Newspaper of The New York Herald, April 22, 1846, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated April 22, 1846 Page 1
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THE NEW IT O K ft. HERALD. NEW YORK, WEDNESDAY MORNING, APRIL 22, 1846. fTlM tW? KjtyESS FROM BOSTON. HIORU n4rCRK8TlNO HTBLUOBKCB FROM EUROPE. ARRIVAL OF THE STEAMSHIP CALEDONIA. HALF A MONTH LATER. IMPORTANT MSITION OP THB OREGON qUESnON IN ENGLAND. THE DIVISION OF PARTIES. 'Important Indian Intelligence. TWO GREAT SN6UH TICTORIES OVER THB 8IKH3. The sapposed Termination of the War in India. Bniitili Aincx&tion in the East. REVOLUTION IN SPAIN, Probable End of the Polish Revolu tion. STATE OF THE CtTTON MARKET. Stagnation in the Corn Marts. FINANCIAL AFFAIRS, Ac. Ac. die. The steam ahip Caledonia, Capt. Lott, arrived at Boston on Monday, with advices from Liverpool to the 4th, and London of the 3d instant, both inclusive. The news was immediately obtained and brought by express to this city. It was for warded by Mr. L. Bigelow, of the Fitch burg and Keene Express, over the Boston and Wor cester Railroad, on Mr. Woodworth's new loco motive, called the Express, in fifty-five minuter; thence over the Norwich and Worcester Rail road in one hour and forty-five minutes; tti?nce across the Sound in the neat little steamer An gelina ; tlience over the Long Island Railroad in two houra and ten minutes; and all thw with out any previous arrangement* being made on the route. The victories of the English over the brave Sikhs appear to be the principal feature of th? intelligence The slaughter of the Sikhs was terrible. Ten or twelve thousand of these brave fcllowt and nearly two thousand English troop* were slain and wounded. This battle and tfut slaughter, added to the slaugh ter of twenty thousand Sikiit tn a previous battle, haa resulted tn the surrender, in full sovereignty, of the territory, hid and plain, lying between the Guiltj and Beas rivers, and the payment qf one and a-half crori of rupees as indemnity for the expenses of the war, ' the entire regulation and control of both banks of the Suth j, and'such other arrangements for settling the future boundaries of the Sikh State, and the organi zation of its administration, as might be determined on at Lahore. The Oregon question has assnmed a new shape in England. The parties are dividing, and the ag ricultural lords and classes intend to oppose the free trade movement of 8ir Robert Peel to the utter most; and by this means they expect to head ?ofl his intention relative to the settlement of the Ore gon dispute. The cotton market was apparently depressed; yet on the 3d instant, American descriptions improved one-eightth of a penny. The money market was in an unsettled and unsa tisfactory state. ' There appears to be a stagnation in the com mar* kets, in consequence of the movements in Parlia" mcnt relative to the corn laws. It is said that the Oregon question will cut off, to a large extent, the emigration from Germany to the Udited States. Indian corn continues to arrive in England and gain popularity. The English tariff and Irish coercion bill absorb the proceedings in Parliament. The Polish revolution appears uf be at an end. Poor, unfortunate Poland. There is no news of Importance from France. The French paper* do not say much about the Ore gon question. It is the opinion there that Mr. Polk is in the wrong. ? Spain continues in an agitated state. The packet ship Montezuma, Capt. Lowber, arri ved at Liverpool on the 26th ult., but she was beaten out by the new and splendid ship Marmion, Capt. Edward*. The American Minister was prevented by indis position from attending .the Queen's Drawing-room, on the 19th ult.; but Mrs. M'Lane, the lady of hi* Excellency, was present, and also the Secretary of Legation, Mr. Oansevoort Melville. The preparations for the visit of her Majesty Queen Victoria to the King and Queen of the Preach, were proceeding without intermission at the Tuilleries, Neuillv, St. Cloud and Versailles, and particnlary at the Trianon. The greatest activity continues in all the dock ysrds in England, and the recruiting for the army is still going on with great spirit. 6000 soldiers were ordered to India, 8000 of which were to proceed by the overland ronte. It is now stated that that order will be rescinded. There is a rumor current that sn additional number will prooeed to Canada. Amongst the applicants for the office of superin tendent of the Preaton and Wyre railway, adver tised at ?000 per annum, are three members of Par liament. Some of the rich Polish nobles resident in Paris ?old shares in the French railways to the amount ot ?80,000 sterling, to send the proceeds to their in surgent countrymen. The Queen and Prince Albert accompanied by the Prince of Wales and the Prince** Royal, went on Tueaday afternoon to Astley's Theatic. The per formances were private. The Cologne Gazette mentions a rumor from Alex andria that Mehemet Aii intends to visit Constanti nople, and Irom thence go to Paris, so as to be there at die same tuna an Queen Victoria ? The carriage presented by Queen Victoria to the less fortunate Queen Pomare ot Tahiti, is advertised for sale in order to afford her Majeaiy the neces saries ol life. The difference between railway trnp property at the present pnees and at tboe* of September last is n reduction in value of from fifty to fix v millioua. Fax* Tmann with itu Unrran ST4TKS?A \e?y able article on the subject of tree trace between the United titates and England, appears in the Mum tng Chronicle of yesterday?one ot Uie most r( <pec table and highly talented new-spears in this country. We regret that we cannot tiansfei: Una clever expo sition of the benefit* which a mutual ?ystem of te ciprocity will confer on both countries, to our alrea dy crowded columns. The spirit of the article is is admirable as its reasoning iaconviacing. The w. iter ?hows the concessions which the sgricultural and other produce of the I nited States receive in tne policy which is now being developed in Knolond The article ought to command, as it deserves, the attention ot the American public, and it will not be the less acceptable to onr transatlantic friend a, un natinged, as it is, with a particle of national or poli tieal bitterness. Diid?On the 25th March, at 1M Upper Stamford street, London, Lewis Titus Pelbam, only son of R. W. Peiham, Esq., of America, aged 8 months gnd 2? days. Tka i^uit Commercial Int?lll|*no?. [From tbs Liverpool TUass. April 4] The commercial accounts from all parts of the country are desponding and gloomy. Wth the soli tary exception ot the iron trade, m which great ac tivity prevails, owing to temporary cauaea,. there u not a brancn of manufacturing indnatry which is not i not a brancn 01 muuiiciuiiug ? autfering more or leaa under paralyais. In many of the manufacturing towna there are thousands of workmen out of employment; the markets for all ( descriptions of produce are in a state ot stagnation, stockaare dail) on the increase, with sinking prices and a diminishing consumption : and, in short, a condition of things exists which threatens 10 buspend all the ordinary functions ol commercial aud manu ^itls'hartly necessary to state that tliis depression, whichever? week renders more trailing ^ruinous. has its primary origin in the uncertainty which still hw? about the fate of the Other causes,^un doubtedly. contribute to tetter the wheels oftnde, but the great impediment is the one at which we have glanced ? A panic a?e?n> to be iin^nd ng. The despondency is daily on the lntfafc? . iind many persons in business, influenced probably by their tears, labor under the imi?re.-sioii that the mea sure will yet be strangled in one or the other House of Par'iament. Swpotent is this prehture of^einl, that Sir Robert Peel, on the evening of Wednesday \)it, trlt bound to renew the assurance of his desire tr- c'arrv ont his commercial policy with the least i^Miblr delay. We have alluded more in detail to ?hTstflijfefct In another column, and we notices it here for the purpose of indicating what w? aincejely b - heve 'o be a groundless apprehension, and .o point out, jli the same time, its blighting eflect on every JKro;5??wle^',""?b(rctdom ..PO-ifl* '? the operation, of the commercial worl(? under ex lrfine^ircumstanoes, Ministers, as most ot our wade i a know, issued recently a treasury order for theiwyinent ot the reduced duties, the parties giv ing t bond that if the peers throw out the bill, the olS scale ot duues would be paid. This was a wise and a liberal move in the right direction, ?J* vantage to som -extent has been taken of it. But the risk involved has been too great to allow its ge neral adoption. The public have derived {ittleor no benefit Irotn the arrangement; for thei^uce ment to increased consumption has been neutralized bv the retaii price ot the various article. being little below'th 'ir former level. Indeed, all such tempo rary expedients partake of the character of gam bling-?aj^culation ie, perhaps, a more legitimate phrase For the risk encountered, the prolits must over busintashMbeen gradually deepening during the last six weeks?the C tortnight being the darkest ot all. Under the most lavorable circumstance, there seema little chance of seeing the new tariff on the statute book Ke the^dot May: and it will be at least the middle ot that month be tore the critical stage: the second reading?can have passed the upper branch ot the Legislature. If, unhappily, the meaeure should be thrown out, the summer will be consumed in the turmoil of a general election, andautumn wiU hanUy see the new parliament assembled. Then the war 01 words will recommence, embittered by disappointd hopes and individual Buttering ; and even ?upposing the tree traders to have a majority, their polity can not come into play betore the end ot the present or the commencement of the following year. But if, on the contrary, a protectionist ministry is formed, and attempts to govern the country, the battle will be still further prolonged, and the intensity ot com mercial and national'.uttering tearfully increased While we hope lor the best, it is just as well to at the dark?at the worst side ot the picture; and his must indeed be a bold heart that can, without shud denng at the temerity, be a party to convulsing this great commercial nation by a Btruggle so "{"J"?' that all the elements ot society would stand achance ot being reduced to their chaotic condition. The SU ?U?d .Wljed. wte.i ? ??? nlHtes the consequences which must inevitably re from the rejection of a policy, to which every Iiinn in the kingdom, who has the least pretensions lo the character ot a practical statesman, i. irrevo c&jiy wedded; a policy which is oppowd solely by the heavy country squires; by a sporting l?rtjor two, whose knowledge of arithmetic is confined to "making a book " at Newmarket and Lpsom; and bv a flashy orator, clever at rounding a period, and manufacturing excitable works ot fiction, whose dreamy enthusiasm acorn, all approach to the prac " At Leeds, on Tuesday, the protracted stagnation caused prices to give way; but in that town, aB well as la^Hudderitield, the trade, at presentiapnnci nallv supported by orders from America. At the last Manchester market there was little doing, and a feeling ol gloom prevailed during the day, influenced by the hostile movements of the minoriiyin th House of Commons to the tree-trade measures ot the *?SSn market, more especially, is goring under the effects ot the general depression. The esti mates ot the new crop are now reduced to two mil lion, ot bales; and Jie lace ol this falling orfin the staple, the price continues so low, that.the rates which rule in this market involve a loss ?f not less than 20a per bale, on a comparison with the price, which prevail ia America! . The statistics of fii* trade show a gradual decline in the sale, since he meMures^f tie government were announced, and trade will certainly not recover its toM UttJ^all doubt ha. disappeared. the sensitive plant, shrinks trom contact while uncertainty is abroad; and the holders, a. well as the importers of cotton, are destined like other biauuie. ot the com mercial world, to fe?l ana to deplore the curse ol selfish obstruction. The sales yesterday "P* wards of 500 bags to the trauc. There has been some export inquiry; but the ?a'1?t?^d ta y' The sales ot the week amount to 37,WD bags. The money market ib in a verv unsatisfactory state S is scarce and dear, and noting Vtu first rate paper, and that at short Hates, stand theilea* chance ot discount in the London market. I he rail way projectors get their acts slowly and imsa^lac torily, and it is clear that a large number ot the schemes before Parliament must ^ ejected Months will elapse betore the mcaey "bicb tne , o vernment lias locked nj>?tl.e ten per c?nt on the amount of the capital?can find its way into general Elation, and thereby relieve the "tightness" which prevails. The effect, of improvident specu lation continue to manifest themselvesi in the pletho ra ??f tlie Gazette, where the broken-down seekers ot luftune find a ready asylum. Hi time, the paying schemes will find their way into better hanas.and while the weak holder, go to the wall, the strong one. will rise to wealth and greatnew on die wreck ot ruined hopes and blighted hearts. Tno? it na? e ver been?thus it will ever be But the interval, which i" bringing matter, to the;r natural level, is one of terrible pressure. What has been N^e'l of ?>a.rty politics is equally applicable to indiscrimi Mtt^i^culttiion?the madness ot many tor the gam An important trial took place at Exeter lately, in which ihe dir. ctorB ot a projected r**1 way brought an action rtgainst a |*rty to whom, on his own ap plication, they ulloued a nqjnber ot .harm. The allottee refund to take up the share. orj*y the or^ einui dei osit, whicu amounted to some ** per share. As the company had e? gagemeiiis, tliev oftc-reti to compromise the anair on payment ol as. per saare. The party relujed, the action was brought, and the jury Kave the directors a verdict for the iuU amount of the Bhares. i nt. decision has sprea* universal consternation, lor thousands upon thousands ot parties, suspended be tween respectability and ruin, are in the ihe defeudant in tnis action. Like rats in a cage, they are preying upon and cevounn^ each other. We have more than once recently retenred to the popularity which Indian corn, as an artide of ?od, is attaining in tin. country. It will prove, ere '??8? a valuable export. The Government i. most anxious that it should supersede to a great extent, the potat amongst the laboring poor, and the recent scarcity ot that esculent is lavorable to its introduction. Cargoes of Indian corn are daily reaching the Bri tish port. lrom the United StateB, and large quanti ties have been released from bond, duty frre, under the Treasury order already mentioned. Shops for its exclusive retail Mile are being opened in many ot the large towns, and the American mode ot using it i.generaly adopted. The corn market, pending the discussions of the government scheme, is, like all the produce market., in a complete state of stagnation. Prices vary but little, and parties merely purchase from hand to mouth to satisly their immediate requirement. ~ The general behet' is, that it the measure i. pawed &e article will rise in valae, but t? thi. doctrine mere are, ot course, some disseutions. L*rd U. lientinck pressed air R. Peel, some time ago, to fix 'lie price ot corn under the operation of his new -ciietne. but the speculations ol the Premier, on this head, having been 1 a is i fl e d b vltct s.hew a s naiu r; .v unwilling to commit nimseif by another guess Hut what the Minister declined to do has been done by an authority J^'ch stsnds high in the . estimation of the ^Wjiwl turists. That authority is the -Mar* /.an* Axpms. Tne publication to which we reter decl*[" tically, that under the new arrangement the price ot corn will oscillate between 46s and ^?r qiwrter. Without entering into the minutiae ot the we may observe, that it thi. calculation prove accn it will leave an ample margin tor the profit of baited Bum and C?dw exywiers. Butt ? rate, the British farmers ere getting up the steam in tbe race or competition, aid every improvement in tilling, draining, and the most scientific application of capi tal, is being pressed into their service.? Our Hamburg correspondent, under date of the 28th ult., says, the emigration from Germany to the Umt?d States this year would have been very great, if it had not been that the Oregon question deters many from going, as they fear a war. The uncertainty about he new tariff in the United States prevents goods trom going forward, and will gready lessen the receipt of duties in the United I States for the first half of this year, so that the apprehension of war is almost as bad ss war it : self. There n a report that the Zollverein intend I increasing considerably the duties on American to bacco, and it is very probable this increase will ! take place if the American Government refuse to ratify the Zoll Verein treaty. The price of wheat and gram of every kind is falling in Germany, as : there is every prospect of large crops this season. The Oregon education Again In Parliament. HOl'SK OP COMMON*, MARCH 20 Oa the motion lor reading the order of the day, Mr. Borvhwicx rose toput the question of which he had given notice. The honorable genU?man commenced by reading the following paragraphs from her Majesty's speech from the throne at the opening of the present session "I regret that the conflicting claims of Great Britain and the United StateB, in respect of the territory on the north-west ern coast of America, although' they have been made the subject of repeated negotiation, still ro main unsettled, You may be assured that no effort consistent with national honor shall be wanting on my part to bring this question to an early and peace ful termination." The honorable member proceed ed It was impossible to select words more worthy s powerful Sovereign addressing her Parliament. Up to the present time the house had yielded to tbe government a silent ai d entire confidence in its measures; he did not rise either to disturb tlint si lence or intimate any diminution of that confidence But, though that house had appreciated the spirit in which the government had acted, on the other side of the Atlantic there was a party which had put upon the wordy pronouncea by her Majesty, and on the subsequent proceedings ot the government, a construction the wry opposite of tbat they were in tended to bear. It was time England sbould dis tinctly assert, thai while she was ready to make ?very sacrifice for the maintenance ol peace, con sistent with her honor, yet that she only deprecated war in this instance f?om feeling that any warm which she should engftga could not but seriously in terfere with the progress of human civilization. An expression ot this feeliug should be distinctly made by that house, because such an expression would do more than all the diplomatic negotiations towards the maintenance of peace betwteu this country and America. The honorable gentleman concluded by asking "whether it is the intention ot her W?j?sty ? government to present to this house copies or ex tracts of any correspondence which mav have pass e i between the Secretary of State for Foreign Af fairs and her Majesty's Minister at Washington in relation to the Oregon territory." . Sir It. Peel?1 do not think it necessary to make any observations on the general subject upon which the hon. gentleman has spoken. (Hear.) 1 believe that any explanation is wholly unnecessary, because I am perfectly convinced that the expres sions used by Her Majesty in the speech from the throne, and the expressions of public men in this house of either of the political parties, have really not been misconstrued in the United Slates. (Hear, hear.) I do not think any public advantage would be gained by laying on the table of the house in the present state ot the question, any papers relating to the differences between this country and the United States, with respect to the Oregon territory, or in now making any communication upon the subject to this house; and it is not the intention of her Majes ty's Government to make any such communication. At the same time I may state, that the executive Government of the United States having a distinct proposition to make to a branch of the legislature of that country, has made a communication to it, con taining certain notes which have passed between Mr. Buchanan and Mr. Pakenham; though I fhould not have thought it necessary to lay those notes as a communication before the house, still, as they have been made public, and as it mav be necessary they should be authenticated, I shall not object to producing those communications to which publicity has been already given. ("Hear, hear," and a laugh ) I really do not understand what provokes that laugh; we have no other papers to produce at present on the part of the Government; the negotia tions are not yet brought to a conclusion, and it is quite unusual to produce official despatches when negotiations have not been closed. By the act of another Government, certain communications have been made public; the house has a right to have them authenticated, and though I had not <ntended to produce them, yet if it should be the wish of the house that they should be laid the table, I will defer to that wish (cries of "No, no!"), but 1 can not undertake to produce any others. Lord J. Russrll.?I wi*h to repeat, as far as 1 am concerned, that I have no desire to ask for any papers until the right hon. gentleman can state that the negotiations have reached such a point, whether satisfactory or unsatisfa< tory, as to induce him to tbink the time has arrived when the papers relating te this negotiation can be laid before the house. If the right hon. gentleman thinks proper to consent to the motion for the production of papers, I can on ly say I do not press for or ask for them; and, till the result ot the whole negotiation is known, I do not feel called on to express any opinion on the sub ject. 1 wish, however, on this occasion to ask the right lion, gentleman a question with respect to the course that is to be pursued in relation to the bill for the repeal of the corn laws. It is to be noted that we have now been assembled, I believe, eight weeks, since her Majesty made her gracious speech from the throne. The first statement of the measures of the Government was made by the right hon. gen tleman a fortnight before they were taken into con sideration j three weeks were occupied by the pre liminary discussion upon them, and after that the bill waa introduced. It does seem to me that, after so much discussion, the right hon gentleman would be justified in doing that which he stated it was his intention to do?to proceed with tbe Corn Bill day by day, fill the discussion should be closed. But another right hon. gentleman, the Secretary for the Home Department, the otherevening, in answer to a question, stated tbat it was hia intention on the first day alter tlie second reading of the Corn Bill, to propose the first reading of the bill for the pro tection of life in Ireland. Now I could very well understand that, if this bill were of such urgency that all other measures mwt be postponed for it, the right hon. gentleman should postpone the corn mea sure and go on with the other. But such I do not understand is the right hon gentleman's intention; and as there is no such urgency, 1 think it is obvious that the bill should not be hastened, even a single day, if it must be at the expense of retarding the discussion, and with the discussion the decision on the Corn Bill. (Hear, hear) If, however, the third reading of the Corn Bill is to be postponed, then it will take plioe at the time on tbe first read ing ot the other blU ; so that, in point of fact, no time will he gained in the pusing of that bill to which the right hon. g-ntleman, the Secretary for tbe Home Lepanment, attaches such importance. I may be allowed u> e?i?iess my hope that the right hon. gentleman, he FirttL?rd of ihe Treasury, will adhere to the ~ourse whicn be formerly stated he deemed ii inobtexpedient to puisue. (ii?ar, Lear) 1 do not blame the Ministers, or thost- who huvn on this occasion opposed ilie Mini?irrs, for the delay which unlortuuatelv has occurred; Ni? I do think that there has already been sufficient discus sion to entide the right non. gentleman to say that he will not be hastening the measure with undue precipitancy, if he, when the committee has report ed, proceeds at once with the third reading. t Some conversation between Lord J. Kussell and Sir ii. Peel then ensoed as to the order m which ihe public basinets j*ras to proceed. The order of the day was then read for the recep tion of the report on the Customs' Act. I The Clerk having read the resolutions respecting the importation of timber, The Marquis of Worcester moved that it be erastd from the resolutions, on the ground that the ?hipping interest had been materially injured by the uast relaxation ol protection, and that thev would Estill more extensively injured by 'he reWauon now nroi osed The Canada timber trade was ear rivd ou \>y British ships alone; the Baltic timber trade was carried on by ships, ot which five sixths belonged to the nations on the shores Bdtic. Ought the house to legislator the henffit of the nations on those shores, or for the benefit ol Great Britain and her colonies ? The question having been put, a long pause oc curred, daring which no member rose. Silence was at length.broken by ... ,., ? Mr. Hikui?The proposed reduction would t.e productive of the most injurious effeets upon the re istious between this country snd her colonies, it the House should adopt it, it might make a pf'*nl to the United States not only of Oregon, but of Ca nada and New Brunswick too. He cobcukmki by putting this question to the ministerial bench, u you cany out the principles of free trade to their lull extent, of what use will the colonies be to the mother country 1" .... Mr. Cakowbu. defined the course adopted by tbe ! government, and justified the resolution then before the House. He proceeded to show that under past relaxation the timber trade with Canada, instead of being injured, had actually doubled in value, and to infer therefrom that there would be no occasion to surrender Canada to the United States until the dis cretion of Mr. H. Hinde became equal to that of the minister who had introduced this measure. He also entered into a statement to prove that no injury either had been done or would be done by the re laxation of duty to the growers of British timber. The present prices proved that the relaxation ot du ties had conferred a great benefit|u[?on them ; for they were now 15 per cent more than they were be tween 1833 and 1840. Mr A. Chapmaw implored the house to take care that it did not injure the shipping mterMt by trans (erring the timber trade from Cannda to the Baltio. He had reason to dread that the interest of his con stituents would be seriously injured by such a trans action Timber was a lair subject for taxation , for it could not be smuggled; and with the great ex tension of railways, which was now going on throughout the country, there must be a great and growing demand font. He hoped that the mari time interests of the country would not be affected by the reduction now proposed. Captain Harris was ot opinion that this resolu tion, if adopted by the house, would strike aheavy blow against the North American trade, and that by so doing, it would inflict a great injury on ?he ser vice to which he had the honor to belong. ? * Mr Humk should give his support to this resotu tion although he lamented that the enure duty on &7ha?d not been taken oil When eveiy duty was taken ofl, why was 11 retained on timber, which was so useful an article in the consumption of the poor 1 He called particular attention to the advantage which the maritime population of these islands would derive from the entire abolition ol the timber duties. The fisheries on our coatt were the most productive in the world, and yet, we did 1 not draw from them any thing like the benefit which we ought. And why 1 Because our poor countrymen were not in a condition to fit out their boats properly, owing to the high price ol timber, and more lives were annually lost on our coasts, owing to the delective equipment ot our hahing i boats, than were lost on the coasts ol every other country in the world. Lord G. Bkntinck cautioned hon. members against being led away by the tacts and figures quoted, or to be quoted by Ministers on this subject; lor, as an illustrious relative ot his, Mr. Canning, had once remarked, the last thing which a man ot sense would believe in the House of Commons, was a statement of facta and figures. He then pointed out at great length, the injury which this resolution was calculated to inflict upon Canada. Our Canadian brethren had reason I lobe alarmed, and were alarmed, at the mere pro (?osition Of this reduction. Ihey dis cu^nojf the question, whether it ^?uld "ot be better for tliem to be annexed to the l nited States , and were preparing remonstrances against tne new commercial policy ot the BriM?h i rovernmeti This was not just the time to quarrel with th* fin e I nies, when America was arm ng her be -bjrd; and ! when Mr. JohnQuincv Adams ( Oh, no ) was blasphemously, he would say, calling to his aid ihe word of God as a justification tor lighting up tire 1 brands and unleashing the hellhounds of wair on. our territory of Oregon. (Hear, he*r ) He did not think this was a happy moment lor Her Majesty 8 Minis ters by their fiscal measures to alienate our Canadi an friends, when a storm was gathering Yes there was a cloud in the west, and that black cloud would grow blacker still, and perhaps break over us, if such meabures as those were offered to our Canadian Colonists. He. tor one, was as anx ious as any one that peace should be maintained with honor. He thought this country could ve y well afford to repose on her laurels, aud need be in no haste again to enter into the conflicts of war; but he must say, that the way to maintain pence was not by making a dishonorable sacrifice either of our colonial or our domestic in dustry (Hear, hear) He was as willing as anv Mie that if a doubt should arise about our rights the question should be referred t > an um pire, he cared not whom ; atffl he was e<^a'^J*'1" ling to concede to the American States that to which we had no right But it it came to this, that the Bible should be quoted tor the title ot ^ Ame rican* to the Oregon territory, he trusted that we should not go sneaking to* the United StatesJ^'th the boon otlree trade in our hands, and ready to give away the birth-right of the British farmer ? (Cheers ) But it these differences should not pass away he should not ask the right hon gentleman in the chair to have ?he Bibte re^at^tabte; but, reiving on the all-powerful aid of the God ot patties, he should confide that we would beenabledtoad^ ArPM the Americans ia the language ot uriiisn thunder from the broadsides of a line ot battle ship. (Hear, hear.) Firm in the Ju,t'ce .<fh?"r when the last resources of peace should have passed awav with an all-just Providence on our side, fear & human enemy, they would send those Briuth seamen which the government by their measures were th'at night going to destroy.tothe America, to speak in terms that could not bei mis understood, and make assertion of our rights.^ {K. So'ftiend to wai; but it w.r """Hcon* he would send those British seamen, whom their present legislation was injuring so much, to destroy the American seaboard, and which could not be misunderstood to New nor*, and Boston, and New Url?an";m^"r?lD^h?h was warlike demonstration against America, whicn was loudlv cheered by the Housp, he entered into a long statistical dissertation,displaying muchmdustryand research to prove thut the shipping, interest was in jured, and would be still more essentially injured by the relaxation of the protection under which it bad grown up If the shipping interest were .niured our mantims supremacy would be "J?0?*"" ; it by any vicissitude of fortune it should be ost, the gtory and prosperity of England would be placed in ^Mr'c^yuLutR observed, that as the rest of this question had been very satisfactorily disposed of, he would confine himself to the remarks of Lord C Bentinck, on the indignation which he declared was now shaking Canada from one end ot " to the other. Now he thought that when Lord G. Ben tinck unfurled the Union Jack as the flag ot the party sitting on the 50 ducal benches, he ought,along ml . .o ... .h. nihility of the leader of a party. He (Mr C. Bui ) lerr thought that the use of the language ot dignified courtesy towards foreign nations. such as Sir R. Peel habitually used, was preterable to bandying bombast with the braggarts ?f and to justifying, or almost the vagaries of poor Mr. Adams by congeniarb'uster. l tehad intimated his dissent trom Lord G. Bentinck. when he said that the inhabitants of Oanada were discus sing the expediency of separating '?emselves from England, and of annexing themselves to America on account ot his resolution. He had received papers trom Canada as well as the noble lord; and the editor of one of the Montreal ^pers. amid the ndigna tion which was said to be shaking Canada to its centre, calmly announced that he won d uke* * ure to think ot the goveroment proposiuon. Ile was sure that when a call was make upon them, the Oana dians would join with us in re"*1"? r,?Xi Met common country. By sending men hfcg bjd Met calf and Sir C. Bagot as Governors ^ c""d?i'ans 11. Peel had allayed the feelings of ^ Canadians and had established a stronger conneot]?" such demand, tor railway i?un<mes, both in tjBg and sad on the comment ot Europe,as to render them careless of any monopoly. 11< . , to recollect that every man b ell nc in the brut Si ESSSi by to""'"*. The House then divided, when there 1 for the amendment, 100; aaaiust it, 232. lution wss, therefore, affirmed by a majorityotl2. _ The other orders ot the day were then disposed of, and the House sdjouiyed. Indian Corn ?This article continues to arrive in great quantities in the principal |?orts ot this coun try, and isnlready becomiugone ot great conRump uon In Liverpool we have several flour dealers and bakers, who put forth Indian corn, Indian flour, and bread made of Indian flour, as the promiReat uiticle of sale; and amongst the higher classes ot sooiety it is used with English or American flour in msking bread. At a meeting of the Horti cultural S >ciety, held in London, last week,.there was distributed to the members a lsrgequuntity of packets of seeds ot the early sort of Indian corn, the eai best and most prol.fic variety, and the most (?unable to cultivation in this country; vhich ha i been sent over trom New York to ascertain^whether us growth would not introduce a treah article ol food here. . ... Mr. Liston, who has long been in a declining state ot health, expired on the 22d nh, athallpast ten o'clock, at his residence at Hyde I ark-corner, London. As a performer of comic characters, his place will, perhaps, never be adequately supvhed It is said that a commission is sluing in ' lor the purpose of revising the commercial tann of thiat kingdom. The Oregon Ctucatlon In ICn(lind< Opinion or the Press. [From the London Time*, March 23 ] It is undoubtedly a circumstance of considerable importance to our present and future relations with the United Stales, that at the very time when a ter ritorial controversy has arisen between the two nations, which threatens to disturb the general 1 peace of the world, the commercial policy of the 1 English and American governments is calculated to | enlarge and strengthen those great mercantile inte- | 1 rests which are common to both countries. We can : not, however, altogether concur in the confident ' expectations of some of our correspondents and I contemporaries, tuat the reductions contemplated in tha English ana American tariffs will at once allay the irritation or lower the pretensions which have j been raised with reference to the Oregon territory. i The connexion of the two questions is indirect i rather than immediate. Without inconsistency, Mr|Polk might, and in fact did, make the same message which he sent down at the opening of Congress, very warlike in respect to Oregon, and very pacific in respect to tree trade ; and, however decided and enlightened his opinions may be on the subject of revenue duties, we have no reason to suppose that he is not prepared to sacrifice them, in common with all the other blessings of peace, to what he has declared to be the political and terri torial .interests of the United States. Mr. Pitt in the earlier and more prosperous years of his administration was a practical free-trader.? His commercial treaty with Prance, concluded in 1786, has never been surpassed by any subsequent conventions of the same kind in the liberality of its provisions. II the peace had lasted twenty years, it would, probably, have established a most powerful, intimate, and beneficial connexion between Prance and England. But the peace did not last; the po litical interests of the two countries were stillstrug gliag fur ascendancy in Holland, and when the French revolution broke out with all its domestic horrors and outrages against foreign nations, Mr. Pitt himself was not restrained by his commerciul treaty with France from declaring war on the French Republic. |The spirit which guides the poli cy of powerful nations in their political and in their commercial relations, is two fold and distinct. The former are not to be dealt with by a bargain, or dis posed of by a computation of profit and loss. If they were, no war could ever break out in the world, for no war is worth what it costs in blood and treasure, least of all such a war as we may have to wage for this territory of Oregon. But we cannot allow our mercantile interests, or even the still dearer interests of the lives and ease of the Queen's subjects, to de ter us from the firm maintenance of our national rights; nor can we suppose that the party in the Uni ted States, which is contending for the assertion of absolute and complete rights to the Oregon territory, will be more ready than ourselves to chaffer what they assert to be their own for mere trading advan ages The commercial policy of Mr. Polk's message and the free-trade measures of Sir Rotiert Peel, have tliia in common, that they are based on strictly na tional ground* respectively, without any previous ??oneer' or direct connexion with any foreign power. The state smun who aim at etlecting these great re form* in the commercial syste m of the world, lnvve certainly Jnot^ overlooked the inevitable etlect their own enlightened views muot pioduce in other countries. But on both sides, the movement his been s|>ontaiieous; and hence on both side* there has been a somewhat exaggerated notion that such vast and unforeseen concessions as these would lead to the ready abandonment or diminution ou the part of the other State of the claims to the Oregon terri tory. It is a common opinion in the United States, that when Mr. Walker's tariff bill shall have reduc ed the import duties of the Union to an average of 20 per cent, England will care very little for the de fence of her claims beyond the. Rocky Mountains; and it has been constantly remarked on this side of the Atlantic, that when Mr. Polk and his supporters learn the extent of Sir Robert Peel's plan for the ad mission of their staple commodities, they will see the folly of risking such national advantages for the chances of a most formidable contest. The alterna tive of peace and war is at all timeB the most serious question that can be entert lined by a government; but the alternative of peace, accompanied"by the mu tual benefits of a trade about to be opened to an un limited extent, or of war for the possession of such a territory as that of Oregon, r? nders the contrast of good and evil, and the conflict between national in terest and national duty, infinitely more forcible and momentous. Nevertheless, although the people of this country have entertained strong hopes that the policy of Mr. Polk might be sensibly modified by the prospect of free trade with Great Britain, and although we rejoice at the prospect of a simultane ous abatement oi the protective system in the Uni ted States, no one has ever contended in this coun try that Mr. Walker's tariff is a reason for us to abandon the banks of thelColumbia, or to lower the moderate and just claims to part of the Oregon ter ritory which have been constantly upheld by the British government. We are happy to pay Mr. Polk in kind, and to meet him more tnan half way in his commercial reforms; but there is not a man in our most crowded markets or our busiest ports,who would consent to give in exchange for these advan tages one tittle of British honor, or one acre of the righduldominions of the British Crown. In a very sensible and pacific speech which was delivered in the Senate of the United States in the course of the recent debate, Mr. Clayton held pre cisely this language. He strongly deprecated war; he denied the paramount titje of the United States to the territory in dispute; he inferred from the total absence of warlike preparation on the part of the American Executive, that no war could be intend ed by the President; but he added, that it was a fal lacy to suppose that commercial advantages, how ever great, would induce the American people to avert a war, if they were not satisfied with the po litical proposals made for the settlement ot the question. la one reepect, and that not an unimportant one, the proposed reduction of the protective system in the Unfed States may have a directly contrary effect to that which has been anticipated by some of the friends of peace in this country. The six New Eng land States are those in which the general political question of Oregon is viewed with tbe greatest indifference and moderation. The whole tone of feeling in these Stages, the ascendancy of (he whig party in several of them, their position on the coa*t, ih*ir mercantile interests, and their jealousy of the Western and Southern States, make them the best friends and staunchest supporters of peace with Eng land, as far as Oregon is concerned. But the manu facluring interest, which is powerful in these States and in no others, has a directly opposite tendency To a large portion of their population the proposal of a low tarilf is a blow so hostile and soiafl, that we shall not be surprised to And some of ihe organs of public opinion in that part of the Union preferring a war which would shut their ports and secure tln-ir home trad'-, (to a peace which will open the home trade to British oompetition. Lord George Bentinck and the protectionists I may well bluster, tor war is the strongest of all protective duties; it is pro hibitive; and lorty years ago it was not th? Duke of Buokiugham but Bonaparte who was the farmer's triend. Thej protectionists of New England will no doubt be effected by the oame false anu perni cious argument; ttnd thus the portion of the Ame rican people la whom under other circumstances we might have found the most oordial support for mo derate ahd pacific views, win soma measure be rendered less averse to war by the very considera tions which render war more than ever to be depre cated and avoided by the two nations. This ques tion of the Jarifl has already once nearly broken up the Union by the attempted nullification of a system of high duties ; it mny nowlhave a similar e fleet in another pirt of the United Sutes by the reduction of those duties'to a low rate. On this point the in terests of 'he North and South are irrecoiicileaMy "Pi>os<;d ; and front the energy with which it has bt 00 couuuctcd on both sides, we cannot doubt that each party is prepared to carry on the struggle to the last ex?r?nii?y So that if Mr. Folk be disposed to plunge the country he guvurna into Hai,alt?i Slaving incited the adventurous ; is ?ons of the democracy in the West, no more effectual me n.. remain to ' be tried on New EnglandJ than that of a reduced tariff, which may make the war popular amoi>g 'he i manufacturing population, and bring them to the 1 same conclusion by aa opposite path. [Krom tho London Sunday Timet, March 99 ] 9 * ? ? ? * Lord Aberdeen concluded by quoting " the Qneeti's speech.M (Her speech !?had he no hand in it 1 Why, they are actually his own word*?" Ef fort" and alt. This oration of the Tuesday?puerile, illogical, and timorous as it was?might have passed into the puddle of oblivion, with many others f rom th? same source, did not its tendency forbid it. It is not what the speech will do hete, but the effect it will produce there. It is read with disgust in England ; it will be read with triumph in America. Our trant Atlantic brethren?and we call them brethren from our hearts?are like all young communities, they are the very last persons on earth to whom it Is s?fe or proper to make concessions. They are apt to at tribute to fear in us that which we really meant in 1 kindness to them. That they do not hate us we can believe; but has any one ever travelled through that i mighty land without finding them catching at anv I and every opportunity to belittle and malign us 1 A ! sense of Inferiority awakens this antagonistic feel ing?hurt vanity hatea the admission of a known truth. Thus (with a few glorious exceptioss) Ame ricans under-rale Englibh talent, English industry, English enterprise, and England's power. " I like you, but damn your country !" is a common coffee house salutation. Go down Broadway?every shop keeper announces hts goods, it possible, with tha prefix of " English" as a recommendation. Yet the very dealer abuses England, while he is selling its articles. America has been called the land of veibal novelists (to give Mights of fancy a mild ; name) but it is assuredly a land of boasters A ! true Yankee avers that their ships sails faster, their horses run quicker, their men fight harder, their women love truer, their manuf act -ires are Jitter, their commercial schemes more extended, their f(? hticahviews more just, and in short that everything thai in their land can be invented or imagined, lar tianscends whatever exits in England. We can af ford to hear all this?the gasconade hurts us not? we hear it as we patiently listen to a child talking of encountering a vast giant; but what we endure we mutt not foster, for the child's sake. England ia[no blusterer, and certainly never sought to intimi date America ; but it will not do to let her make such " mighty tall walking" aa Lord Aberdeen's speech is likely to accelerate. All he said?his leaving no atone unturned to promote peace?is in contraventioaof the Premier's manly declaration? " We have," said Sir Robert Peelat the close of last sesiion?" we have rights, and having, are prepared to assert and maintain them." Has Lord Aberdeen forgotten the cheers which this annunciation of his (Peel's) intentions elicited 1 If so, he is the only man in England who has. Lord Aberdeen wishes for i>eaee ; so do we?so does every sane man in Great Britain?but we would not cringe tor and implore it. Admitting that, in anxiety for the well-being of the whole human race, Lord Aberdeen wishes for peace?he is taking the worst possible means to procure it?worse, because impossible; worse still, tor that it is abject. To at tempt, by amplorution, to procure peace is to pro mote wur. We have had enough of folly in what seemed like warlike preparations. The Bellerophoa id fitted for service in eight and forty hours, to show what England could do; does she not know what j she can dol Alter playing at soldiers, as it were, the feturus re infccta, is unrigged, ana laid up in ordinary. Mu,?t not other nations have imagined we had something serious iu view by such marvel lous celerity ; ana could they expect Great Britain [ wonld parodise the exploit of that general who marched his troops up the hill, and then marched down again t Are we to emulate the Roman hero who took forth his army to light, and employed them to pick up shells upon the shore 1 The panic that seized all England, when France, on a raft, was to invade us, waa ridiculous; but we did prepare; the job of the martello towets was wicked and absurd, but still a demonstration. We didn't publicly (by speech and press) inform Napoleon that we should make every " effort" to conciliate him, *nd trust to avert his wrath. " Come, if you dare!" was Eng land's watch-word, not her wnr-cry. America does not hate us, hut she hates oar supe riority ; and there is no utility in giving her, even lor a moment, an opportunity of chuckling over our supposed dread of an encounter?(<>r this is the in terpretation that will be put upon that timid, weak, mid ill-judged oration. How the House had patience to listen in it, is a matter tor amazement. However, il been ileiivered, and cannot bo recalled? ins been printed, and cannot be supiressed. AU that can be d ine now is by our actions to prove that the country by no nfans sanctions the timorous twaddle ol her Secretary for Foreign Affairs. Eng land does not wish to eneroach upon America, but she will not be encroached up?u. Sh? vault* no more than her right, but that bhe will have. The conflict?if conflict must come?will be dreadful, but never tor u moment doubtful. America will fight bravely, and to the last, but she must yield, we Bhall not triumph in the conquest. We must mourn for the sacrifice of human life, but life lUelf cannot be put in competition with our children's rights, our nation's honor. otkam Ship (treat wjmtkkn.?We learn by a private communication, dated "Liverpool, April 3d," that the above steamer would start trom Liver pool on Saturday Uth, at the exact moment ol 10 o'clock 15 mm. A. M. There were already ninety-eight bertha taken at the date of the letter, and a number of passengers were expected from Paris. Altogether she will have about one hundred and twenty passengers and one hundred and fifty tons of goods. It was the intention ot Captain Mat thew's to take a southerly route to avoid the ice, which abounds at this season of the vear in the nor therly latitudes. The Captain calculated npon arri ving about the 26th inst. Great improvements had beeu made on board, both in the engines as well as in the bteward's and Cook'a department, adding much to the speed, safety, and comfort of the vessel Steam Ship Gt eat Britain?This huge leviathan is at present in the Queen's Graving Dock, where she may be seen in all her gigantic proportions She has been placed on the graving blocks for tbe> purpose of cleaning her plates below the water-line, and also effecting several alterations and repairs. It has been found necessary to remove the whole o? the old screw from the end of the propeller shaft, to be replaced with a new one. We some time ago suggested that stays should be passed from on* flange to the other on the extreme outer edge of the new flanges; this would give great strength to tha screw, and offer very aiignt resistance in the water. To make this vessel as complete as possible, no ex Gnse has been spared during the time she has been id up ; her masts and rigging have undergone ex tensive alterations. This looks as if the directors intended to trust more to her proved superior sailing qualities; and they show their wisdom in thuft fitting the Great Britain tor any unforaeen casualty that tnav hapen to her machinery, as the screw ap Rratus' is not perfect. It appears that the boat, >m her buoyancy, rolls considerably; and to pre vent this, two bends are to be attached below her water line, one on each side, 110 feet in length, two feet deep against the side ot the boat, and projecting two feet. This will give a horizontal resistance to the water equal to about 410 square feet, and by so much vertical resistance prevent rolling; but, at the same time there will be near 1,000 square feet ot re sistance to her passing through the water, and this consequently must prevent her making the same headway as before?probably to the extent of two knots per hour, or more. In looking round and un der the coloasal specimen of iron ship-bu'lding, we could not but admire the perfection ot workmanship | in every part; all is close, smooth, tight, and perfect bo far as material and labor can make it so ; faults in design there may be : imperfection more or lese attaches to all of man ; but the imperfections in tha Great Britain da not belong the workmanship be stowed upon her. We believe she will be tound to prove as stout, sjfe, and aa seaworthy a craft as ever croH-sed the Atlantic.?Livtrpool Journal. The Famine hcTAhatoma.?Extract of a letter dated "Smyrna, March 7,1&46 ?An extraordinary thing has happened here. Manna, ot a glutinous substance, ot which they make bread, has fallen in immense qusntiue* in a large district of Anatolia, where the people were starving previously. I will endeavor to send you a tamp1* ; it ie selling pub licly in this district at about 17a. per quarter." The diadem of precious stones to be worn by.the Princess Olga of .Russia, on her wedding day is worth 18,000.0001 The Urge central diamond in estimated at l,000,000t. This diadem is te be pre sented to the bride by her impensl lather. rniwt. [From tbn European Tim?f, April 4.} Park, March 80.?Since my last little ban been said in the prees about Amtnean affairs, and nothing at all in the legislature. This most not, howevrr, be sscrtbed to any sudden tndifierenee of the public to what is psssini; m the United'Sta'es, for tn?* interest felt therein is as great aa ever it was. But the truth is, that the intelligence we have re ceived during the peat month, thoagh of % very im portant character, has not been very exciting. The voting ot a resolution by the House of Represents lives to put an end to the Oregon treaty, was clearly toreneen ; the delight ot the American population at Sir Retort Fcel'slree-trade meaaure was expected; ?nd the refusal ot Mr. Polk to submit the Oregon question to arbitration did not cause much surprise. There has, consequently, been little for the news papers to comment upon, and nothing for peers or deputies to talk nbout ? . On the Oregon question, I can only repeat what was stated in previous letters to the rnsnner in which it is viewed in r'lis country. It in?y coon ! dentty be stated that uw majority of the leguiainre, # 1 the press, and the country, leel that Mr. Polk has put himself snd his nstion in a false position - i When I say " country, 1 do not mean the gentle men in biK beards and with dirty pipes, who vapour about politics In utamin*l?; nor do I mean the I noisy and blustering radios Is, who make up in swsg ger what they want in sense. But I call the country ' the men of cense and intelligenea?the men who [ have something to lose?the men who support ail tfw burdens of the state, who discharge all the duties of citizenship, and who, ia point of fsct, form the French nation. The majority of these men, and the majority of their representatives in parliament, condemn Mr. Polk's proceed! likely te lesd to war, and they abhor war as a great calamity. They do not, iadeed, think there will be war, bin they feel that it will not be to Mr. Polk and his advisee

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