Newspaper of The New York Herald, 13 Nisan 1846, Page 5

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated 13 Nisan 1846 Page 5
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THE HERALD SUPPLEMENT. oiA.",?'w~cSS?5,5?55ri.r5K2:^.! NEW YORK* MONDAY, APRIL 13, 1846. -m Speech of the Hon. Lewie 0. Levin, In the Hooh of Representative*, Htrch T. The Houie being in Committee of the Whole on the State of the Union, and having under coniideration the hill for raising a regiment of Moun'ed Riflemen, Mr. Lane moved the following amendment?Provided that the officers and eoldiera of aaid regiment ahall be Ameri cana bv birth. Mr Levin being entitled to the floor, aaid?Mr. Chair man, I offer thia amendment in the same spirit that dictat ed the policy of the immortal Washington, in our revo lutionary war, when trom hia camp at Cambridge, he issued his order to "place none but nativei at Ik* outpoiti." "it is high time to be cautions, when the nation is called upon to arm for its defences, and preservation. It is high time, sir, to ascertain who are our friends?and who are our foes?who are Americans, and who the subjects of our enemies. It is high time to make this enquiry, when we bear a committee of this House report that there is no distinction between aliens and naturalized citizens no shade of difference between aliens and native born Americans. Did Washington think so, sir, when he issued the order to which I have just adverted 7 Far from it. He who never quailed in battle?he who never eired in judgment, thought differently. It was his ad Durable sagacity that saved the country, by this wise mat ion. I" discrimination. He knew where to place every man. Kxperience had taught him that the post of the foreigner wen in the rear. Experience had taught him, that io all great emergencies, lie could rely on the native soldier, who rallied to the tight to defend his homestead, his ftimily, and his native land. Now, sir, shall we take the experience of Waahington for a guide, or ahall we abide by the report of the Judiciary Committee, which piocluima in aubatance. that native citizena are in do respect superior to the alien, end that the alien, ao far as the highest political righta are concerned,! a equal to the naturalized citizen? Need I eak tbia question of an American Congresa 1 I truat not, air. But to the point. It it proposed to raise e regiment of mounted riflemen to aid in the defence of the frontier settlements?'" the out potto"? the ler West! Now who better qualified to detend the soil, than the native born?t^e hardy pioneer who peoploe it?who settles it?who lovea it?who haa hia wife, hia children anil>$* all?staked on ita preserva tion ? Will you place aach a man on an equality with the alien, or even on an equality with the naturalized ci'izen, under our pntent law oyotm of naturalization .' Would Waahington have done so ? I ask you to turn to his order at Cambridge for a conclusive reply. * * * The States have an ui.questionable right to decide on what terms American citizens shall vote iu their re spective States. But if the States can grant to aliens the right to vote as electois of the United States, thay could also grant the right of eligibility to the office of Preiidant and Vice President ot the United States. Now, air, the power* delegated to the general government are of that class, only, deemed neceasary to its perfect orga nization. No term of probation, no period of five year* initiation would be necessary, if naturalization designed only to confer rights relative to property, or protection in time oi war, or any of the civil and personal rights that belorg to the residents of States. How, for ex ample, air, is that clause of the Constitution to be se cured mbich excludes foreigners from the two highest offices of the republic, but by the naturalization lawi, a* they confer the right to vote, and the right of eligi bility to office ? Concede, for the take of argumen*, that the naturalization lawa ilo not confer the right to vote?under the belief that the States have exclusive jurisdiction in that matter, as the Judiciary Report, now before the Houae, contends?how could the provi ?ions of the Constitution be carried out I The States would make no discrimination between aliens and na tive*?no certificate of naturalization would be ntcea ?ary?no record ol alienage could bo traced?and the whole fabric of the government would fall under the control of foreigner*, in flagrant violation of the moat solemn and fundamental provisions of our organic laws. This, sir, is one of the most obvious conse quences of the doctrine of this famous Judioiary Report, tuat the States possess the exclusive right te regula'e the right of suffrage. If thia had been the case, air, why did Congrasa extend the probation to fourteen years ? why did the Congress of 1798 repeal the not ot 1794, and abridge the term of probation from fourteen to five year* 7 The very fact that Congress haa. at various times, extended and abridged the period of probation, etiows, moat conclusively, that the great and fundamen tal right conferred by the laws of naturalisation, was the right of suffrage, and no other ? * * * American suffrage i* a high prerogative. It can ema nate but from two aouroea?birth, and naturalization by the American government. Its great distinguishing characteristic is the right of sovereignty. What is the rigit of sovereignty 7 The elective franchise?the right to govern?the right to rule?the right to vote for Presi dent and Vice President oi the United States, and for members of Congress. Without this right no man can be ao American citizen?no, sir, not even the alien in Illinois! Yo?, sir, the first principle, the great fundamental doc trine of the native American party, i* now incorporated in our existing l aturalization law. The five year law is u (nil recognition of the doctrines of the native Ameri can*. The Constitution itself is the foun'.ain head of it?which, as I have just ano ed, shows that no member of Congresa can ba elected by voters not naturalized, be came the naturalization law of the United State* pre scribe the qualification of the electors to the most nu merous branch of the State Legislatures. And yet, sir, with this flood of light beaming upon the pages of the Constitution, we are told by American representatives in the hall of an American Congress, that alien*, with their foreign allegiance clinging to their limbs, have the right to become the rulers of Americans ! Shall I be told, sir, that the doctrine for which I contend, invade* the right* of the 8tates 7 State rights, sir, when tbey are State rights, will at all times and under all circum stances find in me an unflinching advocate. But the meie cry of "central power" will never intimidate a na tive American from defending the Constitution, our na tional lame, our national character?all that we cling to as precioui, or boast of as immortal, flows from the " c-ntral power," which has its origin, its heart, its pul sations, in the Congress and President of the United States. What is " central power,"hut the Constitution T What are we as a people, without it T What would we become, it we had not this glorious " central pouer," it tfo f eus oi that circle around which revolve in their re?i>ective orbits, and with beantifnl harmony, too, the whole confederation of the sisters of freedom 7 Show m in what particular the rights of the States are en d lUgered by the existing naturalization law of Mr. Jef leri-on's administration? Was ba an tnimy of State rights 7 Will eny one venture that assertion 7 I be state*, therefore, cannot admit alien* to vote?the t>asi* of ill American tuffrage being an United State* naturalization law, extending over and controlling all the State* in an uniform manner, making any 8tate court ol record competent to naturalize, under tho authority of the United State* Sir, I cannot imagine a plainer question of conititutional law, than thin controlling power of the Union, over the right of ruffrage in the alien. But, sir. we have been told that if we deny im mediate naturalization of the alien, and it* consequent right of suffrage, that it will create moody discontent, and lead to secret cabals, If not bloody insurrection* ! Faction in her wildest moods of lust never conceived a purer fiction a* the plea on which to justify a system of poli'fcal debauchery. What, sir, axtend the term of pr ihation, and lo ! the alien ia to become an insurgent, rebel against the law, co icoet plots and form conspira cies?aid the foreign levy'ofour foes, and in every shape and form, plant the dagger of the traitor in the heart of treedom?and all, because wa demand of him the same period of probation which wo impose on oar own sons ! Such is tho picturo of alien treason, drawn by the p oliflo. imarinations of the ultra liberals, who plead universal suffrage as the only tio that can bind the heart of the alien, in fidelity to a government of freemen. Sir, if the fact support the theory of these champions of rovel rebels against freedom, the aooner we make provision to exclude totally from tho rights of citizen ship, these who may hereafter visit us, or prevent them from contaminating onr ihores-the sooner, I repeat, we do ta is, t tie better for the country. ? ? ? 1 drnv, sir, that any extension of our naturalisttioii law c ia moke them mote '? distinct'' than they are at this very hour, in one solid and compict body, they not only rem tin separate and distinct from the American population, but they labor to surround themselves with all the moial and political ramparts of their European nationality; they study how to resist the charm of Aaao riran amalgamation and how to perpetuate forever their homage to kings?their adoration of monarchy, and their reverence fur feudal institutions, crested with the dust of ages, ami fed by th# blood of millions. * * Do vou ask, sir. why twenty-one years Will prove efficacious in everting these disastrous, these melancho ly eflects? Because it will operate to disperse and pre v#it these bands and combination* of foreign voters? and cut off all motives in domestic demagogues to flatter their passions and pander to their illicit sufftage*. tv'ner the loot of tha alien touehea the American soil, knowing that twenty-one years must elapse before he can vote, all his faculties will become absorbed in his business pursuits. Ha will not so much as dream of po litical contention. No domestic dsmagogue will be found waping to greet him on hie landing, and initiate him in the mysteries of corruption. No countryman of ni? own will stand with impatiant eagerness to onroll him a member of a foreirn society, in order to, casts combin d vote against free institutions Twenty-one years cuts asunder all th* thread* of affiliation, tainted with pestilence, or teeming with anarjhy. It opens* distant future, whi'h to the burning zeal of p. litical corruption, daikons almost into eternity. It may be al leged, as an argument by onr opponents, that to seven eighth* of these immigrants it may prave eternity itself On the possibility of such an event, I will not dispute, for the contingencies of life and death are never permit t?d to invalidate a sound principle. Laws, sir, are made for the living. If the alien has paid his debt to nature, he will leave n native posterity, the sonsofbis own love, to er joy the blessings of the principle of tho twonty-one year* probation. Such a law. did it produce no other fruits but those of the abolishment of a bsnded foreign legion, the noncherishmeut of alien sentiments, the non usage of foreign emblems ; the gradual obliteration of hsbits congenial to monarchy, and tha total disappear ance of *11 that utoral power adverse to freedom, which now so much annoys and degrade* us in them, as well as in tha party corruptions of our own poople, it would prove a national blessing of transcendent magnitude. (But this, sir, would be only a per tiri effect of so salutary a reformation. Abolish th* motives and temptations to combination, and illicit voting for a period al years, and vou will at least promote, as far as polity can control in ?tine*, that vary homogeneous feeling so aecassrv to the peaee and sefetv of a country, whan di trictod by the conflicting pasainna and Interests of a nativ* popnl* tion straggling to resist tho usurpations of a foreign ho dy of intruders. Deprived of voting for twenty-ono yean, all distinct interests will cease?ell jealousy and rivalry subside, as to who shall rule tho country?th# foreigners. For this Is ta toot the only native* or th* nutation at issue, and thia qaastioa ha* baan raised by tba foreigner* themselves, who now maintain their right to govern the native*, and combine and plot to ac compliah that purpoee through fraud, perjury and forged document* of naturalisation. At one blow, thia twenty one year* law would estinguith lorever thi* mortal?I irrny *ay. thia martial?array of the foreign party, which, ttruggle a* it may, take what form or *bape it may. must eventually come to the point of settlement? the natives must triumph, or the foreigner* mcceed. It is true they claim the victory now, and point to their balance of power a* deciding the victory at the poll* But, cir, we diipute the legality of the vote*. We charge it with fraud. We prove it corrupt. And we now appeel to the great American people not mid irre coverably to the prostitutions of faction?to correct the evil?to arrest the march of these foreign invaders?and laying aside the trammel* of mere party, rush to the rescue of their child ran'* right*. * * * * * * * * To what conclusions, than. d>we arrive, from all the array offsets before u* 71 That by an undue facility of naturalization, we huve made the population of our country heterogenous, hos tile, jealcus, and at war one with another?that by the corruption* of thia facile adoption of foreigners, we have endangered the Union of the State*, and shaken the Republic to its centre?that we can only make thi* great nation?one in soul?one in spirit?one in action?homo genous and possessing perfect morel and political sym metry, by anew naturalization of twenty-one years. * ? ?????#?? Why then, sir, shall we grant an exclusive privilege to the alien, which we refuse to our own sons, born on the soil, who are condemned to a probationary period of twenty-one yeara 7 Why ahould wo grant to a foreign pauper, or criminal, or even to a foreign nobleman, what we refuse to our own sons? There is no necessary connection be tween the civil age, or majority of twenty-one years, which we have imitated or adopted from Europe, and the political right of suffrage, which ia the consequence of political intelligence. There is no reason to sustain the law which makes the political right of the alien su perior to the political ~r<gbt of the native born. If twenty-one years' probation is assigned to the native born, it is but just, reasonable, and proper, that the same peried should be assigned to the exported alien. We ask no "privilege" for the native born. Let no "pri vilege," then, be granted to the alien. Which is more of au " infant," in a political sense, orsny other ssmse - the native American youth at eighteen years of age. or the alien alter a residence of six months, or even Ave years, I leave to the intelligence of every man to deter mine lor himself. But on the principle of equal rights, I boldly denounce the exclusive privilege of the right of suffrage granted to the alien at five years, and denied to the native-born till twenty-one. Vow, sir, no aigument can be urged with any force against the period of twenty-one years, that does not sp ply with equal force against the period of five years, it it be bsstd on any principle known or recognized as a principle of freedom. All the deprivations complained of in the period of twenty-one years, are also embraced in the period of live years, nor can the one be made to appear more onerous than the other. Both are the sug gestions of a wis* expediency; both are peculiar to our representative republic; if the people so will it, both are constitutional; but tweoty-onefyeara ia more wise,be cause it adapts the law to the altered relations of the country, and the necessary demands for protection against the growing encroachment* ef foreign monarch ists upon our rights, by mean* of the combined influence of a eputious ballot. Sir, there is but one course for our opponents to take with any consistency, and that ie to go for universal suflrage, for the period of five yeara impli cates them aa deeply as twenty-one, in all the conse quences of a probationary exclusion from citizenship. The principle is the same. Eacl Eaclude the alien for five years, and you do all that any extension of the term can do, but you do him no wrong on any piinciple, for he has no right to citizenship but by consent of the people, and he must accept It ou the terms on which they prof fer it, aa most conducive to th' preservation of free in stitutions. The American people hold the right in their own hand* to declare on what terms aliens shall be enti tled to suffrage, and enjoy one of the highest privileges conferred on earth to man. Sir, what American but has, in his heart despised, and by his tongue laughed to acorn and lashed to infamy the rotten boroughs of England 7 and vat how infinitely more degraded shall we, th* people of th* United States, become, if we allow our country to bo transformed into a rotten borough for Europe's hinge, who, by the turn of a liuger, can pour into our ballot boxes tens of thou sand* of voters, a majority of whom have no more right to vota than the horse, the ox, or the locomotive ! We all know, for nothing is more obvious, that the constitu tion may be destroyed without ever being violated, and that, too, by meanagof corrupt practices that undermine Ilify its intent. Under oar its integrity as well as nu constitution none hut a native born American can be eligible to the Presidency; but if by courting the foreign vote, the native born becomes in heart an alien to bis country, the constitution is as effectually prostrated as if an alien bad been elected to fill the Presidential chair. But, sir, we have been told thit twenty one years, as the period of probation imposed on the foreigner, "is pro scription!" II it be, (which I deny, and shall disprove.) so is Ave years "proscription." If there bo any pro scription in naturalization, then has our government from its first start into existence, practiced proscrip tion. The charge refutes itself. The power and right to protect American institutions from the corrupt touch ef monarchy, is inherent in the people Ours is a govern ment strictly sui ttiurit ? its features are peculiar to it self. It is an institution of popular sovereignty, unlike all other governments, whose subjects come among u* to serve an apprsnticeehip to freedom, and wean them selves from the habits and passions Deculiar to royal serf doms. I* it" proscription" to oxclude minors, our own sons, from suffrage 7 No, it is deemed prudence. We hold the right to protect and defend, and preserve that which ia forth* common benefit of all. Bnt, sir, if fo reigners are proscribed , so are onr own children pro scribed. ? Let any man imagine to himself what would be the consequence if the ballot boxes ware thrown wide open to all, and popular suffrage came upon us in one overwhelming torrent, from persons of all ages. What would be the effect 7 How long would tho lews be wisely made or firmly executed'' It is the same thing in relation to thie flood of paupers, wh* ere sys tematically sent to our shores from the old world?Orest Britain having on one occasion (as you will find by rtl ference to Jfilt'i htgit/et) appropriated 25,000,000 of dollars to deport to this country one million of Irish psspers, upon the very ground that their competition was fatal to English labor ; and they are now sent here that they may come in competition with th* American laborer. I shall not stop, sir, to enquire what would be the efl'ect of such asyetesa upon American labor, or the American laborer. I merely ask what will be its effect upon the ballot box of the nation 7 Will not such a class of aliens speedily oveitnrn all tha harriers that have been created by the fathers of tho Revolution to pro tect th* rights ot man 7 Ttaa alien comes among us from a foreign monarchy, where he has no lights, without any Hea of the dignity of a freeman, or the responsibility of a voter. Few nave sufficient property to make them the suejects of taxa tion; and until they become naturalised, or attempt to vote in violation of law, they escape taxation alto gether, except the poll tax, necessary to entitle them to suffrage. Let us view this subject iu the light of com mon sense, and now endow the alien with all the feel ings and sensibilities of the native born, and then deduce the conclusion, which is e wen trquiiur, that the alien will die of a broken heart, or be driven to "rebellion and massacre," if he is put to a probation of twenty-one years, and " taxed without having a vote." No, sir; io stead of thinking of voting, he ia thinking of eating, lie is either seeking employment, or reposing in the alms bouse. He is looking aftor the mesne of acquiring pro perty, not thinking of governing the country, unless when some political demagogue, or a committee of na turalization, hunt him up to cast him ioto the scale as a balance voter, by debauching his morals, in order to buy his conscience. In proposing an extension of the naturalization law te twenty-one years,we not only vio late no principle of the constitution of humanity or the rights ot man, but wa protect an ' defend them ell, at the tame time that we manifest the most kinJ end bene volent feelings towards the foreigner. 1 ask you, sir, to contrast his condition under the two systems, as a victim to all the horrors of the tippling noose, in the hand* ol the wily demagogue who is buying hi* vote, and in the bands of his own children, and family, and fiiends, where our system places him in the fall exer cise of all hie cieil and religious privileges? under the canopy of hie own little domestic castle?free from the din of parties?the vices of politics, and the tu molts of the tavern -aa usrfil and indust ious citi ran, whose sons ate growing up around him to en joy the rights which belong, without dispute, to the native born. Who is the best friend of the foreigner I Unquestionably the advocate of that lew which snatches him from the Ares of political intrigue, and enshrines him in the sanctuary of his own domestic affections. I deprecate aa worse than barbarous, that system of poli tical chicanery which prompts the demagogue to irritate the foreigner into the lury ol party madness, by goading him with false opinions of our political system, end then appealing to his ignorance or hie passions, to redress wrongs thit have no existence? pouring into his ear the eternal falsehood, that he is taxed without being repre tented, and that hie right to vote is recognized in the Declaration of Independence ?si if that glorious docu ment, now almost rendered nominal by these very alien*, were a Ihw of the United States It it inch poison, distilled by the wretched demagogues of the day, that destroys the usefulness of our foreign popula tion, end by maddening them with political passions, renders them ? curse, instead of a blessing to toe coun try. ? Shell we then, or shall we not, transmit our heritage unimpaired te our children 1 To do this, we mutt at least preserve that harmony in eur system, that shall prevent anarchy, bloodshed and riot?that shall define native rights, io character* too broad end distinct to be co-founded by demagogue* or invaded by aliens while it shall instruct the foreigner in the doty of learning to become an American citizen, before be aspires to be a political dictator. The ieane has been made by that natural climax of corruption, to which public abuses of great magnitude always reach, whether native Americana or ioreignejs shell rule the land. That iseue most be met. The result no man can doubt, who know* the American character, or appreciates the indomitable energy, the irrepressible in dependence, end the unconquerable will of the Anglo Res on descendants of the first settlers of the North Ameilcnn continent. American*, sir, must and will 1)# the rulers of America. It la written in the hearts of the peopl- it i? inscribed on the browe of our mountains? it is mirrored on the bosom ol our lakes. Aa native Aia--i icans, sir, w# stand prepared to abide all perile of a position which elms te establish the moral and poUticel reformation of oor glorious republic. Planting the standard of our principles on the grave* of heroes, it cannot excite surprise that we ore undaunted, resolute, aud firm in. a cause that kindles enthusiasm In every heart open to the oiaima of country Recurring to Arot P rinciples, loDg since buried beneath the rubbiih of mar ? c enary partita, we are not unaware of the difficulty of t he ta?k which aim* to awakan in the calloua breaat of part* the (lowing emotiona which in the earlier eras of our hiatory, caueed too native to exult with pride in the land of his birth, aa a tleaaing and a privilege 'to be equalled by no other diatinction. But, sir, it is the dif ficulty of the taak that ahada glory on our effort ; and on thia occaaion we have foea who, when they do not hurl poiaoned javelina, or ahoot like cowarda from an ambnah, it will be no discredit to exhibit in our tra in of captivea, who ahall follow our triumphal chariot to a trend national victory in 1848 For captivea they muat ecome. A victory we muat have. Invincibility ia our motto. We inherit it from a leader who never aurren dered, and with whom courage and generosity were aa natural aa patriotiam and aucceae. Like him, air, we treat our captivea with clemency?like him, we take them captive only ,to make them freeman?but, like him, we never ahall aheath our weapons till we behold our glorioua country eternally free from all foreign ca bala and their mercenary American alliea. Here, then, we take our atand. Aa a diatinct American organization we enter the field?the atruggle may end in four, or, like that of the revolution, it may take eight yeara, to accompliah it. But, air, we are " enliated or the war," and until victory ahall perch upon our banner, you will find ua atruggling tor our native land, bold, fearleaa and urling the thunderbolta of truth agaii free, hurling the thunderbolta of truth againat the ene miea of the Amerioan people, and atriking dismay into the hearta of thoae whoaehatred may be taken aa a toler able meaaure of their feara. New York Hlatorlcal Society. The above Society hold ita regular monthly meeting, Tucaday evening, at the rooma of the Society, at the University. Among thefliatinguiahed (gentlemen preaent, beaidea the venerable Albert Gallatin, we noticed hia Honor Chief Juatice Jonea, Mr. Morgan, of Rocheater, and othera. At eight o'clock, the Hon. Albert Gallatin, Freaident of the Society, took the chair, and the meeting waa called to order. The miautea of the laat meeting having been read, Dr Mason moved an amendment to the ath bye-law of the aociety, which enacta, that every member who ahall have been for fiiteen yeara a member of the aociety, having duly paid hia aubacriptiona and feea, ahall be a lita member of the aociety. After aome remarka by Dr. Maaon, in axplanation of the object in view, The amendment waa put, and carried unanimoualy. Mr. John J*v, the Domeatic Correaponding Secreta ry, read lettera from the Hiatorical Societies of New Jeraey, Pennaylvania, and Kentuckv, in reply to com municationa in reference to the limited iaaue of the act entific worka growing out of the exploring expedition, and expreaaing their readineaa to join in memorializing Congreaa to increaaethn edition. Letter from Rav. W. Van Renaaelaer, preaenting hia paper on the Capture and Burning of Schenectady ; and from the Hon. Philo Cindley, and other gentlemen, ac knowledging their election aa corresponding membera. A letter from Jamea Hiker, jr., auggeating to the aoci ety the expediency of communicating, through an agent, the public recorda of the ialand of Curacoa, in view oi the cloae inteicourae which early axiated, between that ialand and the New Netherlanda, when both were under the government of the Dutch-the Dutch flag having been raised at Curaooa July 38, 1634, (and New Nether landa having remained under their dominion until 1664, when it waa aurrendered to the English) Mr Riker atated that Mr. Elaiveer, the gentleman at the head of the Record office, and the author of a work on Curacoa, would readily anawer any enquiriea that might be put to him, relative to the mattar. From Daniel J. Dromond,Secretary of the Pennaylvania Hiatorical Society, acknowledging letter, in reference to woilu of exploring expedition, atating that a com had been appointed on the subject Henry Stevena, London, Feb 38, preaenting to the ao ciety a large MS '? Map of the Countiea ot Hunt . hnterdon, Snaaex, Bergen, Eaaex. and Morria ; alao a part of Mid dlaaex and Someraet, in New Jeraey, and of the foun tiea of Orange and Uieter, in the Province of New York." The map waa exhibited. It ia on a acale of about half an inch to a mile, and purports to have been made by a aociety of gentlemen in America, " from ac tual aurveya and other authentic information." It ia without date, but aeema to have been made during the revolutionary war, about the year 1777 or 1778, Fort Lee being marked aa deatroyed, and Fort Putnam not being mentioned, aa it doubtleaa would have been, had it been then built, aa the fortifications generally, and Fort In dependence, in ita immediate vicinity, are carefully noted. The roada, rivera, awampa and mountaina, are given with particularity, aa if for military purpoaea; aa alao churchea, taverna and bridgea, and aome private re aidencea, among which are thoae ol Gov. Livingaton and Lord Stirling. The map extenda from Trenton, on the aouth, to Eanpua, on the Hudaon ; and takea in Eaaton, Pennsylvania, on the wait. Mr. Stevena, by whom it ia preaented, ia, we believo, aaon of the preaident of the Vermont Hiatorical Society, and ia now engaged in making historical researches and antiquarian collections in Londou. Mr. Bartlktt, Foreign Correaponding Secretary, atated to the meeting that he had applied to the British government, through Ganaevoort .Melville, Esq., Ama titan Secretary of Legation in London, for the various reporta and public documents published by the houses of Lords and f ommona, lor the Hiatorical Society. In reply, Mr. Melville atated that he would render every aid in hia power, and by the next steamer would com municate the adequate ioformation as to the proper mode of procuring the documents referred to. Mr. Gallatin here observed that though we had fre quently prase: ted public documents to the British go vernment, the same had, he believed, never bean done by them in return, or in any way. Mr. G bbs, the Libiarian, read a letter from Mr. Her mann E. Ludwig, a German gentleman, who has spent aome yeara in this country, and devoted much timi- to literary and historical investigations, accompanying a new and valuable work by himself, entitled " The Lite rature of American Local History, a Bibliographical Essay." Among other donation* ware the Transaction* of the Dorcheater and Maryland Historical Societies; alio of the Aroerioan Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, and of the N. J. Historical Society, presented by the respec tire societies ; the Bine Book, from the publishers ; Magnetic Observations made at Washington, by Lieut. Oilliss, If. S. A., from the author ; Report on Finance, from B. B French, Liq ; Force's Tracts, Vol. III., from the Hon. Peter Force, or Washington ; Colton's Life of Clay, from the author ; Report of N. Y. Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, from O. W. Morris ; several curious MS papers of the dates of 1737 and 1781, presented by Jemes U. Wilson and Joshua Vandewater. A number of purchases were also announced. A great number of nomination* of proposed members were made, which, being received, are to be acted upon by the Executive Committee. Professor Roeimo* moved a resolution, to the effect that a memorial from the society be transmitted to Con gress, petitioning against the repeal of that privilege now granted to library societies, lie., by which they are enabled to import foreign book* for the use of their institutions free of duty; which privilege to these public bodies it was proposed, in the new tariff, to repeal; said memorial, when prepared, to be transmitted to the other societie* ol other States, for their co-operation in the tame object. Mr. ScHooLrasrT, on the part of a committee to whom the subject bad been committed, presented and read a highly interesting report concerning the pottery manu facture and utensils of the aboriginal Indians of this con tinent. Mr. Schoolcraft remarked, that the subject had notreceived sufficient attention to allow of much gene ralizing. The article* submitted to them were kettles, pots, stew pans, tic., taken from mounds and burrows; some oftbem bad been broken, probably in order to ren der them useless and prevent their removal. Nearly all have figures upon them; and from their general charac teristics, seem to have been made by iDdiins stationary in their habits, such as De Soto describee. Most ofthem were discovered by Mr. Hitchcock, in Florida mounds, in 1641?mounds from twelve to eighteen feet in height, constructed of send and toil, and may have been erected simply to preserve the buryinggroundi from being overflowed and carried away t>y the riea of the river* The bonee found by Mr. H were all iu a fitting posture, and the mounds were circular. In one he found a cop per coin, and In another a clay pipe, with tobacco still adhering to it; and also clam shells, of a kind not now known The skeletons were arranged in indiating cir cle*, with the lest outward, ai.d the vessel* between them. The mounds and stpulchrsa ni the countrv all show that the object was to preserve the remains of their dead. The state of their arts is partly shown by the discovery of a potter's wheel, with a vessel in process of completion, as if suddenly stopped by tome catas trophe. It] is a question whether the Florida pottery bed been b iked prior to use, although it* rod color fa vors the idea. If so, the burning was badly done, as it did not ponatrata to the centro. It ia made of clay, with particles of mica, and soma from a rich marl There appear to have been no vseee proper: one of the vessele resembles a funnel, and may have bean uaad to prepare a precious driok for feasts, as the celebrated black drink, to give courage to warriors. The orna ments upon their exterior, embrace dots,circles, tic ,end simple geometrical Aguree; some of tbo curves cannot fail to recall thoe* on Etruscan vases, resembling the letter It. They appear to have boen borrowed from ar chitectural ornament*. Drawings from the specimen! of pottery accompanied the report, and the several de vices were remarked upon in succeeeion. Heeds of a duck, a gull, and an owl, appear in one border, and in another two feathers. Mr. Schoolcraft then described a black kattla of the Algonquin*, some three centuries old. and compared it with the pottery of Florida, and referred to a tradition of the Shawnees, that Florida was formerly occupied by white men; and that old knives ware found in the land, la 1843, a vaaa of pottery was sent to Mr. Gallatin, from th* Mississippi valley, eight inches high, similar to one sent from the Genesee valley by Mr Hosmer; end an interesting question arise* as to the race, of whoso early civilization these various apeci aiena are tokens. Mr. Moansis, of Rochester, reed a paper on the struc ture and principles of the confederacy whioh long ex isted among the Indian tribe* of th* Iroqui*. To pro vide a body of rulers, there war* fifty permanent here ditary sachem ships, nearly equally divined among the several nation*. On* of them presided over th* council. To each saobam was given an under sachem to aid and represent him. The office of chief was elective, and was created after their intercourse with th* white* The Seneca* claim the right of famishing two military chiefs, and taking th*,wer path. Th* Mokawka also claim a military cbiaftanship. In each nation there wore dsns, with such names as the bear, deer, turtle, he ?

The wolf tribe was divided into twelve parts. Generally each was divided into aigat. making forty in nil, and there existed the U* of brotherhood between different nation* with the saaa* name, showing tha grunt strength and influence of the old confederacy. The Tuacaroms, admitted in 1814, were never allowed to have a lachem ?hip. Ont of the division of tribe* and clansbfp, arose their pecnliar law* a* to marriage, hospitality,lie. Their law* of deicent are pecnliar and original. All pa*a in the female line, 10 that the preient aacbem cannot be auc ceeded by either of hi* aoni, but by bi* *i*tei'* son.? Tbi* i* modified by the right it the tribe to depoie and elect, at any time when they think proper. Soon after an infant'* birth, the family cboote a name, which 1* announced at the next council. When one ia selected a lachem, he renounce* hi* old name and take* a now one. To the Mohawk* ha* been universally conceded the pre eminence a* due to their superior services In the council they were styled neutral, and they were the receiver* of tribute from all foreign nations. The Onondagas were next in the order of precedence. The Seneca* next, who were the doorkeeper*. The Oneida*, styled the Oreat Tree, from having concluded a treaty with the whites under the shad* of a large tree. The Cayugas, the Oreat Pipe. The Tuscaroras were last, and had no national epithet. All their business was done in gene ral council, of which each waa notified; and when they assembled the fire was kindled, and tho foreign messen ger called upon to state the object for which the fire was kindled; and than the council discussed and decided the question; voting by majorities and minorities was unknown. All their proceedings were marked by una nimity; and they seem to have voted by nation and classes rather than by *achem*hips. At the council convened for raising up sachemship*, were practiced the games which pdlsess such irresisti ble attractions. I attended at one where five of the six nation* had assembled for the purpose. On the day the ceremony of the reception took place, they remained at a diatance, merely announcing i heir arri val. The reception was rude but dignified. The de ceased were lamented by the tribes as a son or a father, according to the class to which he had belonged An harangue was then made by the wis* man, explaining the law by the strings of wampum. The national or Canization of the several tribe* was independent. The Irecian oligarchy doe* not precisely represent the oii garchy of the Iroquois,but there were strong features of resemblance. That ot the Indian approached to demo cracy a* far as was consistent with their wandering and irregular life. Originally there was no provision for the election of chiels. The body of chiefs here conti nued to increase their power, until they claimed an equality with the sachems. Even Red Jacket never at tained the dignity of a sachem, and Brant was only a chiof, the lowest office known among the Iroquois. On tho whole, no government could have been belter adapt ed for the purposes of defence, being founded on clan 'hips. The thanks of the society were unanimously voted to Mr. Morgan for his learned disquisition. Commodore DxKsr moved that a committee be ap Stated to raise funds tor the repair of the Lawrence onumentin Trinity Church yard, which is now falling into decay. The motion was seconded and unanimously adopted, and a committee of three were forthwith ap. pointed by the chair; whereupon the meeting adjourned. farmers* Club. Tniidty being one of the aemi-inonthly stated meet ings of this Club?which appears to increase in the ac cession of members end general interest of its objects there was a vary full attendance of farmers and visitora in the new room of the Institute. Upon < ol. Clarke being elected chairman, and the reading of the proceed, ings of the last meeting dispensed with, Mr. Meigs pre tented to the attention of the members a diminutive sized potato, not eaceeding the size of a riflebullat.for. warded fiom Maracaibo, and supposed to be thei seed of tho original vegetable. Specimens of California ?quash, capable oi producing an article from five to fif teen pounds weight, was eahibited and dietrihuted to the members A communication waa read upon the sub iect of compost, the definition of the term explained, and the constituent ingredients,rotten leaves, horse and cow manure, fern earth, common soil, sand, oil coke, pigeon manure, kc., recommended in lion. A letter was read from D. B. Clay, E>q , of Ken tucky, (son of Henry Clay) acknowlerig'Pg the honor by the society, in electing him its^o"es^nding Secretsry for the West?his acceptance of the distinction, and his readiness to contribute to the benefit of the Institute. Mr. Clay's letter was accompanied by a specimen of the water rotted hemp raised upon his father's farm at Ash land, and of a quality as delicate in thread as the ordi nary quality ol flax. The Secrdtary produced "! men of the ground nut. rawed by the chairman, Colonel Clark, which was handed to a member for cultivation. A communication was read from Dr. Lee, of Rocheiter on the subject of the agricultural school jn Monroe county, which, as Mr. Waleman observed, with that in Duchess and Orange county, forms the third to this Htato.all illustrating the eatonaioo of the scion?e and practice of agriculture. A letter was reed from Mr. Dallech, on the best method of the keeping of cows, sy s tem of soiling, Ice. Extracts were read from documents published by the Irish commissioners.on their survey of Ireland, of the best lands calculated lor the growth of Has, by which it appears that an income of a miMonol pounds sterling is annually derived from its cultivation The Flax Improvement Society, of Belfast, sent young | men to Belgium, to learn the process of stooping and saving flax, and the result bas been, the production of an article not inferior to the finest hrench cambnck The crop in Ireland, in 1841, amounted to 25 000 tons, 1844 increased to 40,000, worth two millions of pounds starling, exported to England, France, and Scot land: by this average 80 stone, of fl*x " eore, 24 pounds to the stono et six shillingsa ?tone, would give the cultivator a most ramunersting profit. A letter was reed from D. 8. McOowsn. from Minnpo, Chine, explaining the qualities of factures now on their way to the iMtitate, end pro?*nt ed by him, consisting of common brick tylos, Chinese cutlery, grass twine, bamboo brushes, soap made from lard, canvass made of tho tallow tree, cotton manufsc tnres, kc. Thar# was a suggestion offered in an sriicle from Mr. Eldridgo. on tho subject of removing the p?dato ton after it had boiled i which drew from the Chairman hit beliaf that the disease had passed its virulence, end would not be In existence in the ensuing crop Dr. Underbill drew the attention of tho Club to a moat healthy fertUiaing, end it would appear indespensa ble grass, called " sparry." or " spurbai " wh,ch is universally used in Germany end Donm*/.?/wssVxhf age ei d toiling. A smell quantity of the seedTfthfat bited to Us Club, and strongly recommended to the et tention of the iermere, end e committee wee ascertain its properties. There was a fl? Mr. Stevenson, to whoso cere the petition forwarded by the Instituto to the Legislature, for en extonsion of tbo time of granting a premium for the cultiyitionoffUx in which that gentleman gave bia hope of a ?ooces'ful isaue to tho memorial of the petitioners. The merits ol e plough invented by George Watts, were discussed, end handed over to the consideration of e committee sp pointed to exsmino it A very fsvoruble from the Ohio Mechsnice' Instituto. Dr- Und'?'"*? reeled an opinion which had been sttnbuted to him on the menu of bono* a* e manure. He advocated bones ae e manure in every form, but in none ere they 10 fresh, which contain gelatine end other lmportent elementa, of nutritious qualities. To ? "'JJJ bone duet, thai doctor seemed te advocate their use for furnipe. Profeesor Mapee expUined the I*' latioe and phoephato contained in t{1.* <~Ct!" fL and the usee f hese ere generally applied to by sugar re finers; the boaee if caicined*in an open produc ing 86 per cent of phosphate, and 18 of gelatine. ^ The regular subject of debate, ' The Grape J1**' next followed as the order of th- day, when Dr. Under bill was called upon lot hie viowa upon the cuMuiwjua nagsment. kc. ofthe vine, to which the doctorres pond ed in a series of remarks, eminently calculated toencou rage the cultivation of tho plant, to ho had de voted a life of unremitting to.l and attention Itaa k* experience enumerable intereat was exhibited by tbo eulience, end much information convey ad,.fromthei ac knowledged euccee. of his vineyards, as devalopsd ia the progress of his remarks. Attar paying a just tri liute to the grape, from the eanitary influence it nee con ferred upon mankind (unfermented ) the figurative end emblematic veneration with which, from tho r*"or'J . holy, w*ll aa profano hiatorjr, it waa hell 1U Jit tue eiflbelliahment of claatteal oroamanU, chimrtr pieces, vasos, kc erincel the multiplicity^of forms which the peeulier and flexible properties ofthatree combines, all tending to .euder iu cultivation a matter of interest. The doctor freely explained the system by which ho has so successfully triumphed over climate and contingencies, discarding the aid of all foroig works, as not suited to thie hemisphure.and reilyi g upon that sxperience and watchfulness of hls own, that admits of no contradiction. In kraDca alone, inr,h? *? 1830, fourteen thousand millions of P*"0" of were made up, of which two thoumnd milhons were consumed at the table, or converted Into ralHns. The doctor advocated the general cultivation of th# gTUpn. without reference to eoil-choosing a drv or stony eon in preference; end considered Uie lsetmlf. e^ Cetowb. vines aa the best suited to the climate. These grepea will lost 100 veare, while the vines in England ere rn nn > I lv dewenerating. Doctor Underhlll recommends long pruning ; for manure-ell animal bo""' bona dust, street manure, rich Ttnis wl raDid He hae not tried guano, but is of"^?n,lMirhiu ?P0f island could bo converted Into a vinoyMd. To a question from the chair, had bo usod asoea r we doctor replied, th.t on sandy land Mho. art gemd. To another, on the time of the year for prwatog. tbo dttotor declared that tho month of March waa tho occasionally it may be dona in Vobru y. d ,,j, o. , ?_ vfp Williams when the time irHfad for the ow t H^tuion of plants oftr inee and other fruit After which, tho cfnb edjournod, first appointing to examine tho ipocimen of flax presented by Mr. Clay. A number of free colored people In Beltlmore formed . ..nianv some monthe ago, to buy a vteeel to run be tween^aftimore and Liboria, aa a regular trader The rloitol was all aubscribed, but the enterprise has been interrupted, for soma roaaon or other, and nothing hae been don# in tho matter since January. Judce Whiting holds a special term at Auburn, on the let Mondayta June, for the trial of Wyatt and Free BID General Oaineahaa figured out a gigantic for the defence of New Orleans from Mexican or Engllih invasion. Tho plan Include# forts cheveanx do J?*?, floating batteries and Martollo towers. Th" in to be defended by a battalion of steamboaf o?cera, and manned by oompeaies of regular artillery Indiana, Franklin county, March 31, 1846. The Feeling at the fVett on the Oregon Que*lion? Forty-nine or Fifty four Forty t I beg leave to make a remark through your wide spread and spirited journal, (which has pioneered its way into every nook and corner of Christendom) as one of the people ol the wide-spread and thriving West. And In doing so, I shall not give my private or particular views, but the views and leclings of the great mass of the people west of the mountains who have la milies, lands and homes to protect, and who decign the well being and prosperity of our common'country. In order thet! may be understood as to my political composition, I am, and ever have been, a democrat, la the most American acceptation of the term ; and raised in the West. At this exciting moment, when the politi cal atmosphere is surcharged with the warlike, and sul phurous explosions from the lungs of some of our West ern lawgivers at the national capitol : and such volumi nous comments are made by many, in relation to West ern Are, fury, Aerceness, and bravado ; 1 wish to say, in behalf of the people of the West, thatHltbough we feel ourselves necessarily conAned in the interior of the empire (therefoie comparatively safe in case of foreign invasion) and have not the facilities and ad vantages of that higher order of intelligence and refine ment, that obtains in many of the Atlantic States, still wo do not feel that we are without the pale of civilisa tion, or honorable feelings, and honesty of purpose, and profess to hove as ardent desires to put the golden rule in force, as any other peopl e and act in accordance with its precepts and commands, among ourselves and our fellow citizens of sister States; and likewise to have our beloved country so act, in its intercourse with other nations. We ask for nothmg but our own, as indivi duals, or as an integral part of the nation; and if there is any doubt as to the validity of our claims, we are not only willing but anxious, to have every mild measure of iavestigaiion resorted to for the removal of those doubts, pro or con, ere coercive measures are instituted in order to possess ourselves of them, and then only as a dernier alternative Such is Western usage and West ern character, in the main, and we cannot but believe that our Eastern brethren would appreciate us more highly were they more familiarly conversant with the cardinal virtues of Western life We of the West are looking with the most intense interest and anxiety lit the controversy now being carried on in Congress, and seize with avidity every sentence that drops from tho lips of the speakers, (and given to the world by the re porters,) engaged in the discussion of the Oregon title - that all absorbing and momentous topic now passing the ordeal of investigation by so many wise heads and patrio tic hearts at Washington. And so far from its being the feelings of the people of the Mississippi and Ohio valleys, to "raise their voice for war," as is supposed in the East, it ia the wish and prayer of all who have any thing at stake in its event, or wish well to their country or their kiud, that its murderous, destroying and frightful mien may never again be suffered to blow mildew and death among this people,and paralyse and impoverish the com mercial and other business resources of the country. I am aware that these views are diametrically opposite from those entertained of us by our fellow citizens in the Atlantic States, they reasoning from analogy, and Judging from the inAammetory appeals in the united States Senate and House. Now, I wish, in the name of the rttyoniih* portion of the democracy of the far West, to enter an unqualified protest against any such idea or thought being entertained, as founded upon fact. Those men are far from being the personifi cation of Western thought, on the Oregon controversy. They are not the embodiment of Western feeling, or Western wish; for their course has been, evidently, from the beginning of the session, spurred on by an overweening anxiety for individual notoriety, and to require the reputation of leaders, without any regard to what they lead, whether to paradise or perdition. All see. and all feel it, who are capable of contemplating their rash course in its true light; and I would kindly suggest to those gentlemen, that numbers of their warm est lilends regret their egregrious oveisight, to say the least of it, in thus instating upon throwing "firebrands, arrows and death," into the very bosom of this nation, by arousing, as it were, the ire of Christendom against it, when a calm, dignified, temperate and senatorial bearing, would have had the reverse effect. It is some what surprisirg, and to be regretted, that public func tionaries, who are selected by the suffrages of a sober, well-meaning constituency, to do them justice, and to represent them faithfully, and endeavor to contribute to the common weal of the nation, should thus play the charlatan, ride, John Gilpin like, over everything that crosses their path, without listening to rhyme or rea son ( create dissensions in their party, and instead ef appeasing, struggle to arouse the wrath of other nations towards their country ; . , and all for the gratification of a selfish, unworthy, and unholy ambition 1 Verily, we have among us the germs of n " reign of terror." if those germs could he allowed to develops?unchoked? to full maturity. Now, all this may sound congenially upon the tympanum of grave Senators; hut we, of the back woods, demur to such a course, and protest sgainst such flatulent appeals being made in the Senate chamber. Those Senators are better known at home than abroad, and, it is believed, la this meridian, that if the hearts ot the American people are not prepared for hostilities, un til they follow the recipe of some warrior, either from precept or example, that Mrs Gaines will have no trou ule in keeping the collars upon the dogs of war. The fact is, false colors ere hung out?loquaciousness is too often taken for mental greatness, and is too often suc cessful, when accompanied by chicanery and subtlety, in "pioneering its way to victory," over minds highly imbued with fairness, profoundness and honesty of put. pose. Those men claim to be the mouth piece and em bodied wish of the executive. Bat we of the tVest, can. not credit it; we cannot believe that the President is i men of such violent, ruthless and reckless passions. We were pleased to see his communication to the represen tatives of the people, so plain end cogent in relation to Oregon; but we believed, and still believe, that like the heroes and patriots who have filled the exalted niche which he now occupies, he would solely study the well-being, and nothing but the well being, of bis coun try, and the happiness of his counfiymen. That be would act untrammelled by party, or party prejudice, for the "whole people." This he proclaimed from the rostrum at Cincinnati, when on hie way to the capitol. in February, IMS, at which time I bad thi honor and plea sure of being on the committee for his reception to the city ; and we have seen nothing to throw doubt upon the belief, at that time so fondly cherished. And the people trust that Mr. Polk will not suffer himielf to be goaded on to rashness, by the Aery spoutings of Senators about the " Baltimore Convention " Now, pray let me enquire, what has this Baltimore Convention?this cher ished text book?to do with the official duties of the Pre sident 7 Those members would fain make the people be lieve that they are enthusiastic admirers of political Adel ity, and are constantly dercanting upon the duties of the executive, as connected In some way with this Baltimore Convention ; as though the official conduct of an Ame rican President, who administers this government for the weal or woe of twenty millions of freemen, was to be dictated or guided by any convention, short of a con vention of angels, and the spirits of just men made per fect, or the convention of 1787, whose deliberations ware for the term of two years, and whose, almost superhu man wis leml conceived and granted a chatter to govern him I Out upon such demagognism?reporters', don't pen it?printers don't print it-people, don" read it, lest the spirits of the patriots of the revolution appear to yon - lest the ghosts of the fathers and framers of the constitution haunt you?lest yoor own sin for perusing it, should rise up in Judgment egainst you I adjure you to beware of this foul libel upon the love of country, leet its deleterious effects may lead vou astrav, and ere you are aware of it. you take a leap in the dark, over the pre cipice of inevitable tuin. Can the doctrine be tolerated for a moment, that the happiness of this people is to be nut in jeopardy by the hasty resolutions, and run the imminent hazard of being sacrificed upon the shrine, of the Bsltimore Convention 7 the members of which were celled together in hot haste.J for the purpose of naminr a candidate for the Presidency, and whose deliberations, from the very nature ef things, must have been tossed to and fro by a whirlwind of enthtt?i*sm and excitement, as, is a matter of history, that thry were Still we heal the stentorian voices of those honorable Senators echo ing through the the halls of the Senate on the binding forco of this convention, npon the official acts of the Ex ecutive. One would he led to think, from the remarks ol Senators, that the members of that convention, during their deliberations, manufactured a huge skeleton, and after wiring it together and setting it up, put forth an uJrssr that the sole business of their nominee (if elected) and Congresa for the next fonr years, should be to clothe it with mutclee, " nerves," blood vessels, cuticle, anima tion, Ac.; so that, at the expiration of tr a olympiad, it should stand forth to the people equal in dimenaiona and terror, to tho horrid image in Nebuchadnezzar'* dream. Away, I say, with such nonsense, snch ? emagogne doc trines?let the stone et the people smite thi* Image, and dash it in place* ; and let them hear no more about the deliberation* of American Senators end Presidents be ing manacled end pinioned in their official acts, by the momentary enthusiastic resolutions of any convention or party. It is monstrous, end an inanlt to the constituency of any member. As it regard* the Oregon controverey, we, of the West,feel well assured that if wise heads and patriotic heart* keep the ascendency, ell will end well that there will be no compromi?ing|eitbar the honor, the dignity, or the integrity of our country; save whet shall be in strict accordance with the dictate* of Justice and equity, to ell parties concerned. But during the hour, 64 40 the "Star of Austerlilt," was in the ascendant, the whole basin of the great Western valley qu* k#d,?nticipst log, in feet, that "war was inevitable,"and that we might soon bear the thundering of British cannon come boom ing over the mountains ; and no on* hereabouts doubts that if the country bad been so unfortunate as to havo had the whole (Congress composed of such Hotspurs, that the spring sun of I94A. instead cf shining upon enr smiling At Ids?thriving villages?busy, opulent, com mereial marts?our happy, free, and prosperous pooplo, sitting banoath their own vine sod Ag tree, quietly en joying the fruits ef their labor?would have thrown its enlivening rays, in vain, upon a disturbed, distracted, an 1 invaded people*, and glanced upon A fly thousand hristliog British bayonets in the Canada*, the tame nam bar of Anglo-Mexicans assembled on the Rio Grand, and a darkening Beet of British line of hettlo shine hovering upon ear coestt;lell with nnity ef feeling, and concert ol action, reedy to pounco upon this nation, spreading con Aagrvtion,slaughter, end dismay, and all the othsr count leas ills that follow in the bloody train of hostile strife, consummating the horrors of war. Hon. Charles W. Whipple, and Hon. Werner Wing, have boon appointed Judges of the Supreme Court of Michigan, for the constitutional term of seven yeara, and wore conirmod by the Senate. Henry Hoffman, the Rochester former, boa been bailed la the sum of fooo BIGELOW'S NEW ENGLAND EXPRESS. FOR Fitchbarg, Kcene, Ureenfield, Brattle bo ro, Windsor, Woodatork, Montuelier, and Burlington, Vt., and the Cu DA das. Ail Packages, Parcels and business, to any o? tin a bore towns,or anf P*rtof the western portion of Now Hawpokifo and Vermont, will be faith/ally attended to if diractnd to (ha care of L. B lGELO W, ? Court street, Boston. N. B.?Be iore to mark rack*tea to care of " Bigelow's If preen 1 EAGLE.COFFEE HOUSE AND BATHS, NO. 5M Pearl street, between Centreabd Kim?Waiai, cold and shower Baths, eqaal to thoae in aar house in the city, at UK cents; Lodgings, > "h good clean beds. UK eta; Board ing and Lodging, $2 SO per week, la the reading toom will bo fouud newspapers trom London, Liverpool, and all the prinsi p<l eitiea of the United States as Im'rh tUKT WELL'S WASHINGTON HOUSE, dda Cheotnmt Street, PHILADELPHIA. ia i N mtn BATH8 Inst introduced?Warm and Cold?in fine Mart meats, for both ladies and gentleman; and the en tire erga nuation and fitting np of every depurtmeal of the Wasniugtoa Home.complete mT lm*re MANSION HOUSE, M1DDLKTOWN, CONNECTICUT. THE UNDERSIGNED begs leave to anaoeoee to hto frieuda and the public, that he hie leaaed (ho above boqgo for a term of years, and hopes, by long experieece and strict attention to business, to merit a liberal share of their patronage JOHN L. MONROE, mrl Jtn*re Komerly of the U. 8 Hotel, Boston. HaVaNa sEgaRS. 100,000 Vary Superior, received per lata arrival! from Havana, vie: Noreisga'a, Victoria's, Wandering Jaw's, Bayadara's, Emilio't, Nab'ja's, and rlantstion Began, all warranted of the highest grade o< Tobacco. The advertiser is receiving couaigumenta nl the finer uaalitiee of Havana Be gan by every veaael from Hav ma, with advicea to close flee I roraptlv, and will, therefore, sell at one or two dollars leas per tn'insand, than any other importer. Country merchants and hotel ke?p-ra will find it to thsir iuteroat to call. mr JWrrc GEOKOE WKLLS. Jr.. ltd Front afreet. INEEDLE 6c FISH-HOOK MAN UFACTOK Y, Maiden Lane. WM. CROWLEY It BON, manufacturers of the above articles, reapectfally inform the importers of New Yoik and other cities, that they have now on hand a large stock of the above articles, which they are willing to sell at a small ad vance from the manufacturing prices. Any of the trade, or im porters, nan hare their naedlee labelled with iheur owe name, if desired. . _ _ .. . P. 8. ? Robkbt CaowLcr, importer of Sheffield and Bir mingham floods, in part of the shove store fit Imrrr TO DEALERS IN FISHING TACKLE. A LARUE assortment of Chiua Grass fishing Lines, and Salmon and Tront 81k Worm Uutt. to suit city or eoaa try dealers. Every article 111 fishing taikle will be foand at reasonable price-, st CON ROV'8FishingandSportirtTackle Establishment, M kultoust, c, ruer of C'iff. al lm*rh WINES, BRANDIES, GIN, See. RA CABE8 very old Madeira Wiee. each 1 doxee, brands, trU Blackburn, Leal, Newton, Oordoa h Co; 8 eases fins old Amontillado and Duff U01 don Sherry, in do; Otard, Dw puy It Co. Brandy, in half pipes aud qr earns; A. Beignette in do; old Pale Cognac, ltll, in qr casks aud eighths, of n vary superior quality. The above wines are of a high grade, bottled by the tern Oeo BementfO years ago,and for sale low, by K. B. DALY, Successor to at lm*re Beiaent It Castle, M Broad at, OFFICE OF JEFFERBON~IN8URA NCE COMPANY J New Yoai r ebruary id, 1M. I AT AN ELECTION for Directors ol this Iastitaooa, for the ensaing year, held this day, the following aimed gso (Jcman were elected each _ DIRECTOR* Thomas WThorae, Elisha Rings, Thomas T. Woodruff, ? Anson Baker, S. R. Robson, M. D. Joseph Drake, Thomson Price, Joseph Allen, Motes Tucker, James E. Holmes, John R. Davison, John P. Moore, John H. Lee, WUl'am K. Thorn, Caleb C. Tnnis, Thomas Morrell, Francis P Bsge, Eugene Bogart, John C. Memtt, Robert Smith. At a snbaeqnent meeting of the Board, THOMAS w THORNE, Eaq., was unanimously ro-elsctad President to th* ensnmg venr OF.O T HOPE. Beeiemrv flrra FRENCH ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS. HENRY Jc KAHN, JMPORTERS, 53 NASSAU STREET, UP STAIRR, have received, by late arrivili from their hoaae in rang, and offer for sale, a very large and choice selection ol the NEWEST STYLES OF ARTIFICIAL FLOWERB, in bunches, wreaths, sprigs, garlands, he fcc., together with a most extensive assortment of MATERIALS FOR AR'I IF1CIAL FLOWER MAKERS, embracing a variety nntorpassed in richness, and eatent by any other importation. Also?Artificial flowers by the case, imported evptessly for the Jobbing and couutry trade. m24 lm"r TO COUNTRY BOOKSELLERS. SPECIAL NOTICE.?THE ORAEFENBERO PILL ? COMPANY are now organizing efficient agencies in svery town, city and village in the United States, the British Pro vinces, West ladies and parts of Booth America. A* a geee rnPrule, the company will appoint Booksellers only as their Agents. In no case will a druggist be employed, and there will be but one general agent in any town. The arrangements of the Oraefrnburg Pill Company are such as will msarea large aale lor their Pills, and good agents will find the agency t good business. It be ng d urable to rpen the different agen cies simultaneously, noue of the Pills will be offered for sdn until the whole system of agencies is organized, which will require some little time. Booksellers wilt find it for their in terest to call at tne office of the comp-n?, which will be for the present at No. 164 Nass-u street, nest door to Tammany Hall. FRANCIS M. PRATT, General Agent. P.S.?The extraordinary virtuee of the Or. efenbnrg Vega table Pills, and the philosophy of their action upon the na man system, will be rally explained at an early day. It is ao cs-sary at this time only to say that they era eery far saporier to Brandreth's, Moffat's, or any other pills, and will immedi ately becomethe leading pill of the day. al! Strc BILLIARDS IMPROVED. |"hTT18 FIELD, respectfully informs his friends and the v/ public, that he has retnrned to his old favorite quarters, BAbBKOKD'S ROOMS, entrance IK Ann at, ad 1 outing the Mnseum building, or 149 Fulton street. The Rooms and Ta blet have been pat in perfect order. The Tablet are 8<aM, Marble and Iron, with Air, India Rnbber and Cloth Cushions. They will no donbt suit European and all great planers, be1 the best in this coantry. Larger balls for Southerners?C linn balls for (Jrrmsnt. N. B.?Bsssford s new style Billiard Tables for sale; India and French Cue Leather, best ia the eity; line Billiard Cloth, sad every article! n the trade, constantly on hand and for sale f? Im'mc NEW TARIFF. IMPORTANT NEWS to Shippor* of Grain ui Farm Produce to Great Britain. A new law baring passed the Legislature, admitting the im putation of foreign euro and provisions at a rery low rate of doty, an opportunity will be giren to tboee who are deairoua to ahip to the Ulaigow market, to open a good connexion with the aubacriber, who haa been fifteen ream in tne Grain and Proriaioo trade ; and aa there haa hitherto been none at any importance, or who had any practical knowledge of that trade in Glasgow, a better opportunity could not be desired by resfwctable houaea to form a couuectiou in that market. Lib eral advances will be given to ahippera. Krom the subscribers long experience and knowledge of the Grain and Proriaion Trade, and alao hia friendly intimacy with the buyera, a large and respectable trade may be calcu lated upon. Tha aubacriber bega to refer shippers to Mr. A. H. Finlay. Aator House. ROBERT ROBERTSON, mil lm'rc (3 Union street, Glasgow BUILDERS AN D CAK PENTERS. A CHOICE LOT OF WHITE PiNE LUMBER, well seasoeed, now landing at the new Inmber yard earner or Weit and D-abroaaes streets, North river, which Will be sold eh-np for cash, by ?Tlw'rre WM. M. FOBTPt FURNITURE FLUSH. UpHE SUBSCRIBERS hare raceired from their maoefaeW 1 ry an extensive assortment of plain and emboaaed rural E turn Flushes, of all colors and qaalitiea, anitnble for coaeb, and railroad car makers v. CAILLEL'X, KIL8 SOLKLIAO It CO.. al lm?t IM Pearl a-veet ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS. VOELKNKR bega lease to acquaint his friends and eastomrrs, that hia rlegaat stock of Artificial Flowers, both French and American manufacture, has not received the lea?t injury by the late fire at IM William street, as the goo da were r?mov?.l in lime. E V. wi I continue 11 sell wholesale and retail, at the loweat prices, at IM William atreet, aad baga dealers 10 mapeet hia stock he lore buying elsewhere, al lw'tO BIRD CAGE MANUFACTORY, O. 1 St Johot' Lane corner Beach (treat. The Subscrib er would inform bir Customers aa the Pablie, th-t he has cms autly on hand, a la ge srnck of facc|andi eoi N has . Bird I ages, of all fleaeriptionaT which he will sell ihaa ih-y cm be bought elsewhere. Also, Cages made to order. J. KELLY. P. 8.?Country Merchanti would And it to their adreneefe to call and eiamine hia it< ek ^ lw*r NEW CLOTH STOKE. KNOEPFEL fe FOOTE, No. 3S John itreaL THE aubacribera hare eatabliahed a CLOTH STORE at No. M John atreet, and having jnat received a large and well selected stock of desirable goods, would ravito the altan tinu of purchasers to their assortment, consisting in part of dm FRE^H. ENGLISH, GERMAN AND AMUUCAN CIOTMS AND CAS8IMERE8, Drap d'Ete; Deap d'Foie; Fancy Tweeds: and a fell ataok of Sum mi r Goods. SiKin; Serges; Velvets:and a large aaaectuseut of the newest aad most fashionable style of laney Caaetmeree and Vestinga. Alao, a fall stock of TAILORS'TRIMMINGS. The at teotion of Tailors is partienlnrly requested to oar stock, as ?? traoidinarv indncemeoU will be offered them, aad they ara ro as?""ui" "~iN&s?reL,,rtwH~ flT lm*r No. fib John street. &ARON1 St ARCHER, 131 Water street, corner of Maldoit lame, HAVE ON HAND, a large assort meet of Tape Silk and Far Hits, of every description, aad Spriagityle, Straw aad Panima Hats. Alao, Oil Silk. Glased Laws, Vigors aad Cap-stoeka. wkieh thev offer at very low prices. . , Dealers aad mauahctnres will do well to'snmiae Agfa stock hefove parchaaiag elwwheea. "'* '? ?W C ALT.-I4M sacks of Aaktoos. in p-lme ordsv, on board fee O ship St Patrick, from Liverpool For stle in let* to suit "Vv'te APP,TI? DAVID OODEN.M Wallafc HARbWARE, ClirLfakV AW SPIES ft CO., havieg removed to ft Maiden laaa. . offer a large and well ported atoek of Htudware, Cat Icry Unas sad Ona Materia*. by recent importations, at fw ." low prices lor ra.h or arpvoved peper at tm<k Orchard Rod Ash, at " "I'okon fit ?J; large |P positively depend Vet Kit clinton I AKU ?IM kartell aad ltd keg*, just received and for sale L? l>? *? * COI.LINnl I-O. M fewwhev all LUiK.^cH lUNaR HLLS-Ladie* will find the care as* I* rlr (pa 4i#Annointiti#R?^ *t Iff 1 C'OlL,! rtAl^t.?1 hirty'7woeaekr^7ri7^TroT^me?r zt 'M> o R inch, in t aad M cwt. casks. For sale by ?diw?rf W. CHANCR.Ir.Td Johaati