Newspaper of The New York Herald, August 11, 1846, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated August 11, 1846 Page 1
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% t ( * V - I || T || n TH1 VtL xii. Mo. ais-wiui* no. fttsa. ARRIVAL Or TBS STEAMSHIP GREAT WESTERN. SIX DAYS LATER FROM EUROPE. STATS or THE MARKETS. THE POLICY OF THE NEW MINISTRY. THE SUGAR DUTIES. The Test Question for the Ministry. Speech of the Hon. Louis MeLane on the Settlement of the Oregon Question. SriiiSlH UF LUKI) JOHN RUSSELL. &r. &c. Lt. The steam ship Great Western, Captain Matthews, one of the most popular ocean steamets, with one of the most popular commanders, arrived at this port early yesterday morning. She brings advices from Liverpool to the 25th nit. inolusivo. The news is only interesting?it is not important. The packet ship Wellington, Chadwick, arrived outonthe22d; the Mdntezuma, Louber, on the 21st; and the ?arrick, Trask, on the 20th. The produce maikcts were also in a stato of stagnation. Colonial su?ar had, of course, experienced the blow which was involved in tlio equalization of the dutie?. The demand for ex portation as regard* thnt article had ceased. The cotton market felt the depression?temporary, it vas to be hoped?which prevailed. It had been spiritless daring the week ending on th? 25th ult., mainly influenced, it will be seen, by " the stagnation which prevailed in the manufacturing districts. In the manufacturing districts apathy existed, ineraascd by one or two continental failures. In the woollen district* of Yorkshire, business had b?en less sensitive, with the existence of greater confidence. In Loeds, goods at the clothhalls had moved otl with tolerable freedom. In Halifax, prices were firm ; in Huddersfleld, stocks were low, and manufacturers cautious. The sales of foreign and colonial wool in London exhibited, on middling and inferior kinds, a decline of 2d. per lb. as compared with the previous sales. Other descriptions receded about Id The weather, at all times an object of interest, it especially so on the evo of harvest. Since the middle of last month; when the intense warmth which prevailed for some weeks ceased, showers, more or less severe, had prevailed. Up to that time the parched earth required moisture ; since then it has enough and to spare. Every day during the present week has experienced copious showers, which have certainly not improved the grain crops, which now require sunshine to ripen them. No great injury has been done yet. Grain in the Liverpool market on the 21th ult , was somewhat more firm, but the trade purcha fed cautiously', and prices were but little aflcoted The potato disease, which cnused so much com motion last year, has reappeared this year in various parts of England and Ireland. The import rate upon foreign wheat was raised by the six weeks' average to 6i. per quarter, and on flour to 3i. 7^1. per barrel. Larj-o quantities of flour were daily arriving from the U. Stateand Canada, but how far they remunerate the exporters will depend in a great measure upon the result of the coming harvest. The American provision market continued tolerably steady. Beef was in good demand, but park is less so. The inferior kinds of both have been in moie request. Cheese aad grease butter were lower. The government had become fairly involved in the meshes ol the sugar question. Lord John Kussell propounded his measure on the 20th ult., and the discussion on its merits was to have commenced in the House of Commons on the 24th; but in consequence of the death of his brothei, it has been postponed until Monday. The debate would extend over several nights, and the result cannot be known until the next packet. The features of the scheme are briefly those :? The colonial duty of 14i it to continue as at present. The existing <'uty on foreign Tree labor augur i* 23a -Id It i* to tie reduced at once to 31a, nndia to apply equally to all foreign sugar, free aa well aa alave-grown A acale of dutiea la to nxtend over fivo yean, dropping in the first year a shilling, in the aecond eighteen pence, in the third the aa ne. in the fourth the aame, in the fifth the anm?, at the end of which lime all distinction between colonial and foreign sugar is to ceaie. This i? *n mitlinp nf tlio nlan Private letters received at Paris give a detailed account of a horrible massacre of some French and English at Madagascar. It appears that the fa lure in the apple crop is likely to be general throughout Enropo. It is Mated that the Russian government is in consternation at the apprehended total failure ol the present harvest. The Hon. Major-General Sir Hercules PakenJ ham, brother-in-law to the Duke of Wellington, will succeed, it is said, the Hon. General Stuart in the governorship of Malta. The firm of Hinck & Co., at Hamburg, have just failed, and the amount which they are reported to owe is three millions of marcs banco (aoout ?230,(100 ) The VtVntia Gazrtt* s.ates that on the day of St Peter and Paul, the Pope issued a general amnesty to all political offender* from 1841 up to the present time. It is ttatvd that lhe Prus-iai ministry is on the ove of a crisis, or, at least, that som?' important change* arc about to take place. M. do Flottwell, Minister of Finance, h is just tendered his resignation, which has been accepted by the . King. This has been the worst fruit season, says the Liverpool Mail, of the 26'h ult., that has been known lor several years past. Active measures are being taken to restore tranquility at tho Cope of Good Hope. Two regiments lw&ve been ordered thither, and further reinforcements are contemplated. In consequence of the scarcity of corn in New South Wales, and the necessity which has arisen for sending a large supply for the use ol the troops stat;oned there, 250,000 quarters of wheat, n addition to lye and outs, will bo forwarded for the use of the soldiers during the next six months. Salk ok Her Majesty's Ships.?Ou the 20th instant, pursnnnt to public advertisfrrient. Her Majesty's ship Beacon, and steamer Sydenham, wore put up to public miction. The former was not sold, she not having reached the price at which sho was reserved. The latter fetched ?10ti0, and was sold. Thus the beautiful yacht built for Lord Sydenham, and presented to him by the Canadians, and by him sold to the British government, has been destined to become the property of private speculators, having been condemned as unfit for lurther public service. Tiie New Pofk.?The German journals relate numerous instances of the Christian humility of the new Poftc. ' His cook (says one of these jotuna s) one day served for his dinner seven different dishes. Pius IX. sent for him, nnd told him that, when cardinal, he never had more than three, and that he would not now change his habit. His holiness has reduced almost all the expenses of his household. 4,000 Roman scudis, which were annually spent in rare n.ants, have been cut off from the budget, ana half of the horses of the pontifical stables have been sold." i/' JJ. ......... E NE NE Ocea.n Stka.m Navigation.?We yesterday saw, and were much gratified by inspecting, a fin" lur^e iron-built ship, now on the stocks, and nearly completed, in the yard of Messrs. James Hodgson & Co. to be called the " Sarah Sands," destined ta run between this nort and New York, and will sail in Sands, Turner & Co.'s line of packets, and to be propelled bv steam, as auxiliary, a* well as by sail. Shelias been built for Captain W C. Thompson, long the commander of the Stephen Whitney, and whose experience and merits are well known and appreciated on both sides or the Atlantic. She will be launched on the 8th of next inenth, and may be expected in New York in about three months afterwards. The following are her dimensions:? Length of keel, 188 feet. Length over figurehead and tafferel 214 " Brum J J " Depth of hold 19,V Burthen (old measurement) about 1000 tons " (new measurement) About 1360 " Being of great length, she will have four masts ?the two in the middle square-rigged, and the one at each extremity, lore-und-u.lt; in other words, a bark with a schooner foremast. She ' will have a screw propeller, with a pair of engines of, in all, 2iXMiorse power, by Messrs. Bury, Curtis & Kennedy, in aid of the sails. The screw is upon the approved principle of Mr. Woodcraft, of Manchester; and tn? etigines ure condensers, working directly and rnpidly upon the shaft, on the patent principle of our townsman. Mr John Grantham, civil engineer and nautical architect, who is also the modellei of the ship. The screw is 14 I'eet in diameter. The engines and boiler will be some leet below the load water-line, and though proportionately extremely compact, will be serviceable as ballast at s?a anu in port. In model this ship is, in our thinking, very fine a. d appropriate,being an amalgamation between the steamer and the sailing vessel, but rather inclining to the former. The bow below water is particularly long anil sharp; the run not so much ?o?a principle which has in modern practice (thougn, us it were, reversing the olden order) been found to be better adapted for speed.wiih equal ?atety,in vessels having steam power, especially the screw. The hull, though lull in the middle, presents beautiful lines; so blended as to die IIHU 011.11 UU1V-1 wiwi casu aliu UTIU glVO promise, even with a hsavy cargo, of slight resistance in displacement, and ample stability under canvass. She has a liands*me billet head, with carvings, and the stein and quarter galleries are decorated in corresponding taste. She is clencher-buih, or lap-jointed throughout, and double rivettea, a pUn which we preler to the flush-jointing, both for appearance and strength ; aiul die builders have put her together in a f&ithlul manner in every part. She has a full s|>ar deck, and a main and lower deck ; arid is divided into live water tight compartments by four iro? bulkheads. Such is the ompactness of the machinery and boilers thitt her holds will contain about 1500 tons of goods, or greatly exceeding the quantity that can be taken by that leviadian the Great Britain. She will have cabin accommodation on an elegant and superior scale lor sixty passenger*, besides large -pace for second and third cla-is voyagers. The great advantHges presented by this vessel, n combining auxiliary steam with sail, are? tirst, that a much quicker and safer passage may lie accomplished ih;in in a merely sail-propelled vessel, while, in addition to general speed, calms may be got out of and lee shores and gales (or other dangers) be avoided; secondly, tnat from 'he engines occupying so small a space, a large and profitable amount of cargo may be carried. Should this lirst large vc ssel on this principle succeed, and wo entertain ro doubt but she will, from tier first voyage may be dated the commencement of a n?:w era in mercantile naviga tion, as many others will be built, anil increase and facilitate, to an incalculable extent, rapid and itconomicul commercial ocean intercourse in jvery pajtofthe world?IVUmtr't Times, July 25. Steam Mail Link from Bristol to Niw York. -We gave our readt-rs to understand, some time tgo, that the British government was about to i>>abli?h a new line of mail steamships between \Tew York and England direct, and that it was xpected Messrs. Cunard ic Co., of the Boston uid Halifax line, would be ttie contractors. The ireat Western S'eam Navigation Company, and i lie influential part of the people of Bristol, are desirous of securing to their port the advantages of the new line, and think that iliis company lias a just claim 011 the government for a portion of its patronage. A very large meeting was lately held there, at which appropriate resolutions were passed and a petition drawn up stating the claims of the Great Western Company to compete with the Cunard line.for the contract, and the eligibility of Bristol as the port of departure of the new line. The petition stated that the Bristol people were the first who solved the great experiment of <>cean steain navigation, and by the manner in which the Groat Western has performed her voyages, fully established the safety and 1 -curiiy of steam navigation at all seasons. That the success of the Great Western resulted in * determination by government to establish a line between England and Halifax, and to advertise for tenders. That the Brittol people submitted their tender, but government rejected their offer; and taking advantage of ail the suggestions which they had learned by experience, contracted with another party, and selected Liverpool instead ol Bristol as tha port of entry and departure. That it is understood government is about to establish a new line between England and New York direct?which line has been opened and maintained by the Bristol Company for eight years, and that it is proposed to give the new line to the Cunard Company, without opening the same to competition, or .allowing the Bristol Company to treat for it. The petitioners state that if such an arrangement be made, the Bristol Company will be ruined, and a monopoly established, which will be highly injurious to their trade. The petition conciuuea uy praying turn tne iuiUject may be investigated by a committee, and that the petitioners may be heard in support of their claim for the adoption of the port of Bristol as the place of rendezvous for the new line, and that the Great Western Company may have an opportunity of competing for the service. The meeting was | largely attended and several speeches made. SiroAR in Bond.?By a Parliamentary paper ; yesterday printed, two returns were made of the quantity ot sugar in bond. Mr. Barkly (Leomin! ister), on the 13th inst., asked for a return " of the I quantity of foreign sugar (not including that admissible under tne act 8 and 9 Victoria, c. 5, at i tho reduced rates of 23*. 4d. and 28s. per cwt.) j now in korid, distinguishing that imported in Bn; tish ships, or in ships belonging te tlie country of which the same is the growth, trom that imported in foreign ships." Mr. Foster (Berwiok-on-Tweed) I nn the 17th inst., moved for an account "of the ^quantity of foreign sugar in bond on the 1st of July, 1>I6, at London, Liverpool, Hull, Bristol, and New Castle, distinguishing that accompanied by certificate* of its production by free labor, and that not accompanied by such certificates; also distinguishing tne quantity admissible to home consumption on payment of duty, as having been imported in compliance with the navigation laws." From the return to the first Older it seems that tfiere was in warehouse under bond in the United Kingdom, on the 5th of July last ("fated partly by estimate), 467,286 cwt., of which 25U,568 cwt. was imported fioiu the place of growth in British ships, or in shins of the country ot which the sugar was the produce, and 216,727 otherwise imported.? The sugar in the return was foreign sugar, unrefined, exclusive of sugar the produce of Iree labor, or admissible at the same rate of duty under treaty By the secoi.d return it is shown, (hat of foreign sujjnr unrefined the quantity at the places mentioned on the ftth of July last w.<? 149,375 cwt., consisting of 130.634 ewr at London, 9,224 at Liv| erpool, 5 at Hull, and 9,612 at Bristol, and none at | Newcastle. It was foreign sugar, the prodnce ot (># <> labor. or iidmisaitilt* at th? mom.. ? - under treaty. On the same day there was 2(8,321 i cwt. at the live places, of sugar imported from I thu place of growth iu British sbips, or in ship* ol the country in which it was the prinluce?140,688 I sit London, 106,701 at Liverpool, 133 at Hull, 124 1 it Bristol, anil 725 at Newcastle : and "otherwise j imported" 216,650 cwt.?211,339 at London, and i 5,311 at Liverpool; making a total at the several places of sugar in bond on the 5th of July last 614,346 cwt.?I^ondon Timri, July 23. llutrni' Commf.kcui. Glanck.?From this docu| ment, lor the first six months of 1846, we learn tlmt the tola] export of cotton yarn during the first 1 six months of the present year was 64,159,568 Ihs, against 64,692,561 lbs., in the same period of 1845, being an increase of 9,467,017 lbs., and the largest export of yarn of any corresponding period for the lust nine years. The export of plain calicoes, on the other hand, is 291,921,039 yards in the first six months of this year, against 300,038,150 yards in the corresponding period |of 1846, being a decrease of 8,117,111 yards. The export of printed and dyed calicoes is 128,067,187 yards in the first six months of this year, against 158,338,502 yards in the corresgomUi^^riod of last year, being a ' W YO W YORK. TUESDAY MC The Honorable Louli McLut and the Oregon Treaty. In the "Murovtan Timet" which went out by the steam ship Hibarnia, on the 19th, we stated that Mr. McLan#had conveyed to Liverpool the ratified Oregon treaty for ? lespatch by that steamer to the United States. The Liverpool Chamber of Commerce took the advantage of the minister's visit to that port, by presenting the following address on Monday, the 20th :? "To Hu Rxccllbncv Ma- Louu M'Lark, Mikktu Plknipotektiabt from thi United State* or Amb>ici to OlEiT Britiir. " Si a?The American Chamber of Commerce of Liver! pool desire to express to you the high tense which they entertain of the value and importance of the exertions which you have recently made for maintaining friendly relations between Orcat Britain tfhd the United State*. The merchant* of Liverpool have read with great ples| iure. and heartily concur in the opinion which Lord I Aberdeen, in hit place in Parliament expressed of the services which you have rendered to your own country and to ours. Although the consciousness ef having lai boied to promote the welfare of mankind, is in itself a | great reward, it cannot fail to afford you additional plea! sure t# learn that those who have anxiously watched | the progress of the negotiations, now happily terminated | have duly a| predatedthe patience, ability, and temper I by which ycur conduct has been distinguished. Whilst you have carefully maintained the honor of the United State*, you have largely contributed to save both nations from the horror* of war. The highest lenown belong* to *uch labor*, and their true value will not be meaiured by the *ucce**ful termination of the Oregon question alone " The example which ha* been *?t by the itataamen of two great nation* thu* *ettling by diicuuion. and in a spirit of moderation and justice, dispute* of long (tending, and, from peculiar circumstances, of the gravest political importance, is of ineatimable value to the world. Entertaining for your character the^most sincere respect, and particularly for tbi* portion of it wbich we have ob served in your intereourae with our own government, we beg you to accept the ezpreuion of our high estMOi, and our be*t wiihe* for your continued health and happi net*. " Liverpool, ?Oth July, 1848." Mr. M'Lane appeared greatly pleased with so gratifying a compliment emanating from that important body, and expressing, as it did, the strong feelings of respect entertained for his character, and ol the high sense ol the elficient services rendered, both to America and England, in the peaceful settlement of this question, of which Lord Aberdeen had also previously, in the House ol Lords, borne honorable testimony. To this address Mr. M'Lane made the following reply:? " Although I must ask you to b? content with a brief acknowledgment of the address you have kindly made to me, and of the flattering estimate vou have been pleased to place upon the service* it was fn my power to render during the recent negotiations to which you refer, I beg you to be assured that I am not the less grateful for your approbation of my conduct. To no one can the result which has so happily crowned these negotiation* give greater satisfaction than it has done to me; and 1 never doubted that I could not render a more patriotic service to my own country. or one more acceptable or of greater importance to the world at large, than by contributing any assistance in mv power towarda the preservation ol pence, upon honorable terms, between two kindred na tions. whose prosperity 1 believe to be intimately inter woven with each other. " If it be not a reproach. < have alwaya thought it was to be lamen'ed that the peace ef two *urh nation*, with so man^ motive* to encourage and *o few to disturb it, (iiouiu Diva oeen to onen tind seriously uueatened ny causes which when subjected to the maai gement of calm r*a*on and honorable dealing, would immediately d.sappear ' Upon the present occasion, while I must bear ample testimony to the amicable policy ami rood faith of my own government, it affords me unfeigned satisfaction to confess that to the sincere and unwavering desire of peace. if to he honorably maintained, and to the manly, straight-forward temper with which the negotiations were conducted by the distinguished minister to whom you have relerred, on the part' of her Majesty's government. is the result to be in no small degree attributed. " I agree with you, gentlemen, in thinking that the temper manifested by both nations in the settlement of the question ought to be an example to the world at large ?and, may 1 not add, that it affords a sure guarantee of the cordial amity by which our future intercourse will be distinguished. It is gratify ing to reflect that the terms upon which the question, at one time apparently so critical, has been adjusted, have been generally satisfactory to the governments and the people of both countries leaving nothing behind to disturb the harmony of our futuie relations. It is also worthy of congratulation, that hy the convention recently concluded the only remaining question growing out of the treaty of 1783 his been finally settled; and that hereafter our people, though of separate nations.acknowledging a common origin and history, speaking the same language, alike boasting constitutional liberty, regulated by law, aud intimately associated in commerce and the arti, may start forward in a new career of international intercourse, without apprehension from any ancient cause of prejudice or ill-will. No one, I assure you, more fervently hopes that the future may remain ss free from any fresh cause of disagree ment" Lord John Ruaaell'a Speech on the (agar Dntler, and Slavery In the United States. House of Commons, July 20. * Sir, I believe that statement, made by a firm of experience in the trade, to be thoroughly borne out by the fact, and that the increased price will limit the consumption; that you will be disappointed of obtaining the supply you wish ; that your revenue will not increase as it ought to do by increasing the supply of sugar; ana that the people will sutler from the price they must pay owing to the limit you place on the auantity that comes into your markets. (Cheers.) Now let it be borne in fnind that, supposing the consumption is 260,000 tons, an increase of price to the amount of 6a. only per cwt. would be a tax on the people of this country in the price of their sugar, of ?1,500,000 a year, (cheers) nnd that a tax which does not go into the Exchequer (cheers') : it is naid bv the Deonle. but srives no thing whatever to the State. (Cheers.) In that state of the supply of sugar, what I should naturally be disposed to prapose, therefore, would be the admission of other sugar?other foreign sugar into the markets of this country, to supply the deficiency under which it is evident we should otherwise sutler during the present year. But we art herr met by an objection, contrary'to the system which has prevailed during the last four or five year*, but more decidedly ?'?? the present year, allowing the people to buy where they could in the cheapest market?an objection is made that " by so doing, by admitting all foreign sugars, you would encourage slavery, and give an increased stimulus to the slave trade ; there are moral considerations which overbear all financial and commercial views, and all views connected with the comfort and welfare of the people of this country." In examining that argument, which I do not propose to do at any length, I will just point out where I think it fails, both in completeness and in efficacy.? (Cheers.) That argument fails in completeness ; because, while you refuse admission to your home market of the sugars of foreign countries, you place no such bar on the admission of other productions? (cheers) ; the cotton, the tobacco, the copper, and other articles which are produced by slave labor. Therefore, sir, you do not actually carry into effect, or even pretend to carry into effect, those humane views which the persons who are most opposed to the admission of slave produce consistently entertain. I hold in my hand a circular with respect to the sugar duties, which is headed " urgent," and which begins with stating, as a verY Kreat misfortune, that which ministers and statesmen of this country have regarded year by year as a very great advantage, namely, the great increase in the import and consumption of cotton from the United States. It hat been thought by the p eat majority of thit house that a very large increate tit the import of cotton, affording the meant of industry ana livelihood to hundredt of thousands of our people, making our manufacturing towns bitty anil Nourishing, irat a great advantage to the ttaie ; but thete pertont ttate the increase of cotton from 17W0 to 1845 at a reaton for calling down the indignation of all moralist! and philanthropists againtt it. They go on to say that, "if it be stated as a reason (or except.ng the United S'ates from the principle of excluding slave produce, that the slavery existing in that country is characterized by none of the greatest horros'of the African slave trade, the committee would observe that that atrocious traffic has been succeeded there by another in some teatures still more revolting?the breeding of slaves, whose value is regulated by the price of cotton wool in the British market. ' Nobody can forget the eloquent statements that were made by my right hon. friend the member for Edinburgh with respect to the slave trade in the United States; nobody ca* deny the force of the obte rxitians he then ma <e, or the factt which art hers ttated by the anti-slavery committee, that the cont >mption of cotton wool tn (hit country, and the ute of it i our manufacturet givet an impulse and encouragement to the slave trade in the United Statet; and yet, if any one were to say that we would not allow cotton wool to come into this country? if we were to nay that before we would admit cotton wool we would force the United States to a solution of that tremendous problem that hangs over them?that tremendous problem, whether they shall keep their black population in a state of slavery, or whether, applying the great articles of their declaration of righta, they shall, at once, give them the supreme power in many States?the power they would be entitled to, of electing the majority of representative*?to ?ajf, that we would imu( on the emancipation of all their elavei. or that tee would not take their cotton wool, would be nothing leu than imaniiy. (Cheers.)? Sir, it is the same thing with regard to several other productions; it is the same thing with re Dm KK I )RNING, AUGUST 11, 184 "! ! ? IIIWI I I gard to copper ore, with respect to which the ! I slaves employed in the mines of Cuba are aa great sufferers as any that employed on the worst siigir estates in that conntry; and yet, so far i from having proceeded on this consistent plan of the anti-slavery committee, we have, of late years, diminished the duties on the admission of copper ore. and totally abrogated the duties on cottonwool. (Cheers.) Such, then, is the first instance to show that your policy, if it were to proceed on an exceptional rule, is incomplete and unsatisfactory, even to those who most strongly maintain it. But you have not been

able to maintain it even on that ground.? You have not been able to say we will admit sugar only from our own colonies and' possessions in which we have enacted that slavery shall no longer exist. We have been obliged, the late ministry has been obliged by the necessity of the case, by the insufficient supply which comes from our own colonies, to admit the sugars of other oountries to our markets. The consequence has been a new complication of the problem. You have had to decide what was the stare of society in those particular countries, what was the state of society in Java for instance, and whether the obligation to cultivate sugar in that * it* ..I u r\r V. to contider, alto, what was the state of society in Manilla, and you have also exposed yourselves to the decision.it coording to the interests of the Dutch Commercial Company, at one time disposed to give you a large supply of sugar, and at another to withhold it; but, besides this, you are obliged by die principles of your law and your treaties, to admit other countries which have treaties with you, providing that their produce shall be received on the terms of the most favored nation, into competition with the free labor states. You could not do otherwise. You may say that no great quantity of sugar will be admitted in that case; but your principle is utterly thrown down ; when you admit certain slave states to send their sugar here your principle is at an end. But in order to do this you have been obliged to take another method.?you have been obliged to refuse to Spain the privilege, which you claimed under treaty, to send you her produce on the footing of the most favored nation. (Cheers ) You have been obliged to do so on grounds which. I think. are not very honorable to a great country like this. (Cheers.) Th* Niw Sugar Duties.?T John fiuv laid before the H?as? of Con , 01 T -u the 20th, the ministerial p ition n-l.. ?-<, i the duties to be hereafter i >1 on the importation of sugar. The duty colonial sugar of 14s. is to continue as heretofore. The duty of 23s. 4d., which now charged on foreign free labor sugar, i* to be reduced to 21s., and that is to applv illy to all foreign sugars, without distinoiio wili;and it is to undergo a gradual reductio < r for Ave years,and then be imported u uy as that of colonial growth Not only vimlizanon proposed, but ihf rate of ii ch all forego tugar* are to be admitted i (need to 2ls , wil l a provi sion tor ihu , xtiuction oi all protection on (b< 5th ol J ii y, i The following is the scale of duties as proposed, witb the decline contemplated by the ministers: Colonial. Foreign. PtESEltT DCTIEI 14? II* 4li |'?r CWI. PnorosED Du I IE?. July 3. 1816, to Jaly J, IS47 14s Sis Sd perewt. July J, IHI7, to JuIv J, IMS 14s Ms Od " luly J. ISIS, to July 5, IS)9. 14s ISs ?d " 'uly 5. IS19, to July 1, ISKI 14s IT* Od " July 1, IUJO, to July 5, ISM 14s lis 6d " July i. 1851 14s 14s Ud " It will be seen that Lord John Russell gives the colonists five years, while Sir Robert Peel gave the farmers only three years, but, on the other hand, Lord John simulates lor a reduction each yeir, until the Anal expiration of the protective duty in 1851, while Sir Robert Peel gave the farm?rs IhA Cull nHvanlaiTA nf tVisair k/'uIm frnm id tn lOd. per quarter, entire and perfect during the whole period that it lasU. Sir Robert Peel's plan was perhaps superior to a scheme of gradual diminution as repects earn. But Lord John's pro posal, chiefly from revenue considerations, is considered the best as regards sugar. It is probable, however, that free-traders will riot have much time left to discuss these smaller points of degree?as to the precise day when prot.ction shall cease, or as to the exact point from which the descending scale shall start. They will, to all appearance, be immediately engaged in the more important discussion of free trade or protection to the colonies on the broadest grounds, and of the admission or continued proscription of the sugar of Brazil and the Spanish colonies. The protectienists, aided by those who have strong objections to the introduction of slavelabor sugar, will form a more powerful party than has yet combined to appose free trade. But Lord John liussell snowed by calculations that not only the interests of the consumer, bat also those of the exchequer, demand an immediate extension of the field of our supply of sugar. The noble lord computed the stock in this country, at this time available for British consumption, at 40,000 tons. His lordship quoted different estimates of the supplies of colomal sugar for the following years. Tney are as follows:? Eitimate The Jtnli- primate Jtnothe't the W. India Slavery ultimate, eitimate. Interest. Society.. Tone. Tone. Tone. Tone W?t Indies. . 126.000 115,000 110,000 ? Mauntiui 50.000 40.000 45,000 ? India 75,0*0 70,000 70,000 ? Total* 250,000 225,000 225 000 230,*00 From these various estimates Lord John adopts the intermediate quantity of 230,000 tons, which, it is assumed, will prove nearly accurate. But while Lord John Russell calls upon the colonists to abandon protection, he is desirous at the same time to remove from them every restriction of which they can justly complain. The limitations interposed by law upon the supply of labor, respecting which there has been so much complaint, have been, and are now still further to be, either removed or modified. His lordship proposes to legalize contracts made with African immigrants, prior to their embarkation, for a period of one year from their arrival in the colony. The duty upon rum is to be reduced from 9s 4d per gallon to 8s lOd. All restrictive duties whatever, imposed in the colonies for the benefit of British manufactures or British produce,are to be repealed. The colonies are to have the benefit of free intercourse, in order that they may supply their wants in the cheapest market Th* New Coxn Laws.?The principle upon which the corn laws have been settled is a scale of duties ranging from 4s to 10s the quarter, to remain for three years, and then at ene time be entirely abolished. For reasons which we have already stated, it is obviously desirable that to whatever rate the present amount of protective duty on sugar is reduced, the equalization between that rate and the duty on colonial sugar should take place by a gradual reduction. This difference between sugar and corn, therefore, exists: in the case of corn, the whole protection conceded for the period of three years is retained to the last day, without any reduction. In the case of sugar, the interests of the revenue demand that a reduction of tha amount first fixed shall take place in each year; that it shall be eased down by annaal reductions, so as to afford facilities for admission every year of the greater quantities of foreign sugar which our lower duties would tempt to our ports. The farmer is to have his entire protection for three years; the planter is to part with a portion of his at the end of the first year, another portion at the end of die socontl, and so on. It, therefore, it shall appear, from revenue considerations, that an extension of the time from three years, in the case of corn, to four or five years in the case of sugar, that the exchequer would rather be benefitted than otherwise by such an extension, we are quite willing to ,'rimit that the larger period thus afforded to the planter may be justified by the con?ideration, that though he ha? a longer time for the last instalments of his protection,he has a shorter one for the first and seoond. The distinction will appear plain if we arrange the plans in a tabular lorm Supposing the duty on foreign sugar to be fixed now ut 20s and to go otf in lour or live years, then the following would lairly represent the actual duties during the period :? Proteclire Sugar duliei Jlm't Sugar duliei Jtm'l Corn duCti It ft equalned of to bt equmiited of try a icaif in * ytm-i. Prolte fnbytart. Provarying from Cot For. lion. Col For. tee'n Per qr. Per qr. Per qr. Per qr. Pr qr Yn $. ?. ? ? ' * ? t. #. d. ?. d. 1016. .4 to 10 14 20 0 8 0 14. .. .20 0. ...? 0 IX? 4 to II 14 4? 14 ... ! ?... 4 9 IStl. .4 to 10 14 17 0 1 0 14... 17 6 l?<9 .1 to 0 14 13* IS 14...IS 3.,.| J mvt. lto 0 14 HO to 14...1JS...1 S ItJI.lto t M Ml tt 14....14 S....S By these figure*, it will be seen thmt while the whole duty remains on corn for the three years, that part is reduced fro.it sugar at the end of each your; and that after the time when the protection on corn entirely ceases, that which lor one year in the one caar, and for two years in the other case, will remain on sngai, will be extremely small; which, aa far as the interests of the consumer arc concerned, would be amply compensated by the reductions made in the nrtt, second, and third year, while the duties on corn are stationary. Having du? reference, therefore, to the { IERA 16. different character of the two articles, we would regard a settlement of the sugar duties, on either of these scales, as equivalent to the terms granted in the case of corn.?Economitt. Indian Corn.?The reported failure of the potato crop in Ireland has again produced a great demand for this cheap and nutritious grain. i -?!.i i :... ?1 uuauuiicv w cio buiu in uivci|iia;i mvci/ at a slight advance in price. It is still, however, the cheapest article of food that can be purchased. Ireland. The new government have now nearly completed their appointments in this country. The law otlicers, as enumerated in our paper of the 19th, have entered upon their duties. The death of Mr. Goold, Ma?ter in Chancery, has resulted in the promotion of Mr. Hatchell, Q.C. This learned gentleman is well spoken of by all parties. The schism alluded to in our last still appears to prevail among the members of the Repetu Association. The Young Ireland party, who are more enthusiastic as to the attaining of Repeal, are at loggerheads with the views propounded by the Liberator and the great majority of the association. Smith O'Hrien has espoused the cause of the former, and, in tact, declared against the Liberator. At a monster tea meeting, held at Kilrush a few days ago,the hon. member for Limerick referred to the all-absorbing topic of Mr. Sheil's election. He (Mr. O'Brifn) deeply regretted the result of two elections lately?namely, Dungarvan and Roscommon. The O'Conor Don, though a Repealer, is not a member of the association.? However, his teing known to entertain such sentiments, though not joining them as he ought, and strong family ties connected with the county which he represents, he being the descendant of an Irish king, are not very weak reasons for their acquiescing in his return. (Heat.) But when he turned to Dungarvan, he regretted that sucii a state of things existed there. (Hear, hear.) He confessed he felt disappointed at the people of Dungarvan. at how they aoted, though having a majority 1' Repealers. (Hear, hear.) Mr. Shea has splendid abilities, it was true,but those abilities are not put forward on behalf of repeal. (Hear.) He regretted Dungarvan the more, as he coniessed he uould not see how it would be right to turn outsuch men ns Sergeant Murphy, Ser. Stock, Mr. Wyse, | and Mr. Redinfrton,and pass by Mr. Sheil. (Hear, lie ) He could not understand such a policy, was up to this unable to conceive what it nmnnl If Thinourvnn hnH Kamii nn*J carried, he hud no hesitation in saying it would as important to the repeal cause as the Clare lection in 1828 whs to the cause of Catholic emancipation. (Hear, and cheers.) If the repeal constituencies continue thus to act. as at Dungarvan, it will be quite destructive to the ; repeal cause. He felt it incumbent on him to ! give expression to those sentiments, even at the risk of displeasure in some quarter." Mr. Chas O'Conriell, a relative of Mr. O'Connell, alluded to the subject in a subsequent part of the evening, and snappishly alluded to the attempts of the "Ithrer g. ntlemen who came from the Native oi flee to attack" Mr. O'Conneil. Whereupon Mr O'Brien defender ihc persons attacked, and the matter dropped with the appearance of much good leeling between the ditlerent patties France. One of the chief topics which now engage the attention of the pre s is the result of the forthcoming elections The opposition seem confident of a majority in the capital, and the same prospects exist in ali the large cities ; at Rouen, ut Bordeaux, at Toulouse, at Marseilles, at Lille, and, perhaps, even at Lyons, where the President of the Chamber, M. Souzet, has regained his chance of being returned. But the ^ministry will have the advantages iu all the smaller towns, where knowledge is less ditfused. political opinion less active, and the electors less numerous. The government are busy in making a fresh promotion of functionaries from among the deputies prior to the commencement of the new elections. The latest accounts from Paris would lead us to the conclusion that the Opposition has no chance ot improving its position. The Minister of War has received from Marshal Bugeaud a letter, dated Constantina, the 4tli, which he had received from General Bedeau.? The General gives a very satisfactory account of the state of the province; and informs the Marshal that, whilst the Duke d'Aumale was at Constantina, Arab chiefs and deputations, amounting in number to 2000, waited upon him tc express the intention of the tribes to submit to France. The Moniteur publishes a royal ordinance elevating to the dignity of Peers of France, Messrs. narovi, i/ornuuet, L?umoncei,uravier, name, ijaiond, Legentil, Magnoncourt, Mahtville, Renouard, Reynard, Sc inenburgh, Vigier, and Wastemburg, former deputies: Generals Dep'ontho.i, Hautpoul, Jatnin, Rapatel, and Trezel; Messrs. Lagrenee and Piscatory, Ministers Plenipotentiary ; and Messrs. Flourens, Poinsot, ana Troplong, members of the Institute. The Psyche French frigate will leave Brest shortly for the Gulf of Mexico, to convey thither the new French plenipotentiary. The quantity of tobacco sold in France, under the royal monopoly, in 1844, was 17 i millions of kilogramme*, producing 107 millions of fra>cs (about ?4,458,900 sterling). The Harvest in France.?Our private letters express surprise at the height to which prices are kept up in the various markets in France. "From every quarter," say these letters, " we hear of the admirable quality andot the more than ordinary produce of the com crops of this year. In a week from the present day the entire of the harvest south of Paris (with the exception of oats in some districts,) will have been cut, saved and housed. In Picardy and in Normandy the rye and barley are all safe, and much of the wheat in pro* gress of reaping. The potatoes will also turn out well. The vintage promises to be the finest since 1811, exceeding in quantity that of 1834." Electioneering Tactics in France.?During the preparations for the impending general election in France, the papers teem with all sorts of anecdotes respecting the manoeuvres of the wouldbe deputies to obtain the " most sweet voices" of the various constituencies.? The following is not the least curious:?" As soon as the Chambers were dissolved. M. Bchie hastened down to the town of which be was the representative. On his arrival, it being fite day, he found the greater part of the citizens at churon; thither he too repaired, and ascending into the organ loft, induced the ola organist to give up his place for a time. Under his agile Angers, the antiquated instrument became endowed :with a degree of harmony unknown to it for half a century; the old airs handed down through three or four generations were replaced by the Stabat Mater and Der Freischyitz. The congregation were astonished, and the i.ure, wondering at the mysterious event, ascended into the organ Ion, and thanked^the candidate for his display. After mass the electors were assembled at the cure's to dine with the extempore organist. At dessert the election was brought on the carpet, but here M. Behie's success was far frem being as complete as on me organ, "ii you win stand for the situation of orgainst.' said one of the guests, ' you shall have my vote ; but as for being deputy, that is quite another matter.' " Frknch Goal MifOts.?The report of the engineer appointed by the administration o( roads and bridges in Prance, states that that country is in the third rank as regards tike production of coal ?England and Belgium being the first and second The production of England annually is 28.600,000 tons; of Belgium, 4,600,000; of France, 3,783,800; and ol the Zollveraiti, 8,000,000 tons ? t run'.c contains 425 coal mines, on a surface of about 4W) 000 hectares : of these 173 are not worked. These mines employed in 1W4 nearly 30 000 laborers. The amount of coal raided being insufficient for the consumption ol the kingdom, about 1,600,000 tons are imported froin England and Belgium. The number of steain engines ol all sorts employed in France in 1844 wa* 4,319, of 62,950 horse power, about 1 12'h of the lorce employed in England. The quantity of iron consumed in the sam s year, was. in France 480.000 tons?lour time* that used in Belgium, which was 120.000 tons, but only one-third ol the English consumption, whieh was 1,200,000 tons ; the amount consumed by the Zollverein in 1844 being 800,000 tons. Italy. Letters from Rome of the 11th inst., state that the decree of amnesty was ready, and would shortly be published. The Pope had authorized the opening of a railroad communication between the Mediterranean aud the Adriatio. On the flth His Holiness gave permission to survey the country wh'ch the road is to traverse between Oiv.ta Vecchia and Rome, and between Rome and Ancona. Another railway line equally advantageous to the Pontifical dominions, and the legations in particular, was said to have likewise received the Papal sanction. Austria was believed to have protested against the elevation of Cardinal Gizzi to the post oTUnder-Secretarv of State for Foreign Aflairs, a ad to have proposed for thmt office Prince Alueri, former Nuncio of the Holy See at Vi^pna. | Count RoMi, on his side, combetted the notnina LD. Frtoe TW? OUH, j tion of the latter, because of hi> suppotad attach* nsent to Auatria, but those who knew the Prince | described him as perfectly independent, and de' clarod that, if the Pope seriously desired the iuterfsts of the Church, and the emancipation of the Roman government from all foreign influence, he ; could not make a better ahoice. His Holiness ; had granted, some days before, a private audienco i to Don Miguel, who, laboring Under great disi tress, entreated the continuation of the pension of 3,(KM) scudis, which the late Pope allowed him out of his own private purse. The Concordat between Home and Spain had been agreed upon, and its definitive conclusion only depended on the adoption by the Spanish Cortes of the bill submitted to them by M. Mon, lor the dotation of the clergy. II pain. The Queen's marriage still attracts great atten tion. The Haraldo contains an article in favor o : * - r\ T.nltalln ? ? A .. U ? a marriage ucmccil \<U?VU isaupua UUU a. upmr ish liberal Prince. (DonHenry,the Queen's cousin, is meant of course.) Our readers will remember that the Htraldo was for a long time the zealous advocate of a marriage with Count de Trapani ; and as it is still the organ of General Narvaez, it may fairly be presumed that Narvaez himself has become?probably o.it of spite to Queen Christina?the partisan of Don Henry. The article is said to have producod much sensation at the British Embassy, and Mr. Bulwer was reported to have obtained from its editor a pledge that he would desist from further attacks on his " favorite candidal*." The Eiperanza and Pentamiento de la MacwA warmly advocated the pretensions of the CoCnt de Mpntemoltn (the son of Don Carlos,) declaring that *' bi? union with the Queen would at onoe settle the dynastic question, satisfy the northern powers, and ei!?Ct a reconciliation amongst all parties." Mr. Bulwer had at first resolved not to be pre' sent at the banquet given by the Queen at the Casino, and that he alleged as an excuse of lameness, which confined him to his apartments. Her Ma<iesty, however, having most graciously informed him that orders would be issued to admit his carriage into the very gardens of the royal residence, the British Minister consented to repair to the Casino, and his convalescence was so rapid that in the course of the evening he was able to dance with the Queen. This diplomatic indisposition, so promptly cured, greatly amused the company. We observe in the Madrid papers the appointment of a brother of the Duke de Riangores to the post of Minister of Spain at Venezuela. The government has promulgated a royal decree, dated July 10th, ordering a board of statistics to be formed under 'he inspection of the Minister of the Finance Office. Anttiher ha? also been published, by which the boards of indireot taxes and "f the government monopolies are consolidated. The court martial formed at Lugo, to try the members of the late insurgent jun'a there, have condemned ttiem *11 to the penalty of death The Queen irives nnoth< r banquet at the CttHino on the 24'h ol this m?nth, in celebration of her mother's bn .h day. It is ev d*-?it, therefore, that the cou t d.>es not contemplate leaving Madrid so soon as was expected. By Madrid pipers, of the 16th instant, we find (hat tile star of Don Enrique i* at present in the ascendant, and the friend* of Don Francisco d? Paula are aliont to establish a journal, conducted on moderate Piogregsinta principles, for the ptirpos? of advocating hi* claims. Humors prevailed at Madrid that tlie Ba?que provinces were in a disturbed state, but the report was not credited. Portugal. The report which bad been circulated by interested parties, as to the withdrawal of the protection afforded by the English men-of war in the Tagus and the Douro, has been contradicted. No British vessels will !>e withdrawn from those stations, unless the British minister at Lisbon deems n aavisnDie. The Portuguese emigrants made their entry on the 11th into the capital, on which occasion the Septembrist party made a great display of their forces. Some seditious cries were even heard. The Patriota, a journal opposed to the present ministry, says that the country it in a depiorablw state; and that a fresh revolution is inevitable, unless th* government changes its course ol proceeding. M. t-onseca Magalhaes, who has sue* ceeded in escaping from Coimbra, arrived nt Lisbon on the 9th. The movement at uoirabra has, it is said, been succeeded by another at Santarcm, the junta of which would not dissolve itself. At Coimbra the inhabitants of the country rouu.4 had armed themselves for the defence of the town, in case die government should act against them. While the Radical party triumphs at Coimbra, the Miguelist party every day acquires fresh strength in Oporto and in thie Aljfarves, and a serious collision oetwecn the people and the troops is anticipated. At Elvas the carps in garrison do not seek to conceal their discontent; and the government, fearins a fresh pronunciamento, had ordered General Celestino to that place. Denmark* His Maicsty the Kinjt of Denmark has at last settled the'agitation which has so long prevailed on the subject of the succession. He declares that the rights of the crown over the Duchy of Lunenbourg are incontestible. As to the Sleswig doubt is no longer possible, and the Kingbrings forward in proof the act of August 22, 1721, tne guarantees given by England and France on June 14 and 28, 1721, and rhe treaties concluded wiih Russia on April 22, 1787, and June 1, 1773. The King is far from being so explicit on the subject of Holstein. Germany. Great excitement prevailed i\t the Berl:n Bourse, owing to the resignation of M. Flottwell, Minister of Finance. His resignation is attributed to a difference of opinion among his colleagu es on the organization of different branches of the financial department. The King requested him to remain in office until his successor was appointed; his successor is not named. It is stated that a convention on international copyright, similar to that concluded between Prussia and England, is being negotiated between France and Prussia. M. Do Bodelschtiingh has been confirmed, definitely, in the office of Minister of the interior, the duties of which he has performed for the Inst two years. The Nuremburg correspondent, under the head of Berlin, 12th instant, states that the brother of M. Meyendorff was about to proceed to Paris, to negotiate a treaty of commerce between Francn and Russia. The Papal government, it was believed, was about to send a nuncio to the court of Prussia. Ktusla. The St. Petertburgh Gazette publishes advices from the Caucasus up to the 10th June. !?cbamyl, in no wise daunted by his late failure in Kabardia, had assembled new troops on the Sounja. On the 24th May a gnllani action took place between 82 Cossacks, commanded by seven officers and f .nlnrtAl TKaw ur*r<i bm rrnll n/lu<l Kv 1 RllH mountaineer*, and ha?f the option of dishonorable flight or an honorable death. The Cossacks abated from their steeds, stabbed them, and formed themselves a rampart with the carcases. They repulsed numerous charges of the infuriated mountaineers, keeping up a murderous fire. Tins unequal contest lasted for two hours, and some Russian troops namo up Jurt as their ammunition was failing them, and tuey had d-ter* mined on selling th"ir lives dearly 'vph their daggers. Three days later a cons'drrable body of Circassians, with two pieces of nnnnou, attack d the 8th battalion of the I)ag?"*sian regiment whilst marching from the fort of Kaxak-Kitchou to Temir Khari Chonra. hut they were driven hick, with loss, beyond the ttounja DitTererit other attacks 01 the mountaineers were made at various point*, Wut with no effect. Ku-?ia i? de?irous to establish at Kiakhta, on iho frontier of Chinese Tartary, a considerable denut ' of merchandise, from which the Chinese m?y at all times draw the supplies they want; and hopes to obtain from the celesnal government a treaty of i commerce, securing to her the tree adtnittion, through that part of the frontier,o( allRus-ian merchandise, an<l moreover the monopoly of certain article* which the English and Americans were beginning to import. Ortscji, The Greek government had discovered a conspirscr, in which were implicated several wellknown agents to the opposition, who had been I lately engaged in organizing bands on the Tmk i?h territory for the invasion ot Greece. Tbe account* of the disasters caused by the recent earthquake in Messina, were truly appalling. Tark?y< The long tending di?pu-e between Turkey and Persia ha* at Inst been finally settled. Moharnm, on the Persian Gull, is restored to Persia; nnd th" Sandjak ot Sooltmanich is to be retained by Turkey. ip|li MehemeuAli, contrary to the general expectation, embarked for Constantinople on the 4th, in the Turkish steamer Esaeri Djedid. The Vicercy was accompanied by his son-in-law, Kamil Pa % ;

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