Newspaper of The New York Herald, November 9, 1846, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated November 9, 1846 Page 1
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? TH] Vol. XII. R*. ao*?Wfeote No. ?MS. AFFAIRS OF THE WORLD. ADDITIONAL EXTRACTS FKOM THK FOREIGN PAPERS UCUVKD BY TH* SVIAK SBZP B&ZIANXIZA, AT TH* NEW YORK HERALD OFFICE. American Alhln In Knrope?Opinions of the Mexican War, ? (From the Lonflon Newa, Oct 12.] The circumatancea which attended Santa Anna'a retorn to Mexico; hia apparently good understanding with the agenta of England and or the United Statea at the Ha- i vaoa; the facilitiea for landing and ths deference ahown him by Commodore Connor and the American bloc lending squadron; all corroborated the prevalent j opinion, that tfte ex-president returned to Mexico with the consent and assistance of foreign powers; and that hia le-iustallaiion in the rank of Arat officer of the republic, would be the aignal of peace and accommodation. Those ideaa and hopea are n?t, aa vet, directly contrall.ll ,1.1.,- nf Unr,t? Ar,r>. I. ... thority to whicli there seems no opponent, naturally gives riie to doubt* a* to the sincerity and consistency of his conduct. Santa Anna iaa very able man; a second Bonaparte he call* hlmielf We will not aniwer lor tbo similitude. He is most unprincipled, certainly; be has Riven proofs of the most dsiring courage at one time, and of most inexplicable cowardice at others; but, after all, he stands as high above other Mexicans, as the Popocatapeat above the Table L*nd. His address to the Mexicans on bis return is a strange compound; very able; containing a great many truths, a great many lies, and in passages almost as mystic as a Mormon's manifesto. There is, here and there, however, a naeiete about It which deserves credit. " I once tried," Santa Anna tells th? Mexicans, with great frankness, " to establish a government based on the support of the upper classes; on the proprietors, the educated, the professional, the few of property and enlightenment. Vain attempt; those classes^were divided, were wavering, were corrupt, were incapable of giving a government that support on which alone it could live Upon these higher classes, much as I should like to favor them, and protect them, and rule by them, still I have found it vain to rest; and I shall not try again. Experience of them has forced me to try the democracy, and to put faith in tUe people at large ; from whom alone I can expect some zeal, some patriotism, some disinterestedness, and some of that support requisite for a government. which must not only provide tor internal tranquillity, but for deforce of the national territory against invasion aad conquest." Such, paraphrased into plain English, is the language of 8anta Anna. It is impossible not to give it and him aome credit for sincerity. Relying upon the people, continues Santa Anna, " I shall no longer be oDliged, like my predecessors, to sustain the army in great towns to keep down the population ; but trusting to that population for somo tranquillity, I can employ the army, if necessity require it, against the country's foes." No language can be more plausible. No 'conduct can look more like honesty, or be better calculated for facing, even with the purpose of making peace, the pretensions of that most exorbitant and merciless foe which now presses upon Mexico. Unfortunately we have to relate, that corresponding with this mistrustful and ambiguous attitude of Santa Anna, the Americana have resumed their projects of aggression. It is net so much the activity or progress of General Taylor which evinces this, for he seemH paralised at Matamoras, and obliged to move heaven and earth to make,even in eight months, an advance on Mon(orov Kilt U wnll 1 <1 ?-? An a?t>A/lii!An tag against Tampico, the lecond port of the republic; and this may be the scene of more formidable operation* than Matamoras. At any rate, it givea immediate iacilities and advantage* to American trade, which the posaeiiion of Matamoras gave but partially. Our reader* perhap* are not aware or, or may not hare paid particular attention to, the peculiar mode of American naval warfare. The American* have been used to make dreadful outcry against our old principle* of blockade But their own it something so new and ao monstrous, that how our government has quietly tolerated and bided by it, is-indeed passing strange. They have doflared that all the ports which they shall seize in Mexi? . . shall be open to their own trade in all commodities ; at d exclusively to their own trade. They will allow no giods to enter that lfave not been nationaJised in American ports, and paid duty to the American custom*. Manchester produce must give way to Lowell. They declare our calicoes contraband of war, bless the mark ! Their own are innocent, and may go'to clothe tho Mexican* without any remorseful encouragement of a foe that pay* in dollars. Sueh being the *yatem adopted by them, and tolerated by us, wc are not surprised at their attack ing Tampico. It may cost the Washington treasury aome dollars, but these dollar* will find their way back immediately into tha pockets of the New ? inlanders The Mexican* will not suffer much. It is only John Bull ; who, a* usual, bear* the blow* of both, as of all belligerent parties in every quarter of the globe. Meantime, whilst the Americans are sailing against Tampico, lea* bent upon carrying it* fortifications than ita custom house by assault, Senta Anna is declaring against the machination* of his piedecesaor, who conspired, he says, to introduce an Euroi-can monarch into . Mexico It is very possible that Parades and Herrera may have been eu foolish: very posaible that, feeling inemseiTei ana me mate drowning in uie trouoted wi ters of Mexican disorder, they might try to grasp, like lturbide, that straw sceptre which Lear brandished, and which betoken* monarchy, It U, however, bat idle and transparent hypocrisy,?this rousing oi the papular indignation against a visionary and a mad project,?while the stern and solid reality of Anglo-American conquest is actually on the threshold, nay, within the precincts of the Mexican empire. We know not what to think ot Santa Anna. Whether he be Brutus the fool, playing the idiot before his oppressors, or Brutus the patriot, meditating hi* country'* liberation, remains an enigma for time alone to solve. [from the London Chronicle.1 As far a* the mere feeling of curiosity can form a stimulus, Mexican mattera are in state of most melodramatic interest. Where no man has confidence in any man, tod where there is an equal diversity of actors and motives, there i* an ample margin for guess-work In most of our prcviou* notices of the affairs of the liio Orande we have contested ourselves at a nonplus in re pect to detail*. What Santa Anna might do, what he might net do, ha* been to us a permanent mystery. And we have owned to our doubt*. A* far a* the uiter nb ence of principle can convert a man into a problem, Santa Anna has, in our eyes, been a Pom Jliinorum ? That he would net as a selfish man we knew well. That he would act according to circumstances was mere deduction from this same doctrine of selfishness. That these circumstance* would change with railway pace rapidity we calculated But that he would appreciate them rightly we* doubtful. This last point could only he determined by the extent to which he might proler | patriotic energy to party mar.ccuvres. , Honesty ia the best policy? Santa Anns may or may not | see this I Honesty i* the be*t policy, but no honest man act* , upon that pxlnciple alone ? Nevertheleis, Santa Anna does so act. < Now the present conflict of policie* lie* in tho que*- i tion whether it i* most advantageous for Santa Anna to | ell his country to the United State*, or to use his oppoaition to that same union as a means of enlarging his | power n? a Mexican President. Higher grounds than i tho*e involved in this dilemma we have never attributed i to the Camillua and Napoleon ef the West. | Consequently we have been puziled. In the eyes of looker-on, as a mere matter et interest and chauces, it | was a toss up. in the eyes ot feaan Anna himself, jaiin- < diced by taction, it was a complicesieu of a more cquivo- i cal kind. Which was be*t for him?American traitor hip, or Mexican patriotism? Which, calculated upon pure relfith ground*, was the real policy ot our own | Charlea II.?to sell hi* country to France tor louis-d'ors, i or to buy it for himself by the show of patriotism?? i Doctors disagree as to the answer. ! At this moment Santa Anaa is equally my stery in < England and America. We, who never profemied to i understand him, because we naver were se credulous as i w umi UIUI. ??>? ? "?MV? ""I UUI UIMUKPIirtf I America, however, ha* a ju?t light to complain of being deceived She who came in cootact With him iu Texas-kite who tampered with hiin before his exile? the who plajed with him during lu* exile the game of Louis XIV. and James 11. ? ?t>e who began war with her own arm*, under the lull belief that kho wa< to terminate it through lux negotiation! - she who passed him through a blockade, ami panned him with tho especial purpose of finoing an agent lor her own especial work?she, after il tlu?, does not know what to make of him. She propose* to hiin negotiation*. Now he, the only vn, according to his own account, that can auve the cou/tTT- ' umqual to the responsibilities of a reply.? He is a *?mP'1' citizen. Ho is merely a member ol the [,rgi,|atu *e of heroic Mexico. He in a man whom the army has tl* Ha rod by accrediting with an influence? nothing more. Th? Congress must decide. The i.'ongresa must decide, lie it so. Nothing is more constitutional, and nothing more to the taste of America. America want* a cek'\iou of territory ; and a rote ol Congrea* i* es*entiil to *he validity of the transfer. Cer tainly it is a Congress that Ametica deiiderates, audit is nothing lei* than a Coufress that conscientious Texan* cau admit a* a party sufficient to make a conveyancc ol" territory. Santa Anna, however, explain to the Executive of the model Republic, that the lormation of a Cotigres* i* slow process. Lveu so a cautiou* tnoney leuder explain* to a sanguine borrower, that a muitiplicy of deed* ate requisite lor even the most compendious ol loan*. Before the negotiation* can be completed, Congres* must be consulted. Before the negotiation can be completed, Congres* Boat be purified. Before the negotiation can be completed, Congreia must be leoigamzed. Before Congieis can be reorganized, the Constitution j of 1834 must be renewed. , Till then Santa Anna i* but a simple citizen; a simple . citizen who eluded the blockade of Vera Cruz on the 1 i strength of a plenipotentiary ship, but still a simple citi7 en. In aober (ruth, the Americans who passed Santa Anna in the hope* of finding a simple tiaitsr to Mcxico, are j now beginning to suspect that he is a double traitor, 1 to hi* coisntry on one sida, and to themselves on tho other. [From tka London Heiaid, Oct. 7 ] The news which arrived from Mexico lust night, by the West India mail, is uot impoitant. It amie?rs that < though Santa Anuiwai warmly received by the military j i \ ?t Vera Cita, yat the great mute of the inhabitant* (i / E NE' NEV treated him very coolly. There wa* no intention of attaoking the fort of St Juan da llloa, and even though such an intention exiated it mutt fail. From Vera Cruz Santa Anna went to hi* nttate, about four league* from Xalapa, which ha did not leave lor Mexico till the USth Augutt. Whan the Medway left Vara Crux report prevailed that a counter revolution wa* being got up in favor of Herrera Nothing la mora Likely, For the Hiepano-Mexican race are lure to dethrone on the Monday the idol of : the preceding day, to falte and fickle are they. Parade*. ! when the la*t account! itarted, waa in confinement, but the general impreuion waa that he would be releaaad, and that the war would be a war not of bloodihed, but of bribe*. Santa Anna and the American autheritiea underatand each other jiut aa well a* Mr. Daniel O'Connell the elder and Lord John Ruaiell. Can we aay more on )he*e " truck and barter" hottilitiee ' [From the Liverpool Mail, Oct. 17 ] The lateit intelligence from the United State* la revivedly warlike in the direction of Mexico. The Waihin3ton journal* Inform u* that th>? war i* to be proaecut' ed with renewed and determined vigor. It ia easy to talk of vigor. None ha* yet been exhibited. Ueneral Taylor, whoae officer* aat in defiance of hi* order*, ia tracking hi* way, half under water, over a Mramp, in order to reach the town of Monterey, a place of no conaequence, and which, when he take* it, will not further hi* deoign any more than if he had remained a* Matamoraa. The volunteer*?we mean the piratical troop*?not linrWir hia nr?mman/I hnt nMnrhml tfi hi? lnvMdin? are not Un auxiliaries for any national purpose, out for private plunder. Each man i* armed on hU own accotmt, and will fight, if that be unavoidable, for himself. The aggressive asuaults upon the seaports of California are commonplace robberies Certain brave?brave in the Belgic leme?and advonturoui citizen* want settlements of land; and takiug |iossession they find ii cheaper than buying them. In these enterprise! they are distinguishing themselves with extraordinary success. But here we muit stay our compliments. Successful plunder if not conqueit. Individual aggrandiaement doei not uniformly redound to national honour. If Mr. Treiident Polk and * hi* democratic adherents, (the acum of the earth.) think they can conquer Mexico, and incorporate her people with the citizeni of the United States, they are grievouily mistaken Whatever be the intentions of Santa Anna, onething is certain enough?he cannot sell the Mexicans.? He may attempt it, but he will fail. The resources of the United States are already exhausted at the very commenceaient of the war. They are already speculating upon paper money, when they have no crcdit either at home or abroad. If a million pounds sterling were wanted, where could they borrow it ? Not in Europe ; and if not in Europe, where else 7 The so* they have invaded, the poople they hope to subjugate, furnish them with no supplies. They have water in abundance, through which they march?some grass, perhaps, for their horses?but no bread, for love or money. All the provisions,at an enormous cost, must be sent from the United States. The war cannot be carried on six months longer without the ways and means, derived from new, unheard of, and fresh taxation Will the citi zens of the model republic stand this 1 Not they, indeed. They grow corn, cotton, and tobacco to ell?to make money?not to pay taxes, or prosecute foreign war, the object of which they do not choose to comprehend, and the burthen of which they will rebel rather than bear. The Tlexlcftti Bond*. [From the London Standard, Oct. 14 1 Sir?In the present state of agitation of the public min,! concerning the conversion or the old debt of Mexico into the naw stock, which was created by virtue of the agreement entered into between the Mexican government and the bondholders (in June last, we think the publication of the following translation of a letter written by the ex-Minister of finance, Don Luis de la Ross, to the editor of the Mexican newspaper called the lit publicano, and published in that paper in the month ?f August last, may tend very much to allay the uneasiness so naturally felt at the present moment, and we therefore transmit it to you for that purpose. ?We also take advantage of this occasion to make known to the public that neither by the last packet, nor by the one which preceded it, have we received any communication from the authorities in Mexico, nor have we any official inlormation whatever concerning the mission ofSenor Gomez Farias to this country, whom we have not seeu, and from whom we have not as yet received any communication. We are, sir, your obedient servants, JOHN SCHNEIDER & CO. No. 10 New Broad-street-mewa, Oct. 13, 1846. " TO THE EDITOR Or THK MORITOB Siri'lUICtDO. " Sir?The arrangement of the foreign debt has been concluded in London?an arrangement which I had the honor of letting on fo<-t when 1 discharged the duties of Minister of Hacienda. The large sum of more than fifty millions of dollars is embraced by it, and on that account it claims the attention of the entire republic. Those of us whose duty it has bean to participate iu this grave matter have the right to expect from their fellow citiiens, that they will not pass judgment upon it without examining previously, and with all the needful impartiality and circumspection, the important documents which hare to be published, and in which will be seen the origin of this arrangement, i:s initiatory bases which were fixed by me when I bad charge of the Ministry, the modifications it has undergone, and the terms on which it hat been definitely established. I have with difficulty kept silence on this important matter, which, like all other great financial operations, has been and ought to have been private until its conclusion, but which has now been accomplished. Nothing, therefore, was written on the arrangement of the foreign debt, notwithstanding some public writers have spoken of it many times very erroneously, because it was impossible for them to have had under iheir notice the necessary data for judging of it.* On a late occasion the editors of the ReputUcano, in their number 164, have attempted to sum up the result of this most important negotiation in these lew word* ' that the national treasury will receive almost nothing of the enormous sum whicn is treated of in this affair, and that the good folks who in the name of Mexico have concluded K would gain for themselves some millions of dollars ' 1 should most deeply deplore if such had been the tad result to the republic of a negotiation which was originated under my Ministry, and by which 1 wished to secure so many advantagea for the nation, that this very circumstance was the reason why the bases which I had established were disapproved in London. But I believe the editors of the Rrpubtieano have very much erred in characterising in so unfavorable a manner the negotiation under notice, and I am suro that their good faith will cause them to change their opinion when they have tho respective documents before them. 1, therefore, entreat them to suspend their judgment for a few dayi, until these are published. " In the meantime, I will notice the errors into which it appears to me they have fallen. In the first place, I will observe, that the negotiation of the conversion of the debt, such as was set on foot under my ministry, would be advantageous to the republic, even although the exchequer did not receive one single dollar; because, underthe administration of Senor llerrera, the question treated of in the .arrangement of this negotiation, was not so much that of receiving great aums of money, as that of preserving the credit of Mexico, which, in the succeeding yesr, was liable to be very much compromised, and of diminishing the national debt by a considerable amount. Nevertheless, 1 have received under my ministry, and as an anticipated payment, naif a million of dollars in effective money, without, as 1 remember, any charge for interest, and without the ad lition of paper orcicdit o( any cla*a. I will not say (became 1 do not yet know circumstantially the mode in which this negotiation hu terminated) what may be the stun which, in effective money, the exchequer ha* yet to receive. The amount fixed according to the baii* which I subscribed, exceeded a million aud a half of doliara. Tho auin which (accoiding to the aame basis) the national dabt would be diminished, would reach to eight ar ten million! of dollara, but 1 can auert (trotting in the piobity of 8enor* Keinandez del Castillo and Paraei, who succeeded me in the miniitry) that whatever may be the amounta by which the inmi upon which 1 had salculated may have been diminished, the reiult of the < arrangement will (till be very advantageoua for Mexico. , " With regard to the milliona which the editor* of the , Rrpublicano suppose the agenta of the nation have (aincd in making thi* arrangement, much might be aaid, but 1 will limit myaelf at prrient to the declaration that line of the error* into which these gentlemen have alien i* that of believing that Senoi Don Manuel K*:uudon had been the puity entrusted with tho converlion ol the debt ou the behalf ol the republic I will lay mure, that if thii gentleman had been io entrusted, he would hare discharged hu duty in accordance with the natruction* of government, and with the same advantage* which have now been obtained for Mexico. 11 tit 1 repeat, that Kenor Kscundon (according to the information 1 have received) has not interfered in this matter in iny official capacity. Ilia Excellency Senor Murphy, he Mexican Minister in London, Senor I). Guillermo O'Brien, and the Senorei Schneider, agent* of the republic, have been the parties officially charged with tliia mportanl operation. With regard to Senor Murphv, I have alwaya entertained the most favorable idea of hia alent and probity, but when I was dlicharging the lutiei of Minister of Hscienda, I found in the archives of .but department so many document* which proved hi* patriotism, hi* intelligence, and lealty to the republic, hat I did not hesitate a moment In the belief that ne wa* Kithout doubt the person beat adapted for managing the ;rave operation in which the converaion of the debt confuted. Another perien of talent and honorable feeling U'SLI If fltlireri to rconerat* in Ihii matt* m l raoit fcrupulou* report* which I received, 1 doter fined to appoint Henor D. (Juillermo O Brian, an indi. ridual well versed in Mexican affair*, intelligent in tanking operation*, of entire probity, and who. If my recollection rightly *erve* me, h*? already ditcharged rery important commissioM entruited to him by the government of our country. " With respect to the home of Senor* Schneider, to whom I entrtuied the agency of the republic, which waa previouily conducted by the Senor* Lizardi, even my enenne* have done me the juitice to confe** that 1 made it wiae election. A new proof ol thii i* presented to ua lu the document* which the editor* of the Kepublicano liave recently pnbli*hed. At the meeting which the holder* of Mexican bonda held in London for the purpose of examining the piopoiai* of the government relative to the converaion of the debt, a committee presented it* report ou these propoaala, ami amongit other thing*, axpreaseu itaelfai follow*:?'1 l'be committee cannot con clnde their report without expressing their iati*taction t finding the agency of the Mexican republic in the hand* of the highly renpeeuble houie to which it ha* been transferred; in their communication with that houie they have seen an anxious deiire to afford to the bondbolder* all the inlormation which could be uieful to them " It alio appear* to me that the editor* of the Rtputlicarto have erred in believing that by the new arrangement of the debt the tobacco revenue ha* been *old, and that the payment of anterior charge* upon it had net , {oT- The tobacco revenue ha* been e*p? tlally hypothecated, but It ha* not been *eld, nor in any , manner alienated) and a* regard* the credit* eapecially charged upon it, i an assured bf person* whe have mm , tF y O r YORK, MONDAY MOJ the definitive arrangements, that tthoM credit* are in no ! way prejudiced. . " Ai it may be interesting, and ??rve to illustrate this negotiation, I will add that proposition* for the converaion of the foreign debt had already been presented under the provisional admin titration, and that Senor Santa Anna (aa I am informed) did not di(approve ol them, although the condition* of thi* arrangement ware then lea* favorable to the republic than thoae which ware afterward* adopted. " Thi* i* what I have at pre tent to *ay w thi* important aubject, requesting the public will be pleased tc anapend it* judgment until the important document* which are to be made public havt. been printed. (Signed.) LUIS UK LA ROSA. " Mexico, Augutt 31, 1848 " State of Affair* lu Mexico?English Views. [Correapondence of the London Time*.] Mexico, Augu*t ."J?The |>olitical icene here has again changed. The outlawed Santa Anna ha* returned, and i* called to the head of aUiira: while Faredea, who to lately ruled the de*tinie* of Mexico, i* a prisoner in the caitle of Perote. The alliance of Paredes with the monarchical party, and hi* pereecution of the pre** (even here an engine of power) caused the formation of a strong coalition againat him, and the misfortune* experienced in the campaign against the Americans, deprived him of tho little influence, which, as a soldier, he still retained. The army (irregularly oaiJ) shared the diacontent of the people, while tne friends of Santa Anna labored incessantly to incroase the embarrassments of government. The military force concentrated here was, howover, put ia motion for the north, and General Parades, with the rear guard, composed of troops on which he relied, waa preparing to follow, leaving General Bravo, aa Vice-President, at the head of the government wlian. on the morninr of th? ilh (lAnaml Balm with about 1,000 men , chiefly cavalry, quartered in the citadel. hoisted the itandard of revolt, proclaiming the recall of Santa Anna, un<l the reconititution of the gorornment on democratic principle*. With tho namo of Salat (hitherto rather an obscure one) i* associated, in thii revolution, that of Valentin Gomez Fariat, the man of the people, half of whote life haa been passed in prifont, in hiding placet, and in exile, the reault of hit syttematic opposition to almost every government which haa existed here. In IH93, he waa Vice-President. and for a ihort time acting President of the Republic, of which he availed himself to carry hit favorite theoriea into practice, and effected the abolition of the civil obligation to pay tithea, a measure which haa naturally made the church hia irreconcilable foe. Then it waa that tbe Centraliata,uniting with Santa Anna, overturned the Federal Republic, and compelled Gomez Farias to lly for safety to the United States. He haa aince reappeared at intervals, like the meaaenger of the atorm, whenever a popular insurrection waa at hand, but with invariably bad tucceai. Nothing daunted, he again entera the arena, and lay* all personal feeling 10 completely aside as to join the military in recalling Santa Anna, on the condition of a return to the federal form of government. In this alliance both parties probably act with duplicity ; the military, believing that with Santa Anna at their head there will be no necessity to keep faith with the liberals ; and Gomez Farias, confiding that the people, once more in the exercise of power, will use it to the destruction of the aimy, which he detests. On the announcement of this revolution, Generfl Bravo refused to surrender, though with inferior numbers and no artillery he could not hope to offer an cff'ectual resistance. The days of the 4th and 9th were pasted here in gleomy uncertainty, all the shops being cloted, and anarchy appai ently at hand. On tho night of the ftth, Parade* leit tho city with a guard of 40 Lancers; but the revolters having timely notice of hit movements, immediately sent a larger body in pursuit, who effected hit capture without resistance, and consigned him to a prison in the citadel, there to meditate on the instability of fortune. During the night Salas advanced his forces in all directions towards the palace, and in the morning it was announced that Bravo had submitted, without any stipulation iu favor of Paredet, or, indeed, of any sort, except that of a guard of honor for himself. In this movement the moderate liberals took no part, the breach between their leaders, Gomez Pedrazaand Santa Anna, being still unhealed. Intelligence of the revolution being communicated to the army on their march to the North, it met their immediate concurrence. But the civil authorities in the department* have shown no haste to adopt it. Their recollection of Santa Anna'* tyranny, venality, and profound hypocrisy ii still too recent to permit their desiring his presence, or feeling any confidence in his promises. However, they offer no resistance, and appear inclined to-wait the couace of events, with the condolatory reflection that nothing in Mexico, good or bsd, can, by any possibility, be luting. On the 16th, Santa Anna lanJed at Vera Crnz, having come from the Havana in a private steamer (the Arab,) hired from an enterprising irishman, who seems always to have a steamer on sale j or charter Somewhere in the On If. His reception, ex cept by the military, was cold, and he has since lingered at his '( state, the Kncero, in no hurry apparently to as sume the reins of government, lie has published a manifesto, in which he reviews his own political career, and takes credit for the most patriotic intentions, though he admits having ontertained mistaken opinions. He now sees no safety (or the country except in a return to the purest democracy. His oldest friends, the consaj vatives, are dismissed with contempt, and he seizes the occasion to have a sneer at the church. "Habits of passive obedience," says he, ' are no more, and if a religious feeling still exists, tme has mined the political power of the dilectors of consciences." He professes the utmost horror of a dictatorship, and at his suggestion the Federal Constitution of 18J4 is declared in force, until a popular Congress shall reconstitute the country. While " the great Mexican family," as they delight to call themselves, are performing this wretched farce, the Anglo-Americans are appropriating whole provinces of their territory without resistance. New Mexico is already invaded by a strong body of adventurers ; Chihuahua, one of the richest district! of the north, will soon share the same fate ; and at Monterey, on the Pacific, Commodore 81oat has " annexed" California to the United States by a simple proclamation. At Matamoras, General Taylor has found nis moat forminable enemy in the heavy rains, which havo rendered the roada to the capital of Nueve Leon impassable to hi* wagon* and artillery. When the rains cease, Commodore Connor will probably attack Vera Cruz and Tampico It ha* been ordered at Washington, that in the Mexican porta occupied by the ferce* of the United State*, American manufacture* only, or foreign good* which have been nationalized by tho payment of duty in the United State*, hall be admitted, the fatter to be conveyed to this country in American bottom*. A* a natural consequence of the** dUorder*, commercial affairs here are wholly proitrate. The conductu of silver, appointed to leave Zacateca* and Guanaxuato early in next month, will probably be deferred, both lrom the want of a sufficient escort, anil from the uncertain position of Tampico. already threatened by an Americon coips detached from .tiaiamoriia. prom ma circumsuinco 01 nauta Anna'* being allowed to enter Vera Crux notwithstanding the blockade, it was supposed that an understanding existed betweeu him and the Americana, which might lead to peace ; but " hi* voice ia still for war," ami with matchless assursuce he promises to present Congress with laurels gathered on the banks of* the Sabine, thus pledging himself to the reconquest of all Texas. The United States brig of war Trustor, has been lost off the bar of Tuxpan. The officers and crew are prisoners in the haads of the Mexicans, and are said to be well treated. The Prospects of Great Britain?The Scarcity of Food. I From the London Times, Oct 19 ] And what presents itself to our nclic*. as we survey the resources and the exigencies of distant and populous nations I We heard strange tales of lands rich in tho prodigal exuberance of spontaneous but useless produce ?of deprecated corn fields and dreaded harvests. We were taught that Providence had laid in stores of ruinous abundance on tho banks of the Ohio and Mississippi on purpose to overwhelm the trade of British agriculture, and swamp the indnstiv of the British farmer. Men were instructed to regard plenty with a greater horror than famine; and, lo! their reward. The famine has come; but whore is the antagonist plenty? Famine ia on Dur shores; but what soil is irrigated by the refreshing treams of a counteracting abundance ? Alas! the laws of man are dependent on thoae of God. They cannot zentrol, neither can they thwart, tho disposition of liaaven. Nature will not be defrauded of her rirhts. nor, when human Tolly ha? provoked her. of her revenue. 1'hat which existed before me corn law waa dreamed of, urvives ita extinction. The original condition of oar being remain* unchanged and unchangeable. The great itruggle ia between man and food?between life and ita mitenance Search the world through and through, hi* iron iact atnndi out in h;ird prominence to provoke uid to defy our euergiea. From the pooreat Cingalese, subsiding on hia rice, toJthe hnmbleat Celt, starving on li* porridge, the multitudee of the human race have a icnnt and rude subsistence. Comfort and competence lie for the few;contented indigence for the many. Karth lai yet failed to satisfy the longings or the labor* of her ion*. There are mynadi of acrea a* yet nntilled, milea ?f tillage but rudely and peorly adapted to the craving* jf their occupant*. Thi* fact ?he average condition of !he human race might long ago have brought home to :he tenae of every legislator, even were each legislator i land owner. But it requires the preient terror* of 8n axtraordinary calamity to make men recognize a truth 10 often illustrated by the recorded lufloring* of humanity. Dearth ia 011 our ialand*, and hunger on our hearth*, ere we confeia the pre-ordained law and struggle 01 our being. Hi* month* ago men talked with fear of the bounties of God; and now they are puniahed by the fear ?f their withdrawal. The harvest of this autumn ha* been prolific of the better aorta of grain. Superficial observation would bava chuckled over the pro*pect of a more than uaual I'jpply of food. Low pricea ruled the market, and were a*ported to rule it Tor some time. "There is plenty of jorn at home," it waa said; "and if more is imported it rill be dirt cheap." In the midst of these prophecies a power greater than man's was at work. The "mildewed tar blasted its wholesome brother;" thrf humble root, though it did not breathe it* fatal taint, yet threw a bare lul influence over the nobler and licherfood The poor i?n never suffer alone That which *upporta them i* but taken from the common dock of human food. And when the very pooreat are deprived of their usual sublicence, the privation must spread far beyond even their wide circle. Necessity then tranche*?a* it ia trenching now?on the atoree of the affluent and the middling claaaea. From dearth of potatoe to dearne** of bread, ii a ahorter Interval than men dreamed ol; and the ne?ha?ic in London i* stinted of hia loaf, by the blight which is starving the peasant ol Limerick and Clare! And where now are the inexhaustible magazines of wheat and meal wherewith our people were to grow fat tod wanton' Alaa for the fatuou* ignorance of man!? 1'hey are not. Nature will not work miracles to save theories. Those who shut their eyes t* her laws must perish by her lawa. Thoae who seek to thwart her opera Liona must bend at last beneath their force- Now, when wr craw food for our poor, we find ii rrmnvti from ui ? The karrttlt of Kurcpt ere tnruffiei'nt for the exigencies tf Eurof. }\anc is straitened even mort (ten our RE I iNING, NOVEMBER 9, 1 selves. Jlustrta it bidding against u? ? the marts of th* Mrdi'trranran Odeisa it u-tll nigh drained. And America'.?that land of fabulous redundance, answers to.the requirement! of an ordinary commerce, but net to the drmandt of a? extra jidwiary need- It has a sufllt i ency for our average, ntf for our present wants. 8be bu sent u? 641,U J barrel* of flour mora than last year; the i? about tSMod ui whsatand Indian corn; yet, even with this

prospect, the price of bread has risen at Glasgow, it has riien in London, and Indian corn i* becoming dearer every day to the lri*h peasant! And this. too. in the fir?t quarter of our proviiion year! What wilt the state of things it when the American canals are frozen, when the liners havt crated to run, and the passage is alike blocked up from th* fur west to the eastern ports, ami from those porlt tt England? Yet in the face of such a crisis we Ub* maintaining a rate of ilnty which, though it mav [Saver become rigidly prohibitory, must embarrass the | speculations of the corn trade, and complicate a great catoaxropne with tae evils ordelay, uncertainty, and irritation. la it wise to bolster up auch a *y item,'or brave 1 the odinm .which it muit excite f A few word* more. When the many *tarve, the fogd of the wealthy few mmt be trenched on. It nattiri not in what form. Money and chattel! are, Anally, but the exponent* of prim try requisite* - food and clothing. The . more, therefore, the producing and trading clasiea have | in one or other of theie ahapva. the more tney will have to beatew on thoie in want. It if, therefore, the intereit of the State to furniih theie classes with the beat meani of getting food, by aelling that which ii exchangeable for food. [Krom the London Timea, Oct. T ] The failure of a crop which ii the aole food of four million!, and the chief *ubsidiury at tho table of all the other million! in thii empire, u an event likely enough to occupy a first place in the public attention. It ii a fact which speak* for itaelf. and i! aure to make ittelf apprehended and felt. It ii already written ia letter! of blood. There ii another fact, however, which i! itill more aeriou*, and one still moro neceitary to be exhibited in iti proper colora and most important bearing!. The tock of cereal food in thi* country, or rather in the world?for it it the common cauae of nationa?ia, after all, the chief economical question ofthe day. Bread iithe itafTof life. When the potato and all the other treachoroui makeshift* of poverty fail, the nation must fall back upon corn. Itbecomea the first duty of the national (torekeeper and puner to calculate the probable (upply of that lait resource, and to practice aa well at to imtil the most resolute, stern, unyielding thriftineia. It ia the error of improvidence to think that great reiourcei are infinite, and that, come what will, there will alwaya bo aomebody ei something to go to. There cannot be a more serious mistake. When bread ia gone, what U there for the masse* to go to kut the food of cattle, the roota of the field, wild berries, acerna, the bark of tree!, fuugi, lea-weed and f^raasf There are aeveral great and undeniable facts bearing onthia question of our present cereal atere, all leading to one inevitable and very serious conclusion. To begin with, the Britiih crop is not greater than laat year's; but last year'a proved insufficient for the demand by about two million quarter! of wheat, beside* other grain, that being the amount of imports absorbed into use before the completion of thia year'* harvest. without permanently affecting the demand. Hence it follow* that eveu if the circumstancea of the two year* were the *ame, we should have to deal with a deficiency on the year to the amount of two million quarter* of wheat, bcaidea other grain. The circumatancea of the two year*, however, so far fjom being the tame, are very decidedly against the preient conjuncture. The failure of the pvtato ia much greater this year than laat; to that, taking England, Ireland and Scotland into account, it itemt no txnr.teration to say that thrrt it ? deitruction or MfiOf t coming of foodnn thia hrntl in th, tuppif of at leatl IKrtt millions. Computo the lesser calarnMv of la*t year at tho l'oo<l of one million, and it follows that iu respect of this particular failure, wo are worse o4 than latt year by the food of two millions.? The failure ot the potato it already telling moat powerfully on the price of corn; already, mark, even before either harveit ii entirely concludod. The fuppliei of corn from all part* of theio iilandi to those great markets which feed our manufacturing population are rapidly falling off*. Ireland, without waiting lor the advice given to it by an illustrious amateur in political economy, is keeping its cora at home. Of course, if we send over our millions of money to feed and employ the famished multitude, the island will keep its corn at home. But there, at once, we see the bulk of the Irish exports, on which the cora laws have taught this island to depend, withheld fiom as at the very moment when we can least Jo without it. Imperious famine lays an embargo on the loaded vessels. Ravenous multitudes plunder the shops and stores, and gaunt sentinels remain to watch that its command' are 1 ulfilled. In lesser, but yet very serious degrees, the arrivals from all other parts of the empire are diminished. Large districts of Scotland are in the same evil case, and Scotland is equally slow to contribute to the wants of the southern consumer. But there sre other cteaonutanees of no trifling weight to the prejudice of our present, as compared with our last year's prospects. Perhaps people are tired of hearing that the population of thems islands increases more thait thousand a day, and that there is a third of a million more mouth* to be fed this year than last Still, it the truth bo stale. it is nevertheless very important. What is food itself tiut a stale device for the support of life? There is not much reason to believe that just now production keeps pace with our numerical increase, whatever ha* been, whatever may hereafter be, the case. A matter still more important?much more im|>ortrjit, remains.? I Tnere in no Jeabt that we are becoming a more breadconsuming peeplo.1 There is more employment than there ever was before, and consequently more food consumed. Betides other great works, it Is said that there are now not less than JOO.OOO men employed on the railwa> s now making. Two hundred thousand men imply several times that number of mouths, all consuming more food, and that of a better description, than they would consume hut for their employment. Perhaps not much less than a moiety of them are Irishmen, who would otherwise be starving at home. Those, however, are only a portion of the consumers which railways are bringing to the market The expenditure to which the nation is pledged by the railways passed the lait session, cleared of all the mystery ofamalgations, loans, and new stock, is now aacertained to be moro than ?90,000,000.? Add to thia the yet unspent ?30,000,000 remaining Irom the session of 1844, and we have ?1-20,000,000 to be *|>eut in railroads in the course of three years?sot much less than a million a-week. Whether this goes to the navigator, the miner, the collier, the engineer, the brick maker, the maion, or even to the landowner, it still contribute* to incrente the demand lor food. If we add tho annual deficiency denoted by the present year'? imports to the above very moderate eitimate ol the lo?* by the potato failure, here we hare the food of four millions withdrawn from an increasing, an improving, a busy and extravagant nution. We really should be relieved to be told of anv crisis within the compass of authentic history, when the agricultural year commenced with such a prospect, and euded wi'hout fulfilling the gravest anticipations. Here are a demand and a deficiency, equally without precedent. And what hope have we of u repetition of tnose two much maligned, much dreaded millions of quarters' which came in. after all, 10 very ceasouably last August? Just none at all. Free trade has but |>oiaeu its lthuriel'a spear, and the bubble of universal abundance has burst. The nakedness of the land is every where disclosed. It i* found that the negotiable surplus of the mcst agricultural regions, bears but an infinitesimal pseportion to the aggregate produce, tad the produce is by no means in that ratio with the area ot alluvial soil which an English yeoman can so easily be made to believe. The U. Slates, with all its rivers, canals, and valleys, does hut hear our wants, and flour rises within a few days 60 or 74 cents per barrel. The stock at New York is 20,000, against 160,000 barrels of last year. At Montreal they will hardly part with their wheat on any terms. The giants of the Baltic havo already dwindled into windmills, unless i n absolute dearth of corn gives a particular unfitness to the allusion. Last year's wheat is selling at Oantric for 48* fid; at Rostock, for 6.1s or 6-U. At Stettin there has been an important transaction. A thousand nuarters of wheat, the annuul rniunmiitinn nf nnn vil. luge, of one factory, hu been sold for 63*. At Hamburg trade ii paralysed by tlie instinct of holding. Meanwhile Indian corn riief in a still greater proportion, inaimuchaa necessity ia prevailing over luxury, the stomach over the palate, aa the eloment of valuo Laatly, wo are actually exporting wheat to France The Mark Lane Erprru informs ui" Some of the (hipping porta on the east coast have been viaited by buyera from France and Holland, which has no doubt assisted to give an impetus to prices, and in Lincolnshire, Cambridgeshire, Sic , similar qualities of wheat to those sold two months ago at 44s. to 46s., have this week realized 63s to 60s. per quarter. YVe take the liberty of commending this remarkable fact to the notice of a certain quarter, where, if we do not meet with the wisdom of experience, we may *at leaat expect the candor of tho novice. At the Lynn demonstration, the hero of the day related, to tho horror of his audience, that a Liverpool merchant who hail been accustomed tor many years to buy corn from Lyon, had lately written to his correspondent that he must close their transactions, unless the people of Lynn could relieve him of some of his American flour. That was in August. How are the tablea now turned ? Not only Llver|K>ol, but France, is coming to the ports of our east coast lor wheat; and thcT metropolis finds its wonted supply diverted by a foreign competitor. For our own part, however, we think very much more of the considerations above mentioned, viz. the unparalleled circumstances of the coming year, than of the present rise in prices. That rise is, in part, a natural reaction from the equally natural downfall caused by the sudden precipitation into the market ol those two millions which it was the will and plaaauro of the agriculturists should be accumulated. No stability of trada could bear up against an avalanche, aggravated as it waa by the panic w hich had produced It The avalanche has fallen, and what ia become ol it now 7 We rest eur apprehension* on data wholly independent of the humors and terrors of the market, ar the (acta of supply and demand, and, will* them so clear, we must confess to a very serious fore- ' boding aa to the coming prices of food, and the prosperity of that trade and those undertakings which depend upon ita cheapnesa. The Royal Marrlagea In Spain. [Ftom Oalignani'a Messenger] The following detailed account of these august ceremonies is from the pen of an eye-witness:? "1 he flrst ceremonial took place in the evening of the 10th tilt, in tha throne room of the palace, which was thus prepared for the occasion:?At each of the inner corners of the throne, was placed a herald atarmaina dress of ceremony, and two others at the aides reserved j for the grandaas of ftpain, and tha ladiaa of honor of : their Majesties. Thetwonndsof the room ware occu- ! pied by the m^fordomos of the woek, and the master* of ceremonies ana introducers of ambassador* On the right of tha thrane were five aeata for tha Infanta Luita, I the Infant Dm Franciaco de Tenia Antonio, the Infant Don Francisco d'Asaia, the Duke da Montpenaiar, and ! the Duka d'Aamale. On tha left of tha throne, and piaoad at a convenient distance, waa an altar with tha , T ? T) - -??M JL-^ Mm Two Cwti. J Saturn ; ami tinea the** two planet* as wall at L'ranut. are etch attended by a train or tatellltei, it U extremely probable that the Dew planet will have a similar accompaniment. We had the pUaaure of *?eing the planet o< Thurtday night from Callon Hill It comua to the mar) dian a few minute* before 9, and ia within short I islam-, of Saturn. With a power uudar'JIK), it it not dittingms ; able from a lixed itar. Mint-el I nnenua. The negotiation* of the Daniah court with tome court* 1 of Germany, relative to another marriage of th* Crown Prince of Denmark, areaaid to hare entirely failed. Thk V.ircDiTtorf or Ocskrai. Fieati.?The Journal I dn Dtbmit liaa published a document, addretted to the editor ol thav journal, of which we givo the following xtruct : " Honored fcy the friendship of General Klorei, and well aware of hi* plain, I wa* auipriaed at reading a mo?t unexact account in your journal of the expedition he i* now preparing De?lrou* of rectifying the errors it containi, my beat plan it to addreaa you, periuaded that you will appreciate the delicate motives that accaaion | such a step. General Floret, famed liy hi* talcntt and learning, a* well a* bv hi* practical kuowledgo, ii, bei lieve roe, incapable of provoking an uujuit war, or aimj ing at right* duly obtained lie ha* not, nor ever had, | the intention of crossing the Isthmniof I'anama Neither | did he *eek tho permission of the government of New (Irnti&fia uml in rnna*nti*nrff Mm tfnaniah <?? *v hh' i, in m ? MlWWm m * IERA 1846. 1 cross and candelabra. On tbe left of the altar were lis court chaplains to assist the archbishop, an 1 behind tbme several other*.with the matter of the religiom ceremonies in surplice and square cap. Behind their majesties were tbe officers ot the palace,the intendent and officers of the royal household, and the commandant ef the royal halberdiers On the right of the throne, immediately nest to the Princes, were stationed the grandee* of Spain, the ministers, presidents ot the legislative bodies, the gentlemen of the household and ot the kitrhen. On the left were the ladies of honor of their .Majesties and the ambassa dress of France, and next to them the archbishops and bishops then at Madrid. Fronting the throne were the ambassadors and foreign minister* in front of the grandees of Spain, the majordomos of the week, the generals, the gentlemen of the chamber, and the political chief of .Madrid; in front of the ladies of honer, tlio judges the corregidor, the committee fromtho municipality, and tbe provincial council. Behind were the olticers of the halberdiers. The principal alcade of the palace was stationed on the right or the door of the throne room, anil on the left the lerriilumirr, and the suite of the French Princes. The whole assembly being arranged, and their Majesties, the Infanta, and the Princes seated in their respective places, the Archbishop, Patriarch of the Indies, invested in his full robes, and wearing a mitre on his head, having taken his station at the altar, the Queen rose from the throne, and came down to the altar, led by Don Francisco d'Assis; Queen Christina placed herseltou the right of Queen Isabella, and the Infanta was on the right of Qieen ( hristina, led by the Duke de Montpensier, on whose right was the Dule d'Aumale. Don Francisco de Paulo Antonio stood on the left of his son. The Patriarch then proceeded with the ceremonies, whtetvsvtire precisely the i>aine for both the royal couples, merely changing the names. He commenced by solemnly putting first to the brides and then to the bridegrooms the questions whether thoy were fully aware of the pur]>ose lor which they were met, whether they were aware of there being unv other impediment than that of consanguinity, which had been removed by the dispensation of the Pope, and whether they acted freely aud spontaneously 7 The bride having answered those questions satisfactorily, the I'atriuivh then demanded of the Urido whether she was willing to take for her lawful husband, according to the ordinances of the holy Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman Church, the biidegroom, giving his names and titles at full length f Before giving an answer, the bride turned to hor mother and kissed her liand, and then replied, ' I will' This question was repeated three times, and roceite4 the same response. The same questions were put to the bridegrooms, each of whom returned the same auswers. I'pon this the Patriarch, with tho cross in his hand, pronounced the parties duly married, using the following terms 1 In the name of Almighty Ood.of the blessed Apostles, Saint Peter and Saint Paul, and of the holy Mother Church, I unite in lawful marriage (naming tho brides aud bridegrooms.) and I confirm this sacred sacrament ot marriage in the name ot the Father, Son, and lloly Ghost, amen.' The Patriarch at last sprinkled the brides and bridegrooms with holy water, and thus tho ceremony was concluded. According to the custom of Spain, the brides and bridegrooms did not eschango rings on this occasion, but this ceremony was reserved for the nuptial benediction, at the churcn of Atocha on tbe following day. After some few minutes passed in mutual congratulations, their Majesties, the Infanta, the Princes, and he Court retired with all the attendants. On the following day the Royal brides and uiiuvftkWMia, nuu uir ?juc**u llluvtlVI HIIU U1U IOII U1 VU6 lloyal family, attended by all who were at the first ceremony , were conducted in gorgeous state to tho church of Atocha, which was splendidly decorated. The party was received by the Putiiarch. seated before tho higu altar,with his mitre on his head and the crozier in nit hand, surrounded by a numerous body of the priesthoo J. Immediaiely on the entrance of tho royal paity, ho put aaido hia crozier, and tho aervice commenced by the benediction of the offering, (lit arrat) which tho bridegroom presents to the bride, consisting of IH piecca of money,and which ahe immediately preaenta to the Church. The officiating deacon then preaonted to the Patriarch,on 8 salver, the nuptial rings, which were alao bleaaed according to the ritual of the Roman Church. Holy water waa then presented to all preaent,and with which ?ach person marked himself with tho sign of a croaa. Alter this the Patriarch pat one of the rings on the ring finger of the right hand of tho bridegroom, who transferred it to the same finger of the right hand of the bride, in exchange for another ring, which in a like manner had been placed on her finger, which she gave to the bridegroom Upon this the bridegroom took into the palm ol kis hand the offering and poured it into her palm, saying, "Spouse, I give you this ring and this offering in sign of marriage." She replied, "7 accept them," and immediately delivered tho offering over to the church. The prelate assumed his crozier, and, followed by the bride and bridegroom, went to their respective places to hear mas*. the choir chanting the Ptalm, " Arati omnm qui limrnt Dominum, qui amhulant viii ejus " On reaching the last steps of the altar the married couple kneeled, and again received the nuptial benediction The Patriarch then ro^ed himaelf in the proper veatmenta lor performing maaa, which, ac cording to the Roman rubric, is to be without music? During tho reading of the epiatle a lighted taper was placed in the hand of each of the newly-married parties, and which they afterwards offered to the Virgin, and having kisaed the cross presented to them by the Patriarch, the service proceedod till it came to the dominical pray er, wuen a wnue veil was extended over toe Deads ol the briile and bridegroom, and when the Patriarch bad repeated the prayer, Libera not, quaiumui, Homine, he turned towards the married parties, and invoked upon tbem the blessing of Heaven, and having given the pix to kisi, he continued the masi to Ila, mum tit. He then resumed his mitre aiidcrozier, and gave the laat blessing to the bride and bridegioom in the following words :? "Now that you have received the blessings ordained by the church, I have only to recommend you to be faithful one to the other, love each other mutually as husband and wifo, and live in the holy fear of Ood. Amen The last gospel being read, the patriarch, addressing the bridegroom, said, "1 have given you a companion and not a servant; love as Jesus Christ loveth his church ? Oo in peace !" This concluded the ceremoniea, the royal party returned to the palace in the order in which it came." The New I'lanet?-Tins Kxtraordlnary Discovery, [From Oalignani's Messenger ] One of our contemporaries publishes the following note from M.Arago:?"On examining with great care the analytical theory of Vranus, M. I.overrier ascertained that tne great irregularity shown by the observation* that had been made on the motion ol this planet arose from the action of an unknown body, whose exact position and diameter he determined by calculation. All the predictions of the theory have just been verified, and our solar system is enriched by a planet which is 1,350 millions of leagues (about 3.1 millions of Knglish miles) distant from the nun. Its volume Is about 'J30 times that of the earth. The following is an extract of a letter received by M. Levrrrier from M. Oalle, an astronomer at Berlin, and dated the 'JMh tilt' The planet whose position yoti have described, replly exists. On the same day that 1 received your letter I ducovcrel a star of tho eighth magnitude, which is not marked u|>on the excellent chart of Dr. Bremiker, and which lorm? part of the collection of celostial charts published by the Royal Academy of Berlin. The observations on the following night showed that this star if precisely the planet in question. M. Kncke and I have, with the aid of Krauuhofer's large telescope, compared it with a star of the ninth magnitude. Astronomers will learn with pleasure that the position of the new planet is precisely that which Leverrier assigned to It in the theory which he had sent to M. Oalle, and which is given in the report of nit. The diameter, reuniting from the observation* at Berlin, is of three seconds, an M. Leverrier had sai I. M. Ualle appears disposed to call the new planet Janus, from considerations borrowed from the hypothesia that it may be on the confines of our lolar system M. Leverrier, to whom belongs the right of naming it, dees not agreo to the too significative name of Janus, but will conscnt to any other (Neptune, for instance,) which would have the assent of aatrouomers." A great |>ortion of the sitting of the ot the French Academy of Hciencea, on the 6th ultimo, was occupied with an account by M. Arago of the diacovcry of the new planet by M. Leverrier. The most striking fact is the very slight difference that exists between the calculation as to the position of the new planet by the theory of M. Leverrier, and that ef the actual observation of M. Ualle. M. Leverrier had calculated the heliocentiic longitude at 337 deg. 34 min ; M. Galle's observations make it 3 J6 deg .'Urn , being a difference of less than one degree. In a note by M. Leverrier to! the academy on this iioint, he sayc?"My error in calculation will be found exceedingly small when the slight nature of the perturbations upon which 1 determined the position of the toe w planet is taken Into consideration. This success must inspire a hope that altar thirty or forty years' observation of the new planet,astronomers may use it in its turn as a mean* of discovering the next that follows it in the order of distance from the sun. They will, unfortunately, soon arrive at star* invisible on aecount ol their immense dia- : uinca iroin uu lun.nut wnoie or Lin may [>e corrccuy a?certained by theory." The following letter from the Minister of Public Instruction to the rreiident ol the Academy was read at hii Hitting:? 'I think it right to inform the Academy of Science* that the King h i?, io consideration of the event which now interest the scientific world, named M. Leverrier officer of the Koyal Order of the Legion ol Honour, lie had not arrived at hit turn by time, but cience hai it* ierric*i of exception and it* action* of itelat a* well a* war. The labor* of M. I.everrier are of the claia which honour our ago and our country. The Academy.a* well a* M. Leveriiar, will be delighted to learn that the King ha* been pleased at the limn time to make M. Ualle, ol Berlin, a chevalier of tU? Legion of Honour. Hi* Majesty could not, with hi* Mn*e of justice, *?|>arate two name* which will remain gloriously united in the hiatory of the finest discoveries and tho mo*t rare effort* of the human mind. I wu anxious to announce the** royal.diati notion* through the medium of the Academv ef Hoenca*, and under it* auspice*, to the member of the society and the identic foreigner who have merited them, in order tha better to apportion the trial of lit* reward to that of their labour* and their remit*." Himnltoueou* observations are to be made *t all the principal Kuropean observatories from the lith instsnt. (October) in order to come to a precision on *evaral point* relative to tba new planet discovered by M. L* verrier. At the name time minute wiantiiic detail* are eut to the director* ot the obiarvatoriaa at Mexico, the (.'ape of Uood Hope, and i 'alcutta, in order that *ach ni*y tudy the new *tarin the different latitude in which they | are placed. fFrotn the .Scot*m*n J The present distance of the new planet, expressed in common maainre, i* about s.voo.odo.ooo Kngiith aiile* fron. the (tin, and about 1,100 <W0 OOO from tha earth. It* dintanaa from Uranus?who?? motions it duturbs-i* aboot IA0,000 000of mile* Its diameUr i* estimated at 00.000 mileal Th*t of Uranu* i* about 36 000 ; of Jnpiter, 8? 000 : of Saturn, 79,000 i ol the Karth, M00. Hi cubic bulk I* to that of tha earth a* 210 to 1. The new planet ia the largest in etu intea except Jupiter and coul.I not have given support to a plau which never existed. The engineers who ate occupied with the pro joctcd plan of cutting through the Isthtnus can. therefore, continue the operation* withuut tear of being disturhed by Ueuorul Klorez." Viwtaobiw F?*nc?.?All the accounts from Bordeaux, Dizicr, filaye, and other places in the aoitth of Krauce, speak in the highest terms of the tesults of the vintage of the present year, now nearly completed In some district* the quantity had fallen shott, but tho quality is everywhere reported excellent The greatly esteemed " wine harvest* of 1844, 1841, 1834, 18-1A, 1811, the famous wines of the comet, would he, it ia remarked from j Blaye, small wines compared with those of the preseut year for color, spirit, anil aroma." Various parts of the champagne country appear to he particularly favored.? i It was feared that the wines might be too fruitr, and therefore might not sparkle; but the more skilful winetasters pronounced tnem of remarkable fineness, and of delicious fragrance. In consequence of the extraordinary demonstrations of the superior quality of the vintage, the buyers were numerous in nil the great wine distriats, and prices had risen, and were rising daily.? "The year 1846," says a writer from Bordeaux. " will be signalised in the annals of champagne. It will D? long remembered, and long have traces of prosperity." Ptatk of Society ij? Pittsburg?Progress of Civilization.?"Therewstsa promiscuous tight day before yesterday, naar the Hand street Bridge, in which eight |>ersons, men and women, were engaged.? We have been requested to state, more defini'ely, the aa, tureofthe difficulty between Mr. Younson, ol the Iht. patch, and Mr. Clark. Clark had circulated a handbill in which Mr. Youuson was assailed In very severe lauguage. Younson assaulted Clark in consequence. Clark then brought suit against Youngson lor assault; and Youngson against Clark for libel. Youngson plead guilty ol the ascault, and Clark was convicted of the libel. A watchman and a collecting constable had some words the other day at the Court House, when the lormerchallenged the latter to tight. The challenge was promptly accepted, and tho parties were proceeding to the rear of tho jail to fight it out, wheu constablo Scott interfered. A beautiful state of aflafrs!"? 1'ittshuagh Jour. Nov 0. New York, Nov. 7, 1H1H. TO HKNK1 HKltZ. SIR?The chauiie of Orchestra Leaders before the appoint' J termination of a series of concerts for which they may hare been leguUrlv rugiigrd, and when uo n?oeSMty readers such cliuige indispensable, tends but to one obvious inference?that ol moral or profession*! incapacity oil the |>srt or the one so displaced. This proceediuK is the more opposed to the etiquette, established from time immemorial on such occasions, as it repudiates the very plea of incapaci-y by showing its utter inconsistency witn the proper discernment nud previous knowledge of requisite qualifications, always claimed and always eiercised in Baking the original eleciiou. How reuerible and sacredjis this usage in my own estimation. I gave a sufficient proof in (chearfully yielding my place at my own orchestra of tha Italian Opera 10 Ole Bull's leader, previously engaged for hi* concerts. Indeed.no exception to this observance isfyet to be found in any musical community within tlie limits (of social refinement and c ivilization ; and no where could it pass for aught but an anomalous, auheard of violation of all decency ai d good faith. You Hir, are the first who his ventured on this exception, and it may be that by doing in New Yoik whu iiei'lier vourself nor any one else would ever dare to do in i'aris or in London, you mean only to make a suitable return to the Anieiicau public for ita very indulgeut cousi ! deration of your professional merits. With regard to myself, I moderate as are, and always have been my pretension!, ' and indifferent as I am in reality to the cnange itself, 1 have the misfortune to be far less sensible to the honor you have done me, in sele'tiag me, for the first subject of your experiment. than to the MMMffif ol meeting, first of all and at all hazards, those natural inquiries which, when aaotber Is seen, in my place, will reitainly be made by the public, and as certainly, if net satisfactorily answered, to my disad vantage. It is a great source of consolation to me that 1 never, ia any way, Arect or remote, applied to you for the le-idership. You sought m? first in coinpan v with one who i'| stly deemed here as the head and ornament of our profession. I warned you at once of the existence of nn unprincipled, because unprovoked, combination, recently formed, the object of winch is to crash me and raise Loder over my ruins, if my poor ruins shouliMiave space enough for the footing of so mighty al'olotaus. 1 told you that this clique, contemptible ia itself, owes ita great ttrengtlito the countenance of a powerful press; and but for the fault ofSivori in preferiing my humble I claims to the overwhelming pretensions of the newcomer, certain,bold,unmitigated falsehoods,intended in the guise of criticism todestroy him,would never have appeared.or appeared only as.loud paeans, and songs of laudatiou. 1 asaured you that I reproached mvsalf for being the innocent cause of the persecution of Sivori, thit I felt every blow aimed at him pass through my own heait. and thai 1 was sustained only by hit heroic resolution to stand by me to the last, to vindicate at any risk the correctness of his own judgment, to bate his aoble breaat to all the arrows shot at him Irom the invisible quiver of pseadocnttcisms, and finally to rpise himself far above the reach of them all by a consummation of signal triumph, which came quite soon enough to prostrate the (harp-shooting malice in the dust. To all due you briefly remarked that you have he.vd the orchestra led by Loder, and the one I en by me, that you preferred mine, and this was enough for foar hipose. Kiuding this, as I thought, a kindred spirit to deal with, I nor only accepted your proposal, bat at yoarearaeet solicitations consented to accompany you ia your theme from Moses, at the time when my appearance in any shape s a soio piayer, caicuiaieu to excite a suspicion 01 iny primming to measure my strength .against that of the imlMl violin that ever came to thi* country, waa extremely revoltlug to my delicacy of feeling. What has been my reward 7 The very next day you announced to me that von tranaferred my place to Loder, the Very man whoa* leading yon did not like so well aa mine, bnt whose i|ua!ilicationa, being or that gigaatie magnitude which cannot be corapaaaed without the aid of imagination, mi.it of course annihilate mine, limited only to some practical acquaintance with the violin unknown to liim, and to aome little credit gained wiih the public, long before he came bere. for not iinfrri|ueuilj doing my beat aa a leader when ao bitter oue could be procured. It it true, that in your explanations you not only assured me of your being perfectly satisfied with iny services. but yen even intimated iii?t I should lead your fourth concert, mid thus gain mnrethan 1 shall be sup posed to have lost by the temporary change, most decidedly unfavorable to the mterlo|>er: but somehow or other 1 could not bring myself to tall in with this little plot, it being something that did not exactly square wnJi my, no doubt foolish, notions of honor. You farther explained, thu you yielded onlv to the combined influence, axled by the personal effort* of Lnder himself, which waa brought to bear upon you with such force and power?with such threatemngs of storms, tempests, and the exterminating wrath of the presa, that you found it impossible to resist it, although your positive succeae with the public, was alreidy strong enough to treat the whole concern with scorn and defiance Now, this a complicated transaction, which I am again disqualified from commentuut upon, by my unfortunate prejudices, which aasure.me before liaud, that I could not take any part in it. without most heartily despising myself, although the real actora. I dare say, fuidjinthing in it which ia not strictly honorable and praiseworthy Thus, then, by? a clear deduction from the foregoing, the fact, which alone interests me. is fnlly established: that my dismissal waa caused not by any fault of mine, or dissatisfaction at my services, but wholly and exclusively by the fear, unchecked by conscious sncceaa already obtained, of offending a certain lond mouthed clique, whose vengeance once provoked, was falsely supposed to be potent enough to reduce the amount of receipts, and thereby to inflict a serij ous wound on the predominant love of something more substantial and utilitarian than (tie fine arts. This being all I wish the public to know, I take my leave I of you, and remain, sir, Your obedient servant. | n8 2t*r MICHKLL RAPKTTI. I MRS. ZEULIO. No. 67 Division Strut. WILL open a large assortment of Paris millinery, Bonnets, tie. She will offer for inspection a choice stock of Fall ! goods, comprising silks, satins, plain and cut velvets.lie he., which being selected with good taste from the latest arrivals, > is well worthy the attention of purehaaers. Merchants and milliners from the country, wanting materials and |>?tterns, would find it then interest to call before purchaaing, as the s'ock is fresh the style the latest: which will he disposed uf on reasonable term* o* I ran* rre DR. tFAAX aoURAUD'8 ITALIAN MEDICATED SOAP. THIS admirabi* emollient i( now, by common coaint, rated A No. I aa remedy for blotchei, pinfplea, paatalea. aeurf, tun, freck lea, auutmru, all kinda ol eraptiona, and "an apeciea of discoloration of the akin. All competition haa beea completely distanced by thia invaluable preparation, the demand for which, within the laat ? i moniha, haa in creaaed more than MO per cent, and i? at 111 mrreaaing. The clearneaa and freahneaa which ita nae imparta to the completion, hare rendered it prorerbial aa a beentirter of the akin; and no drtaainr room can b? coniiderrd fimihH witk pro, per toilet that lacks | UOUHjIUrrx ITJtI.IAS MKDICATKD BMP. It ia alao a dehciona compound, and e\n be uaed in hard or salt water; and ia a aovereigu and inataataneoaa remedy for the bitea of inaecta. II beanty b?, aa it 11 aaaerted, only akin deep, it ia the more important that the thin covering in which loveliness retidea .h.mld be kept in ita preaent and moat atl tractive atate. UrU. might go onamplyfymg the marfca of hi* Italian Medicated Soap, but he thinka that the nnmber of earI tiflcatea which hare been pabliahad throaghout the Uaioa at a coat of aereral thonaand dollara, to the Dorter, Iron emiI nent Phyaiciana, Clergyman, Membera of Coagraaa, Captama I of abipe. Officera of the Army, and a boat of distiaguishad Ladies the original of which teatimoaiala can alwaya be aaea i if reqniied. are. the Doctor thinka, sufficient to conriace any one not wilfnlly blind. If there be any anch, the Doctor might apply to then the language of -Tipture, and any. "|l ya believe not Moaea and the Prophau, aeitner would ya k*lt*v* though one roae from the dead " Uoiirsud'a Pondre Hnbtile positively eitirpat*a, root and branch, all snpertlnooe hair. (Jonraud'a Liquid Hoage will impart to the pal* cheek aad lip a crim?oa flush, aa magnificent aa that of th* roae. Honrand'a Grecian Hair Djr? will changa red ?r tray hair to a beautiful black. Ooarand'a Lily hite tustuitly diaaipatea rednesaea, flaahea and roaghneaa. Beware ol deceptioa, and remember that it ia irnpoaaible to procure the ge*nine preparationa of Dr. Ooaraad, eacept at hts depot, *7 Walker atreet jfirat store raoM Broadway, and of hia Aorura?T4 rheatnut atreet, Philadelphia; Boa ton, A. 8. Jordnu.t Milk atreet; Lowell, Carleton k Co.; Wnreaatar, Green k? o.; Piarce. Albany _ o4 lai'rrc ' WHtAT ONE THOUSAND bushels lllmoii Wheat, Ja d*d and lor aal* by * * COLLINS ? II * ?

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