romish priesthood, but will become i lay member of it. Koreljjn riirutrlcaU. I Jenny Lind is about to Hing in the "Medina" ol i Cherubim, and the " Joseph" ol Mi-hul. New ( o.mkdies.?A n?*w comedy, in five acts, I and in blank verse, by ihe eon ot Sheridan Knowles, was brouplit out at the Hnymarket on Wednesday. Douglas Jerrold hns finished another comedy, the production of which, on the same stage, will take 1 place soon Kffect ul the clone of the Oregon Negotiation* In I3ii|{lun<l tuitl Fiance. [Krom Wilmer's Livuiyool Times, Dec. 4.] The news from the western shores ot the Atlantic recently, has excited more 1hM.11 ordinary interest ? ; The "' Jri-at Western," on her last trip, brought ; home a document winch created nearly us mucn ' RtiiHzementas if ashell had been unexi<ectedlythrown with hostile intent, into a friendly citadel. The number ot the lVd*lti<i$lon Union which claimed the whole of Oregon lor the United States, aud re pudiated all negotiation on the object, was scanned with painful feelings?was presumed to speak the sentiments of President Polk, and to foreshadow the tone ot the forthcoming Message. The eifect was such as we have described it. War and all its odious horrors stared every one in iheface. There appear ed to be no escape frem it-no loop-hole left by which an honorable exit couJd be iruide Men move 1 in masses?dunk and sympathise in herds ? uud " thoughts that breathe and words that burn," i&su inir simultaneously from a thousand lips, show how ! readily, under provocation, reason is subservient 30 I passion. The poet has liuely portrayed it: "Honor ! thou bload-sUined god, At whom redaltnr nit wa: nuJ homicide, Oh ! to what madness will intuit drive thy votaries " ' Writhing under the inlluence of this excited feel ing, Uf Caledonia arrived on Friday, with intelli-I gence a week in advance ol the Crreat Western, 1 un i ih* nature of her despatches had an emollient ? effect on the national impulse, which now beats ' agaiu with coiuparativ * coolness. It was then found I that the article in the official paper was n:,t under-| stood, by those 011 the spot, to huvu.Ati official char acter? that Mr. Polk had not yet thrown away the , Hcabbard?that the whigs, with their three P's? "peace, prosjierity, and progression"?were mimi cal to war, and that Mr Webster, at Boston, had made a speech of u pacific an i elevated character, in which an appeal to physical force on the Oregon question was denounced as lolly and madness. Wo have before stated, and the repetition at the present ttme is almost superfluous, that, as regards Fmgland, people here care little in what war the Oregon dist ute may be patched up; the value ol the | territory is hardly rated beyond a nin'stee, and i right elad would be the thinking, intelligent portion of the country, if the .19th parallel of lttitude would iut the view and the ustc of the American i government and people. The annoyance, the irri I tation, arises out ot wha' m conceived to be the "bullying spirit" wi*h which the United States' claim is advanced, which n iturally wounds our na tional pride, and creates a frame of mind little cal I culateu to produce unity or end in forbearance. 'J'he | refusal of the Pr? m . t?? 1 t-fer the dispute to arbt , tration. looks like .i " i>T ,ione conclusion," and is ; pointed to as a proof that the worst may still be ap , prehenued irom obstinate councils. It has transpired during the last day or two, that 1 Mr. Polk has repeated to the English cabinet the i ofler which they have rejected two or three times during the quarter of a century, namely, to di | vide the territory by the 4!)th parallel of north lati j tude, and that they still adhere to making the Co lumbia the boundary, each nation being free of its waters. It is our curse to have a monopoly of some j kind or other, always to fight for orto defend; some l " vested interest" about which the people in the a? j gregate know and care as much us a cow does for j astronomy. The nation, if noses had been counted. ; would have uccepted tins otter by an ovewhelming majority, but ihen the interests of the people, ana ih':'i:iteresis of tt powertul incorporated company diverge, und the government, like a harsh step mother, pets the favorite and plunders the family. It is painful to speak ol warlike preparations in the same breath that we refer to a miaunderstand j lug with a friendly country, as it savors somewhat ; ot the Milesian mode oi settling a oontroversary j with uplifted ubiltehh. But the fuss and pother? 1 the activity < d ncessant energy which prevail in ! the English dockyards, the surveying the coast and j the steam navy?all indicate a black cloud" (somewhere; it may be in the west or in the south, | but the "powers that be" seein to be impressed j with a belief thai events are transparent enough to | make this activity and outlay neevssary. Captain Austin visited Liverpool last week, by orders of the Admiralty, to guage the capacity ot the first class steamers as regards the carrying of heavy metal Tlv British and North American, the W^st Indian, and other vessels have undergone similar iusiiec 11011s. Cm malo! " Coming events cast their sha dows before;" and our prayer i?, that all this horri ble making ready tor ttie worst may prove super ! fiuou*, and that the "events," wliatcyer they are, in which they have their origin, may "come like I shadows, so depart." [From the London Standard, Not. UJ 1 The noise about the (Ire^on territory is plainly increasing in the United States; but notwithstand ing ihe sweil of climor, there will be no serious cutisequences from it. They who will ultimately decide the question well know that, to tne Stales, war?aye, even onu twelvemonth's campaign? would bring ruin wad speedy dissolution to the Commonwealth, and this danger they will not incur tor the sake ot the Oregon tt rritory, which is of just as little worth to the trans-Atlanuc>i>c as to ourselves. Goldsmith (we think it is in "the Citi zen ot the World") indignantly denounces the sin and folly of Great Britain and France carrying 011 a destructive wur about *'a few acres ol snow in Canada." Great Britain and France, however, might in the middle of the last century com such a folly with the assurance, that as old established, powerful, well compacted, and populous states, they were at least sale at home. The United States, however, have none of these assurances?they do not constitute an old or com pact, or even a populous state, for the mass of their people is reduced to u fourth of its numerical powet by the vast extent of territory over which it is spread, sad a sixth of the population is composed ol implacable enemies?indelibly marked as enemies? that is of black slaves. And, oesides sweeping their ?hips from every sea, and leaving them without u seaport, the war which their bullies pretend to ilireaten would eventually come home to their own door?; and what is to be the prize ol this wur?alew thousand square nnl?s ol snow ! Not so much; some thousands oi miles of terra incognita? Democr&tical absurdity will go a great way, but it will not go quite so far us encountering rn-ks so great lor Hn object so contemptible. But u the Oregon territory is so li'tle worth a wur to acquire it, it may be asked, is it not a* little worth deiending 1 We answer, no; and the real motive of the American clamor will explain the reason of our answer The leal motive ol the republic is hatred and jealousy ol England. They do not wart the Oregon termor) tor themselves, for they have already ten time* as much land as they crtn occupy, and this western di vision presents 110 advantage lor cultivation equal to the advantages possessed by the boundless wastes ot the interior Tney want to wrest the Oregon from u?, not that they themselves may have it, out that we may not have it 1'hey witness with angry and jealous eyes the rapid progress ol population unci ot general improvi inent in the Canadas and the other British provinces Tt.ey know that a direct in<l open communication w it i the Pacific would tn luiitely accelerate the advances in wealth and strength ot th*ir northern neighbors?therefoie they wain to cut lis oil from toe western coast This is their object, ana it now.- the import inci to some ? x tent of ihe Oregon ten itury to us, however worthless in oth'-r respects, for "u right ol w?y'' is - qually valua ble whether the path be over ro< ks or sterile sand, or, the richest and ivest cultivated ground. The threat ened movement is aggressive in all respects, ag gressive in motive, an J aggressive in (act; and ag gression ii iy be wisely resisted, even though tli-re is nothing valuabie to defend There is another good reason why the United Stuies trill not go to war for the Oregon?they cannot conquer it, and what is more, they know that they cannot conquer it. The very same circumstances to which 'hey owe their own success in "the war of indepen dence," namely, the. distance of the aggressor Irom Ins resources, und the wild inhospitably of a bound less desert country, inuit deieat than in any at tempt upon the Oregon. With the possession of Canada, and the friendship of Mexico, and the command ot the si a, Great Britain woul-i, for all military purposes, be much nearer to the Oregon than the United States are; and besiihs, we doubt not that in the particular locality, Great Britain would take up a inert ly defensive position, which is in alt pimtlnr cases ot war, ?n it is always m law, melior ram* jt tam London Standard, Nov J The Caledonia, which arrived last night at Liver pool, brings intelligence to the I6tti inst. We have copied from the Morning Herald a great mass of important intelligence, including an incomparable speech of great length delivered by Mr. li.iniel Webster, beyold question the foremost man ol his country, and uinong the very first nun of any country or any age. On the whole, the communications r*c ifed by the Caledonia are less warlike and absurd than most ol those which have lat? ly reached us. Even the Union, the most violent ot the journals of any note, has been compelled to back out of its extreme vio lence and pretensions. it is tine that the cry for the whole of Oregon still prevails among a patt ot the population?that part whicn always counsels a resort to extremities when it supposes us light to be the weakest?we suppose upon the principle laid down in J. Baptist llou9senu'.-< epigram:? " L n viei! abbe snr certains droit* de tief Put cormultor mi Juje da Garonn* ; Loqutl lui dit: Portei votre urii-f ( he/ i|uelq?o sn<e ?t discrete porsonua : ( on* illet voua au Ptklain, an Surhonnu. I*uii, quaud vos cut seront biou decides, Acconlcz-vous, ?i voire ud'xire est boon* : ?Si votie cause evt n.uuvouo, plaiilez." The locoioeoe, with Mr. Polk at their head, fee! tJ'.nt th?-y have no pretence ol ritiiit totiiat undivided possession 01 the Oregon which they ; and, therefore, tcorningal arbitration or accord, ihey will go to war tor it The wiser republicans, how ever, will hitrdly indulge them, ior tliey well know, thu'ifthey forcea war upon us, the British rights to Oregon w ill not be asserted in the desert, where the United State-* must establish their claim, t>ut upon every sea and upon every coast which a ship can approach. If'the republican* commit the tolly of attempting ! to seize the disputed territory oy force, iliey cannot preteud hereafter that they have not b'.-eu warned of tue wickedness and insanity of the proceeding One of their own citizens, and he, the wisest an<l best in in among tli.'in, li is {>'unly pointed out both to them. Air. W'bster is indeed the very m m de scribed by the poet, as by the mere force of charac- ? ter and wisdom composing the popular tempest. "Ac veluti mag no in populo, cum siepe coorta: est ' Seditio s?vitque animis ignobito vulguii, Jaoiqnn fa-ce? et saktt volant, turor mirimtrat arms ; I utn piei.ito, pravem - ac meriti^ Pi lorte virum, < iiiiipexcro silent arrectiique aurihtiK a?t?nt. lite r?git dictis animoset pectora mulcet." It remains to be seen whether the ignnbilc vulgus of the United States is more inexorable to character, sense and eloquence, than a Aoman rabble ; for questionless it would be ditiicult to find a better speech lor its (pacific) purpose, even in the treasury ot Roman eloquence, than the s[>eech of Mr. Web ster, which will be found in our next page. There is something seemingly whimsical in Mr. Webster's proposition for the adjustment of the Ore gon question ; but we are not sure that it in not founded in good sense. lie propose* that both Great Britain and the United States should withdraw their claims upon the disputed territory, and guarantee its existence as nn independent State, formed by emi ] grants from both countries. The conception is at I least a noble one, and it would probably he lesa agreeable in the United States than in England.? I I he amount ot the American intelligence I units our spuce ho much that we can barely add thatlnrge pur i chases of wheat and other grain have been made at i New York for the British market, proof of the groundlessness of Lord John Russell's fears. [From Turin Letter, Dec. 1 ] Upon the whole, the Oregon queston has not | attracted so much attention in this country as might ? have been expected from the vast interest it excites 1 in England and the United States. Only some of 1 the newspapers have dwelt upon it, aud evidently none thoroughly understand the merits of the dis i pute between Great Britain and her ancient colony. Not one journal has entered jnto a serious and im partial investigation of the differing pretensions of botli partiej, and not one, consequently, can venture to decide which is right and which is wrong. The republican National, however, gives this morning a long aracle to prove that right and justice are with the United States. That such a position would be taken up by the clever republican or^n was a matter of course; for it would not play its game at all to represent a monarchy iu the right and a re public in the wrong. Besides, the great object of the National is to create war, if possiole, at any risk I and at any price. But, alter all, the opinion of the National is not of much importance; the party it re | presents and the circulation it enjoys being inconsid erable as regards number and character. Still, it is right to add, that it earnestly exitorta the people of the United States to remain lirin, a assuring thein that it is impossible" tor England to make war upon | tliem lor any provocation whatever. Th<' Siecle, a dailj opposition newspaper, of large circulation, | edited by a deputy, and representing a partvany I tiling but ivell disposed towards England, declares I that the Americans have taken up" an aggressive at titude ditiicult to be ptstifi'-d that having lot ' twenty-seven years tolerated a common occupation : ot the territory, aod negotiated at different times treaties for an equal aivision of it, they seem to have implicitly recognised the rights of their rivals."? , " The position <;t live English," it is added, " ib purely defensive, and they cannot retreat from it ? ! Great Britain would become, for the entire world, an object of laughter, if, alter having written its rights in treaties, and declared that she will muiti t nil those rights by arms, she ede*, without li'iht iusr, at the hr.-t aggression. from other articles, however, in the same journal, it Bpp -ars thnt the Sitrlc does not anticipate any hostilities between Engltnd and the United States. Sntne friendlj power, it thinks, will arbitrate between them, and it complains strongly of M. Guizot, that he has noi already taken the matter in hand, in the name of France, and insisted upon settling it ? The Courier Francois is of opinion the be.-t way of settling the matter would be to declare the Oregon territory neutral, and to leave the inhab itants thereof, in 20 or 50 years, to dispose of them selves as they may think tit As to England and the United States, the Courrier believes they have n?> more riunt to Oregon than any other country?not even so much as I* ranee, which first discovered it. Nor does the Courrier believe that, come what, inay, will there be war. The Commerce lauuiis ai the swagger of cousin Jonathan and the stem defi ance of John Bull, as it calls them, but thinks rhat it is "all sound and fury, signifying nothing," the two countries being too closely identified in commercial and friendly relations to be able to aliord to go to war. It admits, however, that John Bull seems nally anery, and says, that if the old gentleman does light, he will fight hard ; in lact, the war, it war there be, will be a tough one, for it will be an "Englishman against an Englishman and a halt."? The Frame doesn't like England, and being ultra monarchical, doesn't like the noisy republic ; but the France does not believe that there will be hosiil mea?the matter will be settled by diplomatic ar rangement, and the diplomatists of Ensjknd will with their usual skill, completely outwit ana dupe the un suspecting and innocent Yankees. Poor things! The C luftitutnmnel b?lieves that Sir Robert Peel is anxious to resign, in which case he will be succeed ed by the ^tra^Tories, who willimrHediately plunge England into war, partly to avenge the hatred which the aristocracy teei for the United States, and partly to keep up the corn laws. The Constitntionnel must have been asleep wh' n he penetrated such nonsen sical twaddle, of which the least absurdity is an as tounding ignorance ot the state ol |K)litieal parties in England. The ConitilutionneJ professes to be lieve that the threatened war is got up by the Eng lish government to distract the attention of the peo ple from other matters: but it admits that the Eng lish |>eople deeming their rights invaded, are any thing but displeased with it. Neither th-? Journal ilt* bebats, nor the Prcste, nor the Epoqut, the three principal journals of this country, have made any observations on the matter which are worth ci tiua; the former has not said a single word,confining iiselt to a reproduction of the American news. To tins summary of the opinions of the Parisian press on what may be called the great question of the day, 1 may add that the general opinion of the public ap pears to be, as far as an individual can speak ot it, that there will be no hostilities?that, in fact, the row between Jolin Bull and his cousin Jonathan is a family quarrel, which will end, as family quarrels generally do, by kissing and hugging. Almost all intelligent men, however, are of opinion thai, be the consequences what they may, England will not re ced" Irom the position the had taken up. They think it very probable that President Polk will have the i>ud taste and the imprudence to speak often- ; siveiy of England in his address to Congress, and perha|>s Congress m.iy second him ; but they do not think that either the President or Congress will ven ture to follow up their words by acts, when they see that England is not Mexico, and not a nation to be bullied. In short, they say that one country or the other will recede, but that assuredly it will not be England. [Krom Paris Journal tie* DebaU, Dec 1.1 "The diflerence of opinion between the two Governments," says that leading Ministerial print, " is very great. Ji would mere^ have been a c.ittfe of coolness between the Cahmets, it the dispute remained enveloped in diplomatic secrecy; hut official declarations have been made, which give the question the most disastrous character; from a clashing of secondary interest, it has become a questtou of a point of honour. President Polk, doubtless in virtue of pledges given at the time of his eUction. inserted in his inauguration message, the most solemn document that can emanate from him, a passige whicu nothing had rendered neces sary, and which declared the extreme opinion ot the W> p ern States The English Cabinet was moved at this unexpected i> cident in the negotiation i Sir Robert Peel and Lord Aberdeen replied, in fu I Parliament, in terms as expicit as those nude use of ?t the message. England did more; she continued, at the expense ot millions, her maritime pre- I parations, at which France took umbrn^ J in a very mal-o propot manner, and wqioh j preparations have now raised the English navy to a formidable degree of power, she baa taken her precautions as though a war might breJH out in the yeur The U States, on the contrary'J have prepared nothing against such an eventuality. ? If things now passed as in the last century?it com merce had not created interests which render a decla ration of war very difficult, we should say that every thing depends on the meashjre which President Polk is uus day to deliver to Congress. In the event of that magistrate maintaining his assertion of last year tuere will only remain the last argument of kings and people ; for of what av,u! would be negotiation there after. The queation would ho longer be a* to the di viaion of territory.for Mr Polk will have Oregon en tire England has Utterly proposed to leave it to arbi tration, but this tile President will not consent to ? Wh-it other arguments can therefore be brought for ward but those which issue from the cannon's mouth? Electoral necessities can therefore alone explain the conduct of Mr. Polk, who h id the reputation of being u calm and reserved man. He isa native of Tennessee one of the Western States of the Union. It is on the West that he founds the hope of his re-election, and the West demands the entire of the Oregon territory. It is therefore with much reason that some oi the American journals tell their country men that the Oregon question, which, to be under stood, requi res an attentive study of old treaties and diplomatic documents, it is solved at once in every village of the West by political demagogues, who hive read nothing, and who only know one thing? that they are sure t? please the multitude and obtain tneir suffrages, by telling them that Ood has given them the new continent from one extremity to the ot h?r, for their exclusive us?. However this may bj, there is every reason to fear that tne message of this day will be in accordance with the feelings of the democracy of the Wentern States Private let ters from America, whieh came down to the 10th November, hold out little to the contrary. The an nexation of Texts caused the first election of Mt. Folk, and to secure his second, he wishes t.> obtain possession of Oregon The calculation will be ex travagtit, but the general opinion at New York, at Phdadeliiina, and at Washington, is that the Presi dent will do it. A war between America and Eng land will be a calamity for the civilised world, and by degrees every maritime nation inav be drawn 111 ?<> take part in tn e conflict, in con?equuncs of the vexatious interruptions which neutrals will not fai' to meet with in the desperate struggle wineh will desolate the surface of the ocean. But for England and for Am?rica it will be such an overturning of interests, that we cannot but think that whatever tii- language of :u ? President, in his message, may be, the cause oi peace will not on th i: account be irretrievably lost ll war should break out, New York, New Orleans and JJoston would he closely blockaded, and thtir merchants ruin.d ; but at the same lime what injury would be inflicted o i British commerce, which covers every sea. by A .leric tn cruisers. What would become of Manchester, if a supply of Indian cotton failed it! suet bow would the south western States of the Union, who*e prin cipil produce is cotton, be supported without that market 1 \Vhat a shock would it even be for the constitution ot the Union itself 1 We must, there fore, still hope, that mere will be found in America courageous orators, who trom the tribune of the Congress, which is about to open, will make heard the accents of truth to the American people, and tfiat their eyes will hi opened. The English Cabi net on its side, will understand that the immense interests of British manufactures demand that si lence shall be imposed on the susceptibilities of na tional honor, and that even should President Polk be so blmJ as to pronounce the imprudent words that are talked of, it is to be hoped that peace will continue to spread over Great Britain and the Uni ted States the benefits with which it has loaded those two great nations, to the great advantage of all other countries. The IiAtnt Commercial Newi' [Krom the Liverpool KaropeaD Title*, Dec. 4] Th? mosey inirk'-t exhibits agooddeal ofdepree siou, but it is better than it was a few days ago? better titan at the sailm ? of the last picket. Confi dence is slowly but gradually reviving. Consols for money left oil'at94.} to 91J. and for the account 95J to 93.J. 13 ink stock 2 r2 to 20li Tlie English tntnt price of gold is ?, \ 17* 10^ 1. Some uncertainty <>x ists as to whether the Bank of England will still fur | ther advance the rate of interest, or rest content with the check which h is been gi v>*n to ill^gititn ite ! ^peculation. The uncertainty is not, of course, very , favorable to the revival of business. ; Tiie recent acco tnts of the cotton crops in Aine [ ric t being equal, if not superior, to those ol last year, combined with the abseucr of money and the gloomy prospects in the m uter of the i>eoi>le'ri food, h ive kept down the market and reduced prices.? liven the fears res|>ecting a rupture with America hive not been able to buoy up holders,who are pres sing on the market, and contributing to the s'ugna tio;i. The price of "fair" American is now wuhin 1 a fractton of the lowest figure at which it ha< ever I stood?the most striking proof which can be in I stanced of the severity of the existing depression Th'* 814 it mn ket, owing to the I urge f.?r rehned in the early part of last week, was tolerably | active, but the demand has subsided to some extent ! since. Brown Jam iica and St. Vincent, of good q Mlity, command from 49h 6d to frij Tnc stock of | West India is getting low, and the deliveiiea an ' large. The inquiry for foreign sugar h is been limit | ed. Of Havana there is little offering, and the prices are almost nominal. For Beugal ther'< has bcu some inquiry. Standard lumps of refined quali y bring B7s; crushed lumps ?Cls to tils. The Coffee market is dull, and the sime miy be said of Cocoa. ' In Rice there is considerable activity. The railway panic has uot subsided. On the con 1 trary, it is in lull force. Investments of this descnp tion are prostrate?the collapse continues. Tne Gazette has recently published notices from several hundreds of the nnw lines, which pro|K>se to apply to Parliament during the ensuing session for their acts. Tlie period for giving notices ex pired on Sunday last, the end of November, and I to afford time for the deposit of t'ie necessary do I cunients, specifications, <uid compliances with the j standing orders of the House of Commons, the , Board of Trade remained open all day on Sunday, i and only closed at midnight. More than 700 of the j new projects have deposited their plans ; but a large ! number h ive tailed, nevertheless, to comply literally : wun the standing orders, in which case theycunnot | go before Parliament next session The object, in j many instances has been to throw dust in the eyes ol the proprietors, by professing to have made an effort j to comply with tiie legislative requirement?in short, i keeping the "word of promise to the ear, but break - ' ing it to the hopes" of tneir proprietors The , swindle, in such cases, is clever, but alas! too transparent. The feeling of despondency which prevails in ihe principal stock markets of England relative to iron roads, exists in the Paris and other continental markets with hardly less force The brokers have suffered severely during the late gamb i ling mania, nud scores of them are being "used np" in all directions liven in Prance some of these personages are llying to England, in order to get out ot the way. The extent of the injury which the potato crop I lias sustained, forms, as usual, an unfailiug subject | of enquiry and anxiety. The accounts are, upon j the whole, of a sad and melancholy character; and the extent of the damage is to be seen in the con flicting accounts of a remedy given by men of ingh fcientific attainments. In some districts frinn one-third to one-half of the crop is damaged; and so rapid is the progress of the disease, that another third, it is expected, will be destroyed in thenits before the spring ot next year. One learned The | bin recommends that the potatoes be sliced, put into jars like preserves, and covered with fat!? I Fine comlort this, truly, for ihe inmates of an "rish I hovel, who have neither jirs nor fat, nor even fire. ' Another suggests the substitution of p-sis by the i poor, forgetiul that the price of pulse, like every I other description ot human food, has risen enor , inousiy ot late. - Seeing that potatoes enter bo largely into the food ot the laboring classes in England, and that they constitute the chief, almost the only article of sustenance ol the poor in Ireland, it is painful, kt is harrowing, to oontempla'e the amount of physical suffering which the present ca lamity will produce lu the endeavor to discover soine remedy as a substitute, Indian corn, so much used in tlie United States, has been strongly recom mended Strange as it may appear, this produce is comparatively unknown in England. Cobbett, who lived some time in the United States, was constantly in the habit ot eulogizing it* virtues, and recom mending it as an article of human food, while, tor the fattening ot cattle, he declared it to be unequal led But the farmers of this country were never sturdy m seizing upon improvements; the duty upon the article has deteired importation, and the public has been prevented from appreciating that which an authority so eminent in farming ann agriculture, as old Cobhett unqaestionnblv was, pointed out to his countrymen. r In the event of the repeal of ihe Corn laws, Indun corn would, doubtless, form an important article of export from America. It only requires to be known Indeed, it is hardly possible to conceive a stronger barrier against war?a more powerlul incentive to mace?than the de;truction ol all legislative enact ments for curtailing ti^e commerce of trx-ndl/ coun tries The planters vt the Southern States desire pence wiili Knjand, because they cannot afford to sacrifice a trade involving two millions of bales of cotton aunually. The farmer of the Western States would be equally denrous to let the statesman in stead ol the soldier nettle the dispute about Oregon, provided our laws enabled him to send his produc t? M> cxoeilent a market as Great Britain. Commerce is always the soother of angry passions?the oil upon the troubled waters of contending factions. It isupon this ground that, irrespective of nis war propensities a larg* party in this Country wish well to Mr. Poik. Ttiev dislike his pugnacity, but they are partial to the President, because he is a free trader, aud is desirous of reducing the tariff from "protection'* or prohibition to revenue A compromise on ihe Oregon question?giving, on the part of England, a Urge slice of territory in exchange for u liberal American tariff? has been put forth Dy some of the New \ ork papers, and cordially responded to by several of the most influ'-utial organs of opinion ia this country. Such a mode of settling the dispute would be worthy of two of the most powerful na tions in existence. We notice it here, not ao much from a hope that the stubbornness ot statesmen will carry out the suggestion, as because it indicates a desire on the purr of those who create and govern public opinion ia this country, to seize upou any course at all practicable, by winch the dispute witit th* United States could be amicably put to rest The Timber trade ia in a healty and active state. The American provision marker partakes, to a [moderate extent, ot the reaction which has been recently increased. There has been a tolerably liberal supply of Reef and Cheese; the quali ty of 'he Utter is much belter adapted to the English palate than were the importations in the earlier state of the trade, but the expections of the extension of t.iis branch ot busines* under tne new tariff, h ive hardly been realized. The price of American Cheese, for instance, trenches soclo.?e on that of our own pro duce, that s ties are restricted, and thiseven with a reduction of 2s as compared with the current rate* ot the previous month. Some of the Beef which has come to hand has not besn quite up to the mark as regards quality?a great drawback, and one which ought to command the strictest attention of j shippers. Attention to quality, and mode of curing, ' is indispensable; new Beef has resized from 80s. to : 90. Tnere his bssn little Jotng in Pork. The stock I is small, bu' quite sufficient for the demand. Lard is scarce, ami that which arrives sells freely. The anticipated conflict with the United States Gov?rn m^nt has caused some speculation inTobacco, and a rise in the price. The nurket is consequently firm, wi'h an upward tendency. The im,?ort of American Wool continues. In the course of last month considerable quantities found theii way tothi conn Fa alt, however, is tn?de ?villi the negligent method in which sorne ot 11 has I iieeu prepireil, th.s has a lonbly injurious effect | ?;t depreciates th? value ot ill'-article, and what is so trcely less injurious, it creates a prejudice against it inthe minds of the tra.?<: A hint on this head will biiffice to work a remedy. W:;en it is deemed worth while to export .i valuable article oi merchan dise, no pain? or care can be too grvu to nccommo ta'e it to the wants and the taste oi toe consumer. .V* American wool formi a new, and premises to be an extensive article of commerce, these aOggeHtions will be received in the s?>-rit in wliich they nre of fered?thatof generous disinterestedness In other respect", th" wool trad'* affords lit'!-? room lor re in trk. There is little activity, but holders evinca no desire to preja silos, or ro submit to a reduction. T/ie price of iron has receded uuder th^ embar rassment wliich has overtali-u the speculative world. There has been a falling oil in the transactions, aud a considerable reduction 1.1 ihe price. Scotch piiu were as low in Glasgow, u short time bick, as ?$ 153 ; in Liverpool they m; tnd at ill to ill 10i; com mon bari JC9 to JC9 ; hoops Jull; 8'i?ets ?12 ? For boiler |)lates nad tor rails the demand, notwith standing the prevailing depression, is considerable, and the quotations for thos- articles are tolerably I well supported. I The corn markets of northern Europe are in a state of great activity. file gram marts of tao Danub? art* said to be much excited, and prices range from 29* to 3ls 6J psr quarter. Tne freight to iiujlund is enormously higi?15i per quarter ? The B tide markets, wun the near approach of the ice setson, have receded to the extent of la per quarter. At O lessa an advance of Id to 2* par qwurter h-in t t'.ien place. The English intrkeu are firm, without much ex citatanent; the ad vaace, during the last month, biitig Is. to 2i. perqu liter. Every one anticipates dearth and d^arness oefore another h lrvest; but, as much uncertainty exists with respect lo the actions of Parliament, prices ar<* kept w;tain limits. Tne in terior qu ility of tli ? Wne it this ysar has been no ticed before. It requires to !>e uiixed freely with i<ood home or free foreign, and the red lit is, as Lord John Russell torcibly points out in nis letter, thit (he averages do not represent correctly 'hereal con dition ot ift- tiurket. The last weekly averas-* was only 57s lid. per quarter, winle the actuil ,>rice ot ?oou Wuear, at auv nin*^ during the last two niontns, lias been from tt5s. to 70j. per quirter. The Famine In Oreat Britain. [From Wilmer'a Times, Dec. 4.] The threatened (amine contmu'-sto occupy men'* minds. Ttie subject is constantly kept betore the public by the discussions in the press, by public meeting# in various parts of the country, by the >ratory of the league le tders, and by the indeci sion ot the cabinet. Nothing, during the last fort night, has altered the previous aspect of affairs as esi ? as the extent of the deficiency. The potato disease continues to progress in some quarters, and to be arrested in others. The accounts Iroin Ire land vary, bar the moat favorable regard a fourth of the people's food as being destroyed. In England, the disease a!.so progresses, in the south and west more especially. In the belief that something will yet be done by ministers, tiie food markets are in a state of transition. What the " something" may be is a mystery, and the uncertainty which hangs >vr the inture, atlord* abundant scope for specula tion, not unmixed with angry recrimination. Every one seems to think that in a mere party point ot view, looking at tae present condition and pros pects of the country in no higher light, Sir Robert Peel has not made the most of his position. Ru mors are still abundant that he has been overruled in his desire to mitigate the severity of the evil by throwing open the ports; and the m ire disinterested of his snpporters are even now urging u|>on him the admission of maize, duty free, as an article of lood. Tnit perplexity and disunion prevail in the ministerial councils is evidenced by the frequency of their meetings. T?vo or three cabinet meetings have been held during the past fortnight, the last of which took place on Tuesday. Parliament has been prorogued, pro forma, until the middle of L)*. eember, and an impression prevails that it will meet little, it any, before the customary time. Alarmed by appearances, a requisition has been signed by many of the leading bankers and capitalists in the city ot London, urgmir upon the Lord Mayor the necessity ot calling without delay, a public meeting; but the civic monarch hesitates. Matters may be said at the present moment to be in statu quo, but the popular anxiety as regards the apprehended scarcity is now participated in by the great traders and capitalists?inen too, who are above being in ? fluenced in a matter so vitally important, by idle j tears, still less by party or personal predictions ? 1 Trade is already staggering under the blow which I the impending scarcity?or Wttat is the same thing, i the tear ot it?has produced. In the manufacturing I districts tiiere Mas be? u a sad falling otr in ;he de mand tor goods, an I the gloomy prospect which the n.pproachih! winter presents, is shared by persons ' whose interests and temperament would induce th-m to look ut matters in the most favorable point ! of view. [From the T.ori.lan Time*, Dae. t.] The Cabiuet inetonce more yesterday to consider whether there is sufficient likelihood ot a scarcity | to call for any special precautions Nothing has yet | trauspired as to the result, il result there has been The respect, however, which loyalty itsell compels us to feel for Her Majesty's advisers will not allow lis to suppose that thay have met day afier day with out committing themaelves to definite views, and without being ready to give pledges of their earnest ness. Something must oomeot so much discussion, and that something mustaoon come out. If another Cabinet Council is announced, it ought to be " posi tively the last," or the public will begin to be weary of alfthis fruitless leiteration. They will expect for the future either a very iniense unanimity or a not less intense disagreement. There m<ut be some thing to show far so much hidden wisdom. Barren tak snd dumb councils give no satisfaction, and gain no respeet. Ireland. If Government surveyors have already com menced operations in Oalway, where the site of the new college, consisting of about eight acres, is at the rear of the school of Erasmus Smith's founds t:on. Willi ?ms is Son, stock and sfiHrehrokers in DuIh lin, have tailed to the extent ot ?2J0,0l)0. The bulk of their creditors are country gentlemen,gene rally very wealthy, who. for a long period! had dealt with the house of Williams & Co. as a ban* of lodgment. The Banner of Ulster records a very generous act ot s*l?-devotion on the part ?t the master ?nd three of the crew of the barque Helen, Csptain Clay ton, ot Belfast, who, on her homeward voyage tr< m Quebec, rescued the crew ot die Harrison, a wat>-i logged ship, with which they fell in off the const o Newfoundland The board ol Mavnooth College recently made an application to Sir Roben Peel, stating that the su f of ?80,000 allocated for rep*iring the old and erei. nit new buildings, wo'ilH tall tar short ot ihe re<v?-.

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