Newspaper of The New York Herald, March 20, 1846, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated March 20, 1846 Page 1
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THE NEW YORK HERALD. ??LXIlt,!*. TI.WIMU l?UU. NEW YORK, FRIDAY MORNING, MARCH 20, 1846. ARRIVAL OF THE STEAMER HIBERNIA, BQ8TON. TWEMTY-TWO DAYS LATER. Highly Important Intelligence, THE E77E0T 07 THE XEFU8AL 07 ARBITRATION, IN ENGLAND. TUB 0KBm RUB8TI0N II PRANCE. TU GREAT DEBATE In the British Parliament, on the CORN LAW8. KBW PROPOSITION FOR TIB TOTAL REPEAL OF TIE CORN LAWS. TERRIBLE BATTLE IN INDIA. WO JUG ABB IN TUB BRITISH ARMY. Nor Antral at Liverpool of the Pilot Boat William J. Romer. The Railway Revulsion- --Extensive Commercial 7ailurea. Depression in the ootton Market. FALL IN TIE PRICE OF CORN. TS*mrSHS IN THE LONDOI MOOTSY MARKET. Tb* ,t*wa ship Hi be mi a, arrived at Boston at t o'clock yesterday morning. She sailed from Liv erpool on the 4th inet. The news in highly important. It in said that despatches, of the greatest import^ aaoe, have corns out in this ship, for the British Minister and our own government. We shall i*obably noon hear something of their character. There has been a tremendous battle in India. JVd lm that tkrm tkamamd British and Nativt troop* m*d> *?* ? rtptritd lot* of 10,000 Sikh*. Cotton had slightly declined. The price of eon had fallen. American affairs continued to absorb the public mind in England and France. Them have been several extensive failures in Lon don and Liverpool, la the latter place one house, Messrs. 8toekdaie and Bona, the moot extensive soap manufacturers, it is said, in the world, have suspended payment. Their liebiUtiee are little short of half u million of money. The failure was owing to dm tightness of the money market, and to their consequent inability to negociate their paper. This great failure has seriously involved several firms, and has dragged dewn some smaller houses. Ths Liverpool Borough Bank sutlers to the extent of more than ?100,000, and the result has been to send the shares of that establishment almost to par. The American Minister in London is oonflned to hie hones by sickness. Louis Philippe u mid to be in favor of referring the Oregon dispute to the arbitration of three Eng Jbb and three American gentlemen?thus carrying out the idea of Mr. Winthrop, of Massachusetts. Ths packet ship Patrick Henry had reached Li verpool, hut we can find no intelligence of the pilot boat Wm. J. Homer. The weather in England continued unusually mild, and the efleet cannot fail to make itself felt on the growing crops. Vegetation is extremely for wki The great debate on Sir Robert Peel's financial eeheme, which extended over three weeks, and af forded food for twelve nights' inoeasant oratory, wis brought to u close on the morning of the ?ib nit, by u division which guvs the Minister n majo rity el ninety seven I The eye of the hawk never followed its prey with greater intensity than ths pub 1m, cut of doors, have turned to these debates ia Parliament. The agitation which ia now proceeding in favor of torn trade is almost exetasively confined to the walla of Parliament. The people out of doora-the grant mem of thinking, intelligent, stirring na tion?require no fillip, want no incentive, to wed them to the cause. We annex the monster debate, and its all but minster msjonty-a majority too potent for the landlords to struggle against The safety of the seems to be insured ; sad our readers, in (inmmeree with England, may rest Bat that Peel's commercial policy will beootne ?W law ef the land. There will be wrangling, there will be delay, but there will net, cannot be defeat. So says WiOmer't Tim**. The events of the last few days before the Hi bemia sailed, show that the House of Lords will swallow the pill j with wry faces, it may be, like children taking medieiae, but they will gulp it down, from a ooaviction of its neoesaity?com bbied, probably, with a ooavietion, equally strong, ?hst they will be made to do so should they turn restive. Some fours have been expressed that Lord Stan ley would lead the protectionist forlorn hope ia the Home of Peers. The affairs of Ireland are absorbed in the con templation of the great free trade drama, which ia now being acted in England. ^LPL??C?di!?''"Parliament,arising out of the ex,endcd tr#de "d com " f?u?wed by a variety of political o'thscoun ttyhas been anxiousy faxed. Amongst the half doueu or Imlf score election, which hive had their ongm in thie.cmme, twelve wood out J Unu, from the rest, and absorbed much anxiety. These are, the Westminster and the South Not tingham contests, the first caused by the appoint meat oi Capt. Rous as a Lord of the Admiralty; the ?|h" Lord Lincoln's acceptance of the office of Chief Secretary of Ireland. The liberal party tSS&ZSl0"- ,Eran9' 0< ,h? I^ion-in-Spain notoriety, who formerly represented the West End freeWilS^0iBOme ?* m?re?" 1111(1 whose love for Wh? ?h. m ra()r^ ancient than the Captain's. ,he e,ectloa came?we state id r k.,?tereutwhlch 'he contest excit ed, and the light in which it was viewed bv the earlvBrLm!^3i'l^rt.!,"JPr~e.n'ed himself as Auoiiraiiy, uaptatn Kous. The other "nd, "VPtwrtcrs of the Governmen t ,ocalui?8 w"hin Westminster, did ^ eY?ry nsnrs was strained to make the us^ti ThI?nrU,V ^ pe?P|?,B choice. But all was The flat had gone forth. The democratic principle amongst the most aristocratic feeait in Eu rope in the world?had to be vindicated, and Roua was accordingly saenfiosd. The first hour showed nun m a minority; and every hour uatil four in creased it, when he was nearly 1,000 votes behind bis military opponent. The Spanish and English Government, it is said are about forming a commercial treaty, by which Spanish wines and Cuba sugars are to be received into this country on favorable terms; the manufac tured goods of England to be admitted into Spain at low rates of duty. K .The " -Locoaeoes " of Berne have gained a great ^ ?aJ0?!y of 26.000 against 10,000 of the whole People has decided tnat an auembliecotutitu ante shall be elected by the 2d of March, tor the drawing up of a new constitution, in place of the existing one, which is too aristocratic. ?;?atb*fkMt,he^ haa ??Ninbnd * letter, accompa j . specimens of bread and " stirabout" f/?m In<Jian corn. Efforts are now making ILi I l" thu excellent beverage, not only into Ireland, but into the three kingdoms generally, on tha plan which marks its use in the United States. hQas e?tereiinto commercial treaties with Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Sardinia. She haa also removed the prohibition on the import of Ptas, allowing it to take place on payment Z mo ?enard ,a^08 18 ver? liberally disposed with ' and?lt 18 8aid? intends to make very great modifications in them. ??en, by referring to th^coinmunication h^"'.C0/re,,p0nde,nt?that th? French Cham bers have voted a sum of money for the settlement v 8 hn*k?f ?reamers between Havre and Nevf iora, so that when all the projected " vapor shim " are in aetion, a daily, or at least a semi-weekly mail between Europe and America will have bien se cured. The spirited and successful maner;. a of the "J? bu1l,d'?5 ?eotner fine ves sel, to add to their already splendid fleet of steamers. France tr&de p"nciPle8 ar? becoming popular in Subscriptions for the distressed Irish have been opmmenced at Calcutta. fissr" km""p? r. wi,h ""cho1 .i.Quekn Vict?ria?d Prince Albert will, it is said 1 acco.ucbement, visit France. The Duke' ?? '? ?? In one year, ending 6ih January, 1S16.229 241 ? jWf at wheat flour were imported into England from Canada. rhllH ?r^nd ?J Baden having found his M^riin?cl ' 89 d,88olv?d them. The op position calculate on retaining their majority. According to the German newspapers, there is now raging in several'parts of Russia a violent dis chdearTn*Cattk' Bim,larin ev?iy respecuo the , Th? Austrian Lloyd's Co. have 20 steamers, whose total {orceamouiits to 7900 tons, and 2000 horse pow *J%r?RAnom F0E Wa* -Whether or not we 7aL' gTe*t Pr?P,rttl?na are made for it. b? increased 10,000 men; the militia are to be in readiness for immediate training; the men^hr COrp"it0 rec?iv? a? accession ol 1500 'be marines 2500men; and the land T6e ?""?"> ?!>? voyage trsm Boston, on the 14di ultimo, after a PMMge of 13 days. was succeeded, on the 23d ST,??kQTn 0f We<"' whose news was antu? 5hh nL J ,tea,mer- ?n the 27th, the Sheridan, 'I n .^ ,days later news, arrived, anticipating the Oxford, of the 2nd, which arrived on the fol J?wing day, the 2SSth. On the 21 inst, at 2 90 P M tlie Patrick Henry. Capt Delano, put ns in posses^ sion of datea to the 9th u!t, after i LghvoyZ - ^ 'he time of our going to press we have no whTrh !jfi?^ PP!r!!ch?on<'rL" VVllliarn J Romer," " '^hmiled|wnh the Patrick Henry, and of which ?&hd ?nuDcb "f'l m ^ New York papers of the 9th. The Patrick Henry has fairly beaten her ? Z^y?Tt*alrw!> by Jhe Pd,rick Henry was for warded immediately to London by our express and reached .here in 6J hours alter the vew^l^d the our messenger making up the news forpub inft the w V^'f g up. It is worth remark, H?? ? T daUi9 ,rom New York arrived in LonI hour afterwards, via. Havre, by the "St. i whwlk ^ aTnTe? at that port on the 28thVt., and ub'?h J^Jtk m ^omPany with tne Patrick Henry and the clipper schooner. ?To the captains and consignees of all the vessel* o"e,^T^%n!S^.toT | Ths EAct thm Kafiisal sf Arbitration Pro dntad In Kngisnd. Tk. f J?11**?! Times, March 4 J r.i,; ? ^arci,7 of money has been making itself felt in ths cotton market. During the last fortnight m??Sr C l3 du"? Wlth receding prices,and kaT huve remained in this lethargic r?r'h? a[rival. on Monday^of ih.rh hi. h. liK' rhi?h ??lIed on ths 6th, and ^.h^h baj brought the President's message to Con correspondence betweenthe British Thl re? -^"'"ter" rf,atlr? to the Oregon - _,h? turn which this vexed question has taken has chd measureii^ .k1T" W" hoped 11,41 the commer aJirrhffi wh^nVh* ^Ir800^ on ?ome deeenptions r^s h. ,hs iHlL. , gere0tjP01!!0" of the ad re^Ll 1 ,nu"PIred Tho peremptory . Amencen Government to submit ihe Question to arbitration, on the ground that it would thereby recognize ths rights ofthe British G^em ment to a portion of Oregoo, is regarded as puerile ao'to"yin^Jl>ng. ThereVighu "en l% !?i k?T!e?k hy treaty between the parties, anf which ^i?1? 10 'h? dair to eraa? a bond l ttffloti'tora, on both sides of the i respect. The friends of pnaos mourn that the arbitration?the most satisfse 1 tfhngamicebly a controverted claim ?h?u'd hare been so unceremon ously rejected; and its effect upon the cotton market has been, as ws have stated, to make it more decidedly firm The ? Pa'r'ch H(,nr7. has not yetarnved - sMrek*??? rjbe hfdrerof Mr. Paken ham's de ?patches to the British Government. The packet S2?.kence aTjr weather, otherwise it is probable ^kuT"81"^ J?11 miflht have cut a more re ?pectable figure m the race. n,? . Th# Orw? BattU in India, fir^Bmna|9-^ar contain a record of two terri ^'?h Hj? Britiah troop.have been en Swd thr The Sikhs, it will be seen, ??ca tne Saifei m numbers variously esti S?k of* aSferv^k,10 ?0 000' with 8 'U'd invaded th?te.k?ubI? that ol th? Enghah, and wi^h our fimSw rrit0i?r' to. m?48"'? "trength a""i?h r .?r.r Ihe 5?hti??1 ,88??fl three days, blunder, i end on, "J But the British bayonet did tne business ?i.k???k the officer, we have named are nouhe^J ?e?e? against censure. The Sikhs, it is clear, as remrd. discipline and courage, are far superior to the^n? mies with whom we have mostly had to deal in g The subeequent despatches from Bir Henrv Hsr. dinge, Grovernor General of India, show that he was misled as to the intentions of the Sikhs THE BRITISH PARLIAMENT. '">c.,0r,?t DelMiU-ITw New Commercial Policy or KngUad?Majority for Ministers. p^fe K've below the brilliant epeech oi 8ir Robert reel in tavor of hia new financial measure*. He ?poke nearly three hours, but all the points will be found preserved in our condensation. During the twelve nights' debate, there were 108 speaaers, 48 i v-T.i mnatLvoca.ted 'Ie? trade- and 55 protection. Nearly all the talent of the house was in favor of the tree trade party, and foremost amongst the speakers on that side were Lord John Russell, Sir James Graham, Lord Morpeth, Mr. Cobden. Mr Bright Sir George Clarke, Mr. Vilhers, Mr. doulburn, and Mr. Sydney 11-rbert. The most effective speaker | ???'he other side was Mr. Disraeli. 1 ' Ss --ftd stSmt pirs should for the future be governed. On the flnt 1 l^e gr?a'?"< P?rt of the debate had turned ; he did not undervalue its importance, but surely it was On the paRy question ,.U? .u . u d*'*?oe fo make; he would admit at nee that the measures he had brought forward were havel^riSfnSST11" iat?r?8t 'ha' could nave been brought forward by him. He conki<Gr?,i far^ihecorn !.at conduct ?* 'he measure! in so far as the corn-laws were concerned, should have fallen into his hands ; but that which prevented its committal to other hands was the firm ccmviSion under which Ministers labored that a ^of this ernnire was threatened witha great rahffiy He them i!TlSn7ed- *'k firmly believe, that ttiere is impending over the country, and that there would0SdXd0MWnurh Kh0d' a CdIam"V that 'hey Hnn !k- h dep,0.ra- When he was compelled to aban ol bnntin/?h? avert,D* 'he threatened danger. and e?rlie?. question to a settlement, he toot the inl hi opportun"y he consistently could of tender ing his resignation to the Queen. " I offered no mPn?r?h '? choice of a successor. That is al most the only act which is the personal act of the wwiPh? ' "?!, tbe Sovere'gu to determine in -h^her confidence ought to be placed. It was my duty to ascertain, in consequence of the request of die Queen, whether those of my colleagues who had SfiSE?? Ir?m me Were e'toer themwfvea prepared to form a government, or to advise her Majesty if 2SLaSff&B,iww-no1 i)repared. '? submft to Pnij Kw ^ihl h1? lomiation of a government?mean m?inf ? rnu"'tho8e who favorable to the ^Sered fmm's.r HeJl8"nK ckorn law." Those who li a 5 J? ^ Robert in the views he entertain andm ii advis*hle to form a government: and her Majesty determined to call upon Lord John Russell to undertake the task. "My firm lS to"ndenake Sh ,V?rd T1 haveLen enabled the nohl? Urrf i;n y; my hrm P^'suasion was? ?ne noble Lord will excuse me for saying so?mv it that ,ho would have succeeded did 5..? undertaken it. I must say, the noble Lord P.,sdd??,m m? wt?en he did not at once under take the formation of a government on the principle t?ies wlfh k que8tion- I knew .11 theTfl whnY. ^ ^ uh uany m?n would have to contend who undertook the conduct of the government ] Ihnnohf ,^re ?U,t b J a 8re?'dislocation of parties. 1 thought it unfair and dishonorable, under the impres iion tint the ^obte Lord wodd b.' u,, 581KSS Sta"e' ? ,tepa whlch 1 'bought would diminish bl8 embarrassments." In the foFmer explanation ol one taue'J ?n^?aP*He,VLor^ John Rn^"had read of which fi/h^d ni? th?r? w?e other letters mrThid c cPple8 5 8,nc? one o' these let Sir HolrPf i, , j 10 M of P?mary importance, fth iL du'y '? r?ad 'hat also. On the rI lwo daf? "fter his resignation oi office, and alter hearing that Lord John Russell was ShlfUCCt,,Cr' he wrot?'in h" PrivatMBapaw ty, the following communication to the Queen ?? iio:r R?. ? ? . Whitehall, Dec. 8,1845. w ?-0J>ert Peel presents his humble duty to ?hJti f!?ajj8ty' and? mfluenced by no other motive ^ t W ooo'/'hute, if possible, to the te tL yo" Msjesty from embarrassment, and to SiJZSV"".!* ? Pob'io inieresta from injury, is indued to make to your Majesry this confidential TOmmunication explanatory of Sir Robert Peel's ?k aPd 'n'entions with regard to the great ques tion which tenow agitating the public mind. ? J'our M?J??'y can, if you think fit, make this ,DI?tlSn ?noTn *?tb? Minuter who, as sue 'booor'd ?? sd??Ht^.fl?li0< Nov?mber last, Sir Robert Peel advised his colleagues, on account of the alarmiu accounts from Ireland, and many districts in this country, as to the failure of the potato crop from dis ease, and for the purpose of guarding against con kPku11 kleB Ti h. m his opinion, were not impro bable, humbly to recommend to your Msiesty that tne duties on the import of foreign grain should lie suspended for a limited period, either by order in councilor by legislative ensctmeot; Parliament in either case being summoned without delay. lr- .2^ P??' foreaaw 'hat this suspension, fully justified by the tenor of the report to which he has referred, would comjiel, during the inter laws 8U4pea810a'the "-consideration of the Corn . 'he opinions of his colleagues bad then been in concurrence with his own, he was fully prepared to take the responsibility of suspension; and of the necessary consequence of suspension?a compre hensive review of the laws imposing restrictions on Uie import of foreigu grain and other articles of ,o ..d f>eeI '? prepared to support, in a pri vate capacity, measures which may be in general nisier""'^ W 'hos? which he advised as a Mi ml Ji*lonld ^ unbecoming in Sir Robert Peel to wres reference to the details of such mea Sir Hnhlrt^rr'.h h.M. be?n KOod enouJ?h to inform m k ^ tbat?1118 y?ur }n?ention to propose to Lord John Russell to undertake the formation of a government. principle on which Sir Robert Peel was prepared to recommend the re-consideration of the awe aflectingthejirtiport ol the main articles of food, .T"*eaeral accordance with that referred to in the concluding paragraph of Lord John Russell's t0'h5 ???ctors o{ the city of London. Peel WL8bed.t0. a?c?nipany the remo Ll riu! , ,? ?D jh r a(Jmi"'?? ot "och articles with relief to the land from such charges as are un ,. y ?ner?us. and with such other provisions as, in I f?m9 , Jpha Russell's letter, 'caution ho d scrupulous .forbearance may suggest.' i?' W1" support measures found ed on that general principle, and will exercise any influence he may possess to promote their success '? r^'t^hn wng Ul a dl.fficul'y,1 might be felt by Lord John Russell en being called upon to under take office when an increased expenditure would be required, thin exposing his financial position to an 8?rriib ,hat 01 hls P"decessor, ?Ifu add?d die following aseurance :? ,. Sir Robert Peel feels it to be his duty to add. that, should your Majesty's future advisers, alter ?ml .r?L'?n ot 'be heavy demands made upon the armyot ths country tor colonial service, of our re ?"?n8 tb? Uo"?d States, and ot die bearing i w.rt,ViPnTk.aV'.gal,oa^y ha,e upon maraum; warfare and the defence of the country, deem it ad visable to propose an addition to the army and in creased naval and military estimates, Sir Robert Peel will sspport the proposal; will do all that he can to prevent it from being considered indicative of hostile or altered feelioga towards France: and will assume for the increase in question any degree of cjjyK 'ii dit which is justly due to them, Ihope tost the ex planation which I have now given, of the course I pursued when 1 was acting under the firmest per suasion that the adjustment of tnis question would be committed to others, may tend to prove that I was not desirous of robbing others of the credit of settling this question, or of trying to embarrass their course." (Much cheering.; Other commu nications had passed during the ministerial negoti ant ; and it waa proposed to put him in possession of certain details as to the mode intended by Lord John Russell, to arrange the question ; but Sir Ro bert thought it better that he should nst be made acquainted with auch particulars. " I thought that my knowledge of them, or any appearance of con ccrt brtween the noble lord end myself, would hsve the tendency rather to prejudice than promote the adjuatment of thia question. I therefore declined to receive the communication of those details ; bnt I think that the noble lord must have been satisfied, that though 1 declined to concert the measures with him, yet it was my intention to give to the noble lord in the adjustment ot *a question, according to his views of public policy, that same cordial support 1 which it is his boast he now intends to give mo I | believe that must have.been the impression of the noble lord?(Hear, hear! from Lord John Russell) ?because, alter communications with me, the no j "l? lord undertook the formation of a government: and 1 am sure that the noble lord win admit that i no act of mine caused the failare of the noble lord's j [*?' J was in no way concerned in the I r?ns?ns which induced the noble lord finally to courvs wtnrh .5p So much, therefore, for the J wh.Th.Hk L?v.e Pur8ufd Wld? reflect to those mal !lbeen hlU,ert0 ?PPo*d to me. I never " n ccirli.!".'.0' af u?.iWho "h<mld C0M,il?tp the anv^kinH k'i i noL per,onid objections of ' to L id?n?fi!y 7 ' waa tha'thl8 question ought i ILn i! Waa Prepared to facilitate its ad eveSub^vot^a#d')y ,h? exercise of what T ulj V 1 could command." As to the party turn! that thevlhSm" hl"1,die,r?"PPort, it was na acnna as he Vh 'a wnhdraw 'heir confidence, hfi.k h - i done at variance with the esta ^ u prl'nciP'e? ?n which party ;a usually conduct I *d uPhc would usk ther". was it probable he woald have sacrificed their favorable Son and support unless influenced by the highest annmrUr. tions of public duty ? HsouSht mkn' w Z tives of his party ; and he believsd that there never existed a party influenced by more honorable and them^'a'irf k ^'uu.Th:i testimony was due to thetn. But for himself he must say, 1st the conse quences he what they may, they could not rob him of the conviction that the advise which he had given was sonsistent with ail the due obligations which psrty could impose. "I know what would have conciliated temporary confidence. It would hrve been to underrate the danger in Ireland?to invite an united combination lor the maintenance of the existing law?to talk about hoisting the flag of pro tection for native industry?(cheers aud laughter)? i,a' u*'Ii'cul'urBl protection should be maintained in all its integrity. By such a course I should huve been sure to conciliate nnT??rary 00uUdeDpr? but month of May would k arrive without demonstrating that Iliad thereby abandoned my duty to my country, to my Sover E thLVrm0 10 Pany" (Loud cheers.)/had aud have the firm persuasion, that in the present temper of thet pubhc mind, the state of public feeling ami of public opinion wuh.respect to the Corn-laws in y ?< "i. 8d?entitiou,j circumstances,ma'kes VtdAfeoce 'hose Corn-laws difficult enough.? irv iihi^k'i f e hrme8t persuasion, that if that calatn !h? 7 k Vreafe '.? *re'and should arrive, and if 2d .he n? be fought for maintaining untouch of u?^ , i!'n ^W8? and 'or permitting a state of law to exist whereby a duty of 17s. attaches m wnnld'h^1 ?' ,oreki?!J wheat. ?'Jch a degree of odium hTtdl h.H h atta.ched 10 'be landed interests, if that t hi , !en <OU?h,t,'88 would bave done them came8 under !EJUry" What were the facts which ?a?f, under the cognizance of the Secretary of r .k Home Department1? Why, that in one feet, wire dmpU!!? millions of the Queen's sub jects were dependent on a certain article of food Sic!?8"TIT' Md that diMMe bad seized %? article. The government saw, at the distance of S*5* our months, the gaunt forms of famine and disease following in the train of famine "I di2L? rrit0 "?me documente. H 'he subject is not fiTr ' " " 8eeme,d be when I last mention ed it; for you appeared to dislike a reference to let ters, and turned away from communications. But n.l h 7 7 nufce"8ary' before you come to a fi s.anH ih?'?r? ?k th" 1ae8'?on.|bat you should under ffiLSMtf CtU?' T (Ctlfer8 > You mu8t do so. (Renewed cheers ) I cannot conciliate your confi dence by any expression of regret for the course I

have taken. So far from it, I declare in the fkwof I V day In my pub,lc bfe which I ?r M,th 'be greatest satisfaction and pride is that 1st of November last, when I waa ready to take the responsibility of issuing an order in Ooun- i ctl to open the poru, trusting to you for an approval hl!hatfi8tep (b??ud cheera ) f wiJhed thSfXt ' Semfer whl?h J81'*1 after the first of No rwfta^er^ o^n Vk1* ?one f?rth that the P?? were open. The primary object of such a mea sure. of course, would have been to increase the ?pk? 'k" k0taknth? Precautions against famine, although other collateral advantages might have flowed from it. I think that ths best step then to have taken would have been to open the ports 8nd' 8Ufpos,nK I?8' our anticipations bad proved .f^r^ r-^Up5?8ing lhat we bad formed a false es umate of this danger?I believe that the generosity fCrie. iT^H w?u,d havs protected us from harm " benehe^t k from the Protection benches ) Sir Robert read letters which had been tinm *? "t*6 L"1 two 'nai18 bom Ireland, not from official authorities, but from men from whose statements there could not be the slightest pretence ?? k1Dg cu??dejce- The first letter was ad dressed to himself by Sir David Roche, formerly members aj Limerick, dated Carass, near Lime nck, KebXary 11th. Str David R'ochT slated, that at one time he was disposed to think that the part of the potato* crop which appeared sound before Christmas would have continued so; but he had found he was in error?the greater part was now obliged to be given to pigs .n3 cattle, d k. r ro? ,0,al loa#- Sir David added?"No doubt, for six or seven weeks, while the remains of f r,? . I*" V d?8U,u"?n will not be general; but I pray you, sir, look to it in time." The next letter yery m'nute investigation made by Mr.JW. W. Hemaworth, sub-inspector ot police, stationed at Stradbally, Queen's County, in to the condition of one hundred and ninety families living in that neighborhood. In his enquiries the officer was accompanied by the Rev. Mr Kmeraon -'SllTV ?r,the paV"h- The ?'huTstatetl Many families whom we visited, and who had /I Clent ?.rthk,rordinarywants,including the seed necetsary for the ensuing season, have not r'l' Potatoe of an v kind for the last month." [ Observe, exclaimeci Sir Robert Peel 4<thia in in the month of February?five months at least before Pm^^. .MnXfUkPplyur0m, ,he aatural bounty ot Providence. ] Others have lost nearly all; and th e ar remain are totally unfit tor human tood. In eyerv instance where we saw potatoes in pits in the helds, we had them examined/and with scarcely an exception, we found them to be a mass te^i".oa' perfectly disgusting even to look at." Pt lii . ler W88 from 1-ord ?'uart dc Deciea. fP? ~? Lieutenant ox the County of Watertord. Among other particulars it mentioned this?"That i^ ^il18lnct8L Pthe union in Ideation there t?n7h?AL^lVarly of ,he >car, no lea. than three hundred persona whose stores o! provi sions are upon the point ot becoming exhausted." effected1!? "uU??eeted! "that Rood might be I dm keepin? down prices by the esti&hsh mf.h? L3ov"rknnip.nt corn-stores, from which grain might be purchased at hrst cost price." The fourth letter was from Mr. Thomas Dillon, of Cahirciveen ?o!fnd hntHn,agl?tratek; V""rd' tha' having gone round his district within the last ten daye, he had ?.PP^12^DlU58 not oa'yu?f hearing but of witnessing thy destractton which had been committed, and "PI? ,Jraa. flaming ground rapidly. Mr. Dillon added, that he almost telt counfpnded st the diffi e^y '?at must exist in procuring a sufficiency of Lr f,he en8U">fl crop. Sir Robert next quoted an official return from the highest authority embracing particuUrs from every electoral district,' ,h.. f.;7iCeptT of P.^V-nine. The facta were ?that in four electoral divisions the loss of pota toes has been nearly nine-tenths of the whole crop; !? .Sine,jr'tbre!' be'^ren aeven-tenths and eight teaths; in one hundred and twenty-five, the loss so- 1 prosches to seven tenths of the whole crop; in six teen, it approaches to six-tenths; in five hunt/red and mnet) -six, nearly one half of the crop is entirely de stroyed; and in five hundred and eighty-two divi sions, nearly four-tenths of the crop are entirely de stroyed." (government had acted upon the sugges tions made to them; stores of corn should be esub mSnKbir* 0t " low pricea? ?r given in A Member?"It will be wanted for seed." Bir Roacnr Pnxi^?" ye?. To get seed from foreign countries for the ensuing year is next to im possible. An eighth of the whole crop s required ,kl *Td; ???b acre of potatoes requires nearly a ton, in7.?U??a P ? 100 l^48t?lur Med = take the tonnage which it would require to bring in 10 000 ,l?,n8 JXffatoee from any part of Europe where po tatoes may still abound ; it is almost impossible to supply the deficiency Vou must look /oTseed to the accumulation by making savings from ths exist P' J'm,y be necessary for you to form that saving. When the pressure of famine is severe, the immediate want will be supplied?ths danger ot next year will be forgouon. The government must interfere, for the purpose of encouraging the saving la sufficient quantities, in order to secure a supply ofseed for next year.* How are we to do this 1 Why, by the substitution, I suppose, ot some other a"?clee of provision, to be given under wise regu lations, for the purpose of preventing waste, and of getting these seed-potatoes in exchange. I ask you then, if in May nsxt we had to come down here 8r?u^"d ""'"fl'hem, ?individual ciiarityin m.n.7^ ".mU8k8upply more (Ban the govern ; r?ur corn in exchange litett^C?1!1^ or forJth* austenance of humkn ?200 MO o. J ? propo?B* vo'ea of L and encouraging the charily wo!!m7 Tk "td? lo dj8p,'n8e "> charity, and men! we i^*" tol"8ted' that 81"?? ?"'?? nio ment we should . ave been retaining a duty of 17s ensi1 ?' C?kfn 1 ^I'Pore famine should ensue . do you believe that it would be for the crta !?in??"wlllei. ded aristocracy of this coua f. ^r0fr upon lhe government the resjH.nsibihqr ot taking security, bnt not one letier VVnilfn .L., kn^JC?rn law 8ha" b? abandoned r be fidelity to the landed interest ? No, I believe that whatever ought have been the seeming consistency, that proposal would have been the real ? treachery which you impute to me, because I J141*? thought it for your interest, and the interests ok all, to relieve oorselves from the odium of stipulating for these restrictions in such a moment of pressure, i (Repeated cheers.) Parliament would have taunt ed him with the example of Holland and Belgium, where, though the pressure was less severe, mea sures of precaution had been adppted. Under simi* 1 lar circumstances to the present, what had been the course taken by English Parliaments deeply inte rested in the welfare of agriculture 1 There have been times before when there has been the appre hension of scarcity in this country ; what has been the remedy th;'t the heart of every nuin suggested 1 What has been the remedy that the 1-aislative wis dom took 1 Why, in every cas*, without exception, the romovhl for a time of the duties upon corn. (Cheers and couater cheers.) [A. member?"What at the end of the time 1"] 1 will coine to that im mediately. 1 rejoice in the cheer which I met front that quarter?(looking to the Protection benches)? what is it but an assent, apparently nn unanimous assent?(" No !")?at any rate, a very general as sent, that at a period of impending famine, the pro per precaution to be taken is to encourage the free importation of food. I have a right to infer, that if ttiathad been the proposal, namely, that existing dit ties upon corn una other articles ol provision 3hoitld be suspended, that proposal would ha/e inst with general assent. (Oncers.) Then, tl that be so, I ask you to expedite the p-usiug of this bill?(laugh ter and cheers)?or to move ?s an amendment, that the duties upou all articles.of provision shall forth with bo suspended." (Renewed cheers.) The op ponents of the government plans seemed to say that they would consent to a 6Uspcusion of the law till next harvest; and he was glad of the admis sion thareby implied, that it would not be wise to stipulate for the present that no rice, or oats, or maize should be admitted, and that the duty on wheat should be maintained at 17s. Sir Robert Peel Quoted some oi the instances in which the ports had been opened?in ;? 1766, 1767, 1791, 1793,1796, 1796,1799. Had the ports been opened in Novem ber last, the supplies might have been more ample ; but there was still the command of six months.? Parliament must now make its choice. It must ei ther maintain the existing law, or make some pro posal for facilitating the introduction of foreign food. Then came the further quAtion, " After the suspension of the existing law, and the admission of foreign importation for a period of eight months, what do you propose to do with the existing corn laws 1 That is, of course, the question which any man would have to consider wbo advised the sus pension of the corn-laws 1 Well, npy conviction is so strong that it would be utterly impossible, after establishing perfect freedom of trade for a period of eight months, to permit the existing corn-law to come into operation at the end of it?my conviction is so strong that it would be impracticable and im politic, that I could not entertain such au idea " It might be said, " Give us suspension now, and at the end of that suspension we will have the corn laws as they are now j" but any such notion was founded on a total misapprehension of pub he opinion. What! would they revive the existing corn-law in all its provisions i Would they, for instance, refuse the admission of maize ? " It was proposed, last session, to admit maize tree of duty. The price of barley was falling, the duty on barley was increasing; and, without the slight est natural connexion between maize and barley, the duty on maize was increasing also. Ihen, might not the law be altered in that respect 1? Yes. But remember this, that in the course ol last session notice was given that maize should be imported duty free, because it was desira ble to have maize tor food. Do you think it possible in devising a new corn-law, to devise one , the lead ing principle of which should be, that maize should come in auty Iree because the admission of that article would be for the benefit of the farmer, as he might feed his cattle and pigs with it; but that there are certain other articles used for consumption by human beings, and in respect to them the law shall be maintained in all its force 1 Do you advise us now to fight that battle 1 Do you not feel that that very fact of suspension would constitute a new element in the consideration of things, and would give a tenfold stimulus to the agitation that previ ously existed 1 Do you invite us to fight that battle now 1 What would be the state of feeling upon the subject 1 Do you invite us to suspend the law with a guarranty of its revival 1" In reference to the changes of opinion which had been avowed by members of the House, end as to which an attempt had been made to attach suspicion, Sir Robert asked if some of the most honorable men that ever sat on the ministerial benches had not given conclusive proofs of sincerity. Did Lord Ashley, Mr. Stuart, Mr. W. Patten, Mr. Egerton, Lord rtenntker, Mr. Charteris, or Mr. Dawnay, vacate their seats Irom luteiested or corrupt motives 1 Passing Irom these considerations. Sir Robert invited attention to the course which the debate bad taken, and to the ad missions and expressions of opinion of those who had been loudest in their condemnation of the Go vernment. The first he would notice whs the mem ber lor Huntingdon, Mr. Thomas Baring. " The hoa. member thinks it is just the time for making a compromise on the subject?lor a new Corn-law . Why, if ever there was an unfortunate moment for a compromise, it is the present. What is the mean ing of a compromise I Is it a new Corn-law " Well, what is the security for the msintensnce ol that 1 (Ironical cheers from the Protection benches ) The member for Roxburghshire, (Mr Francis Scott,) was the loudest advocate for protection, and had a curious notion of the relation between a country and its Minister. Mr. Scott had likened Sir Robert Peel to a hired advocate, and said he had thrown up his brief. Perhaps Mr. Scott was not aware that a Minister of State took an oath to uu reservedly and freely deliver his opinion in council, according to his heatt and con science. Sir Robert apprehended that an ob ligation cf that kina constituted a material difference between the position of a minister of state and ttie otiice of a retained counsel. But Mr. Scott, when insisting that he was bound by every consid eration of consistency and honor, to maiutain the Corn-laws ol 1*42, had admitted that within the lact three years, in his own country, there had been such lnprovemcnts in roads, such introduction of science into agriculture, such facilities for introduc ing cheap corn, that in hi3 opinion the time was come whan the present Corn-laws must be altered. "And when 1 asked the honorable gentleman, 'whom are you counsel fori'?meaning, that it any obligation was imposed on me to maintain theCorn law of 1842,1 could not quits understand why the honorable gentleman could so readily abandon it? the honorable gentleman was perfectly indignant at being supposed to be a counsel. Claiming the func tions of Anacharsia Cioots, who said he was attorney general for the human race, the honorable gentleman said,4 / counsel!?that is an imputation on my hon or : I am counsel for the agriculturists?I am coun sel for the commercial interests?I am counsel for the whole country?I am counsel for the interests of humanity.'" (Liughter.) Sir Robert Peel did not, himself aim alter lunctisns so comprehensive. The next was the member for New-caetle-under Lyme, (Mr. Colquhoun) i and he told Sir Rooert, that hereafter and for ever he withdrew his confi dence from him. But if ever there was a man who had less reason than another to censure n Minister for not establishing 44 a treat principle," it was Mr. Colquhoun himself. 44 Why, he has voted with the honorable member for Wolverhampton ; and he has voted against him. (Laughter.) He is an advo cate for a fixed duty, but he has dons all he could to maintain a sliding scale. 1 do not know whether the honorable gentleman has shared in my misfor tune, and read the pamphlet of John Campbell Col quhoun, Esquire, of Killermont. (Laughter ) I must say thai that pamphlet, as tar as 1 can under stand ft, advocates repeal of the Corn-laws. If, then, the honorable gentleman has voted with the honor able member Tor Wolverhampton, and baa voted against him?if he is a determined supporter of a fixed duty, and yet ever since 1812 has done all in his powar to maintain the sliding scale, and it my construction of his pamphlet be correct, und he is an advocate ol repeal, 1 wonder how 1 should have tared with him if I had laid down 4a great principle', I wonder what the honorable gentleman would have said, if, after having carried suspension, I should have subsequently declared that at the end of that suspension the Government would stake itaeiist encs on the revival of the existing Corn-law. I ven ture to aey there would not have been a more stren uous opponent of soeh a course than the honorable gentleman: at least, I venture to say, there never was a gentleman so clamorous for the announce ment ol principle, who pursued a course which left him so completely a single-anchor to vote tor any proposal that might be made. (Laighter ) The Setter ol Lord John Manners was next adverted to; Sir Robert inquired if it could have been possible for the Government to rely on Lord John Manners support had they resolved to advise a renewal of ihe Coin-law upon suspension. 44 He says he is decid edly in favor of s repeal of the Corn-law, but he thinks the preftnt Parl.ament ought not to enact, nor the present Minister to propose, each a measure Well, but the personal objection is no satisfactory answer to the country -. The question, lor the coun try is, is the measure right or wrong. Surely, no member can justify himself in voting against a mea sure which he believes to be right, and which con- , cents such mighty interests' And now as to Mr. j William Miles, the member for Somersetshire: that gentleman had declared fer the maintenance of the existing law in ita integrity, and given Sir Robert notice, that henceforth he must ex pect the renewal of his confidence. But Sir Robert implored that gentleman and others although they might visit these penal consequences, on Ministers, to pass the measure submitted to them, if they thought it advisable at the present crisis. In stating that he had hitherto been a sup porter ot the government, Mr. Miles was in a mis take. On the great question of " grease '?(Roars of laughter)?he whs a detertnm-d opponent, under an apprehension that grease might he used by some people as a substitute for butter. " Now 1 must say that I think the lion, gentleman, in taking hi* stand upon grease, did much tnore injury than bene fit to the cutiae of protection.^ A few mote of Mr. Milea's argment* he was anxious to notice. As to llax, was its cultivation abandoned in consequent of the withdrawal of the duty T?and at what period did it take place ? Mr. Wji. Miuts?After the last retuavel of the LUty on fin. Sir Robkrt Pkkl?Muff the list reduction of duty was only 64. per hundred weight. (Laughter ) t He i uty ou loreiitri flax was removed in 1324?at that time it was ?10 h ton ; a reduction was thea effected to the nominal (duty of 5d. a hundred weight, and in 1942 th<? duty was abandoned nito gether. Wm it _ the removal ot this duty of 5J. a hundred weight that luvolvett the imrianes of Aid cock nod Ohutee thorough in ruin? In Ireland no culture is more profitable limn that ot flax, which in unprotected ; and u is obvious that the decay of A.dcock nnd Caisstiboruugli had arisen from other causes than the withdrawal of the protective duty. I he debate hud chtrlly turned on the corn laws, hut it was not necessarily a corn law dehttte Tne proposal was that the House should go tnto commit tee to consider the principles ol our commercial po llr'L ? ' f8 1 belore, it is the intention ot her Majesty a government to adhere to their i?ro V>i stated the reasons why they wiil do lin**?*}?/ ,kre mc'"Bed. to, prefer if, considering especially the opportunity that three years a/fords I>?.UnPr0j*rnemiin d?maKe But. "t the urns time, also distinctly make the statement, that if the agricultural body are of opinion that it will be for 1 uinkj th" im,riediate re peal will be preferable to the deferred repeal which ui the proposal of the government?(?? Hear" from die opposition benches)?if, by a unien with honor able gentlemen opposite, they should place me in a minority?then the only consideration which I shall bear in mind will be, what course can I best take to give effect to the Jaw so amended at your instance. (Loud cheers Irom the opposition beuches ) 1 will do all I can to carry the proposition of the govern ment-! preler it. I proposed it, believing it to be favorable to the agricultural interest. I do not say what course, speaking for myself, I might poraue. I do not say what effect success here might produce in another place, for 1 have less moans of an swering than I have here j but this I will say, that my opinion as to the policy of a final adjustment of the corn laws will remain unaltered ; and 1 shall de cidedly prefer immediate repeal, even though car ried against me, to throwing the country into con tusion by the rejection of this measure. (Laud a k rve' 8ay 11 Wl" be Quit? lor myself to consider what course ot personal conduct will bo most conducive to the result 1 should have in view x but this I do believe, that the final adjustment of this question is now a consideration paramount to en.. nier" (Loud cheers ) As to the probablo cost ot corn uuder the new measure, he could not pass an opinion ; but he thought that nothing was more erroneous than to suppose that ihe interests of agriculture were naturally and immediately rater the iruilTni tk18 Snca ??! w*lraf- Ia demonstrating he truth of this. Sir Robert adverted particularly to frnm^hf181 K '* 1ln,P0MU>l? to draw a just inference Irom the nominal price ot wheat, without, at the SUf-inT' tfkin? 11,6 quality into account. He showed, by reference to returns beginning in 1795. that the price of wheat had shown a tendency to decline. " A very remarkable series of lacu alw presents itself in the amount of rental of land as compared with the price ot wheat. The gross r n ? ohand in 18J5 as taken from the property ux return, wan ?32,502 000. The price of wheat for fivo years ending in 1815, was 102i. 5d. For the lira ?.ar:/nd,un? Wi! IBI2, the price of wheat was 7d , while the gross rental of land in England Irad increased to ?87,791,000 Thus, coincident witn a fail in the price of corn, there was an in crease in the rental of land." The speech from tha in rone contained a recommendation to review th? existing duties, and ascertain whether such further reductions could not be made as would tend to in sure a continuance of the advantages derived irom the previous reduction. The answer mada ?y the Commons did uot convey a pledge as to the measure, but it .conveyed an assurance !lllj '"? recommendation Bhould be considered vt??. i. ,u wa"r tUt "?urance to be fulfilled 1 would they refuse to go into committee 1 Will you stand still I?for six months to come will you do nothing 1 I say, in this country, to stand still is to retrodrade. 1 never said that it was on the ex perience of the tariff lor three years I have come to a change of opinion. I said this?that during three years I have seen, coincident with abundance and low prices, great prosperity; 1 have seen gr-at con tentment; I have seen tlic diminution ot crime; I nave seen the abatement of all social disorders; I have seen goad health; 1 have seen increased com merce: and that experience ot three years has con vinced me that cheapness and plenty are at the foun ^"i?1" of YouJ- WPerity. (Cheers ) This U the f'iironer, not connected with the tariff of the last three years alone, but with respect to the whole fh your relaxations of prohibitory ?Juties? n?e one relaxation, or removal of prohibition, twSu r?.VC?nt u t0 ?d ran tigs of the great body of the consumers of this country." Ho had indeed been ashamed to read some of the peti tions presented on the subject of this protection. praying ihst the Hons, might check all further rash experiments on British navigation, and reject the proposition for reducing the duty on foreign timber .fnm 2o< to 15a H* asked, what has b-en the issue ol the rash experi ment you made in 1842?" You found then a d?ri iiimating duty of 45s, which you reduced to 25s. Have you destroyed the Canada trade? At the port w?Jriv*rpo? ,h" av,"r??e tonnage in the British Worth American trade, for eleven years preceding the reduction of the duty was 153,000 tone; and since you removed the duty on Canadian timber, the ave t^l, {,aen. ^v000 .,0D8 of ?topping employed at Liverpool in the Canada trade. On the average of seven years before the reduction of duty, 5,749 000 /?"dV0' Pines were imported; in 1844 the quantity brought irom Canada amounted to 6,211,000 loads; call on V Ji?,d8' Yet to? shipowners cafi on yon to refuse a reduction of the dutv on tim / yA ?"/ou to refuse a reductionfor merly from 45s. to 25a. But you have a deficiency m that particular article which, will build shipe that shall endure for twelve years; and these wera tha circumstances under which you have the modest proposal made to leave the discriminating duty tt its present amount of 25s. instead ot reducing it to 15s; and that ia what the snip-owners, of all things, ask as " essential to their interests!" Following up this aubject, Sir Robert referred to the alarms eici H.??P.r!a?u!k,,merfrf*opo"df 10 reduce import duiles, and to the gratifying reaults which had foi owad. When Mr. Haskwaon proposed nn site ra tion of the silk duties, Lord kshbarton, (then Mr. paring) resisted the measure, asserting thai the ef fect would be to ruin the silk-weavers, and drive mem to the poor-rates for subsistence. And what had been the result! The consumption, which for the ten years ending in MM was 1,*40,902 pounds, is now, for the year 1844, 6,208,020 pounds 8tnu lar fears were expressed in 1842, tn reference to tho trade in feathers. One extensive merchant told 8ir Rober* that the effect would be to annihilate the Irish and English feather trade; bat that peraon bad written to him in the courae of tha present year, tell ing him that his fears had proved unfounded?that bis trade was more prosperous than beford; and mentioning that his great demand had been from Cornwall, thus showing that the Cornish miners had been prosperous in consequence of plenty and abundance, and had been able to expend a part of ??"img?'ini feather goods. In conclusion, Sir Robert remarked, that the vote to be given did not involve a question of confidence in the Government, but the decision as to whether the House were wil ling to advance upon tha path on which they had been proceeding, or w hether they would retrograde. He entreated them to look at their physieaJ ad van tages; at those nerves and sinews of their manufac tures, the stores of iron and coal which abound in their territory. Let them look also at ibeir acquired advantages. Why, England has tea times the capi tal ot any nation in the world! He asked them to bear in mind that many couatries are watching their decision. Sardinia had set the example of n liberal tariff: Naples would shortly follow; be could tell them thai Pruasia was already akaken; and France waa deiirqos to follow the example which England was setting. (Sir Robert Peel, after near ly three honrs sneaking, resumed his seat amidst long-continued cheers, especially from the opposi tion J Sir Howabd Douglas?I rise to mane a few ob servations on the momentous subject which Sir Ro bert Peel has brought forward; and to ex|>iain and declare the vote which it is my intention to give.

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