Newspaper of The New York Herald, 20 Haziran 1846, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated 20 Haziran 1846 Page 1
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THE NEW YORK HERALD. Mm tw? umu. HIGHLY IMPORTANT FROM EUROPE. ARRIVAL OF THE STEAMSHIP CALEDONIA AT BQ8TON. FIVE DAYS LATER. Vhe Mediation of Xngiand in the Mexican War Offered to the United States. Ordering of a French Fleet to the Gulf of Hexlco. THE OREGON QUESTION IN PARLIAMENT. State of the Ootton Market. J The French end English Money Markets, Ad. The steam ship Caledonia arrived at Boston at two o'clock, on Thnrsday afternoon, with advtces from Liverpool to die 4th and London to the 3d instant inclusive The intelligence is of some importance in a Mexican and Oregonic point of view. The English government, as we ttated in the New York Herald on the arrival of the Great Western, it about to offer her mediation for the settlement of the difficulties between Mexico and the United States. The intelligence from this side, of the progress of tlio Mexican war, had alarmed France and England; hence this mediation on the part of the latter, and hence tho'active preparation in the French Naval Depots to fit out a fleet for the Gulf of Mexico The Oregon question was touched upon in Parliament on the last day of its meeting, and Sir Robert Peel stated that tho " Notice" had been given and received in a most friendly spirit. The cotton market had not materially changcd. The shipments in American bottoms had fallen off in England, in consequence of die Mexican war. There has been a great repeal meeting in Dub lin, at which Daniel O'Connell presided. The Spanish government has withdrawn from the United States die right to depose at Malion the combustibles, provisions, and effects necessary for its Mediterranean squadron. The inhabitants ofMahon are very much discontented with the measure. The cholera is advancing with rapid strides to wards St. Petersburg, whence no doubt it will make its way to Western Europe. Louis Napoleon has arrived in England. The Paris paper, I a. Presse, of the 1st instant, announces that orders had been sent by the Minister of Marine to Brest, and the other military harbors," to despatch a num ber of ships of war to the Gulf of Mexi co, to reinforce the squadron stationed there in consequence of the war between the United States and Mexico. On this subject the same pa per states that much uneasiness exists in Paris.? The opposition prints are all on the side (of America, and predict an early conquest of Mexi oo by the United States. The apprehension caused by the war of the United States with Mexico weighed on the Paris money market on the 1st. The sugar duties keep alive attention respecting the fate of the Ministry. The impression out of the Cabinet is, that Sir Robert Peel is far in ad vance of hi* colleagues; and diat he is anxious to apply to sugar die free-trade principles which have extended to corn, cotton, and other articles of general consumption. But his official life is evidently drawing to a close, and the whigs are con fident of being in favor at no remote day. The timber trade has felt the effects of the mis understanding, to which we have more than oncc alluded, between the masters and the men. Accounts have been brought by the Algiers pa pers of the JMth ult., stating that Abd-el-Kader had ordered to be massacred in cold blood the 900 pri soners who had fallen into his hands. The rea son assigned for this horrible act is that the Mo rooco troops were advancing on all sides against the Deira, and that he, for the purpose of com mitting to his cause the Algerine tribes who had emigrated with him into Morocco, had ordered his prisoners, with the exception of the officers, to be shot. There is some doubt expressed by the Courier dt Maruillet ot the truth of this report. The overland mail of May the 1st, from India, reached Loudon on the 2d inst. The news | as sesses no political and little commercial interest. The seeds of another outbreak in the Sikh coun try were sown at the termination of the late war, and in good time it will producc fruit. 1*1 le dragons' teeth are fructifying. Portugal has been the scene of another attempt at revolution consequent upon a change of the ministry. The closing scenes in the French Chamber of Depntias show that M. Thiers has lost none of his pugnaciousness. He has had a smart tilt with his great rival, M. Guizot, in which the calm phi losophy of the First Minister was about a match for the historian of the Consulate Thk Cholbba.?We have already stated, that the cholera had made its appearance in some o f the provinces of Persia, carrying death into the principal towns. It has spread Irom Bokhara to Herat and Meshid, and has now taken the direc tion from the Caspian Sea to Teheran and Ispahan. Late accounts from Odessa state, that it had crossed the Russian territory and appeared suddenly at Titlis, taking a northerly direction be tween tne Caspian and the Black seas. On the other side the cholera broke out unexpectedly at Orenbourg, in the mines of the Ural mountains; eiotseU tne Votua, and set its foot in Europe, at Casan, onlp 2,000 kilometres from St. Peters burgh. If the accounts we have received are rx art, it has taken a most irregular direction. It has advanced lrom west to north, and does not seem to have followed the banks ot the river, as in 1828 and 1832. Tne cholera which devastated France in 1831 and 1832, had l>een raging in Persia for seven years,1823 tol830. It first appeared in 1823 at Orenbourg, and shed death around that town for five years, h re-ap|>eared at Orenbourg in 1829, nnd one tenth of the population fell victims. It broke out at St. Petersburgh in July, 1831, and in France in October of the same year.?Oiobe. Testimonial to Captain Rathbomb of the "Co lumbia."?We are much pleased to find that the Eassengers by the Columbia, which arrived1 at iverpool 2(1 inst..have presented Capt. Rathbone with a very complimentary address, expressive of their great admiration of his conduct as a gentle man, and his Arm, expert, nnd successful exer tions as a sailor. The ship, we understand, has, when she had good sailing weather, proved her self of first rate quality. Tub BbujiahCobn Law.?'The Belgian govern ment, who suspended the corn law of thnt coun try before our ministers had begun seriously to ?ntertain the question, have now, we learn, de termined to continue the admission of grain and rice duty free till the first of Ootober, instead ?f closing the ports on the first of June, as had been intended. The Mediation of Kngland In Ike Mexican | War. [From the Liverpool Timet, June 4.] Connected with the mission of Oeneral Armstroaff, we may notice a rumor which has obtained currency in j London, in the monetary circles of the city, it i* whit Bred that the American hat claimed the intervention of 1 e British government to ?ettle the dispute with Mexico. The fact may be to; but we cannot credit it. It bear* improbability on ita front. Indeed, the city , is the focu* of a thousand sinister rumors daily; on the face of the earth a more imaginative race than ; the broken and stock-jobber* of 'Ihanifealley could j not be found They beat the same class in Wall street, New York, hollow. We should be sorry, for the credit 1 of the American character, if the fact referred to proved ' correct. Peace, we grant, if a ble .sing which ought not , to be (lightly sacrificed, but the I'niteJ States are quite ' able to settle their differences with the Mexicans with- ! out intervention; if they are not, the race has sadly de- ! Renerated since the days of Washington and the battle of { Few Orleans. The Standard of last night Uas the lol- j lowing, in reference to this lubject: "The Mitement made in the London Morning Herald, I that ministers have determined to olfer the mediation ol the British government to arrange the difforuuce* to tween the United 8tates and Mexico, i* the most impor tant news of the morning, and has excited much interest The intention to tender this mediation was communicated to the diplomatic representatives of the two stutosyos tetdav, and the necessary powers will bo fur?aixlod to Mr. Pakenhum, our minister at Washington, by the Caledonia steamer which will toil from Liverpool to morrow morning. Measures will also bo taken to have tho proposition mode to the government of Mexico with tho least possible delay. It is almost unnecessary to say that the universal hope is, that tho mediation should prove successful ; for, independent of the desiio for a speedy settlement on the common ground of humanity, tnere is great approhonsion felt that If hostilities were protracted, tha maritime stales of Europe would run great risk of beiug involved in the quarrel." Connected with this Mexican emeute?for war it hard ly deserves to be called?speculation is rife as to the course which privateering may take. There are in eve ry maritime power number* to be found who would gladly embark in any enterprise, howevor brutal or san guinary, that would " bring to the mill." Privateering is legal piracy. The underwriters are making a rich harvest out of the fears of the fastidious. The rates of insurance yesterday to New York and New Or leans were, on British vessels, 30s. to 35s. por cent ; on American vessels as high as 60s. to 105s. per cent. This is absolute oeining. There are many reasons for thinking that fear over rules prudence in this matter. It does not appear that war has yet been declared between the belligerents. War is the act of Congress, and the latest advices do not show that Congress, in its legislative capacity, hod moved at all. We are in possession of Mr. Polk's mes sage to that body, but what transpired subsequently, we are as yet unacquainted with. Again, none but the na tives of the countries which are at loggerheads are en titled to privateer; the natives of other coun tries who are found engaged in tie nefarious practice, expose themselves to a very summary Srocedure?the fato of pirates?hanging at tiie yard arm. !ut, above all, the United States have friendly treaties with France, England, Spain, Holland, Belgium, Den mark, Sweden, Prussia, Brazils, Columbia, Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia, and Chili. The subjects and citizens of these countries, which form all the maritime (towers worth naming in the new and the old world could not act on letters of marque. Add to this, the ease with which the American vessels of war could blockade the Mexican ports, and it will be at one* seen that the rates of insurance are out of ell proportion to the risks. The Effect of the Americano Mexican Wa 1 In Europe. [From the London Kxaminer] The bombastic President Polk has at' length had the felicity of inditing a war message to Congress, craving for " two regiments of volunteers, and other levies of an equally formidable kind, to resist the hostile purposes of the Mexicans. The President, however, makes out but a poor case. The Mexicans, it seems, refused to receive an American envoy. This is surely no cosas belli. The other grief is that the Mexicans kept up an army on the banks of the Rio Bravo Why, they have had posts there for these number of years. And even supposing the Americans had a rightful titlo to Texas, it is not appar ent how this should render It a crime for the Mexicans to garrison Matamoras. The territory intervening be tween the Rio Bravo and the Nueces has been leng a dis puted territory between Texas and the adjoining pro vinces. Notwithstanding this dispute, the Mexican com mander did not occupy this territory, but kept on his own side of the Rio del Norte. Had the American command er done the same, and kept at Corpus Christi, on the Nueces, contented with protecting the territory from invasion, no collision could have taken place, for the Mexicans remained strictly on the defensive. But Gen. Tkylor not only crossed the Nueces and seized the whole of the disputed territory, but, under some idle jplea, he proceeded also to blockade Matamoras, and cut it off from the sea. In this, Oeneral Taylor wantonly commenced hostilities; as, indeed, the whigs and the Senate are prepared to maintain, as they insist that he should not have gone beyond Corpus Christi. Collisions having taken place, it was impossible to refuse the vote of lories and of money, although the leading members of tho Senate, Calhoun amongst others, protested that the country could not consider itself at war. The united bodies of Congress could, indeed, alone declare that.? War, however, it is, If President Polk chooses to make it so. This he seems scarcely prepared to do upon the land frontier of the Hio del Norte, He may, however, give orders to the fleet in the gulf to operate on the coast, or to whatever vessels are on the Pacific, to seize Monterey or the forts of <California. And, as compensation for that unlimited store oi grievance, whichThas been amassed on the supposed wrongs done to American citizens by Mexi co, Mr. Polk may insist on retaining such provinces or possessions. Federalist movements, too, may be got up at the same time under American influence to paralyze the efforts of the Mexican Government and facilitate the work of spoliation. Is Kurope prepared to see Mexico thus disasembered, and the autopsy made before her eyes? It is to be feared that such is the case. A serious means of effective war wonld alone be likely to make the Americans hesitate. And neither France nor Kngland is Eropared to volunteer in such a struggle. We have had ttle or no thanks from Spain for having fought for and won its independence. We might risk still less profit or gratitude from the Spanish race in Mexico. The age of political, as well as of religious, crusade is post [From the London Tims*, May 39;] The collision, which the increasing arrogance of the American Government and tho apparent weakness of Mexico rendered inevitable, has at length taken place. Hostilities have begun upon the Rio Bravo del Norte. An American detachment of 63 men has been surround ed, and compelled to lay down its arms, after a consider able loss. General Taylor, the American commander, appears to have placed himself, with an excess of pre sumption or incapacity, in a position of great danger ; his small forces being divided, his supplies cut off, and his line of operations intersected by the Mexican army. The news oi this defeat and this danger instantly roused the passions of the American people to the highest pitch of excitement The population of the southern states is preparing to flock in arms to the scene of ad venture. The State Legislatures nearest to the fron tier have voted money and troops to proceed at once to reinforce the detachment at Point Isabel.? The Federal Government, upon the receipt of this intelligence, took the most vigorous measures, and within four days a bill passed the Congress, and received the sanction of the President, " to provide for the prose cution of the existing war between the United States and the Republic of Mexico." All the efforts of the peace party to resist or control this torrent of national enthusi asm of war were ; wholly unavailing. These events are manifestly calculated to produce the most importantjet fects on the several powers of the North American con tinent, on their institutions at home, and on their rela tions abroad; but they are no moro than the fulfilment of the anticipations we nave long entertained and express ed. * No state Tever endured more injuries from another than Mexico has received from the Cabinet of Washington, for no state was ever worse prepared to resent them : but, after all these provocations and wrongs, the war declared by the United States is now imputed to Mexico, because she 1ms refused to receive an American emissary to dic tate terms in her capital, and has ordered her scanty for ces to assemble on a disputed frontier. The territory lying between the rivers Nueces and Del Norte 1s at men an unsettled and debatable ground ; if, indeed, any doubt has ever existed as to the lull right of Mexico to the whole province of Tamnulipas. extending to the for mer and more northerly of these streams. The occupa tion of the left bank of the Rio Bravo del Norte was therefore an unwarrantable and rash act on the part of the American General; and his blockade of Matamoras, a town situated on the right bank of the stream, was a direct aggression on the territorial rights of Mexico.? We cannot suppose that Mr Polk is so blind as not to have foresoen these events. He must not only have foreseen them, but intended to bring them to pass. In his message upon the opening of Congress he laid open wide grounds of remonstrance and retaliation against Mexico. Mr. Slidell was des patched with a message ill calculated to promote any pacific object. Genera] Taylor was ordered to advance by land beyond the true boundary of Texas; a demon stration was msde by an American squadron in the (iulf; and we have strong reason to believe that orders had al ready been given to the American Commodore in the South seas to seize upon Monterey, Port St Francis, or other positions on the Californian coast, upon the first in timation which should reach him of the withdrawal of Mr. Slidell from the Mexican territory. This combina tion of measures, following closely upon the extraordina ry language of the resident in his public addresses i upon several occasions, and viewed in connection with the electioneering interests of Mr. Polk's party, leave no doubt that the head of the American government has with as much deliberation as he is capable of, plunged his country into this most flagitious war. The evils which must result from it flow straight from the democratic in stitutions of the United States, from the popular vices which those institutions liavo fostered when they most needed to be checked, and from the character of tho political F.mpedocles whom they have raised to office. It is by no means improbable that the Mexicans may da teat and destroy the corps of General Taylor before I the reinforcements arrive, and then assnmc the offi-nsive in Texas. However this may be, it is evident that such a j success on their part would be but temporary, ami I would only exas|?rate to fury their nnsciupulous and overwhelming enemy. But, weak as they are, they are not without weapons, which the unprotected state of American commerce and the social condition of the 1 Southern States render formidable. The immediate con sequences of this rupture are, however, the leaat import ant part of the ease. The state of war which now exists between Mexico and the United States at once givee rise te all the aaiburraseiag questions of the rights of beUige rants and of neutrals, of letters of marque, blockade, and the protection of trade. Already two t.nglish schooners, the K<|uity and Kloridian, have been turned back from the mouth of the Rio l>rande by the United States brig Lawrence, before anv notification of blockade has been made at all. And, in addition to these dangerous, but in separable concomitants of war, Great Britain has other ami more momentous interests at this moment in dispute. The time is come when the Oregon negotiation must be brought to a close; and there is reason to anticipate that we shall have to encounter a more intractable and ex cited spirit on that question amongst the American peo ple, if the war party has once asserted its predominance, armed the country, and perhaps obtained an easy triumph over the Mexican forces. [Prom the London Times, June 1.] The tumultuous excitement occasioned throughout the United States by the announcement that u small Mexi can army had been collected at Matamorns, and that ?J,000 men had crossed the Kio Grande, and placed them selves between General Taylor's camp and his supplies at Point Isabel, is certainly disproportioned to the actuul magnitude of the event, and it presonts a strange com mentary on the aggressive policy and the warliko mea sures which have boon gaining ground in the Uuitcd States for the last few years. * * * Tho immediate effect of this rupture with Mexico is, therefore, to weaken the influence of tho party which had recently succeeded in smoothing down the form of notice to be given to Great Britain?to increase the authority and ascendancy of the Kxocutivo government?to place large sums of mone v and vast patronage at their disposal?to augment the I'nited States army and navy?to call out a large body of voluuteers un t drill them into troops, and to promote that martial spirit amongst the population at large to which democratio communities are too prone.? In short, if Mr. Polk i. ere to propose to hiinselj the most ejf'ectual mode of prtpariug the people of tht United States Jor a contrit with one of the great poweri nf JSuropt, he could not have hit upon any scheme more likely to iuit hit purpose than that of training the country by a little war, in which there is no serious risk, na formidable enemy,'hut just enough of eclat to whet the passions which the leaders of the American democracy arc wont to flatter and obey.? * * * * If the overture which Mr. Pakenham nas been instructed to make in reply to the notice for the termination of the convention be favorably received, we may hope that in four or five weeks the Oregon controversy may be settled, and a final treaty of par tition signed. But the best means of arriving at this most desirable result are vigorous measures and a strong demonstration of our resolution not to recoil before any alternative. Svmptoms have already reached us of an intention on the part of the American government to convince us of the ex treme moderation of their designs towards Mexico, and of their earnest desire to terminate this war. But the American government must be judged of by its public acts and declarations, not by assurances which we can only regard as subterfuges and pretences. Its evident object i|j if possible, to postpone the settlement of the Oregon question until Mexico has been reduced to terms; and then to put forward its pretensions to Oregon with the whole strength of the democratic party. This scheme must be defeated. Another month will bring us either a treaty of partition and peace, or an answer which will call for more decided steps on the part of the British go vernment. With regard to the mode of prosecuting the war against Mexico, we apprehend that whatever may be the feebleness of the Mexican troops, the nature of the country otters most serious obstacles to an invading army. The city of Mexico is 700 miles from the Hio Bravo del Norte. The roads are bad and ill-provided with water or supplies ; and a host of ill disciplined ad venturers, like the American volunteers, would inevita bly be cut ott? in detail in the interior of the eountry by the Kancheros and the Spanish population. The military operations must, therefore, bo confined to desultory war fare on the frontier If a blockade be announced of the eastern and western coasts of Mexico, including the ports of Vera Cruz, Tampico, and the mouth of the lUo Bravo on the Atlantic, and the immense extent of coast from Port St. Francis to Acapulco on the Pacific, the ma ritime powers ef Europe, whose subjects are so largely I interested in the commerce of Mexico, will, of course, require that this blockade should be everywhere eeforc 1 ed by a competent American squadron. But the whole American navy now afloat would not suffice actually to blockade this extent of coast, even if its services were not likely to be required in other places for the protec-. tion of American commerce. Whatever may be the laws of particular countries, or the stipulations of treaties, as to the rights of privateers, there can be no doubt that if the Mexican government issue letters of marque, there are seafaring adventurers enough in the world to risk their lives in this s|>ecies of legalized piracy, and to defy restrictions which can only be enforced here and there by the American vessels of war. In the mer cantile cities of the Union it was generally expected that the Mexicans would resort to this expedient.? We shall await with anxioty the measures wiiich may be anticipated from tWfc Mexican and American govern ments with reference to these maritime questions ; and as a proper precaution we hoj>e the British squadron in the West Indies will at once be reinforced. Without any direct interest in the disturbed and declining affairs of Mexico, and without caring in the slightest degree what form of government exists in that country, rince none can be worse than the military anarchy which has exist ted there for the last twenty years, there are important British undertakings and investments in Mexico which have frequently been the subject of communication be tween the two governments, and which cannot now be left unprotected. Nor can we be blind to the fact that the Americans are, to use an expression of their own, about to fight the battle of Oregon in Texas, and that the same passion which i* now launching in full career against their weakest neighbor, will ere long incite the most stirring portion of the American people to lay hands ?pon the American possessions of the British Crown. This, then, is the time to prepare for resistance?firm, absolute resistance?to pretensions which are incompati ble with the safety of neighboring states or the poacc of tho world. [From the Liverpool Times, June 3.1 The rata* of insurance from Liverpool to Now York and New Orleans, were yesterday, 35s. and 35*. per cent on Britiih vessel*, and 60s. to 105*. on American. Thii difference arises from apprehensions (rcil or pretended) that the'war between the United States and Mexico will have the effect of inducing the Mexican Oovernment to issue letters of maniue,against American commerce. We are very much inclined to agree with the author of the accompanying comunication, that these fears are un grounded, and to believe thateven if the Oovernment of Mexco was disposed to issue them, it would find no one disposed to take them. Our correspondent say* " Much apprehension ha* been excited amongst our merchants that commerce with Now Orleans and the port* in tho Oulf of Mexico, would be interfered with by letters of maniue issued by the Moxican Oovernment; but it appears that such apprehensions are groundless, as the Mexican* have only two accessible ports in the Oulf, Vera Cruz and Tampico.both which would be blockaded by the United States ship* of war, and from which any capture would be cut off. Moreover, the United States have treaties with the following countrios by which the subject* and citizens of each are .prohibited, in ease of war, from assisting or co-operating in hostilities with the enemy, or accepting commission or ^letters of marque, viz :?France, Kngland, Spain, the Brazils, Netherlands, Columbia, Venezuela, feru, Bovlivia, Chili, Denmark, Prussia, und Sweden: and the maritime power of Mexico herself is too insignifiant to create any alarm. It is true that the New York insurance offices are charging 4} per cent to ports in the Ouli'of Mexico butfwith the enormous amount at risk there, if there were any real danger, thi* premium would be utterly inadequate. The fact is that the underwriter*, like all other people, wish to make money, and make the most of tho fear* of the public, whether they be real or imaginary." The Peace off Europe?One of the English Causes for the Settlement off the Oregon (Question. [From the London Times, June 3 } In spite of the tranquillity and prosperity of Kurope, at the present moment, and the absence of any of thoso continental questions which may at any moment assume a threatening aspect, and demand the utmost vigilance of statesmen, there is enough beyond the present hour to *ugge?t the moit serious forecast The age of the King of Ike French and of the Minister of Austria, to search no further into the elements and causes of future change, is in itself ? fact of great import. Kurope i* prosperous ; but it can ill afford to sustain tho loss of those great men, who have succeeded, as much by their temper and character as by their talents, in consolidating the present state of affairs. Without doubt, the exist ence in France of a strong administration, supported by a compact and powerful party, i* the be it guarantee, not only of the welfare ot that country, under all the event* and trial* to which it may be expoied, but of the feneral peace of Kurope. In moment* of real peril, the ifference* which now divide the rival candidates for office would subside ; hut they must subiide by the ad herence of all the leading (tatesmen of tho country to the interests of public order and government, not by an unwise connivance at the insidious attempts of irrespon sible politicians to leuen the weight and dignity ot the ?overeign. The next French election, which will probably take place about the 1st of August, will determine this great Seition, and will appoint the representatives of the na ns who may be called upon to carry the government, by their support, through more than one important crisis. It I* not a time when the mffrage* of the country are solicited by the advocacy of (one particular question of minor interest; It la not a time when experiment* can be

tried with impunity. The tone of the late discuuion*, the hostile review taken by M. Thiers of the whole reign, the forcible appeal made by M. Ouizot to the prin ciple* which were the basis of the compact of Ih.10, and the extraordinary energy shown by both the rival states men on this occasion, sufficiently indicate the import ance of the prize for which they are contending. M. Ouizot'* administration ia about to be judged by the country after a trial longer and more complete than any cabinet has enjoyed in France since the revolution. Tho nation will determine whether tho theorie* which are put forward to disguise and embellish tho pretensions of penonal ambition am worth the practical bonefit* which this administration ha* conferred upon the country. The reiult is almcit ol a* much importance to Kurope as to the French themselves. It is the frequent hoast of M Thiers that he is the most faithful and devoted representa tive of the principles of the French revolution ; and he has never hesitated ta avow himself the defender and imitator ?f mil hut the grossest enormities of that terrible p*? , riod of human history M Uwlzot has played a more original part, and aimed at a loftier object. He has resisted with equal firmness the abuses ol absolute Ewer and the excess of popular freedom, not by oppo* { one extreme te the other, but by establiahing and 1 guarding a position between the two. The French Revo- | lution had, doubtless, shaken society to its basis, and at i fected every institution of the country. But the thunder- 1 storm and the earthquake are not perpetual?their i strength and their terror are known by tne ruin* left be- j hind them. To renwve these rains, to raise the fabric of a country'* grsutasss upon a asw and solid basts, and In , KWh mo^ur^hf1' p0**ible the ancient Principles of the fj I "lirch> "> connexion with the constitution*! U . nohi;r,uiut;ieUl,?'iie,,ed ?>'"xciten^enL M ?"ep sPirit ofrevolution-' noonday oTtha JL3ST nifht h#vo in ?"> j-2-i gSHS5SSWjSs=j , iiZ'U1; its"; favor or Inutility to Uie Ministerial ?X V 0 initiation on which ma.nly re.t the Wttrify'of the th^' ?nJ the (food order of the realm of France. ' thr0ne . (From the French Papers.1 The ministerial newspaper, the Joui-nul J? came out on the 15th instant with a very violent nrti..u ft^df.poidPM'ever' from 'h ' wrTrrf" s; f u? u function*," continuos the Di'bata Ja l^, r he Wa' lho ne'thbor, the friend of tllwroi ^tl^vtoVthaTthe^^"0^ JaCk'?? asiSSS^p^-^sfa; ar k w? ?howcver- h? t?n?lvV i|Ien|C* U M uarrow a? that of Jackson wan cx a Kiilt'nJSberMto^t?K,),KVUeBe t0 t0uch the hearts of ?_ k? ?u : ? attach the crowd to hi* (tens whatnv (aw ??* J ? man of very ordinary firbi>ortion^ thus defcrtJa "'k^*'*08 I1"* Pretu"Mons, and mediocre in his ianot puijonate - an.l'if "i, He ma? -bu he appCrecl^o?nUof' M?? Ik'** hi! n,i ?ry roa,"?,n to Relieve that he will nowlie trou! ???% must'be *utedM{ha?tho ropuM?!?6^ Mr 1'olk Tl,.. nl^,? . ?puDliceu National has praitod me?s? The Oregon *MtoN-?riM La teat E..g||,h ??if t. [from the Liverpool Times 1 ceeding to America by tli- Nroat l>ort',n P?" SeRffiMGMsS ?on. and an Intimate fritri l n I'leiiJout I'olk an.l vni ? SSSBs?SSSK SP^SBI ^partition of the'^Oregon 5S?S?;at from Congress to irivlfiLStb^i^lr*c<"vod <Urecttons intention to terminate the >/nt ?cminev'"?7,(1!e,r sffarsysss dSri government the formal noticc necowlr? for?/" Hon of the existing coi,?.ni:L .? lf> . l,'? ??rmina Place at the end ofihe year anil ^ doW^^i'r^? dent has adopted the terms Xk JJ?1 ' . rro,i" countries on this subject between the two T1" Kn^Ush Corn Laws. iS^asSS ."^4^ ?'n *-e-ohi r^?r0tt^ by the factious conduct of Beitfi"''^ other member* of the aame el?a> h?i "entinck and ss?. iT,c,?:!"',?0,n b??" "> ?? jssissk rfra^'^rs^x^Erirl1; rasisscrsrs^^x^"^'-5 jxN"r into the market at the worst possible uWTor ffirfu.h | farmer. The English Bi/duet.?The Chancellor of the Exchequer brought forward his financial statement for the ensuing year in a committee of ways and means, the chief points of which were to the following purport :? Last year an income of ?49,780,000 had beon antici pated, but the amount realised was over ?;v2,2ri0,000, in dependent of the money from China, a strong proof of the beneficial policy of reducing protective duties. The only great source of income which had doclined was that of the Property and Income Tax; but even this de clension was to be attributed to repayments made to parties who were entitled to such returns of money previously paid into the Kxchequer. He might take the receipts of ttio ensuing year at ?,12,090,000, and the ex penditure at ?41),400,000 in round numbers; leaving a sur plus over i.''],3.'i0,000. The customs produced last year ? 19,760,000. A reduction of duties had, however, tuken place to the extent of ?1,041,000. This reduction, how ever, he hoped would be counterbalanced by the in creased consumption which might not unreasonably be expected. If, therefore, they took the loss at two-fifths of the whole sum regaled, the amount would be about ?400,000, leaving the amount to be anticipated from the customs at ?19,300,000. He thought that the trade of the country was iu such a progressive state of improvement, that they might calculate upon an increase which would leave the suin to be really anticipated from the customs, after these reductions, at ?19,300,000. In the excise there had been also a large reduction last year, leading to a certain amount of loss; but although isome duties h*I been altogether repealed, the duties tell only ?'100,? 000 below what they had been in the previous year. Ho anticipated from the stamp duties about ?7,400,000. being about ?400,000 less than last year, tho deduction being estimated to accrue owing to less transactions in rail ways. The assessed and land taxos he would take at ?4/230,000, and tho property tax at the same amount as last year, ?5,100,000. In the Post office department there had been a large increase of revenue, but he would take it at ?840,000 tor the ensuing year, being an increas? of only ?00,000. Including the revenue from the crown lands the total receipts would be ?ft0,9.v},000,to which might be added a further sum of over ?700,000 from China The total result would bo that the estimated income of the country for the ensuing year would be, in round num ben, ?31,CM,000, while the expenditure would be ?49, 400,000, leaving a disposable surplus of nearly ?2,200,000, n surplus nearly equal to that of tho preceding year, notwithstanding all the reductions, in.buth customs and excise which had been carried out. There were, how ever, certain additions to the establishments of the coun try, and more particularly iu tho naval department and the armament of our shipping, '.vhich weuld appropriate a considerable portion ot this surplus. The charge for the debt last yaar was ?28 jou.ooti; this year It wai only ?38,100,000; but this advuruge was counterbalanced by the increased charge* on ? onsolidated Kund, arising from tho advances reqtiisUo to be made for the promo tion of public works in Ireland. There was an increase in the estimates for tho a IV J as compared with those of last year, of between fl. c und six hundred thousand pounds In the ordnance estimates there was an increase of about ?400,000, whim, * i.u tho additional charges ,n the miscellaneous estiu.d.v.*, would make a total charge 01 about ?20,19(4,000. i i.,< ?.jiied to the charge for tiie public debt, fcc , weuki . o a total expenditure ol over ?j0,700,000. The result u ould fie, that there wonld be a surplus of only ?770,000, ol which ?700,000 was derived from China. The right iiouorable gentleman proceeded to show the advantages derived by the country from the ' policy pursued by the present government,which had not only placed the finances of the country upon a Arm and substantial basis, but which had, while reducing cus toms and exciee duties In every direction, actually re duced the expenditure by one million and a halt in | 184-2, when they entered office, the charge on the conts lidated fund for the interest of the debt, tic., wan ' ?*29,567,000, while lor tin* year it would not exceed the I cum of ?20,1:19,000, a 'dift'erence of no lea* thun ?1,136,000. It wai true that, in the shune of property ' tat, 8u\, the government had imjMised burdens to the , extent of ?6,000,000 , but, on the other hand, they had reduced cuitomi and excite dutiei to the extent of over 1 X'H.'iOO.OOO, which left a balancc of reduced ttxei to the ' amount of over ?4,500,000, and all theie retain, from ! which the country had derived such essential benefits, had been brought about without the ilightest derange ment of any of the great interests of the country. The right honoroble gentleman concluded by moving the i usual resolution*. Canada.?In a Parliamentary document recent ly issued a correspondence between the Governor of Canada and Mr. Secretary Gladstone is given respecting the corn laws and the timber duties, as also the speech of the Governor General to the Legislative Assembly of the Canada*," and the de spatches addressed to the Colonial Secretary, re monstrating against the presumed changes in the imperial commercial policy. In March last, the Legislative Assembly ol Canada expressed their fears at the contemplated change in the corn Inws. The Colonial Secretary allayed their fears. The Governor General lbrwarded a memorial to the Colsnial Secretary by the Board of Trade at Mon treal, and anofhetfrom the same, praying the re peal of certain duties upon various articles import ed into Canada from foreign states. (>ther corres pondence occurred on the corn laws and timber duties ; nnd on the 18th of May last, Mr. Secreta ry Gladstone closed the correspondence, as far as it is given in this doc ument, in reply to a petition from merchants at Quebec praying her Majesty not to sanction the contemplated modification in tlie tariff on wood goods; and in this communi cation the Colonial Secretary showed that tiie pe titioners were under a misapprehension. The government could not forget the predictions, "the confident, and without doubt, sincere predictions, of ruin which attended the progress of the mea sure of 1842; nor can they to contrast with those predictions the great subsequent extension, and the apparently flourishing condition of the trade at tlie present moment." Mr. Secretary Gladstone, in one of his despatches, trusted "that the agricultural population of Canada would look forward without fear to a change, of which it is probable that the effects will be far less violent, either for good or for the partial evils which may accompany such goed, than many, prompted either by their hopes or tlieir fears, have been for ward to anticipate." Army and Naval. AprorNTnytNTS in England.? The following regiments are under orders for fo reign service, and to return home :? 71st, West Indies to America; 23d, ditto to dit to ; 20th, two battalions, Bermuda to America ; 48th, Jamaica to Aincrica ; GOtli, second batuilion America to England ; 52d, 81st, 14th, H9th, Ame rica to England. The detachment of Royal Ar tillery and lloyal Sappers anil Miners were to leave Woolwich on the 8d instant, for Deptford, where fhey are to embark in the Blenheim f reight ship, for a passage to North America, to be sta tioned on tlie Hudson Bay Company's territory. In addition to Captain Blackwood, of the Royal Horse Artillery, who w'Jl have the command, Lieutenant wilder, of the same branch of the service, proceeds with tie detachment. Captain Andrew l)rew, to be Naval Storekeeper ana Ad miralty Agent at the Cape of Good Hope, vice Breaks deceased. Was Midshipman of the Euro tas in her gallant action with the Clorinde, in 1814; when senior* Lieutenant of the Thetis, commanded the seamen and marines landed to act against the Ashantees, in 1823 ; and when em ployed in Canada, during the rebellion, was ntainly instrumental in tho capture and destruc tion of the Caroline steamer, by sending her over tlie falls of Niagara. The appointment ol a post captain to be a naval storekeeper, has given rise to much heart burning amongst many worthy old pursers. It would appear from O'Connell that Sir Robert Peel is determined to push forward the Irish coer cion bill when Parliament re-assembles, afler the Whitsuntide hoiidays. The second reading is to take place on Monday next. It was generally understood that the bill had been abandoned; and, judging of the opposition whieh it experi enced in the earliest stage of its progress, by that which it is sure to encounter in the subsequent ones, it is marvellous that the First Minister should think of pressing it forward. In the pre sent state of parties, it is one of those peculiar questions which may cause men of the mo?t dis similar views to conimne, nnd the result may be critical to the government. Prince Napoleon Louis Bonaparte arrived in England on tho 2fith of May, the day after his es cape from Hain.' The Prince has written a letter to Sir Robert Peel, and one to Count St. Auiaire, the French Ambassador. The latter is as follows: Lonboh, May 39, lHtfl. Momier le Comte?1 with to declare candidly to tlie man who was the friend of my mother, that in quitting my prison I have not been actuated by any idea of re newing against the French government a war which has been disastroui to myielf, but only to be enabled to ap proach my aged father. I'reviout to my taking thii ttep, I made every effort to obtain from the French government permisiion to go to Florence, and I ottered every guarantee consistent with my honor. But finding that all my applications proved unsuccessful. I determined to have rocoufse to tlie last expedient, which tlie Due de Nemours and the Due da Guise adopted, in timilar circumstances, under Henry the Fourth. I beg, Monsieur le Comte, that you will inform tlie French government of my peaceable intentions; and I hope that such spontaneous assurance on my part will shorten the captivity of my friends who still remain in prison. (Signed ,> NAPOLEON LOUIS BONArARTK. The Incidental Debate In the French Cham bers relative to the United H tales. The Debates in the French Chamber in the last week in May werp rather interesting. In the course of the weak; the discassion of the estimates afforded M. Thiers, who has beeu of late compar atively silent, an opportunity of arraigning the whole system ofM. (iuizot's policy, and of produ cing a debate of much more than ordinary interest. It commenced on Wednesday last. M. ascended the tribune, ami said it wan in or <l?r not to interrupt the discussion of the Chapters that he addressed the Chamber at that moment. He stood there to aupport by anticipation the amendment of M. 0. Barret But thi* was not all. Worse than thii was done. A dif ference arose between Kngland (the chance ally of France) and the United States, her fundamental ally, and Krance took the part of Kngland. The very utmost that the Oorernment ought to have done, was to have observ ed a kindly neutrality. (Hear, hear.) But from all these concessions had Krance at least reaped any advantage 1 No. la Syria, where she asked for a little humanity to the Christian populations, her voice was unheard ; and in Greece, where she only desired to see sound policy established, her wishes Were thwarted. It was said that peace had been observed. ???..# M. Quizot should reply fully to the honorable deputy at the next fitting. Thursday, 3Hth May.?The minister of foreign affairs ascended the tribune, and said, that in replying to the ob servations of the Hon. M. Thiers, ho should endeavor to avoid all personal remarks ; for, whether one attempted in a discussion to disparage one's adversaries, or to eulo gise one's self, the effect must bo to lessen the value of important matters. As to the question of (he United States, he certainly did not expect to find it again alluded to in the tribune ? Kvcry word that he had ever uttered relative to the Uni ted States, every act that he had sanctioned, might be strictly examined, and nothing could be found that did not testi fy to his great consideration and interest for that country lie had maintained the independence of the policy of Franco, A lie had thought it fitting for her in terest, in <? secondary matter ; and in a question of a graver cast, he had been the first to proclaim a policy which no pcr?on in that Chamber could gainsay?a strict and real neutrality, surrounded by every kind of guaran tee. Such were the few words which ne had deemed it necessary to utter on the foreign policy of the govern ment. He should now nroceen to discuss that of the home administration, and as a preliminary step should observe, that on the accusation that the present ministry wished for peace at any price, he mast declare that they did certainly aim at preserving peace, as the only effi cient means of consolidating the powor and greatness of the country. The Approaching Kleetlons In France. [from the Paris Siecle ] We have, in France, several parties who de claJe that, if their principles were triumphant? that if their maxims were held in respect, France would enjoy a national, honest, and truly free government. Several contradictory principles caanot triumph at once ; the diff erent trials undergone by France, for the Inst Of) years, prove, moreover, that the guarantees of liberty may be compromised under every form of government. What, then, istlu common interest of all sincere men, in whose hearts the sentiment of the right* and the honour of the country has maintained itself in all its lorce 1 Is it not that those rights should lie effectually guaranteed ? Is it not tliat the honour of France should never have 10 sutler cither from the relations of her government with other |iowers, or from seaailals ami iniquities which, by denaturalizing her institutions, degrade them in the estimation of the people 1 And that thi* result, vainly pursued for so long a time, may eventually be obtained, what is necessary 1 Thai parties should suspend their quarrels ; that they should pre-occujiy themselves, on the eve of the elections, not witti the general doctrines which divide, and will divide tlieni everlastingly?but with the ideas, and sentiments, and the facts, winch ought to reunite them in the interest of the public. If, then, there are men who have made for themselves an instrument of preservation, a means ol strength,?a system, in a word, of all tlie abuses and all the practices that can abase the stnu* and degrade public characters; if it is noto rious that these men look to profc.:rve their power, imposing res|>ect abroad and inspiring their own friecds with confidence and usteem, but by anticipating nil the concessions that the strong may exact, and by multiplying all the seductions calculated to corrupt the cowardly,?is it not the first duty of till honest men to uome to an under standing for the overthrow of this mischievous ad ministration 1 It iB with truth objected that other administra tions, without carrying their shainelessness to an ?qua! extent, have had very nearly liie same ten dencies; and that those wluch will replace them, may allow themselves to be led astray in the same manner, if a more powerful restraint titan their own will?if indispensable measures of reform do not retain them in the paths of a faithful and scrupulous legality. This objection, let there be no mistake about it, is that oi the false Conserva tives themselves, who, not daring to defend in general the shameful excesses by which they pro nit, fail not to say that they are led by the state of things; that representative government, from its nature, cannot be exempt either from corruption or intrigues; and that ii the leaders of the opposi tion were to become Ministers, they would pro bably do the very tlii tigs for which they now re proach the depositories of power. It is surely allowable for the honour alone of the men und the parties who are brought into ques tion, to rebut this lying assimilation. We are aware, however, that in presence of so many culpable acts and deplorable reminiscences, pro mises cannot suffice. The characteristic differ ence between the administration of the 29th of October (M. Guizot's) and the constitutional opposition, independently of all that is connected with intentions and precedent, is diis,?that the opposition, perceiving the evil, accept and inces santly promote the serious reforms that may pat a period thereto: whilst the pretended " Conserva tives" are delighted at a stato of things at which they nevertheless, atfect to blush, and declare systematically against every kind of reform. The attempts which have been made in the course of the present session, and which have been rejected, as always, by the majority, prove that there is, on one side, a persevering will to fortify the institutions of the country by modify ing the laws; and on the other, a settled deter mination to remain shut up in the most complete immovability. The electors will have to choose between these two tendencies. It is for them to say, whether they wish corruption to extend anfl take root, and the actual regime to be maintained, covered all over with defiling stains, until a crisis sweep it nwny with the impotent laws that it has perverted, or if they prefer.thnt necessary reforms , should restore life and vigour to the constitution, which ought to protect the rights of all. Once more we repent it, this is no party ques tion; it is a question of nationality, public morali ty, and liberty for the whole of France. Belgium. The ndvices from Brussels arc to the 27th ult. The Chamber ol'Comtnerce of Bruges has sent an address to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, in sisting on the necessity of a customs house union between Belgium antf France. The official returns show that in 1845 the amount of the comrnene of this tiny kingdom I was 676,000,(MM) francs?importations 366,000,000? exportation^ 310,000,000. The transport trade has increased, since the formation of railways, from 60,000 tons to 702,000. Of travellers Hhe increas* has been from 1,385,000 to 3,456,000, and the re ceipts have risen from three to twelve and a hall millions francs. Of the elections that have taken place, th? greater part are in favor of the liberal party. Spain. Our accounts from Madrid are of the 28th ult. The preliminary arrangements lor the rail war from Madrid to the French frontier are proceeo intt very actively. The financial position of the Spanish govern ment would appear to be improving, judging from the fact that the Minister of Finance nad paid the clergy the sum of 19,000,000 of reals dur ing the month of May. It was again reported that the government contemplated to suppress the pro vincial regiments. The situation of affairs in Portugal continued to preoccupy the cabinet and the public generally. The lieraldo earnestly called upon the ministry to adopt measures to prevent the conflagration from gaming the Span ish territory; "or," it says, " we shall have to con template once more scenes of disorder and de struction." Brigadier Calonge had lelt Salamanca for Ciudad Rodrigo, to watch the progress of events in Portugal, and the regiment of the Astu rias has been directed to occupy certain points all along the frontier. It is asserted that the Spanish government had offered the hand of Queen Isabella to Prince Lwo* pold ofSaxe Coburg Gotha, through the Queen of Portugal, but the courtiers, on the authority of the ministry, denied the truth of the statement. M. lsturitz, however, declared that he would con sent that her Majesty might marry whom she pleated, with one exception?Count Trappani. The government of her Majesty Queen Isabella had been acknowledged by a salute fired in honor of the Spanish flag by the Kusstan ship in which his Imperial Highness the Grand Duke Constan tine visited Algesiras. Portugal. The advices from Lisbon are of the 27th ult. The Costra Cabral ministry has at length fallen amid the universal execration of the Portuguese people, and the whole country is in a state of in surrection. The dissolution of the cabinet hail been looked for for some days. The Count Villa Real was immediately sent for by the Queen, who confided to liiiu the formation of a new mi ni-try; but his efforts having proved highly suc cessful, her Majesty commanded the attendance of the Duke of Palmella, to whom she save a si milar authority. He is said to have offered the portfolio of toreign Affairs to Count Lavr&dio; that of Finance to Count Tojal; that of Justice to Souza Azevedo, a Miguelite; and that of War to Viscount Sa da Handeira, a Septembrit. The flame of insurrection has rapidly extended from the Minho all over Tras os Montes, in which lat ter province 8000 well-appointed men were said to have assembled under tne directions of a jun ta, composed of its most influential proprietors. It appears that young Villa Real, the son of the Count of that nnme, had put himself at the head of a large body of peasantry, and had taken pos session of the town from which his father's title is derived; that another body of rebels had dis armed a strong detnehment of the Queen's troops at Amarante, and having made themselves mas ters of the bridge over the Douro, had opened a direct communication with the Minho insurgents. Viscount Vinhaes, finding how matters stood, and having ascertained that the soldiery were disin clined to act against the people, entered into ne gotiations with the junta, the result of which waa an agreement to suspend hostilities for six days, by which time the Queen will have had an op portunity of considering the demands of the in surgents. It appears that on intimation of the danger, Jose Cabral sneaked on board a steamer at < >porto in the night, and thus escaped the con sequences of his unpopularity. Attempts ware making to recruit the army, but with little suc cess. The troops, indeed, seemed disposed to make common cause with the people. The whole province of Heira had risen, anu a body of in surgents, from 4000 to 6000 strong, had entered Coimbra. So strong was the leeling against the Cabral brothers in all parts of Portugal, that they can hardly remain any longer in that country with safety. It may seem strange that the Quean should have sent for the father ol one of thechiefs of the insurgents to confide to him the formation of a ministry; but the fact is that the father and son lire of opposite parties, ami have no more symnatl.y with each other on political matters than the Duke of Newcastle has with the new IUsh Secretary. Almeida has pronounced in fk vor ol the insurrection, and the garrison has join ed in die movement. Gen. Callonge had in con sequence ordered a concentration of all the raili mry force xtationed in the province of Ciudad Kodrigoonthe frontier of Portugal and on tha 23.1 I te took up a position at Alda del-Obispo. Ucmanjr. The German at! vices are to the 26th ult. Austria, Prussia and Russia are apprehensive of another outbreak in Cracow, to be set on foot by the Polish emigrant* in France, Kngland and lSelgium. The three powers have taken measures of precaution. At Warsaw several arrests have been made. Austria has made use of the assist ance of the peasantry, by liberally remunerating them for their recent exenions. The Chambers of Hanover have rejected a new law of great severity towards the press. They