Newspaper of The New York Herald, October 26, 1846, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated October 26, 1846 Page 1
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THJ Vol. XU, Mo. Sbl.Whol* Mo. ?8?1. ?* n? Ju. CENTRAL AND MACON AND WESTERN BALL ROADS, GEORGIA. e Since of Oeoraia, form eontiouon* line I'romSa> Oothenloga. Georgia of T71 mile*, rii sI to Macon Central Railroad .190 milea i Atlanta Macon It Wei tern Hail road 111 " o Oothe*lofa. Weatern It Atlantic " 80 " ? will be carried from Savannah to Atlanta and Ootfa* ?. it the tollowiu* ratei, ei? : Or< Weight Good* ToM- To Oot\ ?> . Coffee. Liquor, Bagging, Rope, lanta. caloga. 1 Cheeae, Tobacco. Leather, * Cotton Yarn*, Cupper, Tin, I id Sheet iron, Hollow Ware an i (Unci 10 5# $0 71 IW, 1 ie lite, Bacen in casks or boxes, Seel, Fiah, Lard. 1 allow, Breads.' lill Gearing, Pig Iron and Grind 0 *. t*9i WMH ON MEAiuaKManT GOODS. r f Hats, Bonaeu and Furniture, bic loot. , $0 JO SOU Bo idbalea of Dry Goods. Saddlery Painta, Draga and (.oufection* ir cubic foot $0 JOp. 100 Ibi. J4 ' . . y, par cubic Toot $0 15 " " 15 Mo a and Oil, per hhd (amaller ^proportion.) $0 00 $1100 r Surge) Cultivatora, Corn 8helid "traw Cutters, each $1 15 $1 50 'j .. (co-all) and Wheelbarrows... .to 00 $1 05 r , i Liverpool Back, $0 70 $0 05 FACIASE. * ?>??! b to Atlanta $10 00 W I under 12 yeara of age, half price. to Mmoo, $7 00 looda consigned to the Subscriber will be forwarded (roe of Commissions. Q"7~ Freight may be paid at Savannah, Atlanta or OotheaToga K. W1NTKR, Forwarding Agent, c. R. K. SavAtneaH, August 15. IMP. a 15 Imerrc FALL AllKANGEMEJST. LINE, via railroad and can\l. FROM PHILADELPHIA TO PITTSBURO. The above Line ia now in fall operation. Paaaengera leave Philadelphia every morning at o'clock, in the best and moat eomfertable description of car a for Hamsburgh, where they embark on the P-cket Beat ft-is ia one of the moat agreeable r no tea that ia to be found n the country. The acencry en the Sasgat-hutua and Juniata rivers ta naenrpasaed for beauty atari variety. (T7*Offi?e in Fhiladslchia. No. 274 Market street. Paaaengera should be carefnl not to pay their fair in New York farther than Philadelphia as there ia no one in that city ?*v? w mi uvacu lurianii iuic A. B. CUMMING8, Agent ^Philadelphia. October, 1816. old tfrc CHANGE OF HOURS. LONG ISLAND BA1LKOAD. FALL ARRANGEMENT, VVTT Qxiflte gtogto On iui<Hjtsr MONDAV, October 13, Wti, TraiuawiuSnaa follows: Leavs BaooKLTlt?at 7 o'elrck A. M. (Boston twin) for Oreenport. daily, (except Sundays) stopping at Farmingdale aud Si. Uverge's Manor. " " et9V A M.. daily,for Farmingdale and intermediate place*. " " at 12 o'clock, M., for Oreenport, daily, (Sonday* excepted,) stopping at Jamaica, Branch, Hickaville, ana nil stations e>sl of Hicksville. " at 4 P. M. for harminedale, daily. Laara GaaarrpoaT?at il< A. M., daily accommodation train for Brookl) " at 1R P. M., (or on the arrivsl of the boat from Norwich,) Boston tram daily, (eicppt Sondays,) stenp ng at St Ueorge's Manor and Karmingdule. Laara FaaviaenaLR at A M. daily, (excerf Snndavs,) roommodali n train, and 12 >1 and P M. Laart Jamaica?at 2 o'clock A M , I P. M., and #)< P M., for Brooklyn, or on the antral ol Boston train. A freight train will leare Brooklyn for Oreenport, with a passengers' car attachad, ooMondats, Wednesdays and Fridays, attw A M. Ketnrning leave Ureenport at Ik* o'clock P. M, on Toesday, Thursday and Saturdays, stopping at intermediate places. SUNDAY TWAINS. Leare Brooklyn at o'clock A. M. for Oreenport. lieto ruing, leave Oreenport at 2)f P. M., for Brooklyn, stopping at all tlie stations. Fane to?Bedford, I cents; Fast New York, 12V; Race Uonrse. 18V;Trotting Louise 18V; Jamaica 2 ; Brutl rille, 3IJs; H . de Park. (17 miles) 37,V; Clowsrille, (during the session of Court) 3>H; Hempnead 37)?; Branch 37V; l arle Place,44i Westbury, 44; Hickiville, 44; Farmingdsle, 62V: Deer P.irlt,6?- Thoinpsou, 81. Suffolk St-tion. SI; Lake R. ad Sation $1 18V; Medford Station, $ 18%': 37,V, St Geor.r's .Vlaiier, g 6iR; Rirernead, SI 62 V; Jamespnrt, SI h*V; Mattetuck, $1 62 W ; Cutchogue, $1 62V; Soulhold, $1 fi%; <3reau|>ort Accommodation Train, $1 75; llfcenport by Boston train. #2 25 Stages are in readiness on the arrival of Trams at the sere ral Stations, to take passenge.s at very low fares, to all parts 1 oi the Island. B'ggage Crates will be in readiness at the foot of Whitehall stre?. to receive baggage f r the several trains. 30 miuutes Dc lire tne noui 01 s .armg irom me Drnoaiyn na? The steamboat "H strum in" leaves Oreeiiporr for Sag Harbor oa rbe arrival of die Boston train (ruin Brooklyn. Brooklyn, f >et 8, 1IHS. r>9 rre . ntUULAiv MA:1. LlNfc KOh. BOSI'UiN. Vlk NORWICH k WOR^B| CEHTER, without change of I*Cars or Butgege, or withoat^^HEHR 3CK- JUcroising any Vcrrv J5BCL Passeugus tiuing their tests at Norwich, are insured their seats through n> Boston. This being the only inland route that communicates through by steamboat and railroad. Passengers by this line are accompanied through by the conductor of the train, who will hare particular charge of their baggage, and who will otherwise gire his attention to their esse ana comfort. This line leaves south tide Pier No 1, North Riser, foot of Battery Place, daily,(Sundays excepted) at 5 o'clock, P. M., and arrives in Boston in time so take all the eastern trains. The new steamer ATLANTIC, Captain Daatan, leaves every Tuesday, Thursday, and Satnrd > , at 4 o'clock, P. M. The steamer WORCESTER, Captain Van Pelt, leaves erery Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 4 o'clock. P. M. Per further information, inquire of J. H. VANDEKBILT, No. I Battery Place, North Riecr. tl ti'rc_ m M. JSk P. T^^RNESa^O.'S NEW YORK AND LIVERPOOL EMIGRATION OFFICE PW BYRNES k CO , of Liverpool, are detirons of in forming the pnbl ic of the United Stales, that they coetinne to despatch a line of first class Ships and Packets to New York, on the 1st, 61I1, 11th, ISth, 21st and 26th of earh month; and on ihe 12th a. d 20th for Phil idelpbia, and on the Ithan ? 20th to Boston, and at stated periods to Baltimore; also to New Orleana during the healthy seasou; by any of which lines parties can engage for their mends to be brought ont without disappointment or delay, this being the oldest and I true st establishment in the passenger trade in Liirrpool, and having found the importance of a direct Agency in tie Suited States, To' the pur|>oie of placing within the power of e frie da of the passengers coming out, the immediate correspondence with a respectable establishment, from whom they can rely for attenfioh and favor towards their relstions le ring'he eld country. P. W. BYRNES k CO. offer mary advantages to passengers which no ethers have atiempied, in a direct commnnieatton bv the r ships from Irelaud to the Untied Sta es, as they have, invariably, vessels duri< g 'ha spring f run Dublin, Cork, Wsierford, Belfast and Londonderry, by which meat s emigrants am saved much trouble andexpense. b v being shipped nt their own seaport ana also that of being I nded in any of rerpool, nearly etthe name cost m aireet to New York. P. W BVKMC8 k CO. here agents in all the seaport towns in Ireland, from whence steamers leire for Liverpool, and in many of the interior towns, who are most attentive to emigrant* on embaikation, and by whom any money can be paid that may be repaired to precnre sea stores, fee. The persons who act for this Company in the United States are? ma.vv uiuv<-i<ir. (.owiia nam, on nnntn, cereer 01 Will street. BOSTON?Mr. W. P. McKav, 52 Milt ?tre?t. PHILADELPHIA?Messrs. H. C. Craig A Co., Market " BALTIMORE? Mr. (Jeorie Law. NEW ORLEANS? Mr John Toole. PnaFTi ?kd I ic Hanoi: ? Drafts for any amount, payable at right, OB the Provincial Bank uflrelantl and all iu branches, an<l alio on all the principal towm of England and Scotland, wnhoet disc.,ant. put paiticulara of terms apply to P. W. BYRNES It CO., 51 Houth, corner or Wall ?t? New York. P. W. BYRNES It CO., It Im*m H Waterloo Road. Liverpool. . ' BRITISH AN 11 NORTH AMERl ft* CAN IIOYAL MAIL STEAM SHIPS 1 MO tons and 440 hone power each, na der contract with the Lords of the Admirahy. H1BERN1A Capt. A Kyne CALEDONIA Cap. K. ti. Lmt BRITANNIA... Capt J. Hewitt ? CAMBRIA Capt. C. H E.Judkiaa. ACADIA CaptWm Hamsun Will sail Iron Liverpool and Beaton, via Halifax. an follows }? raoM boston. rvoM Livr.arooi~ Caledonia Nov. I, Britannia Oct. 20, Britannia Nov. It, Acadia Nov. 4, Acadia Dec. 1, Caledonia " 19, Cambria... ... Dec. 4. Passion .Won ai From Boston to Liverpool BIX From Boaton to Halifax... 30. No bertha seemed ""til paid for These ships carry ei Striencw ?nrB?uiia. irngDi, except apeeie, reef ivea on ivt ol Mihug. For ixciglii, pittage, or any other information, apply to BKUiHAM, Jr., Agent. AJ HAR.ND* N * CO 'i, 6 Wall n. m addition to the above line between Liverpool and Halifax, an Boaton. a contract haa been entered into with HrrMaJe.u a government, to e.ubhih e line between Liv e-p'Ol and New Yurk direct The steamships lor tins sett it ere now beiu, tmilt, end esrly nest year dne notice will lie given of the time when they will start. Under the new contiect the etesmers will sell every Saturday daring eight months, snd every fortnight dnnog the other months in the yesr. Ooiog alternately beiwten Liverpool, and Halifag sud Boaton, and hens reu Lirerpool end New York. sllr 4? ~ FOH CALIFORNIA AND OREOON?Ths ASffV first class, fast sailing, coppered and copper fastened jBGUnhnik WHirON. K Oeletoo master, will be desp,.Cueu early iu Novcmbtrfor California and Oregon, tonehing at H'omerey , B* liraiiriero, Oregon City, I oliimbin river, end if tin'ii einenia are oflsred, at other inietroeiiiete |torrs. Fur freight or passage, having good accommodations, apply on hoard, at the loot of f)nver street, or at No. ol Liberty at., where letiers will be received ap 10 the day of selling OIJJw*r JA.MM BIMIOr It CO. W JAMES BEVERIDOK. ail Maker, Corner kW3PVVFront and Roosevelt streets?Sails, Awnings, Bags, node to a neataud suba'autia' manner, >i ices. Mails to bn repaired inmred against fire, and stored gratis. Secured from mra and dampness orders pniii'tnallv^eiternferf. _ "H 1m*rv* . eso FOH ULAStJOW?Regnl-r racket 1st Nov.? JMB^-Th? line now Br m^kei ship BHUOKBBY, MM JBMm "on. Oept. Hngh MsKwss, will sail as above, her tovVreigVt or passage, having splendid seaommodstions, pp., M, he gal rk It Baoth ibtM. E JNE N] Foreign Correapondenre of the N> Y. Herald. r**if, October lit, 1UI6. The Spanish Marriage Quest ton?Its Iff set on Spain France, and England-Mrus Pretenders' to the Throne of Spain?The Impending Scarcity in Europe?Railsoade ? Theatricals?The Effect of the Seizure of California in r ranee. The people of the Unite J Statee who hero created a cheap government for uieful purpoeea, ami attach no other importance to individual* except that which arieee from the service* they ere able to render to the community, will doubtless hear, with unmixed surprise, that Europe, from its centre to its extremities, Is agitated? that monarch* shake upon their thrones at the consequence* of a projected match between an amiable young gentleman, of Paris, and a Itttle gill of 14, belonging to rather a respectable family in Spain. M. do Montpensier 1 is the fifth son of a gentleman who was formerly usher at a school somewhere in Switzerland, where he taught, among other things, English geography and the use of : the globes ; but whom the chapter of accidents has raised to the hereditary throne of France. His fiances is a 1 young lady of fourteen, the second and youngest daugh. ter of Ferdinand the Seventh, late King of Spain, to whom her father bequeathod a fortune?the reputed amounted of which is six millions of dollars. The widow, mother of this young lady, having passed somo time in Paris about two years since, was entertained with his usual hospitalities by Louis Philippe. Now this monarch being himself the wealthiest individual in Europe, (his reputed income is three millions and a half of dollar* per annum) and having been so fortunate as to obtain for one of his son* the more than royal fortune of the late Duke of Bourbon, is remarkable for that quality which phrenologists call acquisitiveness. In fact, the very magnitude of the wealth that has already accumulated in his family, has only augmented the unsatiable appetite which he feeli for more. So happy a chance at that which threw the Queen mother of Spain in the neighborhood of the Tuilleriea and Neuilly, was not to he neglected, and accoidingly it was turned to profitable account A in'itch was concocted between the only unmarried son of the one party, and the younger daughter of the other, to he carried into effect as soon as circumstances should enable the parties to realize their designs. These circumstances soon occurred, or were brought about. t-Meanwhile, however, there were one or two serious obstacles to bo surmounted. In European politic*, Statei have a prescriptive right to interfeie in such matters, and England must be brought to acquiesce. A sly arrangement was projected for this purpose. The Queen of England was invited to visit the King of the Krench at Eu She was accompanied by her (then) Secretary of Foreign Affair* The King of the French wsi also attended by hii foreign minister, M. Ouizot The question was than and there brought on the tapis, and the acquiescence of the British minister|wsi obtained lor the proposed match, but upon the express condition that it was not to he solemnized until the reigning Queen ol Spain should he married and have had issue. The next point wae, of course, to fulfil if possible this preliminary condition. But innumerable obstacles and difficulties arose, which delayed the royal marriage. At leDgtb it was resolved on; hut what was the astonishment of England and her ministers to learn that the convention of Eu was coolly put aside, and that without any previous consultation, without even soliciting her acquiescence, the match of M. Ue Moutpensier with the sister of the ISnsnish Oneen wee resolved on Tni? baa roused sgatnat Louis Philippe an hornet's nest. The Spanish nation with the exception of a lavish majority jof the Curtea, ia roused- the EngUh nation, of evoiy putty and complexion, ia reused ?the French people,ot every party, except the immediate adherents of the court ia roused?all with one accord snout their indignation and execration of thia marriage The Spaniah people exclaim that it involves the sacrifice of Spain?the French prople declare that without bring ing any good to Fiance it deatroya her good undarutauding with F.ngland?the English people declare that it ia a violation of ireaiiea, a ba-,e betray at of pladgaa aolemnly given,and an insult to Europe. The Euatei n sovereigns of Europe decline interfering, because they have uot acknowledged the reigning Queen ol Spain In fact, Louis Philippe has sulfered his love of a large dowry to get the better of bis better wisdom this time. Meanwhile, it is whispered in Paris, that the cabinet of Louia Philippe do not at all participate in hii ardor for thia marriago, and that they 1 >ok on it rather aa a family than a national measure. In all the discussions that have been carried on in their preia about it, tbo name of M. Guizot haa never been put forward in support of it. The dissension it has already produced in Spain, has, in effect, roused two pretenders, who hitherto had nut tho remotest shade of a hope. The first is the Count dr .Montemolino, the eldest son of Lion Carlos, in whose fa vor his lather haa abdicated. This Prince is, of course, supported bv the Carlist party, but now endeavoia to conciliate the other sections of Spanish political society, by professing a moderate and conciliatory policy. The other ia the Infante Don Henrico, who haul been a candi uuio for ine v^uten uaiiu, uui wng wu rejeciea oecause be would not consent to become the puppst of the Krencli Court. This prince has, as you will nave heard, piotested against the Montpensier marriage, and is not unlikely to form a locus, round which will be collected the element of an insurrection More apprehensions on the subject of a scarcity in Europe, are felt than are expressed. There seems to t>e a feeling prevalent, where the press is free, that mischief may ensue it any alarm be created by publications foro boding evil of so awful a kind ; and where the press is not free, the public authorities keep it silent for the same reason; but the real truth is,that whetherthe fears be well or til founded, they prevail very painfully in toe heat informed quarters. Every eye is directed to America, as thongh there could be there an extemporaneous supply to meet an unforeseen demand of such awful magnitude, and such presstng necessity. In the opinion of some, the race of potatoes will become extinct in Ireland; and if the crisis attending so extraordinary a phenomenon could be once got over, it would perhaps be the greatest benefit that could accrue to that unhappy country. There is a silent and unobserved progress in Europe, the source hereafter of vast social and commercial changes. This source is the prodigious system of railroad, which is now gradually overspreading the continent. There are now employed on the railways of the Germanic States eight millions of Jsborars. There are above fifteen hundred miles of raiiwsy actually open for traffic in these States, and when the system which i* in progress of construction is finished, there will be little short of eiaht thousand miles in omration. A r.nntinu oua line ol railway traffic passing through the heart of ("antral Europe, will connect the Mediterranean with the Baltic and the North Sea. A aimilar lyatetn running eoat and west, will connect the east|bank of the Rhine with Hungary, and the* Russian government proposes to continue this system to Odessa In France the progress it slow but steady Lines are in progress, reaching from the capital in every direction to the Fouchee, to the Channel, to the Atlantic at Brest, Nantes and Bourdeaux; to the Mediterranean at Marseilles; to the Rhine at Strasbouig, and to Belgium hy Valenciennes. It is impossible to foresee the prodigious social and commercial edectsjof these vast measures of internal and international improvement, but that tbey will be attended with great and important one can doubt. The total extent of railway projected in France, is 3300 miies.ol which nearly 1000 will be in operation before the close of the present year. The season in Paris begins, as you know, on the 1st of October, although the town does not begin to fill, till towards the end of that month The Italian opera opens here this evening; the company is nearly tho same as last season, that is to say, the ladies coniist of Orisi, the two Brombillas, and Ter iani; and the gentlemen, of Mario, Labl.iche, Ronconi and Tagliaflco; < oletti is also engaged. The opera opens with "Donizetti's Lucia," to be sung by Mario and I'ertiani This will bo succeeded by the "Semiramid ," in which Coletti will make his debut. The "Due Foscari" of Verdi, will soon afterwards be proaucea. A promising tenor, Bettnic, has appeared in the "Lucie' t the Academic.kili? success with the public hi* net been considerable, yet something ia expected fiom hint heteafter. The news which has just arilved of the seizure of Monterey, byCapt Montgomery, of the Portsmouth.his formed a leaning subject of comment with the journals of Paiis, notwithstanding the engrossing interest of the Mohtpeniier marriage The annexation of California to the confederacy of the Union is assumed is a necessity consequence. California cannot, it ii said, maintain itself as e separate and independent state and it is only detached from Mexico to be thiown Into the arma of the United Htata*. It ia argued that California has never cordially amalgamated with Mexico; that it ha* only accepted and obeyed the laws and ordinances oi the central state so isr as suited its convenience, and has never contributed to the lover-we The customs levied there have always been eapended there, and the (iweruors seat them by Mexico have only been permitted to enter the country by laying down their authority at the frontier. These tendencies to independence, say the French wrier*. have Ih en very much augmented eince the A mencan emigrants, who had enters i the Oregon, leaving that arid dismct, hare made their way into California, in contempt ol the Mexican law*, and hiive established their reaiciencea around the principal porta. They have main* tamed in the country a spirit ol resistance to the Mealcan authority, and more than once expelled the Governors , and the troops sent to quell the insurrections The appearance of an Amencan squadron olf the coast was sufficient cause, as is here stated, to cause an insurrection. '1 he proclamation of Commodore Moat is do| clared to tie in substance an invitation to Califoroia to annex itself to the Union Meanwhile, all political and diplomatic authorities here look with great interest to the course which Fngland will take ia this emeigency. t he claims ol England ate, it ia said, el remote date.? Mexico stands indebted to its people to the amount of tee millions sterling, *nd< alifornia was regarded as a pledge 1'** for this debt in the pamphlet of Caleb Cushing, and the negotiations with Knglsml lor the sale of California, tiacesuf which were iound in the papers of Santa Anna at the time ol his expulsion from Mexico It is, therefore, assumed here as a certainty that fcngland i coI California; and the question Is, will she not only ' ,uner it to elude her grasp, bat fall info the hanos of a ! -i0i.WeLr' ol.wno*e increasing influenJh she is so je-dous ? 1 he tnglish movement* on this question, are, therefore, looked lor here with muek interest We shell know more of this at the date ef our nextdespetchea. I 1 he unfortunate Great Britain ! The prognostication of the engineers tod seamtn, who forebodod htr uttor failure, seem likely to be fulfilled. It la te be feersd | that ,n?w York haa seen Up* teat ether. w v o EW YORK. MONDAY M( Bo, I .). ?,()ct. >3, lot , Xovel Can. in the Circuit Court? Marked?Importations ? The Sew Curiam Hour*?Poli in, <f-c, fc. The Circuit Court for the district of Massachusetts, ! Judge Woodbury presiding, has been engaged for a week past in tho discussion of a novel question of great importance, and one exciting much interest and inquiry The Now Bedford Bridge Company it indicted, as proprietor of abridge running from New Bedford to Kair haven, which U alleged to be nuisance, inasmuch as it preclude* the passage in or out of vessels of the larger classes. The bridge hae been standing for fifty years, and its lights are now for the first time questioned. The pioperty of the concern is valued at nearly a million of dollars. The proprietor* were defended by Hon Rufus Choate and B. V Curtis, Esq.; and the Hon. Robert Ran' toul. Jr., and C. L. Woodbury, Esq., appeared for the government. The righta of the State in this case were arrayed against those of the federal government. The counsel for the corporation contended, that though the constitution pave to the federal government exclusive maritime and admiralty Jurisdiction, yet Congress had never assumed that power by the enactment of statute laws, which could, by any construction, give tbe federal . courts jurisdiction against the State, over questions of obstructions to navigation like the present?and in the absence of statute law no admiralty law existed which gave the government this jurisdiction. Mr. turnout, for the government, cited the acta, making New Bedford a pert of entry and delivery?the acts giving admiralty jurisdiction to the district and circuit courts of the United State*. the celebrated Force lew, and several others; and claiming jurisdiction also fiom the admiralty law, as it existed at the adoption oi the censtitution. This part of the question was argued on both side* with uuexamplod research and anility. Mr. Rantoul canvassed the whole extent of admiralty practice since the 10th century, throughout all Kuro|>*. with the most critical skill. Upwards of a hundred and fifty authorities were cited by the respective counsel. Seldom, in our courts, has any cause drawn out to thorough a disquisition of the principles ol any part of our practice. Mr Choate improved upon iue nigh reputation; and the cause of the government,was sustained with consummate ability and learning by Mr. Rantoul, throngkeut the whole discussion. Judgos Woodcury ami Sprague remarked, at the close of the argument on Friday morniDg, that the case presented some verv grave difficulties, and a decision would be reserved until another term ol the court. Should the bridoro r.nriinrntinn ha sustain*,I under the State law, there would be no iniuperahle oh- ' jection to the placing of bridge or chain across the 1 mouth of the Mississippi, by the State of Louniana. i Thin matter will ultimately be decided by the supremo court. AThc general business of this city has received an impetus trom the late news from Kngland, and the markets and prices are rapidly improving. Importations have been very light for two months past, but not so when compared with the same months ia any previous year. The new custom house is now nearly completed, and will probably be occupied in the course of the neat spring. It has been so long in the processiof building, unfortunately, that it is now generally deemed to be in. adequate to its original purpose. i'olitics ere out and out the heaviest drug in this market The native* are but so so. 'l he whigs and abolitionist* are contriving e pertect union for 1*48, and the democrat* are dozing. Sao Harbor, Oct. 10th, 1840. Fire?Rf building of tht Town?The Episcopalians ? Marriages?Politico?Split among the Democrats You chronicled the terrible fire by which the greater part of this famous town was consumad in November iaat, but no mention ha* been aince made of us by yonr correspondent Without waiting his tardy movemant, I think proper to inform yeu and the woild through >our paper, il great maiters do not require ell your columns, that a large part of the burnt district is now covered with sub stantial Cre proof thri a story brick stores, and elegant frame buildings. The stores of Messrs. liunttinr and Douglass are models of workmanship, convenience am) beauty, unsurp ssed by any in the conntry Should one familiar with this place twenty years ago, now revisit it after an absence of that time, he could not recognize a single object in the lower part of the town as an old acquaintance. People have changed, or rather the popula tion has changed, ami instead of the stern, true, honest and industrious inhabitants of Lung Island, there is an intermixture of Irish, Uermans, Jew*, and other foreigners, who like birds oi passage have squatted amongst us As cold weather approaches, they ma/ swarm, 'ml some of them depart for more luxuriant fields, for at present out little oners in the way of butiness by which they can increase thetr stores. The trustees of tbe corporation are now busily engaged in digging wells in different quarters of the village in repaning engines, purchasing hose, and prenaiing every implement to prevent and extinguish fires.' The taxes this year are euormou?,and a judicious expenditure of the money will alone reconcile the citizens to the bur then. The Episcopalians have recently purchased the build ing known here as the old church, and bave painted and repaired it, and have christened it Christ Church A very respectable congregation in numbers and kind has been organized, and in aahort time it will he firmly fixed in the affections of the people. The clergyman, the Rev. Mr. Roberts, is a gentleman of fine abilities, and will, if any one can, speedily recruit his ranks from other denominations The Rev Mr Britton preached last Sabbath, and is certainly one of the most eloquent divines I ever listened to. Several marriage* have come off lately, among which are two brothers of the O family. After a travel of several weeks they returned and 1 with others have had th* pleasure of calling upon them, and going through the ceremony of eating, drinking, and making complimentary speeches Long life to them. The seaion of political action is at hand, and both parties take tbe field with equal spirit, if not with equal hope of success The whigs have conducted their pro readings with great; unanimity, ana seiecieu cauaumu-t who will command the confidence of both parties. Mr Scaly, the member for assembly, nominated from thu place, is a young merchant, of good moral ard business character, who if elected, will vote honestly, and talk little, two very essential requisites in a legislator. A T Rose, the nominee for Congress, will carry with him the whole strength of the party. The democratic party, so far as 1 am informed, are much dissatisfied with some of their candalatesjand the democrats at the West, have declared againat J. L. Smith, and called a meeting to nominate a new man. This is a new thing in this oounty (Vov. Wright must come down and settle the quarrel Dr Lord, the nominee, is also mnch kicked against by some in this quarter. A few years ago, 1 am informed, the democratic con vention formally adopted the piincinle, doctrine, orfsyslemof rotation. They adhered to it for several years, but have this year abandoned it, so far as regards the county clerk, who by some legerdemain, is again nominated to the most lucrative office in the county Some of the West, I am informed, have expressed their determi"> the roneresaienal candidate for want of political orthodoxy, resolutely declaring that a nomination wm not an election. Thii spirit of outbreak i* so often manifested, and afterwards rebuked and cowed down by the lash of party discipline, and the system of rewards and punishments, that but little good ia expected from Nazareui. But I am afraid that 1 hare run on at too great length, and 1 will promise more at another time. Kiaes.?A Are occurred in Hudson on Friday ereaing last, destroying considerable property. It broke out about 10 o'clock, in the carriage establishment of Ilelamater, near the railroad depot, destroying that establishmen', with most of its contents. Mr. D had fifty or sixty sleighs, nearly finished, besidea buggies and waeons. His loss is estimated at some plO.OOU. ?aid to be insured. In the same block was a large tannery, owned by Mr. Key nobis, which was also consumed. Although considerable quantities of leather were removed, Mr. R 'a loss ie supposed to be several thousand dollars?mostly, lfnot entirely, covered by insurance, The buildings were owned by Mr Breeaca. A fire, also, broke out in Boston on Saturday morning, on the corner of Eliot and Tremont streets, occupied by | Mr Ayling, as a turher's shop, ami by Mr. Sontnwick, I as an apothecary's shop. The fire ia said to have oiigi- ' nated in the cellai, under the shop of Mr Ayling It I _ 1 ?;.w .??!. M.,lilStas ikut Krai liltlgfe nf Ik* unrli ita I preen ?iui sumi -? ? ? the store* wsi saved, ana the building tu entirely destroyed. Mr. Soutliwick saved only nis broke Several families occupied the building, over the stores, who lost nearly all their effect*. The Are then eatended to some sheds, an! a small stable in tbe rear, which were entirely destroyed. A hoise, which was in the stable, was extricated with difficulty A three story woodan house on Tremont street, occupied in part by a Mr. Murray, shoemaker, was considerably injured in the rear, ami the sheds destroyed. A two story wooden house on Eliot street, owned and occupied by Mrs Randall, was damaged to the amount of $400, The furniture in the abuve houses was removed, most ol it badly damaged 1 he buildings burnt were of wood, and ol no great value That occupied by Messrs South, wick and A) ling, belonged to Mr. Jacob Bacon, who is insured. Mr Southwicko loss in stock is about $2000? insured for $1600 at the Fireman's office Mr. Ayling lost stock and tools to the value of irom $600 to $100ti Mr. Orlando Currier, cabinet maker, occupied a tenement adjoining Mr. Southwick; his loss is about $100- no insurance. Many poor families are also sufferers by the above Are. Incident on Ben Lomond ?On Saturday last an American lady and gentleman visited Ben Lomond, and tbe latter stepped a short Uaia to make a sketch, while hi* companion proceeded downward. In a few minute* h* followed, but was unable to make up with her?and having gone down some way began to fear .some mistake had occurred | he again ascended, and sesrrhed, but could dnn no trace of her, and ultimately hurried down to the inn. Immediate measures ' were taken, and numerous parties were gathered from *11 ; quarters around, including tourists, villagers, and shepherds, and they set out in search of the lady. They a* . canned to the spot where she had been last seen, snd then divided into small groups, setting off in every direc- i tion. The search was continued during the whole night, and the was at last discovered by one of the guides, about seven o'clock on Sunday morning, fully twelve hours altar her Iriend had parted with her. Hue had during the night, alter diseovermg that th* had lost bar way. most prudently kept herself awak* by throwing stones, he , snd although vary weak whan discovered, no fears ar* entertained of her suffering materially? i DuiHn Atwi Svpt 31. i )RNING, OCTOBER 26, 1 Oalcna. Oct. la, MM, Tnvtl on the Laktt and over Prairitt?Milwaukie?Chicago? Catena?Railroad)?To Eaittrn Capitalist. The travel on Lake* Erie, Huron, and Michigan, it immtnis-more than can ha realised without being witnessed. The upper lake boats, which leave Buffalo daily with from four to eight hundred passengers each, are en- j tirely independent of those that run between Buffalo and < Detroit. This ii tn interest which Deeds the fostering care of our Government, winch Mr Folk can have demonstrated to his satisfaction, if he will pass over the i sama at any time during navigation The improvement of the harbors, and clearing away the flats in 8t. Clair river, are indispensable to the just growth of the West and the Erie Canal. Stop or hamper the trade of the West, and you thus far injure the carrying business on the Erie Can. 1, which will, of course, decrease the revenuo of the State therefrom. To Chicago is a pleasant four day's sail on the lakes?as pleasant as any on my journey Krom thence to this place, 107 miles, is mostly over prairies When within 40 miles of this place, occasional hills will he passed ; and here we find steep ragged clift'a?the city of Galena being built on them. After leaving Detroit, Milwaukie is the first town of 1 any importance on this route, and is 14-iO mile* from i New York, containing about 9 000 inhabitants It is lo- I cated on both side* of Milwaukio river, on a bay of I,akc ' Michigan. Considerable BMBHHttl of lead are here I brought from Galena, by team*, for New York market, ?ome 'J00 mile* overland, and good* from your city carried back for tho Galena merchants, The building* are mostly of wood, but all have a new and very fresh appearance, as if they had been put up within a few davaThe place is situated on a hill?on dry, gravelly soil Its largest building is the United States' Hotel, built of brick. The bricks are of a cream color, hard as the Philadelphia bricks, but not as smooth. The place look* thrifty, and the numerous merchants have large stocks of goods. But if it expect* to outstrip Chicago, it must stop forthwith the serious strife between their west enders end east enders, which a whila ago reaulted in the tearing down one of their bridges by the west enders, in order to prevent the country people from trading with the east enders. They should remember that Holy Writ says, "A house divided against itself csnnot stand''?neither can a city. The condition of the soil | and its hilliness indicates a healthy place for the West. The marsh I] ing on the bay and botween the mouth of the tiver and the town, ia now being filled up. ono mile in extent, for the extension of their main road direct to the ste.-imera' landing,'and to effect the sale of their $2,1)00 marshy building lots. At the uorth end of the city thev have an excellent water power, from a canal which government commenced, to unite the water* of Green Bay and Lake Michigan. Government conatructed it just far enough (unwittingly) to give the citizen* an immenie water power,?and then abandoned it It is a pity that the one man power ha* prevented the lame favor to the ju*t merits ot the harbors aud rivers on these Western waters Chicago, the great waitern wheat market, is 1.312 miles from New York, and only six to seven daysjourney, when a person is desirous of passing through with out stopping by the way. It contains over 14 two inna- : bitanls. Tne buildings are almost all built of wood ? even their numerous Ave and six story mam mot Ir ware | houses are of wood The city is built on both sides of Chioago ?(id est : in the Indian vocabulary, skunki? river, at the head waters of Lake Michigan, and. to the eye, it appears to be on a boundless piairie Its impor- | tance is Ut-rived from being the wheat mart for the W??t Here is also done a laige business in packing beef and pork. A single Arm, of the numerous ones here, does j more business daily iu grain and produce, than all the ! Arma in any other city or town in Illinois This I nave from data The city is supplied with water from tne ! Lake by an hydraulic company Merchants and tinders j iu the city, are as thick as the grass on their prairies ? i Chicago river, about one mile from the lake, receives the ! waters of another stream. At this jun-tion the great | feeder te the Illinois canal Is to be dug out this wtn'er. , The water ii to be laised to the level ot the canal by a half dozen I'itlsburgb pumps, now being constructed lor the purpose. Next rummer it has been exacted tbut the eanal would be in operation ; but from the universal sickness on the entire line, for three months past, it is very doubtful whether it is completed before next fall VV IICM U1H II UUUV, VUlLSIgU, (U tUQ Mlkiutni VVU.BV we ; trade, muit double bar population in la** than Ave year*. The raaaon is obvious?this canal will causa seller* of ; produce and consumer* of merchandise to resort thither , ?a city where they can And a larger market, than as j now, at several small towns To Chicago the route is travelled entirely by railroad and steamboats ; but now comes staging, 176 miles to reach Oelena. This season this countiy has been, and now is, sorely afflicted with sickness. Fever and ague, chill fever, congestive fever, bilious fever, rt Id omne genus, have prostrated raoio than half of the population No year lias sickoess been so universal here, not excepting 1 ?3d vlortality, however, has not been more than usual. But let any person rid* between Cnicago and Catena over the present rough state of the roads, and he will hkve the shakes, without taking the lever and ague the natural way. Between these two cities a railroad should be speedily constructed. The country is so level that the cost must be light compared with eastern road* The freighting business would be immense?the mineral and produce of the flelde Ae eastern capitalists have purchased the Michigan central railroad, they should by all means continue the link around the bead of .Michigan lake to Chicago thence to Ualena. which would thus give them the J -r l.k. ~r M..1I. ..n Wiu-nn.,n and Iowa. Tbe mind ia loit in wonder contemplating the wealth wrapped up in this western world.which wholesome toil will develope and bring forth. If the eastern capitalists will look iuto this subject, they will seixe instantly the charter already obtained lor the Chicago and Galena railroad. It is almost boundless in liberality. As an additional inducement for the construction of this road, the United States government should, lor its own pecuniary advantage grant a handsome appropriation ol the public lands along ihe route, to secure its immediate construction. Government lands would be immedia'eiy enhanced in value more than double the amount of what can be procured for such lands, as things uow exist. It wouid bring the wheat of Illinois within as many hoiira to the Chicago market, as it is now days. It would liberate on this route alone over 1 000 teams that are daily at work in transportation, thus giving them so much add'tional strength and time to devote in in- ! creasing tbe wealth of tha country by producing. The next session of Congress should not be allowed to pass over without tbe consummation of this deaired grant to our western fiiends It should be done upon principles of assisting the weak?of developing the immense resources ol these north western States?of facilitating, and thns cheapening the price of produce at the east?while it would here iwise the price or corn, which is now onljr nc. to aac per Dusnel; wueai oniy wc asoc peruumri; oat* lie. 16c. do ; potato**, 16c.; and all other agricultural product* in proportion. On our way hither from Chicago, we met, in companies of six to twelve, over 600 teams, loaded with wheat, strung all along the road, bound for the Chicago market?each carried 40 to 60 bushels in begs. Nearly all the team* were two horses and a booster covered wagon. They came from a distance of one to three or lour days drive, to accomplish their respective trips. CUMBCaLSltD Kivbb, Oot 7, 1640. Naihville?Politictl Jiiptct of Tennenee?Senator Jar?nafin and the Tariff?Cumberland River?Lynn Boyd ? Smithland? Ohio River. To a traveller there are few things in Nashville more pleasant to recollect, than the strict and pleasant atten' tion which he is sure to receive at its wall kept hotels. Theie is nothing in the political aspect of affairs in Tennessee, at this time, worthy of particalar note. The President, of coarse, has bis warm partisans, and hundreds of disappointed office seekers, no doubt, wonder why their services, old and new, have not been rewarded. On the other hand, there is not a State in the Union, where Mr Polk has a stronger opposition, political and personal, than in Tennessee. Those who have been familiarized by early association, aro, of course, not prepared te admit the superioiity which the distinction of office would seem to indicate. It is true now. as it ever has been, that a prophet rarely has honor in his own country. The whig* would even make capital out of the sickness of the volrnteer*. Undor this state of feeling, here, a* elsewbe.i, there is an evident disposition to excuse (Ten Scott's " hasty plate of soup," and to clsim for his absurd letter, a triumph over the Secretary of War and the President. But I do not think this feeling is very prevalent in (he South. The Mexican war is popular^ and should our arms prove disastrous, which no on* fears, blind would be that party who should therefore denounce the war?their denunciations would be consttued into rejoicing at our reverses. Much less is said than I had expected about the vote of Senator Jaruagia, on the tariff. No one would have neen siaatlv surmized had he disobeved his instfuctions, nor ii he given much credit for Brmnevi by any party The ; vacillating cuurin which he tooh on the subject, hat d?stroyed hit piospects with all parlies I am mismkun if he ia re-elected, be the complexion of the Legialature what It mar. There ia, however, no accounting lor Tenneaaee Legislatures in acnatorial rlectiona. Th j whig party have no better taienta in their rauks, in Tenneaaee, than Jaruagin. The adminiatration of Oovernor Milton Brown ia vary popular wl.h hie party, and ha will no doubt be a candidate fer re-election by acclamation The Cumberland river it exceedingly low, and theae haaty notaa are written under the leeling, of all others, the moat trying to the go ahead-itive diapoaition of the age, that of being faat aground, with little prospect of getting away until Protestor Espy ,or tome other weather spirit, shall send us a rain upen the Cumberland mountains All attempts at amusement under such circumstances are vain, and your humble servant axcuaes his impatience with the redaction that Job was nevsr tub. < Jected to such trials. While the sbovs paisgrsph was baing indited, a flat boat, laden with many passengers, has patted ua, forcing their way up ibe absilow current by oars?they are composed ?.f well dressed ladies and gentlemen, who diaregard the sun. Sucn ia western life. This ia the iron district of Tenneaaee, where are meny establishments ia which considerable capital is invaatad, in successful operation. O.hera have met with reversea, and of course, attribute them to the tariff hill which iato taka effect iu December. The price of iron, it is oortein, has fallen, though no reduction has bean made in the | price of labor. The iron-mongers pay from ten to fliteen dollars par month lor nagro fallows. The iron region here dees not afford a sufficient ma r iEKA 1846. ket Tor the grain and pork of the country, much of which u aeut down the river The mouth of tho Cumberland river ia embraced in the district of that good natuied aoul. Lynn Boy.), an t ia democratic,despite the iron inllueuce, an ' the great popularity of "Harry of the West " Lvnu Boyd is a popular man among the "b'boya" He (rolica with them, takes a "horn" with them, dances with them, tella a good story and makes a good sneech in < ongress. Lynn, i suppose, will represent the district at long as he chooses Ideographic ally, Bmithland. like Cairo, ought to boa great town But Louisville, having got, retains, the ascendancy. They have tiied a branch bank at Smithland-they have tried newspaper puffing, but the place cannot grow. It retaina its old sue,and about its old business. Arriving at the Ohio we found the river low, though navigable for small sized boats 1'he boats down the river are crowded with pa.seugers returning to their homes. Hobert Owen on the nervosity for, end sulrantagreof, an entire revolution of society. 1*1% as limn Kqs orrioa.l in iKa illia CnMriN of natUTA. for the principle* mid practice* which have hitherto governed the woild to be entirely abandoned by all government* and people, and for tin* revolution in all human affairs to bu effected, not by viclouce, or injury to any nation or peonle, but through new knowledge, introduced and directed by kindnen, forbearance and charity for the character* now formed for the human race, varied ut they are by the error* and prejudice* ol latitude and longitude. Rational reflection will now make it evident that tlie past eventa ol the univene have been necessary to produce the prevent ; that the present are necessary to produe* the future ; that the element* of nature could have proceeded in no other course, and that the result* of their unbroken action have been the best that could have arisen,?no other being possible To blame the past or present is, therefore, irrational,and a waste of faculty as well as of valuable time. It is in consequenoe of this necessary progress of the new combination of the elements of nature, that the system of society is about to bo changed; and this neceuary pi ogress makes the change inevitable. It is this never ceasing, onward progreu of nature which, at this period, his inude evident to some of the human race, the causes of the evils of society, the mean* by which they may be removed, and humanity made to progress towards a high degree of eacellence and happiness. It is this auvauced combination of the elements of nature that expands and forces on the human mind to perceive the false foundation on which, from the heginnh g, the defective character of man and all his institutions have been based and constructed. These erroneous institutions having been once e?'aK1;?Wa,1 lieu. ?KrnttivV> nirno motoriillw formed the character of individual* and nations, and era ted the entiles* aud abaurd prejudice* of latitude and longitude which have hitherto existed over the earth. It i* thia unceasing progiess of nature, which now unveil* the came* of tin accumulating error*, folly an I absurdities, and consequent evils ot the past and preient (tateof society,and which creates an irresistible desire to rcmovo those causes, uad improve the condition of hu manity. Kor now those trained to acquire the habit of perceiving,facts andideducing self-evident conclusions from them, have discovered the error, hitherto made, to he almost universally prevalent, that tnsn makas hi* own individusl qualitie*, creates hi* own opinions and his feelings, by bis own independent free will, and that foi each of these, he should be never responsible to his >et equally igno rant fellow man; that he shoul I by them tie punished and rewarded lor these unavoi lable result* of his individ utl formation, for, in tact, the influence of tl.e petty local prejudices of the latitude and longitude in which he has been placed by the accident of birth and education Those varied local errors of latitude an I longitude, hive of necessity cieated the evil passions, inlenor qu siitiesand habits, and irrational conduct ol the human rice Krom these errors have emanated all violence. wsrs religious and ell other divisions and disunion*. in-unities massacres ami maJnaaa; in short ail repulsive ami uncharitable feelings, uod through these same error* have proceeded, in all ages, the vices, Crimea an I miseries of tnaDkind. IHs these.ertora which have produced the late aud praaent desolating wars in Indu, Algeria, ami Mexico. It waa these eitorathat caused the rumors, and at one time the probability of war between the chria'ian and kindred nationa ol Ureal Britain aud the United Statea, unnatural and terrific at such conflict would have been. But the progress of the elementary combiuationa of nature it daily enlarging the human faculties, through an iucreating knowledge of facta, the only ceitain formation of real uaelul and valu ble knowledge; a knowledge which hat now elicited the discovery that the Oreat Ore attng Power of the univerte alone creates all the qualities of humanity, and givea to each infant at birth its own peculiar combination of those general qualities, and so creates eaoh one, tbat he must believe according to the strongest conviction made upon his miad, and feel as his natural Instincts compel him to feel; these instincts being also formed for him by the seme all-creating po>?er. These, and his will to act, are formed for him, in a man ner unknown to himselt, and tbat, consequently, to make man a rationul being, which he never yet has oeen, that is, to think and act aright, to ensure his own happiness and the happiness ol his race, the system of society as it exists over the world, must be entirely changed in principle an 1 practice This is that long promised aod long looked fer change which can alone produce peace aud good will over the vorM.and chaug-iit from its preaontconfuaion of tongue*, opposition ol interest, disunion of feeling*, end chaos of ditoider, into an cnti/ely new atate of exiitcrice?a atate to auporior tbat it will gradually progieaa until tliere will be but one language, one people and one family, having but one intereat, and no other dealre than cordially to promote each other'* happincaa. The immediate cauaea, which in thia onward progreae of nature are haatening thia titireraal happy change, in addition to the laat century of inventiona and discoveries, are the impiovementa ot ateam navigation, of railway travelling, and of the diecovety of the electromagnetic telegrapn, to facilitate the communication between diatant pert* of the earth. And laat, though not leaat, the new we?elopement of the acience*, by whicn human character may be acientiflcally manufactured, ao aa, in every caae, iu which there ia no malformation at birth, or alter injury from accident, all ahall be well eduoated, physically, mentally, morally, and practicably, eociety itaelf re-baaed, re-orgamxed. re-classified, and re conatructed, ao aa to make it contribute, day by day, through all it* ramification*, to tha progress, excellence, and happiness of all upon the earth. ?ill .11 ik. mainitii-u nf latitiida and lnnvitlide die their natural death, and be superseded by universal principles and practices, derived direct from the unchanging,wise, and most beneficent laws of tlod?a strict obedience to which can alone secure the permanent, progressive happiness of the human race. ROBKRT OWKN. At ska, onboard the Victoria, New York packet ship, 38th August, 1818. Scandinavian Emigration. Ui Hkbal*:? Within the last two or three months, some two thousand Swedes and Norwegians have arrived in this city from the dominions of his Majesty, King Oscar?a larger number, we perceive, than the aggregate for any previous three >ears since the revolution. These hardy sons of the North, come principally from among the agricultural population, and proceed directly to the far west. They come among us not debased me nials, but enlightened men?not superstitious bigots, but intelligent liberalists?not crouching mendicants, but honest, independent, industrious freemen?they come from their icy home, to find a new and more genial one amidst the thick woods and fertile plains or our flowery west. They have left behind them the humble cob tares of their childhood, bosomed in the frost sud snows oflheir polar birth-land, to rear amidst the solitudes of our own wide wilderness, the rude log cabin, and beautify and fertilize the waste land and the prairie. They have come, renouncing allegiance iu uirn uwu king, to claim brotherhood with their Anglo Haaon kins men, to enjoy the bleaainga of American liberty, and as ume the high responsibilities of American citizenship. To them, thia change ia pregnant with momentoua results To us, it affords matter for aarioua reflection, and opportunity for correaponding action These people, our kinsmen indeed in the bonds of a common humanity, in the belief of a common chriatianity, in the possession of a common courage, chivalry, enterprise, and hospitality, have yet to learn our language and our laws, our manners and our customs, before they cob enjoy the full communion of republican brotherhood and citizenship. In leaving their Scandanivian home, they have sundered at once, and forever, the ties that bound them to their country and their friends?their Hbmesteads have passed into strangers* hands, and with all their worldly wealth about them, they have cast themselves with faith and trust upon a stranger soil For themselves, and their children, they have a venture, which, whether it result in weal or woe, it ia probably now beyond their power to change Their woridiy wealth may indeed be smell It was enough in tgseir own land with their simple habits, irugality, end mutual charity, to i-n>ure them cheerfnlne's, comfoit and fon?nimpni?wnn n, in^y roiun mwaya sustain their families?do their share lor the mippoit oi their government, their christian faith, and have anon beside to welcome n needy neighbor or a weary manger?there, hospitality waa a houaehold virtue?the name of stranger n passport to their heart* and home* Much *11 history tall* u* ate trail* inseparable irom Swedish character, such of courae mint dittingu ah the Swede* who now come to unite with u*. Shell tke sngloSaaon yield the palm of generoeity to hi* Scandinavian brother 1 It utioi hi* iutereit a* well a* hi* duty to bid him welcome to the land of liberty, and extend to him the hand of friendship There are but few among ua who have giv?n sufficient attention to the (object, to understand the natoie of the relationship which Swden and the Swede* sustain to this country. Were it otherwise, we era confident it would be admitted that we owe that gallant nation and people a debt ot gratitude which has never yet been fully oancelled. Did we go beck and look into their hiatory we should find in it, and them, qualities and deed* wnieb, as patriots and Americana, wo should praise end adiene If we turned to the history of the early settlement or our country, we should find that the Swede wee there t and to times still moie remote, undvr the title of ISoitherner, we should find him urging claims to the same high honor, which Vespucins now shares in part with Columbus. But avery where, and on til occasions, the earns restless, active, enterprising, generous, brave and *ITt&tCthodbwZfah sailors ara among the best in the world is, I believe, an undisputad fact, It is said of thorn that during the raign of tha great Emperor Charlemagne, some of teeir vessels visited his dominions, and ha waa so struck with their lofty bearing and hardy appearance, that ha actually wept, as the presentiment came ever him, thet at eeme dey, not far distaut, a peep la i rooh M , - _ _ - ~ I. JL 13. raw Vwi own. ' this, allured by tho beauty and fertility of that region, would descend in nunbara and conquer bis beloved country. Although historians diifa-, and private opinion varies, we believe the roost reliable and authentic concede the following tact* That America was first discovered by the Scandinavians?that in the year *74 they colonised Iceland. That l.eif, a sou of Kri" the Red, an Icelander, who discovered Oreeiiluud, made the fact known to the King of Norway, who determined to support a colony there, which colony I was sustained sod flourished for three centuries. That Biam, a Norwegian, trading to Greenland, being driven out of his course, discovered e low woedy country which he knew could not Mo Greenland. He returned home without landing ; but Leif, immediately upon hearing the report, equipped a vessel for the strange land ? 1 He sailed south and west, discovering what must have ! been either Newfoundland or Labrador, proceeding still further, he reached a fine undulating coast, abounding with woods ; rivers filled with fish j and Oelda , and forests with wild grapes. This land, it is presumed, was the present state of Maino. After Lair* return the coast was visited and explored by several others, from Labrador to Masaaohu I.o found, ami when it is stated, that from that data until tha discovery of Columbus, there had bean a total ceeeetion of intercourse between Iceland and Greenland, a difficulty arises which throws a shade of Joabt upon the authenticity of these statements. In answer to which, we have, however, the averments of tha great historian, ttnord?and Adam, ol firemen, who says he had a confirmation of all from the lips ol Hwsyen II, king of Denmark. It is said, too, that the first modern missionaries who came here, found the Cross, a knowledge of the stars?a superior kind of worship, and a mere Ingenious mind, among the inhabitants of the coast supposed to have been colonized by Greenland. No person can lo&k into these matters without finding in them abundant food for fun, philosophy, admiration, wonder, and speculation?they are supremely rich in all that is ridiculous, romantic, grand, heroic, and sublime. Suppose, Mr. Kditor, you had the pencil ef a Cruikshank, and should just sketch out that interesting grout), where stood first ,md foremost, his imperial highness, Charlemagne, clothed in his imperial robes, holding in his imperial hand his imperial pocket handkerchief? blubbering forth imperiel teera ; like some overgrown schoolboy, whose hand* were filled with pumpkin pie and his mouth stuffed with the same ancieut commodity, tor fear some more powertul loafer than blmaelf would rob him of Uia possession*?1 believe you would scare up a picture, which might make even a monk burat hie sidea with laughter. 1 hen. too, Just think of our old friend, Christopher Columbus, finding a mare's nest? whew? As my object is twofold in writing?first, to interest and instruct your readers, and next to create in their minds sn interest in bebalfiof the Swedes?if the present article suits you, I will ful ow it up with a few others respecting the early Swedish discoveries and settlements in this country ; their habits, character, and cua turns at home , with some few curious anecdote* and specimens of their poetry I send to the Hrrald, because it is ever foremost in *11 honorable causes ; and always the first to call public attion to high and generous views and and*. 1 therefore do not doubt but that it will willingly lend its thousand silent tongues to speak throughout the lend the merits of the worthy Scaeniearian. Supreme Court Ukc sions ?Kocltester, Oct 23.?Hiiiiiioti vs. i'au roon, rt. at , No 826 Motion by It H Tyler, Keq , for Judgment on friv Bill E*n. Mr. i'lllinglinit opposed-granted Wgyne, foe., vs Bullock No 7i!8 mo by Mr 'till tor Judgment on friv demur? gtan'ed Cawl B'k ol Buffalo vs fipeirow.No. Ifl.V ?io by Mr Aumiii for Judgment on friv demur.? Mr. Bitneelf opposed?granted fame vs. Sparrow end lark No. 3.>4. Same as above, Whipple, lie , vs Hunter. No 663 Mo by Mr llill fur judgment on iriv demur. Mr ?d wards opposed?granted Peats Brest., k.0 , vs Winterhottom Mo by Mr, Reynolds fo, judgment on fiiv bill Lxn Mr Bowdoiu opposed?denied. Nel von vs anepHiu, ,iu ivi .?iu 07 .* uiuvi >w. ment on I tr demur. Mr. J Mullett opposed ?denied.? Beecher vi Barber, Nt> J43 Mo. by Mr Kirkland fir judgment on Iriv. bill tia , end that new tiial be denied. Mr Noxon opposed?({ranted. Stacy ? Faruham, No. 698 Mo. bv S. (i Marvin, Esq , lor Judgment on lnr. demur?granted. Hodge et. al ad a. Chautauqua Co B'k. No. 14 Mr. Bnrwell concluded for defta? Mr. J Mullett for pl'lt's ; Judgment lor pl'ffs on demur, with leave to plead on term*. Marsh impl'd, fee. ada. Stearns, Ito. No IS Mr. Chase was heard for defta?Mr. Holmee waa lor pl'ff*. Mr Chase in reply? decision postponed. Halstead ads. Ppencer, No. 9J Argument opened by Mr. Rydaole* for deft?Mr Hill for pl'ff? new trial denied. Woodward ads Verplank, No. 94. On mo of Mr. 1'ober, new trial giauted on default Lynch, (to. vs. Stone et al. No 98 On mo of Mr Kirkland, new trial granted on default. AUalne vs. Whitney, No. 3d. On mo. of Mr. Hill, judg't affirmed on default. The mackerel fishermen have recently brought in vary good fares, and fish sie said kto be very plenty off Capo Cod. The Yarmouth Reinttr slates that on the ISth instant, the mackerel fishermen belonging to South Dennis aud Harwich, about twenty sail in all, caught off Chat* bam, from fifty to one hundred and ten barrels each; average number, seventy five. A geod da)'a work. ttTUAfllitUATti, &C. OPPOSITION TICKET OFFICE FOR THE NORTH AND WEST, a m ^ FOR ALBANY. 7} cents ; Utica,$l; Sr ^ 'jr $2 50 ; Oswego, (2 75 ; Rochester, 9!3KX$2 75 ; Buffalo, S3 ; Cleveland, $5 53: Ports muuih.fO; Pittsburgh, $9; Detroit, MichigM, $6 ; CUcie nsii. Ohio, $9; Ml'wtnkie, $9; Chicago.* ?; Poreito, U. C., $5 JO; Hamilton, ?J JO; lUf.too. t> tfrhitehill, M M; Montreal, ?J JO? Puwngen, by epp yin* *.n nt tbefe ticket* *t the office Mo. 100 Barclay *ueet, at the a bore M. L. HAT, Atenti'KU 1 MUitNiiXO AMD B.V DLMJb. morning line at seven o'clock. mm m for albany and troy-from the e^S^QpSttaiaboai Tier it the Toot of Bwcley atreet. SSQLL' ndmf U Peekskill, Weet Point, N,y ?^s^:SBsirexr&tLT&!fe Eindrrhook lad 1 utimore. Breaklasi and d sner on board the boat. The steamboat P 1 AO AHA, will leaee as Monday, WeAaesday and Kriday Mornings 7 A. M. The steamboat TROY. Captain (for ham, en Tasedcy, rbnrsday and Saturday mornings. U 7 o'clock. ^tnrmM?.op^iU_<Uy?. _ II ? IWH|? VI U?l*w> -?rw ? wharf. NEW YORK- ALBANY AND TROY LINK. FOR ALBANY AND TROY DIRECT, Kn<m the pier at the foot of Coartlaadt Will. The low-tnreiinre ?tram boat EMPIRE, Captain R.B. Maey, vavea the foot ot Coortlaudt atreet, ea Tuesday, Thursday and Hat a r ila y evenings, at seven o'clock. The Steamboat COLUMBIA, ('apt. Wm. H. Peck, will leave on Monday, Wednesday aad Friday ermiip, at 7 o'clock. Passenger* taking these Boau will arris* in time to take the Moraine Train of Car* from Troy west to Baffalo, and lortb to Saratoga, Whitehall and Lake Ckamplain. For Pawn or Freight, apply ea board, or at the Oflee oa ike wharf. No freight taken after o'clock. NOTIC E?All goods, freight, bank bills, apecie, or nay otner kind of property, poainvely at the owner'* nak. jig MORN 1NO BOAT FOR ALBAN Y AND TROY Mm PASSAGE ONE DOLLAJL-Breakflwt ^^AILS,aii<l dinner on board the boat. Passengers JLeJQL taking this boat will am re in time to tabs the ereninn train of ears from Troy west to Baflalo, aad aorta to Saratoga and Lake George. The Steamboat NIAGARA, Capt. Wm. Ellsworth, Monday, Wednesday end Friday, at 7 o'clock. A. M . from tk* steamboat pier foot of Barclay atreet. Returning oa opposite days. For passage or freight, apply oa board, or to F. B Hall, at ,he ofhre on the wh* f an If re .aart ma For NEW YOKK and totermediate places. fltr*jim3?'lh? a'eambnat NEW PHILADELPHIA. SCwBULCiyhin Lawrence H Frasee, will commence rumiiun between Amboy and New Yoik, on Monday the t'th Sept leaving Ho nth Amboy at (Id, Penh Amboy at 7 o'clock A.M., pinching at Bently, Roeanlle, B as ng Fur and I helaea, arriving in Naw York ahont o'clock, retarni e will le 're New York from Pier No. S North River, at d 0 Kare*fTom South k Perth Amboy,Bea'ly M mm. II the other landing. 1IH eantt. All kind* of freight taken at the lo?e*t rata* ? , . Soo'h amhnr, B?Pt ?.!?' . * ! ** . Of FUSi l lo? iVlOKNlNO LINE AT ?| OCLOCK FOR ALBANY Landing at Hammond atraat. Van Cortl'Uidt'y (Paakahlll), Cold Spring, Nawborjh, New Hambergh. MUM fterikeepaie, H>de Park. Kmgatoo. Lpper Red Hook, Bmtol, ( aukill, Hadmii, rotMCkn md KindfrioniITT" Pv*age, Oua Dollar.. _____ .MM THK new *nd fa?'-aail"i* , ".[* Faa.engrrt taking tti.n boat will -rjtea in Albany ? ?or the train* of ear* going North *?d w??rUrea*t**t and Uinner oaboyd d ofX. CLARKE, horfteighioi i>a?*?* app't , ' corner of Went a d W arren i?- _ Km a ?, Vu Cortlniidtt Hock. ? reeta; Pooghkeepue, Ml Hudion 75: AlKaiiy ?! ?< "" r i U i ft A V LL. Lo K^ CrUliNwi CX'UIH. NEW AND MOAT AGH*EABLE LINE TO PmUrtckihuTt>>. Rirhmtnd. Prterihurrh, Vc ; Lynchhurrh fimUith, Wtldrn. V C; and Charlnton, S C. THE PUBLIC ere informed that th' sew A ~ t ipimdid low prauure teemer MOUN T dCLVKKNON. ronnertii g with the Great Mail Lineal Acqnie Creak, leaaaa Commerce afreet wharf. Baltimore, erery Toeaday and Friday, at t P. M., for tha abote pointa. Throat h Tickau to Richmond $4 M to fcterabnif 4 M to Wrldea, N. C... TM " " to Charle toe, 8 C ...It 00 Brim at'.he tame price, mora direct aad tipadiiia^aad much more eerrain than lie Cheaapeaka Bay and JemaaWrec Btaamboat Line, all the wide aad ron*h portion of the Bay. I between the mouth of the Potomac aad Old Point Comfort, beir? entirely avoided hy thia Line. Traveller* are adeiaed that the Liae hereby adrertiaed la pert and p real of the Graat Mail Line th>oe(h Virginia, and that it i> the intaniion of the < "mpamea eompoaiae the Great Mail Line that pwaengera ahall be conveyed by them ie *mneetion with the Mount Virnnn, alweya n cheaply aa bjr any any other line, end with more c .mint, e?p?ditipn aae cee tainty, than by any other Line eieept the Line vie Weeklerton. For farther particular! enonire at tht Soaihcm Railroad office, Pr?ttat, Baltimore, of HIOCKTON St FALL*, or at the Commerce it. wharf, or on Teeedera aed Fridaya on board the Moant Vernon, of c. w GUNNF.L, f aprain. N. 'Traeellera by the above Lina will hear in mi-id that thay have two hoorr mora in Biltimoia tnaa peaaengen he the ( haaaeeeke Bay aad 'erne* Hirer boata and yet reaeh Eioiet Booth of Pet an berg at the aama time with there area whee there in ee breach of COoeeetieo th^Bey

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