Newspaper of The New York Herald, April 19, 1846, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated April 19, 1846 Page 1
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THE NEW YORK HERALD. NEW YORK, SUNDAY MORNING, APRIL 19, 1846. "? STEAMER OREGON ASHORE! We received news yesterday moraine that the steamer Oregon had gone on to n rook nt Hurl Gate. We immediately dispatched a reporter to the place, who found her lying high and dry, about one hundred 100 feet from what is oalled Flood Rock. The manner of her striking was as follows!?she was coming through the Gate at n quarter before four yesterday morning, the second pilot, Mr. Pendleton, being at the wheel. The first pilot, Capt. Howard, had gone below a short time before, when, as she was oemiagpaet Flood Rock abe got into a current, which made her sheer so much, that although four men were immediately at the wheel, it was found impossible to bring her up before she struck. This was probably owing to her ) great length and flexibility. She first struck a smalf rock and jumped over it, and then'alid on to the rock, or rather pile of rocks, where she now lays. The striking made but very little noise at the time, as the boat seemed to slide on rather than strike suddenly. There were about 800 passengers on board, among wht m was a large proportion of ladiea. Many of the passengers were not awakened at the time; while others, being suddenly awakened, leaped out of their berths snd burst through the panels of their state room doors, and made a quick descent with what they could catch of their clothing. Those on board informed us, however, that there was but very little confusion, and that all on board seemed impressed with a sense of the necessity of keeping calm at such a moment. The water, at the time of the boats strik ing, was just covering the rocks; it is only about six or seven inches over the rocks at high tide, and at low tide, the rock. is about a foot out of water. Therefore, there was but little water made, particu. larly as the break is not bo much a hole as a bulging in, the timbers being sprung up. In about twenty minutes' after she struck, one of the ferry boats which cross Hurl gate, took ofl the passengers, and carried them on board the famous steamer Traveller, which was passing about that time. The Traveller brought the malls and passengers to the city. The principal break in the Oregon is on the starboard side, where she struck abaft the wheel, nearly amid ships. This break is about six feet in length, although her timbers do not appear to be broken. There are one or two other small holes upon the larboard side. She is raised amid ships, nearly 8 ft. above the bow, and 2 above the stern. Her boilers, and the weight of her machinery is aft the wheel, and tends to strain her somewhat. The seams in the saloon are a little wrenched and the doors are cracked. There are about five feet of water under her stern. She lies, however, a good portion of her length apon the rocks, which we hope may prevent her loss. If, however, at low tide she still remains as firm as now, ittis proposed to spring back her planks and stop the leak with mattresses, dec., and at high tide to get her off. If this is done, it is es' timated that eight or ten thousand dollars wil| place her in as good a condition as she was be fore. She was only about half her width out of her course when she strack, and from our con versation with those on board and with the pilot, we think that no blame can be attached to him. RThe Oregon was a splendid boat, principally owned by George Law, Esq. She had the mails and files of papers from the Unicorn, and had she not met with this accident, would have reached this city nearly an hour in advance of the other boats. The steamer Neptune went up soon after she struck and took off her furniture. No lives lost. Religions Intelligence. Caliwdab roB Aran..?19. First Sunday after Kester. 14. 81. Mark the Evangelist. 39. -Second Sunday after Easter. The Rev. Professor Henry will preach this evening in the church of the Advent, M> Broadway. CmsviL Pass Chubch ?There will be a confirma tion held in this church, corner of Prince and Thompson streets, this evening. The Rev. Dr Shroeder, Rector of St Ann's ball, Flashing, will preach to the Teong, in the Free church treat, t" of the Epiphany, 110 Stanton street, this evening. The Anniversary 8ermon of the Protestant Episcopal Church Missionary Society for Seamen in the city and pert of Hew York, will no preached in St Bartholo mew's churob, this evening, by the Rev. Dr. Tyng. Anet.0 Ambbioah Fbee Chubsh or St. Oeoboe tnb Mahttb. 400 Broadway, Rev. Moses Marcos, Rector.? Divine Service this day at 10} A. M.,t P.M., and at 7} e'eleek in the evening. The ladies o! the church of the Redemption intend holding a fair and festival In the Lyceum, No. Ml Broad way, en Wednesday and Thursday, the 23d and 3ld of the present mouth, to open at 10 eVsloek, A. M., and to eoatlnae through the evenings of those days. Br Simon's Chcbcsi, Houston street, between PKt sad Ridge straits.?The services i' this church are regularly held every Sunday at 10$ o'clock la the morn ing, at S in the aftercoon, and 7 in the evening. The morning and evening services are in the German, the afternoon service in the English language. The (fourth presbytery of New York will meet by adjournment, in the Lecture Room of the Bleacher street ehurch, en Monday, the aoth inet, at 10 o'clock, A. hi. The oeaffogatioa, worshipping, heretofore, in the ehapol of tne Theological Seminary, University Place, have taken measures for the immediate erection of a house of worship on their appropriate field of labor, in the Immediate neighborhood of which they will meet, once a Sabbath until further notice. The Rev. John L. Watson has resigned the offlce of Assistant Minister in Trinity churh, Boston, of which Bishop Eastburu is the rector. Obdibatiow?On Thursday, Feb. 13, at Union Cit^ Mr. Henry C. Morse, of Lima, La Grange county, ana, was ordained by an ecclesiastical council to the work at the ministry as an evangelist Sermon by the Rev John D. Pie roe of Marshall, from Phillippines 1,17, last clause of the verse. Ordaining prayer by the Rev. Stephen Mason of MarshaO. Right hand of Fellowship by tbs Rev. L. Smith Hobart, of Union city Police Intelligence. ArnU IS?Charge a/FJta Pretencn - Officer Whike hart arrostrd, yestetday afternoon, a men by the naaae of Henry Holier, No. 10 Frankfort street, charged with pure bating a lot of calf skins, valued at $100 (torn John P. Batty, No ? Ferry street It [appears that Halbr applied to Mr. Betty to purchase the above shine, en the 10th d*y of March lest; at the seme time stated that he belonged to e tannery, situated at Bloomingdala, m which he had one thousand calf skins, all of which would bo roadv for sal# in ahput two weeks. Consequently, npea this representation, he was credited with the above amount of pro petty, for which Mr. Batty has nevor been paid. Upon inquiry. Mr. Batty ascertained that the representations were ell false and fiaudnle the representations were ell false and fraudulent: there fore. he oauted the arrest of Heller, and Justice Osborne held him to bell In the sum of fi$00, to answer at the rourtef Sessions. jtTiUIK'fal IPerh?Yesterday afternoon, the gro aery sieve kept by Mr. Buckhatu, on the oorner of Fal ton end Church streets,was entered by l by seme till thief end -ebbed of a largo pocket-book, containing several notes H bead, amounting to *3,000 with \ _ which the thief es -aprd, fortunately there wee no money in the beak. The notes are ell stepped. my- -Mary Horns was arrested, lest night, AM Laretny- -Mary Hems was arretted, last nigh >r steeling a bundle of wearing apparel and a sliver pose, belonging to Mrs. MeKay, No. 40 WaahiegU ?pose, belong lag to Mrs. MeKay, No. 40 Waakiagton i> rest?locked up by Justice Osborne. Vtalmt ?dtseuir?Patric McDermott was brought be ers the magistrate, charged with drawing a pistol en lurch and John Halfpenny, In Chatham street. Mslsen Berth ippotite the theatre. .bnil ?>? e Maneh Warrant? Offlce r Dennis ton arrast .d, lest night, on a bench warrant, an old pennei thief, tailed Levies Fisher, chsrgad with a grand larceny. ommitted by JusUoa Osborne. Peak Xwvisy-Tw# hoys, called James McKeon and 'rteols Early, warsysanght^ stealing ^sundry articles of mill value belonging to Mrs. Everllng, No 303 Bowe Locked up by Justice Taylor. I up by Justice Taylor. A Diaaria* ly //ana*? Mary MoAleary waa arrested by Ificer Binningham, charged with keeping a disorderly louse. hh maatimg ITh^e-Robert Cm wford and Job a White, vo beys, were snorted for stealing raw hides, belong. - SXWL ',Dd Rum*U' No. 140 Fulton street ommitted for trial. ToNAwaivDAliniuNe.?It is said that two of the hit ft at Tonawanda lart week received mforma ma for ? heir removaf bad arrived, and that thev Bu. rthWHb props re to give np their leads. Blacksmith is i imctpkl Tontwaodecbie', bee Jest returned Iro?' Hshingtea, whither he has beau on business eanaei ' ytfi the RMiy.-dfimy It Jdirlsdir, Jlfrit It. . Lst fl'hiag ea Menmee this seusea. The IWi Vifis that Captain Pettar has already eanght soma 4M r $00 bbla. ofPlekeral. VIEW OF THE MAGNIFICENT STEAMER OREGON. I* NINE DATS LATER. HIGHLY IMPORTANT FROM EUROPE. ARRIVAL OF THfc UNICORN AT BOSTON. The Oregon Debate in Parliament. The Conciliatory Tone of the Government. BAVAOB TONB OF THE PRESS. THE WAR IN INDIA. Progress of the Revolution in POLAND. * Resignation of Spanish Ministry. THE RELIGIOUS TROUBLES IN ITALY. Improvement in Ootton, die. die. die. The steam ship Unicorn has at last arrived. She reached Boston on Friday afternoon. 8he sailed from Liverpool on the 19th ult. The intelligence received by her is important. There had been a highly interesting debate in the British Parliament en the Oregon question. It was conciliatory. There was considerable war feeling in England. Every fresh arrival from the United States tended to increase the irritation. The cotton market has improved in consequence of the exciting news from America. The metal market was inactive, [and lower prices had been accepted. In the provision trade there had not been much activity. In Am ;rican the business nominal. The money market, although sufficiently strin gent, was somewhat easier during the last few days. Bankers' hills 3} to ; Seconds, 41 to 7; Money on Call, 84 to 3^. The Bank of England is still doing at 34, and the average of Consols is 964 The revolution in Poland appears to be somewhat checked. The republican spirit of the people is crushed for a time. But it will soon bud and blos som again on the soil just sprinkled with its blood. On the 11th ult. judgment was given by the Re corder of London, sitting in equitv, in the case of Little and others vs. CTinton. The defendant in 1841 obtained $22,770 from Jacob Little 3c Co. of New York, on a forged draft. He was subsequent ly arrested in Loudon and several attempts were mc de, without success, to procure his surrender for trial in this country. A sum of ?2000 belonging to Clinton was then attached by the plaintiffs, and a bill of discovery filed, in aid of the attachment. To this bill Clinton refused to answer, on the ground that he could not without subjecting himself to cri minal prosecution. Exceptions were taken by the plaintiffs, but they were overruled by the Recorder, on the ground set up by Clinton?that he was not bound to answer whea his answer would criminate himself. Paooasss or ran Naw Taairv ra Paxliamxht ? A conversation took place in the House of Com mons on the evening of Tuesday last, between Lord G. Bentinck and Sir Robert Peel, by which it was arranged that the further debate on the timber du ties should be adjourned to Friday next, the 20th in stant. It was also agreed that the second reading of the corn bill should be fixed tor Monday next, the 23d instant, and that the debate upon it should not extend beyond Fnday night in the same week. British Financial System ?The papers laid on the table of the House of Commons on Monday night, and ordered to be printed, exhibit some very interesting results. The first of these is an account of the number of vessels, the amount of tonnage, and the number of their crews, on the Slat of December in each year, from 1820 to 1844. In 1820, the number ofhressels was 25,374, the tonnage 2,648 596, the number of men employed 174.614. in 1841, there were 30.062 vessels, of 8,612,480 tons, manned by 210,198 men. In 1844, there were 81,830 vessels, of 3,637,231 tons, and 216,860 seamen. The number of British vessels entered inward ir 18B was 10,762, whose united burden was 1,936,846 U,,,, 5 *??eeln were 3 865, of 661,047 I? 1846, the number of British vessels was 16,964, sad their Manage 8,880,868; the number of foreign vemels 7,866, and their tonnage 1,353,735 The declared value of British anff Irish produce and manufactures exported from the United King dom to foreign countries and our colonial posse? sions, wan in? !2T jCM,M0.I7? 51, #34 813 }?}* 4T.S0I 01S 69,97#,70# MM 6S,SS4,m The net revenue of the customs, and the amount of duty received from corn, from 1888 to 1846, were as follows: 8?e?nu?. Corn DuHtt. ISIS f."jSi.M7 X1.M84M 184# 4l.7SI.ISI I,IMS* 1S41 21.IW.S44 MS.148 1811 II 01). 141 1,141 MS 111! 21 011.717 7M 2S3 1814 K.IM.SJl 1.0MMI 1843 20,I?,SM . 3S7.0M The quantity of silk of all kinds entered for home consumption in 1814 was 2,119,9774 lb, in 1824 it had risen to 4 011,048 1b , but in 1834 it had only reached 4,522,861 lb , while in 1844 it amounted to 6,208,021 lb. The declared value of British silk gooda export ed from the United Kingdom in each year, between 1826 and 1846 exhibits sate the year 1806 a com parative decrease. The value of the ailk exported la 1896 was ?166,801, but in 1886 this amount had increased to ?978,786: m 1897 it had fallen to ?90M79 { and although from that time the value declared continual to ittoruie, it had in 1845 only reached ?764,424 The Quantities of foreign ailk manufacturei re tained for home consumption since the removal of the prohibition upon them in 1826, exhibit a gradual rise from 115,278 lb., in 1827, to 310,156 lb in 1845. iSThe table respecting wool and wollen manufac tures Is especially interesting, but we hava only apace to give a few of the results, which prove that an increased importation has had the effect of in creasing instead of lowering the price of domes) ie produce. In 1824 the number of pounds of foreign and colonial wool imported wan 22,564,485: and the price of Southdown wool Is 2J a pound. In the following year the duty upon colonial wool was re moved, the import increased to 43,816.966 lbs, and the price of Southdown wool simultaneously rose to Is 4d a pound. During the next twenty years the price fluctuated from 6d to Is 8d a pound, and in 1843 it was at ll&d, with an import of 47,785,061 pounds. In 1844, the duty upon foreign wool was entirely removed, the quantity entered for consump tion increased to 65,079,524 lbs, and the price ot English wool rose at once to Is 2d. In 1815 the amount imported had further increased to 76,828,152 lbs., and the price of domestic wool had atsen to Is 4d. Between 1831 and 1845 the declared value of Bri tish exports of woollen manufactures had risen from ?5,389.124 to ?8,741,728. In 1842 tne total amount of revenue, exclusive of the corn duties, was ?32,178,814; in 1815 it was ?33,415,431, although during that period the amount ot customs and excise duties remitted was ?5,197, 074. The amount ot reductions in the public expendi ture effected by the repeal ot the duties ou auctions and glass, in 1845, is not less than ?52,636. A number of extracts from the letters of glass manufacturers in every part of the kingdom, stating the immense increase of consumption consequent upon the removal of the {glass duty, is appended to the important paper from which we have made these extracts Arrivals from thr United States.?1The Ro chester packet ship of the 21st Feb. next followed, and placed in oar hands, on the 12th isst., papers, rnic" See., from New York, up to the above dates, which were forwarded to, and reached London on the evening of that day. Next came the prince of the British and North American mail steam ships, the Cambria. Qapt. Judkins.'She arrived on the 14th.? Liverpool 11me*, March 19. Great Western Steam-ship Company,?From the annual report of this company, it appears that the receipt! for the Great Western had amounted to ?35.914 10s. 84., and the expenditure, including repairs, to ?12,431 19i. 9d. The receipts of the Great Britain from visiters and passage money from Bristol to London, amounted to ?9,690 17s. Id ? The expenditure on trial trips and voyages, Arc , amounted to ?4,437, leaving a surplus ot ?6,253 16s. 9J. The expenses on two voyages to New York, amounted, including insurance, tec , to ?13,573 12s 7d., and the receipts to only ?9.198 7a. Tne small receipts were to be accounted for from the fact ot the first voyage being an experimental one, and the second having been, in consequence of the accident to the sorew. prolonged beyond the advertised day of satltag. in reference to this ship the directors have received a most satisfactory report from the engineers. Rapidity in Equipping a Linr-of-Battlr Ship ?One of the greatest achieve menu in nautical af fairs ot late years is that which has been performed by the crew of her Majesty's ship Rodney, in the rigging and perfecting for sea a hne-oi-battle ship ta the almost incredible space ol Utile more than forty eight hoars. The Bellerophon, 78, on Monday last, was a mere hull, without spar?, stores, or armament, and on Wednesday, at mid-day, she was all auunt, sod left the harbor for Spithead a perfect man-of war, ready for sea. This is certainly a triumph of the skill and energy of British officers and British seamen. Our accounU fiom Portsmouth state, that " as she passed the platform on her passage to Spit head, she was loudly cheered by an immense mul titude who had assembled on trie lines to witness her departure ; and the marine band at the same moment very appropriately enlivened the scene by striking up ' Rule Britannia.' There was little or no wind, and consequently her Bails were of no use ; she was therelore towed out by the Comet steamer." His Royal Highness Prince Albert embarked from Osborne House, in the Fairy steam yacht, and pro ceeded to Spithead to see the Heller' ,>hon. His Royal Highness was accompanied b- lonel Bowa ter, and when the yacht hove in sig lie ships now at anchor at Spithead 1. Alter passing round and inspecting the Brilerophon, His Royal Highness went on board the Si our ,e, C iptuin Oaftin, and af terwards on board the - ti iiution, Captain Lush ington. The Prince was i iveyed to and from these vessels by Admiral Sir Charles Ogle, in rhe admi ral's barge. It is gratilytng to observe .that the ra pidity with which the Bellerophon was prepared for sea did not pass unnoticed by Hta Royal Highness, who expressed, in terms of strong admiration, the great pleasure he felt in witnessing the completion ot such an unexampled feat, we understand that another ship of the line, either tha Powerful or the Vengeance, is to be equipped at Portsmouth by the officers and seamen ot the St. Vincent. Oregon (location In England and France? Opinions of the Press. [From lbs London Times, March 18.] When the Cambria left Boston on the 1st inst., it was known that the Senate ot the United States had adjourned the debate on the abrogation ol the Ore gon convention to the 2d of March ; but thete was no doubt that Mr. Colquitt's resolutions would be carried by a large majority in that assembly. These resolutions are substantially the same as those adopted by the House ol Representatives,although in a more qualified lorm; but they express with greater energy an "earnest desire that this long-standing controversy may he settled by negotiation and com p omise." In lact, they impose upon the Cabinet of the United States the dqjy ol re-opening the negotiations on such terms as may convince the American people that a tdnoere attempt has been made to effect a peaceful settlement of the dispute ; and we sincerely hope these terms may be admissi ble by England. Mr. Allen, however, in the course of the debate, declared that the President's views and determination to assert his title to the whole territory up to 64 40 had undergone no change. On the part of the British Minister, Mr. Pakenham, no tresh overture had been made. Whatever may be the motives which induce the Congress of the United States to vote the abroga tion of the convention of 1827, for the joint occu pancy of ihe Oregon territory, we are chiefly con cerned to examine the efiecto! that measure on the relative rights of the two claimants. As soon as the Senate shall have concurred in these resolutions and the President proceed, as he undoubtedly will, to give* the notice, the whole question will assume a new shape, or rather it will revert to the condition in which 11 stood before ever the conventions of 1818 and of 1827 were thought ol, that condition be ing only modified by the actual settlements in the country, made under the specific protection ot those very instruments. It may, we think, be demonstra ted by strict reasoning, that the abrogation ot these conventions under the present circumstances ol the two powers ta Oregon, materially weakens the claims of the United States, and aa materially strengthens oar own rights. Under the agreement which the Americana are resolved to cancel, two kinds of claims have exist ed; the first conventional, which were on the foot ing of strict equality; theacond claims of settlement, wtuch depend on tiie relative extent of occupation by either party. If the convention be annulled, the. conventional privileges of the Americans, which were equal to our own, cease and determine, as far mm i as we are concerned; their right is reduced to a mere abstract title; whilst we stand a [ton the British rights ofoccupaiion, sanctioned by all the arguments in support of our claim, and especially by 'he "eatty of 1790 with Spain. The settlements of the Hudson s Bay Company in the Oregon territory have been made under a right recognized by these conventions, and the settlements, with all the rights accruing to their founders, will subsist alter them. L>r. I wiss, in his most interesting and elaborate survey of the whole question, poiutB out the passage of Vattel bjr which Buch a case mo6t be determined. it, says that great authority, " two or more nations at the same time discover and take possession of an island or any other desert lend withcut an owner, thev ought to agree between themselves and make an equitable partition ; but if they cannot agree, each will have the right of emptra and domain in the parts in which they first settled. In this particular case, the effect of occupation and priority of settlement as contending sovereignty is more than usually decisive. For the nght ot fishing, landing for the purpose of trade with the 1 natives, and of making ut~tmenis, havmg been I formally secured to Spain and to England By the treaty of 1790. the settlements made in pursuance of that right by either power became absolute poases sious of the crown. Let us now ascertain from an unquestionable witness, Mr. Greenhow himself, the champion of the American claims,what the rela

tive importance of these settlements is. He ob serves that the difficulty of the negotiation under taken in 1825 had been materially increased since Jglg " By the great inequality which had been pro duced in the relative positions of the two parties as regards uctual occupation. Alter the unl?? two great North American Companies in 1827, and the establishment of civil and criminal jurisdiction throughout their territories, toe Hudson s Bay Com pany became a powerful body: its resources were no longer wasted in disputes with a rival association; its regulations were enforced; its operations were conducted with security and efficiency; and en couragement was affordsd for the extension of its posts and communications by the assurance that the honor of the Government was thereby more strong ly engaged in its support. Many of these posts were fortified, and could be defended by their inmates men inured to dangers and hardships of all ktnds against any attacks which might be apprehended : and thus, in a few vears, th- whole region north.and north-west of the United States, from Hudson s Bay and Canada to the Pacific, particularly the portion traversed by ihe Columbia and its branches, was occupied, in a military sense, by British forces, al though t&ere was not a single British soldier, strictly speaking, within its limits. ... j ??The United States, on the other hand, possessed no establishments and exercised no authority or jurisdiction whatever beyond the Rocky Mountains, and ih- number of their citizens in that whole terri tory did not, probably, exceed two hundred. Such is the American account of the state ot me district in 1826 when Mr. Gallatin proposed a. his ultimatum the cession by England of ihe rerri lorv up to the 49th parallel. Nor is it now material; lv altered. Two or three thousand American emi grants have formed a village on one of the southern tributaries of the Columbia; but neither twir means nor their objects extend to any command of territo ry bgyond me valley of the Willamette. They have an undoubted right to form such aettlements under the convention; but they owe the imeansi oftcompte nnir their journey across the vast and rugged wil derness to the liberality and hospitality of the agents of ihe Hudson's Bay Company. Captain Fremon , who conducted the United Statea ezplonDg expedP lion beyond the Rocky Mountains in 1843, at rests the tact. On arnviog at tort Ne* 1 ^lt ,,h post situated at the confluence ot the River waiia walla and the Columbia, he observes that at this point, which is just 2,000 miles overland lrom the western frostier of the state of Missouri, the emi grants who arrive by the South Pass and from the valley of the Mississippi may embark on the broad stream of the west. He himself and the heads of the emigrants there at the same time, were hospita bly entertained by Mr. Mackmley, the commander of the post At Fort Vancouyer, Captain Fremont was received with the greatest courtesy by Dr M'Lad' hlan, the executive officer ol the Hudson s Buy Comp ny in the territory west of the Rocky Mountains, and the expedition was furnished with all necessary supplies. He addsi ? I found many American emigrants at the tort; others had already crossed into their land of promise -the Wallamette Valley. Otherswer<J.d"llfhaV1J[" ing, and all ot mem had been furnished with^shel ter so lar as it could be afforded by the buildings connected with the establishment. .Necessary cloth ing and provisions (the latter lo be iJL1% turned in kind from tne produce of their labor) were also furnished. Ti.isfriendly assistance waa of very great value to the emigrants, whose ''?mm?" were otherwise exposed to much suffering in the winter rains; at the same time, they were in want of all the common necessaries of life, rhose who iiad driven their stock down tha Columbia had brought them safely in, and found for them a ready marlfet, and were already proposing to return to me States in me spring for another supply. We quote these facts, which are given oa Ameri can official authority, because it is impossible to place the relative importance ol the British and Ame rican seiilementa in ihe territory .? ?tronger con traal In fact, if the emigrants from the States had not been liberally and humanely a"8l8t?d and protected by the British agents, they would pro bably have perished miserably on that bleak shore, b-yond the reach of aM human aid. But whatisthe reiurn the lostigatorsof the American people jwopose to make tor these offices of humanity 1 What effect has this information, officially presented to Longresra, upon me deliberations of me Legislature 1 It only incites them to endeavor to expel iheirbenelactors fro'ii the country, and to wrest from 1ih. " Biy Company those very forts which haw suiter ed their own emigrants lrom the hardships of the wilderness. No anneals have been made to public opinion or to Parliament by the Hudson's Bay Company, pro bably because that body leels sufficiently strong; ui its own resources and in the resolution of the go vernment. But a stronger^ate for public Mre* and support we have never known. A great trading company entera upon the enjoyment of certaiu rights secured by a treaty between the crswns o Spam and Engiand, with the full sanction of royal charters and acts of Parliament; it occupies a vast uninhabited region, where settlement wwi allthat was needed to assert and establish rights of dominion; it exercises those rights with bo little jealousy, that even the emigrants from the rival Statee are housed within its walls and supplied froifl its magazines. It has organized tire sole syii tern of regular communication and traffic mat ine present tute of the northern parts of America ad mits of All this has been going on actively for me last quarter of a century, and leas actively ever since 1790; when suddenly, by the mere will and pleasure of a democratic community, whose near est possessions are distant 2,000 miles of land tra vel, this company and the power it "presents are summoned to evacuate, surrender, and renounce their forts, their posts, their settlements, me navi gation of the rivers, the possession of the country, S 1(1 'O retire beyond the 54th parallel of latitude. Such a cession of territory would at once th" whol operations of the company and the north western coast Yet, such is the extraordinary per version tf public opinion m America on this sub ?? mat we are expected to abandon a title, sup ported by effectual occupation, in favor of ?nother title which rests upon no sujienor legal claims, and is backed by no occupation whatever. , At toon at notict of the abrogation of the trusty of 1827 it given, we truet that no mere formalities will detei the British Government from informing the cabinet of Washington and the world what are the definitive claims of this country and what are the con cessions England is prepared to make. Nothing is gained by the secrecy oi diplomacy in treating with the United States, because public opinion iu that country is the Iasi arbiter of the national policy, and the government has shown itsell less disposed to peace than the more enlightened part of the com munity. Whatever be the proposals of the Ameri can executive, we must trust to the fairness ot our own views, to our ability to defend the ground on which we stand, and to the magnitude of the alter native. But as we observed, more than two mouths ago, man article which has been much discussed in the United States, we cannot acquiesce in the surren der of positive long enjoyed benefits ; and the navi gation of the Columbia, the harbor of St Jucm dt Fuca, and Vancouver's hland, art included in thou we undoubtedly and rightfully jtosseu. [From the London Times, March 17.] The statement of the Washington correspon dence of the New York Herald, that Mr. Paken h&m submitted bis ultimatum to the consideration of the American government on the evening of the 26th of Feb, and that a Cabinet meeting was immedi ately held to deliberate upon that definitive propo sal, is, we have reason to believe, wholly without foundation. It is equally false that " Mr. Crampton brought out instructions to Mr. Pakenham to re open negotiations by an offer of the 49th parallel, the whole ot Vancouver's Island, and the naviga tion of the Columbia for twenty years." These statements are, however, made by certain or gans of public opinion in the United States with bucIi an air ot confidence, that we are not surprised tbat some of our contemporaries in this country should have been imposed upon by them, in spite ot the manliest absurdity of the terms suggest ed. The correspondent of the New York Herald even aflectsto know what the nature ol the British Minister's proposition was, although unwonted scru ples deter him from revealing it. The iact is. that ao such proposition could have been made at all, es pecially pending the debate on the resolutions which wis then actually going on in the Senate of the Uni ted States. The last attempt maae by M r. Paken ham, in pursuance ot the instructions he had received from home, lo re-open the negotiation by a proposal of arbitration, was abruptly frustrated by the prompt and peremptory rejection of that expedient in Mr. Buchanan's despatch of the 5th of February, and by the immediate publication ol ihat correspondence. On the following day but one the debate on the reso lutions for terminating the convention by notice began in the House of Representatives. A similar debate soon afterwards commenced in the Senate, and was not finished when the last advices lelt Washington. It is clear from the position in which the question stood alter the rejection of the last overture made by the British Minister, and also from the positive injunction to negotiate which is contained in the second of the resolutions under discussion in both Houses ot Congress, that the American Cabinet should make the next step towards the adjustment of the controversy. If, however, Mr. Polk and his advisers should give the notice terminating the existing convention, without accompanying that act by a fresh proposal, calculated to promote an amicable settlement, we trust that there will be no hesitation on the part of the British government in replying to that act by a precise intimation of what our definite claims to the Oregon territory really are. It would have been premature and ill timed tor Mr. Pakenham to anticipate the " action of Congress," (as ihepcall it in the United States,) by offering an ultimatum, or any other proposal, at that particular moment. But as soon as the deci sion of Congress, and the course which the Presi dent is prepared to take upon it, are officially known, we have no doubt that Mr. Pakenham will be furnished with instructions to enable him to meet the emergency with conciliation and with moderation, but without the slightest surrender ol the dignity or the interests of this country. At pre sent no such final instructions have been called for by the state of the question. We have read with reg et the language of the Washington Union, the avowed organ of Mr. Pi Ik's government, upon the receipt of the pacific intelligence which had just reached the United States from England. The construction which that journal puts upoa the pacific tone of the British press, and of some of the leading men in Parlia ment is, that" England has been made to feel, by the stand taken by the President on the Oregon question, and so far triumphantly sustained by Con gress, that the Americans are in earnestin short, that our pacific demeanor and temperate language have been directly caused by the conviction that the Americana are united and firm in their resolution to dejprive us of our just rights in Oregon, and that Mr. Polk is now certain to reap the fruits of his successful bluster, by obtaining an immediate and satisfactory settlement of the question. The Ame rican government imputes to the policy of the mes sage and the notice, a change in the whole face of things. No more threats of wsr from England: after such a demonstration " the tone of England may well be pacific." it is unnecessaty to point out to any human being in this country, capable of reading these lines, the total delusion, the perverse misconstruction, and the fatal consequences contained in these expressions of the IWashington Union-. It is in the highest de gree dangerous to the peace of the world, that such statements an these should go torth with authority in a foreign country,to convey the supposed feelings aad intentions of the people ol England. When we tee the labors of the British press and the declara tions ol British statesmen traduced in this manner, we could almost regret that we have not employed a rougher language and coarser arguments in the dis cussion of this question, as better adapted to the comprehension of trans-Atlantic controversialists. Our reluctance to irritate and embitter public leeltng on this question, either at home or abroad, is misin terpreted into a doubt of our own rights aad a re cognition of the superior rights of the other party. We are dis|>aasionate, therefore we are about to yield; we are calm, that is a sign that the violent policy and language of Mr Polk are on ths eve of accomplishing a signal victory. Whoever knows any thing of Englishmen and England knows how lalse and mischievous these views of our national conduct are. Few instances have occurred in the history of nntions of a people more completely and unanimously resolved than we are now u> maintain the rights we have long pos sessed and enjoyed ; yet England has not shown the slightest indication of a brutal passion for war, but, on the contrary, an earnest desire to avoid a conflict,in which we have nothing to fear and every thing to inflict on our antagonist. This full confi dence in the justice of a cause, which claims no more than hail the object in dispute, and actually less than the territory now in our possession?the reliance on the conciliatory disposition and in the firm resolution of the Cabinet?this consciousness of poneiiiDg the moot tremendous naval reaourcea which ever hurled destruction on an enemy?have allowed the English people to remain calm, even lo apparent indifference. But the Ame rican Government, which builds its hopes of a speedy triumi>h on this foundation, deceives the people of the Ooited Slates. No such indifference, no division of opinion, no hesitation aa >o the course it may be necessary to pursue, exist at all in Eng land. We are tola of the unanimity of the United States,in the tace of debates and divisions, even on these preliminary resolutions, which indicate an ex treme diversity of opinions, and great doubt on all bands ss to the result. In this country and in the Brituh Parliament we are confident that the unani mity would be absolute. It is absolute both ways. Nobody is for war if it csn be avoided by an equit able partition of the territory; nobody will hesitate to give the wsr the whole support ol our national power and our individual might, ti it be forced upon us bjr the presumption, the exorbitant demands, and the delusions ot the opposite party. Mr Polk stands in a fearful predicament. He has endeavored to persuade the people of America that England will yield without much further difficulty to the demands he has reiterated in so peremptory a manner; and if he has tailed in intimidating us, he has succeeded in deceiving them. Hence his own organs and his own declarations have made him powerless to negotiate. How can he negotiate, who assures the country that England is about to abandon to him the sum total of hisaemandsl What concessions can be make to avoid war, when he asserts that it is by refusing all concessions that Eng land will be brought to yield T Such policy is of the most short-sighted and perilous kind: for, in the stands, the President of position in which he now the United States must either make concessions, perfectly reasonable in themselves, but perfectly in consistent with all hiB declarations, or he must run ail the risk of plunging the country into a contest, which he lias pretended to avoid,but which he alone may render inevitable. [From the I.oi>d?nTime?,[March 18] The language of Lord Clarendon and Lord Aber deen, in the short discussion which took place last night in the House of Lords, on a motion for the correspondence relating to the IhM Oregon negotia tion, red'cta honor on the temper, jndament, and good feeling of those eminent jiersons. Thai every exertion consistent with the national honor will be made to preserve the i>eace, was the gracious decla ration made by her Majesty from the throne, and no one in this country hua entertained the least doubt that it will be strictly adhered to That assurance scarcely needed to be emphatically repepated, for no distrust has ever been expressed upon the subject. But we have now abundant evidence from the Uni ted States that the moderation ot this sentence in the speech from the throne, and of the brief remarks made on the subject on the first night of the session, have been grosaly misconstrued by the party in power in America. Their demands and their ex pectations have risen, because we scarcely conde scended to give an answer to them, or to put in a counter plea. Incredulous of their extravagant pas sion lor this territory of Oregon, convinced of our own right, and unable to believe in a propensity to war, we have been supposed to aqt as if we intended to surrender the territory or to ahun the conteat. This excessive moderation ot language has deceived the Americuns more effectually thou if we had em ployed all the art8;ot diplomacy. Of ths members of the Senate who will vote for the abrogation of the convention, a large proportion are convinced that England will not onlv now accept the terms bhe rejected before, but that she will accept terms even less favorable, and they have taken up their position in consequence. They are grossly and dangerously mistaken. Whatever reserve may be imposed upon peers of Parliament by courtesy or by official prudence, we are confident that not one of the English statesmen who spoke last night upon this subject, contemplates the abandonment of a tenitory in which our rights are equal to those of any power. The time ana the place might not be fitted to a more precise and em phatic declaration of the views and intentions of England, but it would be absurd to suppose that they I are a whit below the level which the interests and i the dignity ot the country prescribe. It would be foolish to overstate our. just pretensions, but it is ! dangerous and unwise to allow them to be thought , less than they are. We have oliered to submit them ! to any fair arbitration ; we are ready to assent to terms of equitable partition, on a principle of equali ty. But arbitration has been rejected, and partition itself is scarcely compatible with tne claims ad vanced on the other side, since they are absolute and paramount. Nothing in fact remains for us to concede, since a divided right is all we are con tending tor, and the very principle ol division ia not yet admitted by the American povc nment. The declaration which it now becomes us empha tically to repeat ia, that we have "rights in the Ore gon territory which we are resolved and prepared to maintain." That expression of Sir Robert Peel and Lord Aberdeen was certainly not intemperate and ill-considered; and we have no doobt that sub sequent events have not in the slightest degree di minished their resolution to adhere to it, and to all that it waa understood to imply. We see nothing in the present posture of affairs which calla for, or caa justify, a more subdued language on the part of the English government; and we are persuaded that the false construction which has been put upon the very guarded declarations of the English Ministers is one of the circumstances most calculated to mia i lead public opinion in the United States, and possi 1 lily to enhance the unwarrantable presumption of ths American government. [Prom tba London Mercantile Journal March 17.] Last evening a crowded meeting of traders, man f dcturers, and others was held at the King's Arm's ta vern, Philip lane, to take into consideration the ques tion, which has so long been a subject of painful con tention between Great Britain and the United States, relative to Oregon. The resolution was in troduced by Mr. Wilkinson, and supported by Mr. Webber, Mr. Lee, and others. The mover dwelt with much force and effect on the injurious coase qnences of a rupture between the two nations to commerce, manufactures and civilisation, indepen dent of the horrors of such a war, and alluding to the ability and zeal disp ayed by Sir Henry Pottin ger, in the East Indies, and particularly his accom plishment of the treaty with China, in which his comprehensive mind foresaw the necessity of ob taining lor the whole world the benefits of univer sal commerce, thus shivering to the winds the false statements of those persons who are always accu sing the United Kingdom of aelf-intereat alone, re ' commended that distinguished individual as the per- * son best able to settle the question with Mr. Polk, i An amendment was moved by Dr. Dawson to the i effect that the question should remain as at present, J and that if any change took place that Lord Ash I burton should be s ubstituted. The meeting, how ever, taking into consideration the settlement of the China question by Sir Henry Pottinger, when all ether efforts had failed, and the confidence which it tell that the honor of the British nation would be best supported by him, adopted the resolution, in which the seconder of the amendment joined. Proponed by Mr. James Wilkinson, Leadenhall street; seconded by Mr. Thomas Weber, Lombard street:? Resolved, That it ie the epinioo of this nesting that the country called Orogon. lying between the 49s and M" 40' torth latitude, and west of tbe United States of America, to the Pacific Ocean, and claimed by the go vernment of the United States as belongiag to that coun try, is justly disputed by the government of this country. That, according to the established laws o! nations, both countries have claims which are not difficult to dsBoo, and which might bavs been amicably and aqui ably settled long ago, bad the two governments sot about it honestly and with good fooling. That it has not boon so settled, is to bo attributed to the want of knowledge, or something worse, of the different Secretaries of Mate far Foreign Affairs, who have bean in power during the period ot dispute, by appointing negotiators who made diplomacy a trade, sod who have s pecuniary interest in pr ocrastination That Sir Henry Pottinger, when In the service of the East India Company, displayed such extraordinary talents in diplomacy, that the government ot India always seise ed him whenever groat diffiooltieS wore to bo surmounted, and he never failed In succeed ing beyond the wishes or expectations of that govern merit; that it was the knowledge of bis triad anilities that ho was appointed plenipotentiary to China, tho re mit of which was the opening of the ports of that coun try to the commerce ef tho world, and which, no to that time had been considered almost impossible. lot even mors than this, ho convinced that gevemmaat of tho honor and intsgi tty of this country in the maintenance of good faith to trenties, end converted enemies into friends. That it h 'he opinion of this meeting, Mr Hoary Pottinger, it appstpisil Her Majesty's Plantpotantiary to tba government of the United states of America, the ole putes between the two nation* womld be equitably and amicably settled In a law months, and that he would en gender a mutual good fooling between tho pooplo of both countries, and thas secure a lasting pones. (From tho London Standard, Mlreh if] Public opinion in America seems aettthng down Tut to the belief that, unless the administration at W a thing ton speedily indicated some manner of effecting peaceable arrangements, England wonld not much longer rest satisfied, or without open ex pression ot dissatisfaction at the mere wordy pro fessions of desire for peace made by America. It is quite clear that all way of escape from all oppo site relations offered by England has been rejected, and it now remains tor the United States to open some other way for the accomplishment of her de sire, if she be sincere in her expression of it. No body in America seems to expect 'bat England win consent to occupy any position in regard to tneure gon matter, in point of territorial right, one whit in terior to that ot the United States, and the effort ap parently being made to force England to a greater relinquishment of advantages, on account of sup posed inferiority of tide will, everybody,knows and feels, fall to the ground The neU-suffictency. or rather the sell suffictentnens of the administra tion so tar as we have any opportunity ot aacertain ing its views from its newspaper, and its supporters and confidants in Congress, is never abashed. Its own rejection of every offer of arbitration or com promise coming from Great Britain does not seem in the least to abate one jot of its previous.y ex E'wed confidence in th?- continence of pence t the manner of preserving that slate of amicable relations is in no tgay indicated If penoeis to he preserved between the United States and England, it must b? based upon terms and confessions not yet mentioMdtn American official pobllcaUonn? *na

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