Newspaper of The New York Herald, July 6, 1846, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated July 6, 1846 Page 1
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!- ? . th; Vol. XU, No. 1 NO?Whole No. 4 JOS. By Special and Extraordinary Express FROM BOSTON TO THE NEW TORE HERALD OFFICE. Important from Europe, ARR1VAT. OK TITR ed to the energy of Mr. Fisher, the gentlemanly conductor of the Ixmg Island train, and to Capt. Van Pelt, of the New Haven, for their assistance. The news thus received is of considerable importance ; particularly in a commercial point of view. The official despatches of General Taylor, describing the brilliant t>atdes of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palina, had reached England and France, and produced the desired effect. The despatches ?f " Old Rough and Ready" were praised as much in England as Uiey were abused in Canada. I The Corn Bill had been taken up again in tho F House of Lord?, and considered "as good as | passed." i There had been a decline in tho price of cotton. The Pope of Rome is dead. We give the particulars ol his demise in another column. [The Queen of England had fully recovered her health. The Royal Infanta were well. The Mexican funds were, of course, affected by the war news from the Rio Grande. According to the Limerick Reporter. 3857 emigrants have left that oity for the United States during the present season. The number of paupers in England wns, in 1813,1,426,065; in 1843, they were 1,539,190 in number. Rumors prevail that negotiations have again been opened between Plngland and Brazil for the admission of the sugar of the latter country. Among the foreigners of distinction now in Lon<loa are several young Last Indians of a large fortune, come over to make acquaintance with Eng- ; land, its manners, customs, and people. The British Government have sent a Mr. Hood to tlie River Plate, to cffect a settlement of the differences between Rosas and Monte Video. An effort is being made to raise a national subscription for Mr. Cobden, which will amount to ?100,000, it may be even ?200,000. The move ment for this purpose has commenced in Manchester. The three dead bodies discovered lately at the \ [jondon and Birmingham Railway station, CamILl den-town, turn out to be thoso ot three Ameri can Indians, which had been disinterred, and sent II' to Dr. Hunter, by some American physiologist. I The total Quantity of foreign wool imported in M 1845 was 6o,551,960lbs.; of which 2,6U9,'00lbs. Hn were re-exported. The total quantity of British wool exported was 9,059.4481bs.: of British wool N len and worsted yarn 9,405,9281 bs. I In the year 1821 322 ships and 12,788 men were I | engaged in the British whale fishery; in 1841, IR these numbers had fallen to 85 ships and 4,008 III men; being a decrease in 20 years of 237 ships and I I 9,780 men, or 73 lOOths. I According to a parliamentary return, the outII rages in Ireland during the present year amount I [ to 3782. Of these there are 871 for offences II against the person; 1029 for those against properHI ty; 1874 for offences against the public peace, and 11 8 for other offences. The crime of senuing threat II ening notes or letters seems to be prinoipally V prevalent, there being no less than 802 under this I particular head. III At a grand review in Russia recently, at which I I the Em|>eror commanded in person, and which || was attendeu by die foreign ambassadors and the I ilitt of St. Petersburg!*, upwards of 40,000 men I] were assembled, in the flnett state of discipline.? II l?uch a sight is not to be witnessed in any country ^Qll of the world?not even in France. Every regi G ment of cavalry has a different eolored horse, I and every hort-e in each regiment, even to a Hi! mark, is alike. H | The following was posted at Lloyd's and the Jerusalem Coffee-house yesterdVy, and attracted a good deal of interest i? ' Lima. March 2?ArriHV Her Majesty's ship Juno, Blake, at Valpa_ atso Most of our English men-of-war are gone O up to fhe northward, to look out for squalls. T"he I British squadron in the Pacific numbers 13 ship*, !tnu oo? ^iinB , ino uniira oisica cjubuiuu minibf rs 7 ships and 146 guns. Th* Isthmus or Panama?The engineers dis- ! patched by the French Government to take the requite surveys for the projected canal across the Isthmus, which is to join the two oceans, are stated in accounts from thence to have successfully accomplished their mission. The preferable point lor the end of the canal on the Pacific j was selected at Vancade Monte, a few miles west i of the city of Panama, in the valley of theCaimito. On the Atlantic side, the Bay of Leinon was fixed upon as allording superior convenience for flipping to the port of Chagres. The total cost of construction of the canal was estimated at 125,000,000 francs, or say five millions sterling. The total length would be 76 killometrcs. There would be the necessity for cutting an "immense tunnel," i which, for shipping, must form an important ! portion of the estimated expense. The depth of 1 i tho canal was to be about seven yards, the width I of the bottom twenty yards, and on the surfuce ' i forty five | PxuiDBirr Poi.k.?A great ileal of curiosity 1ms | I been created in London, by the arrival of some ! cotton from President Polk's plantation, marked . with the letters and figures?" P. 49th I)." The I, oanaoiaMtvB ot the oa&M trade declare that this J is no ordinary cotton mark; and, therefore, the I question remains as to what it can mean. Two 1 or three explain that " P." means "Polk" anil I that 4fHli D" means " 49th degree," and refers to i* the Oregon affair, ygp leJWS STEAMSHIP BRITANNIA. HALF A MONTH LATER. The Receipt of the News of the Battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma in Europe. ITS EFFECT IN ENGLAND AND FRANCE, j The Oregon and Mexican Questions IN EUROPE. The Death of the Pope of Rome. THE REVOLUTION IN POLAND. FALL IN THE PRICE OF COTTON., THE LONDON MONEY MARKET. The Corn Bill in the House of Lords. &C., iVC,, &c. The steam ship britanma, Captain Hewitt, ar , rived at Coston at about nine o'clock Saturday j mrtm i mr ttrilli fr/\im T .tirAi>r\/v\l tn !?.? lQtk ! UlWilUII^) " ?l? C*V4 * 1VV/J I1VIU tu UiU win ult., inclusive. Our spccial messenger, Mr. L. Bigelow, of the Boston, Fitcbburg ana Keene Express Line, immediately boarded the steamer, obtained a file of papers, jumped on ihe locomotive Mars, and ran over the Worcester road to Worcester, then took the General Futnam to Allyn's Point; then the splendid steamer New Haven, Ca}t. Van Felt, to Greenport; and then the locomotive New York over the superb Long Island Road to Brooklyn? running the whole distanco in ten hours. This may be considered remarkably quick time On a day like yesterday, when there were so many extra trains on the several roads with immense orowds of passengers fn route. Our measwnger, j however, who is the Napoleon ?f the Expresses, | did not p-rinit any thing to prevent him from j making good time. No live Yankee can beat him. But it is to l*e remembered that he was indebt E JNE The Oregon iind Mcxiran Qurstions iu England mill f??a it*A uuu i iiiuiii The KflVct of the Drllllnnt Buttlra of Palo Alto and Kciatcn d? la Palina. [From tho London Timo?, Juno 15.1 Tlie arrival of the Britannia with tho American^ mails of the 1st instant, has put us in possession of decisive intelligence from 'ho theatre of war 011 the KioGrande. Tho Mexican forces have been wholly unable to support by their courage or discipline in the Held the operations winch had been conceived and directed, iii>t without considerable military skill* by their commanders. In suite of a numerical superiority, umouniinft t<> three-fold tho American l'orco under General Taylor, the Mexican troops on the left bank ol the river have been totally routed ; and an opportunity, which is not likely to recur, of inlhcting a henvy blow upon theeuemy in a position of great difficulty, has ended, on the contJary, in a signal triumph of General Tavlor's little corps and a shameful repulse of the 5lexican forces. * ? TUs despatches of General Taylor are remarkable for heir succinct energy, and the absence of tho*: verbose and grandiloquent strains which we are accustomed to meet with in narratives of American exploits. He writes like a man of sense, skill, and courage ; and we have not the slightest wish to detract from the honors ho has enllantly earr.ej under the Hag of his country. Whatever opinion we may entertain of the cause of this war, and of the political motives in which it originated, the behavior of the American general and hit t oops deserves to be judged of Ijv a much highei standard than the policy of the no verntnen' whi^h it is their duty to serve. The conduct of the Mexican army, on the contrary, demonstrates the utter inability of tha' government to protect any portion of its dominions from invasion ; and it degrades the descendants of the Spanish Americans still lower in the rank of nations. # * # ? We are curious to learn what the effect" of this victory will be in both countries. In tho Unit 'd States it will probably stimulate to excess the military fervor of which so many symptoms are already perceptible ; and volunteers, who were slow to relievo General Taylor at Irs utmost need, will sally forth in thousands to join a victorious captain, lhit if the American army is yet to undertake a campaign south of the Rio Grande, its greatest perils are yet to come. The hot weather nas set in ; the yellow lever is raging on the coast; and to advance into the interior of Mexico at this time, will be on operation of extreme dilliculty. In Mexico, it is not improbable that some fresh revolution will changc tho asj>ect of affairs. [From the Londen Time*, Juno 18] The urgent pressure of political controversy at home ha* hitherto prevented in from recurring to the intelligence lately received from the United States, ard more particularly to the diplomatic correspondence between the Mexican Government and the United States Knvoy, which is alleged to have caused the rupture betweon the two republics. Aa elucidating tlin causes of the w?r. or the grounda on whic it ia undertaken, however these documonts deserve no nolire at our hands. The whole tenor of the communications which have passed betweon tho two governments, with releronce to the annexation of Tex is, for several } ears, has demonstrated that no terms could aatiofy the aggressive policy of the United states. The acquisition of Texas was only a name given to indefinite aggrandizement; and the frontiers of that province woie purposely represented by the American immigrant* as imperfectly defined, in order that when the piinciplo of annexation had once triumphed over the restraints of justice and of treaties, it might be so enlarged and extended as to engorgo the largest possible amount of the Mexican territory. In short, it requires no discrimination of political motives, and no minute acquaintance with the secret springs of events, to rocoguize in thu transaction all the ancient characteristics of those vulgar crimes which have in all ages disgraced human nature, disturbed the relations ol Slates, and sacrificed tho feeble to the arrogance and ambition of the strong. Tho war has now broken out. and the American arms have been crowned with success. Dut, as we had lon(j since anticipated, this contest, this shedding of blood, tins excitement and stir of arms, has kindled amongst the American doinocracy a fiercer passion than would have been dreamt of a fow years ago ine severest censors 01 the decliuinr; public morality and the increasing social defect* of the Anglo-American communities, have scarcely ventured to pieJict enormities so great iu those which havo already been committed. II we had ventured to tell them a lew years ago that they would ere long reject the policy of pence for that of war, appropriate vast sums of money to rnilitar) and naval purposes, and arm the population of the I mtoJ States, lor the purpose of plundering and hull) ing a powerless neighbor, wo should have been told w'ith indignation that such excesses were incompatible with the principles of tho American constitution, and repugnant to the spirit of the American people. But the declivity n which the policy of the United State* haa for some tine been launched, admits of no rest, and has no turning. All the restraints which the prudcnce of statesmen, the resistance of certain classes of society, and the authority of enlightened and humane opinions, may elsewhere put upon popular imiietuosity, are absent or annulled. The passions, ks well as the convictions of the majority, are absolute. So that no act is so monstrous that it may not be committed under sufficient excitement by the American people, and sanctioned by the scandalous maxim?" Our country, right or wrong." These are precisely the consequences which have invariably 'ollowed the experiment of pine democratic government in all ages ; and the Americans bid fair to give tho world the most complete and the most unblushing exhibition of a democratic policy abroad an well as at home.? It it very uncertain to what length Mr. l'olk may think fit to carry this experiment, or by what means he may expect to surmouat the difficulties by which it may be followed; but it is evident that as far as his parly objects are concerned, the Mexican war has already served his purpose in a variety of ways. The President has little to apprehend from a hostile investigation of the causes of a war which has armed him with so much patronage and popularity; and he has opened a vein of influence, which will probably raise even his own mediocrity to distinction, and lead his successors to bid for popular support by the same reckless means. The eft'ect of these general considerations, and of the recent success of the American army on the Rio Grande, is to render it improbable that tho war will be terminated by a mere arrangement of the frontier of Texaa. The American troops had already crossed the river, and . taken Matamoras. No enemy was in sight; and the reeruita, now arriving in great numbers from the north, will not be easily persuaded to return to their homes, without a campaign in Mexico. Even the plunder of the Mexican m?V uunioiB churches has been publicly recommended by the democratic newspapers of the United States, a? an inducement to adventurers to join the army of invasion; an l the ipiritin which these hostilities are likely to be prosecuted, and are supported by the war- meetings in all parts of the Union, is more like the irruption of u horde, than the systematic operations of a regular army, sent to effect a specific political object, and no more. The next intelligence which may be expected from California, where Captain Kremont is prepaiing to consummate the purpose of his " exploring expeditions," the establishment of tho blockade, and the assembly of troops prepared to advance to Mexico itself, will give a still further vehemence to this conflagration, and it is impossible to assign limits to the incidents which may ansa in the course of such a war, uflecting the interests of Kuropean, as well as American States. The questions connected with tho blockade, are of the most delicate nature. During the Krench blockade of Vera Cruz, the blockading squadron was directed not to intercept the transmission of the precious metals in Britl?h vessels of w ar Irom tho ports ol Mexico. It is a matter ol great interest to ascertain how far this limitation will be otxerved A prudeut Government might readil; avail itself of tlie momentary energy with which the public mind in the United hat been turned from the discussion of the Oregon controversy to ihe seizure of Mexican territory, in order to terminate the former difficulty, and re establish amicable relations, on that point, at least, with this country. The present war, thereloie, appears to us to render an adjustment of the Oregon more practicable at this time, though lest piobable at a more advanced period. Thit injtrenct confirm i the confident anticipation/ which mrt entertained in tht but informed t/nm (? s in thit country, that the propatal taken out Ay the Hibemia, and which reached Botlon an the rfav the Britania tailed from that port, will be accepted by the American for ernmenl-, and if to, the Mexican tear will pei hapt prove the meant of averting much treat er calamitiet from the world But whatever may be our ho|>e* on this subject, we cannot ourselves csrr* th?m in ?i,? tvlcuca. li i> iaipoxiblc to doubt that the general tendency of ihe American policy ii rather warlike and a?greiMve thun pacific and conciliatory. The pie?ent suec>*slul hu*uiiti?i W|H complete th* tltitmetiou of the *hig party, and render the exaggerated confidence of the American people in their military resource* more intense than ever. No nation in such condition, and animated hy inch a 'pint, ever pauted within the liBtti 0 a liitle war. He-action may follow exc***, but it will not produce the benefit* of preventive restraint; and if we take into account the effect* which the present aspect of American affaire mint have on our maritime and mercantile interest*, on our colonial dependencies and on the independence ol other Mtate*. we cannot allow ounelvea to expect that a firm or lasting peace can prevail in the presence of to many element* of discord and hostility. [From the London OliroDlcle, June 16.] The detailed commercial accounts from the United States have excited considerable attention ; they show how extremely sensitive a great commercial country, as America unquestoiiably is, is 01 any cau-u winch unsettles business and disturbs credit. The mercantile class, in all the largo places of business, and especially in New Orleans and New York, have already frutfarcd so much l'rom the alarm nnd discredit which the Mexican war has created, ami particularly by the certain withdrawal of the government deposits from the bank* to provide for the war expenses, that we must expect that a resort to hostilities on the Oregon question will be more than ever an unpopular thing with those classes. MorcnvAr -i?1? W BO NEW YORK, MONDAY ] and farmers ill the western States 1.ave also discovered liow quickly their interests ure ail'ected by an/ cause which interrupts eotninuree. " Western produce was accumulated at New Orleans and was unsaleable, owing to the great tightness of money." War, therefore, is uiore than ever unpopular, and it is generally hoped in the city that so favorable an opportunity may not be lost for negotiating upon terms equally favorable to both countries, for the settlement of the Oregon dispute. All accounts breathe a strong desire to see this question settled, and a ltopS that England will make sueU a reply to " the uotice" as will second the spirit eviuced'by Congress in accompanying it with a desire that an amiouble termination oi iiiu long-pending controversy might thereby be nccelemtcd. The net of tho .Senate, in postponing the bill sent up from the Home of Representatives, for extending a territorial government over American citizens in Oregon, is urged as another evidence of the strong desire on their part to settle this dispute amicably, and not fur- , ther to embroil it. England will act wisely to meet these expressions in a similar ipirit. [From tho Manchester Guanlitn of June 17.] Wo ate somewhat surprised to tind many parI ties assuming that the victories on the Kin Grande prove the utter inability of the Mexicans to coif ' tend with the United States troops, and that they ; will put a speedy end to the war. We never donhted the success of the Americans in pitched battles, il the Mexicans should be unwise enough to engage in then; nor do we doubt the ability of General Taylor to drive his enemies irom Matainoras, and to penetrate into Mexico, as far as the nature of the country, and hisabihty to procurt? supplies, will enable him; but if the Mexicans are firm, the real contest will be then only beginning. Like all men of the Spanish race, the ! Mexicans are admirably fitted for guerilla wnr1 fare ; and the Americans would soon find that they had something else to do than to fight pitched ' battles ; that the sort of warfare most fatal to an invading army, is that which he has to sustain I with hunger, and thirst, and toil, and with foes 1 who keep out of his way until they can take him I at advantage. We believe that if the Mexicans ) should display one halfthe constancy which has been usual under similar circumstances among-t , their Spanish and South American brethren, the ; war is not only far from a termination, but that it will require great sacrifices from,and inllictjgreat losses upon, the invaders, before they can dictate tortns ol peace to the Mexican people. 1 [From tho Liverpool Times, June 19.] The rupture between Mexico and the United States has, ofnecrssity, attracted much attention, and has interfered, more or less, with business.? The fear of shipping in American bottoms has, like the baseless fabric of a vision, di-nppeared, but Lloyd's still clitig ridiculously to their high premiums. The feeling is not confined to Eugland. The Paris paper, Im Prate, asserts, in fact, that many American orders have been countermanded m France, in consequence of the rupture between the two republics. The wpr itself has exercised the pens and the tongues of all the professional politicians in the I T.? .I... 1.. < ?- ' ? ' . ... nu.iu aii im- r.iny ui me struggle on the banks of the Rio Grande, when the American forces sustained one or two trifling guerilla reverses, a good deal of sympathy was shown for the Mexicans, ami if Jonathan hud suffered more, the sorrow, we grieve to add, would not have been intense. But when the Britannia arrived with an account of the battles of "Palo Alto" and the "l'alm Ravine," in which the Mexicans, on what they claim ns their own soil, with a force two or three times greater than their antagonist*, were "wollopped" by the Americans, nil sympathy disappeared, and contempt win the feeling universally ielt and unequivocally expressed. A brave peop.e can alford no sympathy with poltroons. The bird that cannot right on its own dunghill is only lit to grace the spit. The exclamation of the old veteran, who declared that there were only two things in nature that he abhorred?a poor man and a coward?expressed, in its antithesis, a good deal of the philosophy of life. By the way, the brief but lucid despatches of General Taylor have attracted much admiration Ilis pen, like his sword, deals only on the practical. Merit is generally allied with modesty; and as he judiciously refrained from playing the braggart on paper, the same self con tidenco, it is clear, sustains him in the Held. [Con-enpondence of the Liverpool Times ] Paris, June 15.?The Journal dr* Lebult has lately published a remarkable article on the .-late of alfairs between Mexico and the United Status. Your contemporary asserts that Mr. Polk h is only gone against Mexico to eompensate his defeat in Oregon, ana to regain the popularity which that defeat had brought upon him. It think* that Mexico is totally unable to resist the Un ted States, and that the existing hostilities will result in its dismemberment. It thinks, too, that the States will endeavor to seize the California?, to make up for what they will be obliged to lose in Oregon; and it savs tliat the Galifomias are infinitely more valuable than that barren territory. It views all this with regret; but, beyond a few sneers at Mr. Polk, for whotn it appears to entertain profound contempt, it says nothing offensive to the United States. This fact deserves to be specially mentioned, for of late the great organ of the French government lias appeared incapable of even naming the American republic without (lowing over with wrath, or rather with disdain. The Ejmtjwc, the recognised organ of M. Guizot, Minister for Foreign Affairs, litis also had a very long and carefully written article on the pending dispute between the two great republics of Northern Amcrica4^Hiis article points out the necessity of France arlTT England interfering in the matter, in order to bring about a reconciliation, and to protect Mexico. It alleges that France has interests sufficiently vast in Mexico to wurrant such interference. Considering the connexion between this journal and M. Gnizot, I am inclined to attach some importance to this lucubration, as showing that if France has not interfered ill the business, she assuredly will do so. Indeed, for my part, I entertain not the slightest doubt that the French government will be prepared, if necessary, to give effectual protection to Mexico against her great neighbors ; for I remember that in thecourse of the present session, M. Guizot declared from the tribune on two occasions that it was of vast importnnce to France that the United States should not seize Mexico, nor the English race absorb the Spanish ; and as he is not a man to talk without weighing the force and calculating the consequences of his expressions, I take it for granted that his declarations indicated the policy the French government had determined on pursuing. 1 have made statements to this effect before, but they can scarcely be too often repeated, a-t I fear that too many of your readers run away with the notion that because Mr. Polk declared in his message that he would not admit any interference of European governments in the affairs ol the American continent, European governments would timidly refrain from interference. In the < hnmber of Deputies, yesterday, the Minister of Marine, in reference to the war between the United States and Mexico, was asked if he intended to permit or to tolerate the extreme abuse which the Mexican* appeared disposed to make *f their 1 tters of marque ; or whether he iirended to maintain the principle formerly adopted by French admirals, that all armed vessels, even bearing regular letters of marque, should lie e insidered. pirates, if the captain and the crew were not born subjects (not naturalized, but actually bom subjects) of the country which issued the letters of marque t The Minister replied that tl?#* ririnmnlM whinli (mirlnl tKa Minittrw r?l ?!> Murine in France, in reference to corsairs, whs, that for h ship to nave the right to rail under tin French flag the captain must be French, the officers must be French, and two-thirds of the crew must be French. Nevertheless, in certnin circtunstances, it w;is con-idercd sufficient if three tilths of the crew were Frcnch. It was on such conditions that letters of marque were delivered in time of war to vessels navigating under the French Hag. The question that fie.had been asked was, if foreign vessels, not placcd in a situation perfectly analogous as to the composition of their crews were to he considered as pirates 1 He answered, that the circumstances which constituted piracy, were determined bv tho law of 1826; and that a vessel must be found in the precise condition* defined by that law. to lie reputed a pirate. But, evidently, if French vessels of war were ordered to cruise, in place# in which French commerce needs protection, and if tlit, captains of those vessels of war were to i meet ships which, under a fereign Hag, should ; have a captain, officers, and a majority of the : crfcw not belonging to the nation of that foreign ' flag, there would be just motives of su?picion, and ; the captains of such vessels of war ought, under , their responsibility, to take ineasun-s necessary to protect the interests of their country ; and it I i was only for French tribunals in the ports of France to decide the veritable situation of the ships referred to. A deputy tlien insisted that ; the principles on which France acted were good, but Mexico should be obliged to act upon them , too. He then read an extract from a despatch of R K 1 MORNING, JULY 6, 1846 * French admiral t? the Mexican government 'n in which he laid down that every vessel bearing n letter of marine, but of which tlie capt uti ami two-thirds ol the crew should not l>c Mexican, would bo considered a pirate, and treated as cucl? with nil the severity of the laws of war. The Minister replied asiollows:?"That he had the honor to explain to the honorable deputy, th it the tule of the marine, the rule of the Minuter as chief ol a great military corps, as giving orders to captains and ollicers of ships of the nuvy?that rule could not bo the same us formerly, link n?W the despatch that had been quoted?a copy of it existed in his department. Ho thought that the admiral who wrote it, hail done well in tracing out a line of conduct to the ollicers under his orders ; but it remained to be seen that it whan the ships should be anchored in the ports of Feanco, and be belore the Justice of the country, that justice would proceed with respect to them in the sune manner. He beliAed that it of all act of them in the same manner. He be uevatt iiKti u was in me uumurr 01 tue nisi, xne most important, duties of an adminil, to watch over the safety and the fortunes *?f his countrymen traversing the seas ; and lie ought not to hesitate to take on his responsibility to arrest a j

ship ?f which he had j ust cause of suspicion. But his right did not go so far as to wurrant him, as was done of old, to declare the captain of the vessel a pirate, and to hang him at the yard arm.? Under Louis XIV. such was the way of acting ; captain, ollieers, andcjew, recognised as pirates, were instantly treated as such. It was evident, however, that under a constitutional government there was a ditl'ercnt manner of proceeding."? The deputy who hail previously spoken, retorted that he had not asked the Minister if the men would be hung at the yard-arm. lie had asked if the captains of the vessels in the sea of the Antilles would have the order to seize vessels calling themselves Mexicans, but of which the captain anil the greater part of the crew should not be Mexicans, ll they were brought to trial in a French port and acquitted, there would be nothing to say. But what he wanted to know was, if their (the French) captains would have orders to arrest them 1 To this question the Minister vouchsafed no reply. [From the Psrii Sircle.] The eventuahtres of the war opened between the United States and Mexico strongly preoccupy the attention of the public mind in hngland ? Amongst these eventualities to which, perhaps, the full attention is not paid which they ilemand, there is one, at least, which we cunnot exempt ourselves from examining seriously; we allude to privateecring, a barbarous practice still authorized by the right of nations. To require that a tnaratime nation, at war with another, shall not attack the commerce of the latter, is a political absurdity. Commerce is an instrument of wealth; wealth, an instrument of power. Now, nations tight to diminish or destroy the jiower of each other; to require, in the name of the rights of nation*, that the trade of the belligerents shall remain tree is to falsify the conditions of the contest, is to put an injustice in the place of an extension of natural right. For in stance, Franee, possessing a military marine winch may, seeing the number o! points to be defended, attain a proportionate equality to that of England, and that power keeping up a merchant tleet live or six times more considerable than ours, it is evident that the freedom of the commerce of the belligerents would rob us of a great advantage, supposing (which is not very supposable) that such liberty could receive sufficient guarantees. But the right of privateering, conceded by the State to priv ate individuals, and exercised by means ol corsairs, is not necessarily derived from the right of attacking the enemy's trade with ships of war. Privateering, which has rendered services to France which wc are far from forgetting, does not always produce Jean Barts or Surcoufs. but it invariably engenders passions of lucre, anil hatred, from which it is of the highest importance tolpurge a well organized society. The delivery of letters of marque ought, therefore, to be interdicted by a declaration of France, England, and the United States, to the efect that in future every corsair (privateer) should be deemed a pirate and treated as such by Admiralty law. All il?e other powers would certainly hasten to give in their adhesion to this declaration. The following are the news, we will not say the facts, which determine us to publish the foregoing reflections:? The Mexicans cannot attack the Americans by sea, cxcept by privateering. The law requires that the crew or a corsair shall consist (one-third at least) of men belonging to the nation from which the corsair holds its letter of marque.? Nothing can be easier than the evasion of this arrangement. Supposing that the crew consists of 120 men, 40 of them and a slwin captain, born or naturalized Mexicans, will llrst be taken; then a real captain, without any legal title, nnd HO "seawolves ' of all nations will be engaged, including men who bavo been dragged by a love of gain into all the hazards and sometimes all the excesses of an adventurous life. A corsair, thus constituted, will pillage the commerce of the United Statrs by the hands of Americans, and the commerce ol Mexico by the hands of Mexicans: for there arc on the shores of South America, l?o!d Gufncamen who will not refuse to enlist on board corsairs bearing the Union (lag. Already, even, letters now before us announce that eveiy rangement is being made lor practising on a large scale this system of pillage leagalized by letters of marque. Ought not this kind ot cruising, where you see the legal crew doing the kitchen work and washing the tfeek, whilst the real crew often belong?if not all, at any rate the larger part?to the nation whose vessel is captured, to excite the reprobation of right minded men in all countries. But his is not all?the neutral cruisers will contest the nationality of many of these corsairs, will stop them, cannonade them, and thence will arise demands which will end in the most grcvious results. Never was the necessity for abolishing corsairs more urgent,and never was the opportunity for attaining this object more propitious, than at present. The following is the reply from the Foreign Office, to the petition of Mr. J. D. Powlcs, Chairman of the South American and Mexican Association. relative to the war with Mexico:? " Sir,?I am directed br the Earl of Aberdeen to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 3d indent, in which yon call hit Lonlship'a Attention to the disaxtroua ruiiltn which arc to l>e apprehended from the hoitilitiea which hare broken out between tho United States and Mexico, and express a hope, on the part of the South American and Mexican Association, that Her Majesty'! Uovernmont may deem it expedient to interpose their good office* in order to effect a reconciliation between those two governmenta. "I am to state to vou in reply, that Her Majesty'a Government are fully corscioits of all the evils that must attend the rupture which ha? unfortunately taken placo between the United States and Mexico, and especially of the fact that Biitish interest* cannot fail to suffer most deeply from auch. a state of things. You may, well assured ttBt Her Majesty 'a Government will watch with the utmost vigilaoM the progress of events, and will omit no favorable opptrtinity of employing their best efforts with both the belligerents, in order to calm their animosities and to restoiv pence between the two oountriee. " 1 am, sir, " Your most obedient humble servant, " H. U. ADDINGTON. " J. D. Towles, K.sq , Chairman of the South American and Mexican Association." Stat* or thk Crops?The weather is, and lias been for some wi-eks past, dehghful, but oppressively hot. Following aa ithts done the heavy rains of a very wet spring, the earth has become covered with a luxuriant vegetation, and promises to give us one of man's best blessings?an early and abundant harvest. The hay crop in the district ol Liverpool is being well secured ; the quality is renoi ted to he excellent. Tlie wheat cron, from nil the rejKirts that we have seen, both in this and the Mster kingdoms, is likely to he mo?t luxuriant, and ready at an unusually early period for the tenner's sickle. The corn crop seems to have suffered a little from the scorching nature ol' tl e weather, and in some places by vermin ; notwithstanding, where it has escaped both these perils, tho appearance bids the husbandman take courage and rejoice at the ptospet of a splen did reward tor all Ins labors. Reports begin to spread respecting the blight amongst the potato crops. It has been reported I as visiting the neighborhoods of Glasgow and \ Dublin, and a correspondent of the Gardner's I Chronicle, mentions ttiut it ha* shown itself at I FortuiffU. No doubt the state of the disease? if it j actually exists?has been exaggerated ; but we ! shall watch carefully, and re|>ort to our transat- ' lantic readers, from time to time, all the informa- 1 tion we can obtain upon a matter ?o interesting 1 and important both to Britain and America. In i connection with this subject, it should bo remark- i ed that the original cause of the potato murrain was supposed to have been the cold, wet spring j and summer of 1846 ; whereas the present sum- I iucr has, up to this period, been characterised by n want of rain and extreme brat; the disorder, if it reaUv exists, cannot therefore have been occasioned Dy thi weather.?fVilmtr'i Timet, Jim 19. A U'w A llittA > I The Litrat Coniinirilnl IiitrlllKincf. [Krom the Liverpool Timo?, June 19 1 Tlie weather during the last fortnight fins l>ecn intensely, oppressively hot?too hot to move or almost to think. The thermometer, at times, has reached a tropical altitude. The excessive warmth lias been without a parallel in England during the last sixteen or twenty years. That I aillieting visitation of Heaven, rarely witnessed in this country, death by coupt ile soltil, has been frequent in di tie rent parts of the land. mil me growing crops, noiwitusianuing me ?j excessive lient, look beautiful. There lias been little ruin, but the dews at night und morn have been frequent and refreshing, and with the I glorious sunshine above, are bringing forward the prixluceof the fields magnificently. The harvest i promises to bo abundant, and, what is hardly of [ less consequence, early?the earliest, indeed, for I years past. The swifts and sonrs of life are impartially blended, and there are few substantial benefits j unaccompanied with more, or less or evil. N'ow I that the great experiment is beinn made in the primary food of the people, nature pours her bounties, in derision, as it were, of man's foresight. The prospect for the bullish farmer is cheerless, but he lias to tluinlc his too dear friends, the monopolists, fir it all. An immense quantify of foreign wheat and fiour will bo released from bond at the low rate ofduty when the Corn Hill has passed, and this will be thrown 011 the market just as the agriculturist is sweeping the produce of his proline fields into the granary. I'rices will come down, there will be an agricultural panic, and the cry of " the Corn Bill has done it" will bo raised. But the fact is otherwise. Supply and demand are relative terms. If the bondem wheat and flour conld have been released with certainty three or tour months apo, the evil would have been prevented, certainly mitigated. But the friends of a dear loaf carried their selfishness too far. In hopes of ultimately throwing out the Corn Bill, they imposed every obstacle, invented every delay. Their tactics have proved fruitless, and 'he poisoned clmlice has now returned to their own lips. The misfortune is, that the innocent sutler with the guilty. The poor farmer sutlers equally with the rich landlord; but the farmer was no party to the fraud, the latter was. Yet the shoulders least able to bear the burden are those on which it will press the heaviest. It is poor consolation for the hardworking son of the soil to be told that no great public benefit can be achieved without some individual suffering. If his landlord took such a plea as payment for rent it were well. But alas for aristocracy in lingland ! The great bulk of the owners of broad acres, pressed by their artificial and imaginary wants, are poor?too poor to understand any argument but the cash in hand. The nobleman or gentleman, who<e estates yield ?20,000 a-year and spends ?21,000, is poor?as the farmers, to ilicir cost, know; as the nation, to its sorrow, has experienced. The next battle on the free-trade ground will take place in Sugar, an article which lias too long "taken in" the country. The Sugar Duties expire on the 5th proximo, and some modificatiom must b^ introduced before that time. Peel's views have not transpired; no opportunity for developing ttiem Iris been afforded h m. The in'ermin able Coercion 13-11 occupies the front of the political stage, and engiosses the intent.011 of the chief ac'ors. The moves of the chess-board point the moral of politics at the present moment, hacli party is anxiously waiting for an opportunity to checkmate its rival. The lower House has purposely procrastinated the " talk" on the Irish bill, to afford the peers time ior parsing the Corn kill; and the peers have returned the compliment by talking leisurely abomCorn, and doing little, in the hope of wearing out the patience of the other House, and thereby accelerating the explosion which is to blow the Government into " smash." However, their lordships' patience has lx?en worn out sooner than was expected. Probably, the heat of the weather may have assisted the absorption of their bile. Under any circumstances, it has been understood for some days past, that Peel would not give up the reins until the Corn Bill had passed. " I've itakod my Iif<> upon a cast, And I will stand the hazard of tho die," appears to have been,as with the Scottish thane,his resolve from the first. In so acting, he has shown bravery not less than excellent generalship. But the Sugar Duties must be settled by the present or the next Government. Lord John Kussell has a scheme for reducing the duty on slave as well as colonial Sugar, on a scale extending over four years, at the end of which time the colonists will " have .to shift for themselves in the absence of that now-repudiated doctrine, "protection." As all duty on Corn will cease in less than three years^it is desirable that Sugar, except for revenue, should be placed on an equally advantageous footing. But we are at the beginning of tho end. The consumption ofSugar in tins country would l^e increased to an almost incalculable extent with a low rate of duty, and the extinction of the stupid and dishonest cant about slave-grown sugar. The announcement that the Riwsian tariff woum undergo m kuuiiouwiv romniw;ut u<*3 caused fjreat interest in commercial circles. L'p to the present time the Russian tar ill" has been the most prohibitive in the world. The principal articic purchased iJy England is Tallow, of which nearly a million cwt. is imported to this country, valued at almoin m million and a half sterling. An export duty of 2s per cwt. has hitherto bnen exacted by the Russian (rovcrnment, and this duty will uc at enee reduced to one-half; and at the same time a reduction of the import duties on woollen cl^tlis and stall's will also take place under an ukatc of tlio Emperor, who takes a lively interest in the proceeding. The step will be hailed by all friends of Ireo-trade as one of most decisive Denetit, arising from the steps taken lately in the same direction by our own Government under Sfr Robert Peel. State of Parties In Knglantl. (From the Ktiropean Times, June 19.) The Mate af parties in anomalous, and betokens an early disruption of political ties. The spaedy retirement of Sir Robert reel it mora than problematical, and the advent *f the whigi ha* come round again in the circle of passing events. The Premier is preparing to fall, and lie is destined to be tripped by the heel* on an Irish question. As he foand Ireland his "chief difficulty" when he commenced his career as the head of the government, come four or Ave year* ago. o it has haunteif him in (he interim, and he u doomed to make it his political grave. The count which Kir Kobort Peel hai followed since November la?t, under the pressure of extraordinary events, was calculated to tear up by the rooisthe neareit and deareit personal and |K>litical a?sociations. It has torn them up, rent them asunder, with an intensity of which there hiu been no parallel since lH-ifl. It must be a strong and overwhelming sense of public duty which can reconcile a Minister like Peel to tne abuse, personal and even scurrilous, which he is compelled to sit and hear nightly Irom his own side of the House. It is the penalty he pa) s for preferring his country to his party, and it can hardly be wondcied at that ho,is anxious to escape the infliction at the earliest possible moment. The Irish Coercion Bill lias been the means of fusing theotheiwi'e discordant elements which run into antagonism against the Premier. The whigs, a fortnight back, resolved in "caucus" to oppose it; the Protectionist! did the same; and strange as it may sound, Lord John Russell and I?ord Oeorgelientick found themselves in the same boat, with harpeonin hand, fighting against the Kiret Lord of the Treasury and hit sinking vessel. A few nights hack, after the Protectionists had come to the determination of "cutting the cable" with reel. Lord George, their leader, was delivered of one of the most bitter and personal attacks against his former leader. which that statesman has had to endure. D'lsraeli'* attacks iiave been bitirg and sarcastic, but they were the poetry of politics as compared with Lord Ueuigu's roerse and vehement piose lie finished by accusing havinr "ftliatoil anH luintA<l an illiiatrimia r?ln. tire of hi? (George Canning) to death " 1 hi* hpecc.h necessarily excited great interest It showed that no leu o w?? lost; that bate on the one aide * an received with ?-onteni|it on the other; that party feeling had sunk into personal hostility , and that materi Is 10 discordant, con!.I not potiiblt combine. until, aa the bard phrase* it, "the i?aaiona wait upon the judgment Mow Peel could have kept hii temper and hit drat surprised ev?ry one, accused aa he w as of treachery and of murder. But ho kept hi* feelings in check; ho bided hia time; and ?n a fitting opportunity he replied to the charge with gentlemanly dignity, a crushing earnestdo** of inanoet, a poweiful array of facts, supported by date*, name*, and references, which not only triumphantly disposed of tlM charge of "murder,'' but enliited popular sympathy on behalf of ono whose accuser* had inked up the scindal of twenty year*, and thrown it now for the first tiflMln hi* face.tbe badgered individual having, during the long interval, been the honored and confidential liTend and leader of hia a*aailanta. A se.ise of lair play i( an initinct of an Kngliahiran'a nature. Coarse, condemnatory accusation*, when they re manfully met and biarefy letuted recoil upon the accuser, and awaken sy mpathy for the accused. So it i* with Peel. He wn nevef *0 popular; and now that , - - ? t- ? UfA W.S..U n?i-?r (t/inH AO , I power 1* panning wway iiuim IU? - ? 1 I niffli in h?? countrymen'i e*teem t 1 he whift he*? the !> !! at their fclrt WillJ<l" k , it in the right direction 1 liar* five } ?** *?cl??io? from power wakened in them a ?enee of paat blmwaia; emlined with a higher capac ity i'or ailminiatrativa IMMt I I Can they form ?tron? Government?one that vrlll (Mkfc. mand the support of the country, awe the I earl inMa ( compliance, and plana otir forriirn relation* on a tiffltt pedeitral ' Time, that ?olvc? all thing?, w ill tell. But the probability ia, that ?ha greateit curne w hich can happea to country?a weak and vacillating Government? 1 r Jtf-Xt XZ-LS&- LL JL."' ttL~ LD. Price Two Cent*. it in store for ui. They may be potent in the Commooi, tint tliey will be powerleu in Jie 1'eert, and the battle of luctiout appear* again in the aicendunt. The Corn Bill In Kiiglaiid. [Krom the Liverpool Time*, June 19.] All fears for the safety of the Corn Hill are over. The mo.* critical stage?that of the Committee, has been passed triumphantly, and with a numeticnl strength greater than was anticipated. The House of Lords went into committee on the 15:11 last Monday. On the lift night th? Duke of Buckingham moved an amendment, the effect of which, if carried, would have entailed upon the country a pennanent sliding scale, varying from lour shillings to ten shillings per quarter. This is the import duty which Corn will have to nay until February 1849, when a nominal duty ol a shilling per quarter is to be imposed for registry. The Duku, in proposing his amendment, did so in a tame, hum drum speech, which showed that ha hnd no faith in its success. The result proved that he wan right. The votes thtneed a clear majority of thirty three ae,ain?t it. There was a largo muster of peers on either side, and as proxies are not admissible in committee, the supporter* of the Government were lar more numerous than previous calculations pointed at. But as drowning men catch at straws, so the protectionists, not content with the quietus ou Monday, tried their hand at mutilating the billon Tuesday night with the name result. The Earl of Wicfclow moved another amendment, that after February, 18-19, all corn, except the produce of the Hiitbh colonies, should pay a duty of 5*. per quarter. The peers negatived this by exactly the same numliur a< on the previous night?thirtythree. The other clauses of the bill are to bo considered this night, (Friday,) and the third reading will nrobably tnke place about the middle or the end of next week. Its safety may now bo considered certain. What its political conse ipiencos win do, mis is neiiner uie ume nor uio place to consider. It is far anil uwny the greatest lineal measure of the age. Its inlluence will not l>e limited to our own clime ; it will influence, in a greater or less degree, the policy of every commercial country in the world ; and already its effeots are observable in the relaxation of the Russian tariff, and in the altered view* of nations which have thought that their wisest and heat policy was to follow the lato stringent code ol England. The United States, our greatest commercial rival, cannot long remain inert. Her legislature will march with the times, for it would be a libel upon the intelligence of that great nnd potent country to suppose that she enn long bo insensible to the enlightened reciprocal views in commercial matters, which English philosophers have chalked out, and which^nglish statesmen have carried practically into eilect, at the sacrifice of their dearest personal and political connexions, prejudices atiu sympathies. The world has never witnessed,never will witness, devotion less selfish, patriotism more pure, than Peel has given, by sacrificing his power ;?'id party on the altar of free-trade. But a bright reward will be his?the brightest reward which a great and honest minister can experience? " To scattcr plentv o'er a imiling land. And read bin Imlory In a nation'* e) at." The BrttUli Parliament, Tiir Coaw Dill.?In the Hi use of Lord*, on Thursdar, th? 4th nit, * Lord moi ed for a copy of the adi'rena which hail been laceivei by the government from the Houm of A*?emhly in Canada. Ti o E iilol' Dalhouhe hoped for the indulgence oftha House while he defended Innmelf l'rom an imputation which ha.I been th'own upon him in the otber Home, to the effect that, w hen lie had said he bad no laaaon to he lieve that the aetitimonta of the Canadian colonist* weio unfavorable to the ministerial project, he knew that the addrrai for which Lord Stanley nad just moved bod arrived, declaiin? in the Hiongeat term* their hostility to a fi ee trade in corn. He could only ?ay tliat on application in the pioner qua tcrbe bad learned that the itearaar which brought tbe uddreaa in question had not reacbad Liverpool until after the debate ou the corn law* in thek lordships' houte was over, and, therefore, it wai a physic?)! impossibility that ho could have been awaraof its > existence. Lord Starmcv stated that there was never any intention of cutting the slightest suspicion on the veracity of Lord Dalhousie. After a few words from Lord Littlkto* and Karl Uarv the motion was agreed to On Thuisday, the 11th, the order of the day for going into committee having been read, Karl Si ANHorc moved that the bill be committed that day six months. He regarded thi- measure more important than the reform bill, considering the magnitude of the interests involved in it, and the serious consequences which would inevitably result from it. Lord Ltttlkton, as representing the colonial department in that House, wished to say a few words upon the subject of our colonial possessions, as effected by this measure. He was convinced that the colonies need be under no apprehensions from the free-trade, the Australasian colonies in particular; Australian wheat was the best in the world. With rospect to Canada, even admitting what was said as to the effect of free-trade upon that colony, the same had been said ol other interests which had been affected by our custom* duties He confosaed that he labored under some disadvantages in (peaking after the address passed bv the Canada assembly, to unexpectedly after the preceding debate; and in speaking before the receipt of the next mail, which would probably modify tho present state of thing*. His lordship referred to various indications in the colony of different views and foelings from those embodied in the add rasa, showing that apprehensions were not really entertained by the people of Canada of injury from this measure. On what ground w as it supposed that the Canadian* could not compete with the Americana in the corn trade' The soil was the same, the wages of labor were the same, and the quality of the Canadian wheat was equal to the beat grown in hngland. la reference to carriage and other resjiecta, tho advantage was in favor of (. anada. The motion of Lord Stanhope was negatived without division. On Monday, the 16th, the House went into committee on the bill, when The Duke of Uuciisdhih moved the omission In the first rUtise of the date "1st of February, 1H49;" the effect of which would be to continuo in operation the sliding scale?so that after 1?49 the duty on wheat at 4Us would be 10s per quarter, and at &la and upwards, 4s. Karl Hiro* opposed the amendment, on the ground of its being at variance with the principle of the t Ml. Lord IIeai'moit contended that the bill would derange our foreign ccmmerceas well as our agriculture, and Bttpmntflfl Iniihnw tlmt the ertert of the measure would he to put into the pocket of foreigners the mount ot rare nue which sacrificed by tne bill. On a division the I)uka of Buckingham'a amendment was negatived, the numbera for the claaie being 103, againft it 136, majority 33. On Tuesday, the 16th, The Karl of Wirfi.ow moved an amendment to the effect that, after tho 1st of February, imo, there ihould be a fixed duty of tin. on all foreign wheat, not the prodnea of the British colonic!, instead of la. duty Of proposed by the bill. A lengthened and interesting debate ensued, in which Lord Htanley and Lord Brougham took a leading part. Their lordships dividod on the amendment, when there appeared?content* 107, non-contents 140 ; majority for government 33: The Chairman reported progress, and tha committee adjourned till Friday. Tll> ll'ITOMI Dt'Tira RILL. The Karl of Dslhouse moved the second reading of tho customs duties hill, and stated gonerally the grounda on w hich it was based ; after whicii he went through tne (Irta.J of the reveial articles in the tatilf on wbich leduotions wcte pro) osrd, and concluded by repudiating the notion that ihe nieamro was one of pure tree-trade, and iherelore did not go far enough ; it was no free trade measure at all, but one for the removal of prohibitive, an I the gradual removal of protective duties. The Duke of Km mmoiu thought that the only reason for the reduction of thee duties wai to he found in th* hostility of those who disliked the agricultural interest; his real objection to ail free tiade measures waa that they tended to reduce the wages of our own artisans and labour is. He moved that the bilk*be read a recond Una that day six months. The Karl of Wicito* thought the whole condnet of the government In this matter had been stamped with totolerable injustice. Kail Giikv complained that tho bill wanted a clear and distinct principle, lie accepted it, however, as a vainable instalment, and as a step in tha ught direction. Lord AsiiacaToif objected to the bill as most injurious to tb? inlciesta of the country. He saw no reason why the pietent prosperous state of the country ahonld not continue il it weie not destroyed by impolitic meaaurea ; and he detied the government to show that this prosperity had an) thing to do with the alteration inthe customa duties. I.oi<l HoRTuau thought the liberal commercial policy of the government one ol the main element* of our recent prosperity ; the preaent meaeure wae not only a Mep. tiut agient and coniideiaMo one in tho right direction. The bill wa* then reail a feeend tifne, and ordered to be committed on Monday, the 1mb. Ntrnm belwwn England and America* [ Kmm the Liverpool Timea, Jane 19.] Convtrtaiion in Iht Hontr of Commont rtlative to the incrrattd utram communication bettrtm Ltvtrpoo! ant! A no York. Mr. P. w^hed to know from the Government, whether any arrangements had been en tcred into lor establixhing weekly commtin cationi between < Ircat Britain and North America ! The Chancellor of the Exchequer said that ter Majesty'* Government, having found it necessary to establish inert wed communication l<?iween the two countries, entered mto a conUrct with Messrs. Cunaid, under which they woi.ld liave a weekly communication with each other. The contract had not yet been signed, but was in a forward state of preparation. In reply to an observation Irotn Mr. Hume. The Chancellor of the Lxc hkqL'kk stated that, n consequence of certain matter* connected with - rf ^