T H ] vol. xn. i*. 303?wioa* n?. mm. THE SOUTH AMERICAN REPUBLICS. Am tike United State* or Kurope to control tit# Affair* of Uill Continent 1 KCL'ADOU. [From th* London Timet, Oct. 6.] The position of General Floret at Premdent of Ecuador ha- been set forth very fullv in a printed paper circulated iu ihe city. and signed " fcqu.itoriano " The paper it maaiiettly on the tide of the President but we do not hesitate to giee a pretty long abridgment of it* contents, since detailed news from Ecuador is e scarce commodity, and a growing interest is felt in the progress of the third Colombian republic, if we may judge from the operations on the Stock Exchange Among other omisaions made in the abridgment are the ratifications of both treaties, which of course are merely formal: ? ' In march last year an insurrection broke out in Guayaquil, ine port 01 a province 01 tcuaaor on tb? Pacific, it was beaded by a shopkeeper named Senor 2 am ho Roca. Reca being convicted of seditious acts, bad been ordered out of the country by the sentence oi the proper tribunal, but with the aid of a large sum of money contrived to corrupt a company of Artillery quartered at Guayaquil, on the eve or his expulsion being carried into effect. What is called apronvnciamiento followed, throwing off obedience to the Government, and declaiing the province independent. "The President, General Hoies (who had been elected President for eight years in 1843, by the unanious suffrages of the people), seut down from Vluito, the capital of Ecuador, a few troops to quail the insurrection, but it being the winter or rainy season, they could not get into the town, the adjacent country about Guayaquil being flooded for many leagues during the months of February to July, The rebels had seized upon all the canoes aud boats on the river, to there was no getting at them by this channel; the troops of the Government therefore went into cantonments at the Elvira, an estate of the President's situate at the bead of the river, there to await until th - subsiding of the waters sheuid permit ol access to the town. " The rebels, in the meantime, pressed the people into their ranks, and emboldened by the delay of the Government force, ventured up the river in the boats to sttack them before they should be reinforced; they were miserably beaten, and aome hundreds who landed were thrust back into the river at the point of the bayonet and drowned. They came up a second time, and were agaiu repulsed with great slaughter. The President, ever generous and humane, did not witness unmoved this destruction oi the passive and ignorant people over whose welfare he had ever been a vigilant guardiaa, by whom he was adoied, and whose prosperity he would have secured by the most enlightened measures had he net been constantly thwarted in his views by the seditious conspiracies ef this same truculent incendiary, Roca, and a few others of the same biigbted and broken reputation, who found in the indolent action of the laws and weakness of the executive power; time to carry out their insurectionaty plans with impunity. Thus in the year 1843, President Floras having asked and obtained'from the Congress qf that year," power to levy a small tax on the people (the People of Ecuador pay no taxes), in order to secure a positive amount of money to be solely and exclusively appropriated to the payment ol interest to the British bondholders, and to restore by this means some portion of the lost credit of the country, Mr. Zambo Roca raised the standard of revolt and rebellion against the decree of the Congress and the measure* of the Government for carrying that decree into effect, and in thi* manner wa* retarded a settlement with the foreign creditors notwithstanding the anxious desire of the Pre si-Jcntto do them juiuce, end at the same time to roleaie the country from the stigma of dishonesty and ingrati tude which (till continues to disgrace it. The late law of public credit established by Roca will convince the oondholders of what they have to expect from such a tyro. To return to the rebels of Guayaquil; I shall briefly state that the President, although at the head of an army firmly devoted to him. and otiicered by his ancient comrades, the veterans ot Bolivar, resolved to spare the effusion of blood in a civil contest which had no other foundation than the predatory views of Roca and the gang of smugglers by whom he was surrounded and suppoited. The President, moreover, was not unwilling that the people of Guayaquil should see their leadera in their true colours, when bis own influence in the country could not be felt or misinterpreted. He therefore desired that respectable persons of Guayaquil should be selected to enter into a treaty or convention which should pnt an end to the contest, and at the same time enubie him to indulge in his long cherished desire oi veiling Europe. However magnanimous or humane the pi-Ucy of this step, it has been much blamed by the other p. svinc.es ot Ecuador, whose inhabitants as well as the hi lin body of the Government forces, only received and oi-ly consented to a treaty with the rebels in obedience to the withes of the President. The following is a copy of that treaty, and the President's proclamation upon hi* departure for Europe:? TBKATV. " The Provisional Government of the Equator on the one part, and on the other bis Excellency General Juar Josu Elores, wishing to avoid the continuation of a war whieh would cause great and grievous ills, have resolved to enter into a treaty, which will put an end to the present disastrous contention. In consequence they have named their respective commissioners, viz, on the part ol the Provisional Government, Messrs. Pablo Merino, Pedro Caibo, and Juan Erancisco Millan; and on the part of bis Excellency General Eleres, Colonels Juan H. Soulin, Carlos Vincendon, and Erancisco Gavino, who, after exchanging their respective credentials, have agreed to the following articles: ? " Art. 1. Peace shall be restored to the Republic; consequently, all hostilities cease. '-Art. 3. The military garrhons shall be stationed as follows:?The troops that are at present in the districts of Guayas and Azuay shall be disposed of by the Provisional Government; and of those encamped at Elvira, 400 to 800 men will march to the barracks of the city Bolivar; the battalion of Bababoyo shall ha disbanded, the individuals composing it beiDg allowed to retire tc their homes " Art 3. All the genersl, field, and subaltern < fficera of the troops, commanded by General Elores, that are not considered necessary by the Provisional Government, shall retire from the sei vice with corresponding honour and heir pay according to law. " Art. 4. No one shall be persecuted on account of hii past political opinion*, nor lor any services rendered to either party. "Art. 6. Any exactions on private property, made by either party, shall be fully indemnified, whoa applied or in tlie proper legal lorsa. "An ft Any orders or acceptance* due by either ol the parties, as also all contract* pending that are according to the laws, shall bo respected and carried into effect. "Art. 7. The Provn.onal Government, when completed by the pioper member*, will issue a decree for the convocation ot a national convention. "Art. 8. It any person, or military force should refuse to submit to the present treaty, they must be compelled to do so by the contracting parties. "Art. 9. The arrangements stipulated in the 2d and 3d articles must he catried into effect in the term of eight days from tha time of the ratification ef the present treaty, and the othei stipulations must be fulfilled as soon as possible. " Art 10. This treaty shall he ratified by General Floras in 34 hours, and by the Provisional Government in 48 hours " The respective Commissioners herewith sign two copies ot the present treaty at the estate of Virginia, on the 17th of June, 1844. " viRin urmvn " PKDHO OARBO, " JUAN FRANCO. MILLAN, "JUAN IIIPOLITO BOUL.IN, " CARLOS V1NCENDON, " FRANCO OAVINO, ADDITIONAL TBXATT. " lli* Excellency Juan Joie Flores desirous of giving a public testimonial of hi* disinterested patriotism,absenting himself irom the country whilst his institution* are being reloimed, the following articles have been agreed to between the Commissioners of General Flore* and those of the Provisional Government:? " 1st. He still will be commander-in-chief, and hit honour* and pay shall be guaranteed to him. " id. His pnvate propeity shall be guaranteed to him. " 3d General Flores's agent will receive what is due to him by the State, in virtue of orders given .by the Minister of Finance, anJ according to the laws before the 6th March piesent. " 4th. They shall provide, under the guarantee ol citizen Manuel A. Suzenaga, the sum of $20,000 for his subsistence in Europe for two years. " Ath. They shall treat his family with due considerstion. snd they wi,l pay bis wife half the salary, monthly, to which be is entitled by the 1ft article ot his treaty. "6lh. That at the end of two y oars of his spontaneous absence from the country he can icturn to it without difficulty orembai rassment.lt being well understood that thu treaty shall be consideted in full vigour and equally valid as the principal one of this seme date of 17th June 1845. " PABLO MERINO, " PEDRO CARBO. "JUAN FRANCI8CO MILLAN, "JUAN H1POLITO SOULIN, " CARLOS VINCF.NDON, " FRANCISCO OAVINO." " PBOCLAMATION. " Fellow Citizens,?This day 1 cease to be President ol the Republic, and i take my leave of you for Europe whence I hope to return and find you free and happy after you have constituted yourselves anew, far trom my personal influence?iu perfect liberty, if I had the glory ol founding your independence, 1 also have the honor to make a great sacrifice m banishing myself fronr you the very moment it was published and sustained that I was an obstacle in the way of your happiness, ant when, thanka to Divine Providence, no one has vanquish ed me. I only hope that this sacrifice will be ae giatefu to you as the conviction that 1 have never usurped oi abused public authority is flattering to me : neither havi I staiDod with Mood the political sceflold during the con stiiutional periods in wnich tha popular magistracy hai been couflded to me. " If my words have still any merit in your eyes, I en treat and pray you to preserve, at any risk, tha integrity and union ol the liei ublic: tbst on our country's altar,yoi deposits that hatred which begets revolutions, and tha all disagreements terminate amongst you with a fraterna and friendly embrace. "JUAN JOSE FLORE8. " Elvira Estate, June S3, 1844." Proclamation. " Soldiers,?This day we have achieved a triumpt which honors us, that of tbe restoration of peace among* the Equatoiians. Happy peace that only coats the smal sacrifice which I make in absenting myself from tb< country and from yon for two years, and still more hap py if the country is secured and consolidated without my help. _ " Soldiers?It is now 18 years since I have been at youi head, and I am highly pleased in the recollection that nc one has ever vanquished us. This recollection will add E N-E" NEV : flam# to my enthusiasm for your great services, and will stimulate ma to write of your feats of armi. " Soldiers? After trie peacd we hsve celebrated, it would be useless, it would be a crime, to continue a bloody and devasta-ing war, without glorr or I'urure 1 good to the country. Hang up your arrna, then, without a stain, and wait tranquilly for the veto of the convention which ia to be celled together, and until than sub' miaaively obey the order* of the existing authorities. JU.V.N JOdE FLO RES. " Elvira Estate, June 31. IMA " i " Hardly ha 1 Oeneral Florea left the country, when Roca and hia gang commenced a series of persecutions against the supporters of the government, which yet endure. Several of the principal proprietors were baniahI ed; the troops faithful to the government were disbanded, the chiela and officers driven from the country one by one, on frivoloue and vexatious pretexts, Oen Oiamendi. a veteran officer highly distinguished, perfidiously ! assassinated under circumstances of revolting cruelty, ' in the presence of his wife and children; private property 1 seized and pillaged; the civil servants of the government I deprived of their offices, and thssa filled by the myrmidons of Roca taken from the lower classes; in a word, arery species of tyranny and persecution was practised 1 against all who wero not willing to disgrace themselves i by becoming bis obsequious instruments. In this manner was fulfilled the treaty of Elvira. In utter disregard of the customs of civilized beings, and of the disastrous consequences of such barbarism, not only did Itoca break every article of that treaty by his most atrocious persecution of the loyal supporters of the government, but he also, by the public act of a meet ing assembled, ad hoc, in December following (last December,) annulled that treaty formally, and had himself named President of the State. The insane assemblage which declared that treaty null and void, could do no morn to destroy their own Dretensionx to lcealitv. Bv this act General Floret i? released from all and every obligation be bad contracted by the treaty. He reasumes his position as the constitutional President of Kzusdor, and with it all the obligations annexed to that office. He is bound by every moral and political principle to suppress the barbarous faction that oppresses and disgraces tbe country, which he himself called into political existence. This alone is the objoct be has in view; the neighboring States have nothing to apprehend from President Flores, the whole tenour of whose private and public life affords ample guarantees for the future." Acsni-Ksiisi, Oct. 21 " My Lord:?The committee of tbe South American and Mexican Association take the liberty to address your lordship in consequence of the proceedings now actively goiag forward tor the purpose of sending a military ex|>edition from Spain against the republic Kcuador. " This armament is got up for the avowed purposo of restoring the political administration of tho country into the hads of an eminent individual who, for several years, exercised the office of President of that republic, but who has lor some time past ceas?d to do to *' The committee do not presume to offer any remark on the merits or position of the respective political parties in the republic in question, with whicn, as British subjects, they have nothing to do; but this proceeding presents for the first time since the republics of Spanish America have established their independence the spectacle of a foreign force being brought into the country in aid and support of one of the political parties struggling therein. And in this point of view it engages tho serious attention of parties carrying on commercial pursuits in that quarter of the world. " It ia obvious that, il one political section in any of there states can succeed in attracting foreign inteiference to its aid, another may do the same, aod that a course of civil warfare and anarchy may be opened, destructive of the prosperity of all commercial pursuits. " The committee do not venture to suggest that her Majesty's government has any power to control proceedings which may be taking pi <ce in a foreign state. But it appears that means are being used within the British empire for taking part in this military expedition, the effect of which ie much to be apprehended will be to cenvey to the people of Spanish America the impressioD that the British nation both encourages and sanctions this hostile movement It is notorious that funds have fepAn nlnred in thil r.onntrv from ftnnin for tliA nnrnosp of purchasing military equipments and shipping, and that the euli-ting of men under the pretence of emigration is going on in Ireland alio for the purpose of this expedition. The manner in which this latter proceed ing is goiog forwaid in Ireland, namely, the holding out to parties engaged the promise of land on their arrival, and yet at the same time forbidding them to take their families for the present, has so far attracted the notice ot the magistrates of Limerick as to cause them to issue a public warning against the offers which have been thus made " The committee humbly suggest that, in order to remove all doubt as to the conduct of the British nation in tnis matter, would be expedient for her Majesty's goverment, either by proclamation, or in such other way as it ' may think fit, to call public atteution to the provisions of the Foieign Enlistment Bill, and to give instructions for the rigid enforcement of its provisions. , " I have the honour to be, my Lord, I " Your most faithful servant, "J D PO WLES, I "Chairman of the South American and Mexican Association. " The Right Hon. Viscount Palmkuston, M. P., one of her Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State.'' i To the Editor af the Herald. Sir:?You having honoured ma by inserting my letter of tha 31st iust., induces me to address you again, that , by making public the particulars of the expedition as it proceeds 111 its equipment, no plea of ignorance on the part of her Majesty's government can be received as an excuse for the departure of the squadron from this country. i The bead of the expedition (if I except Maria Christina) is Oeneral Floras, who remains in Spain with the .ohlicrs, who are lent or given by the Spanish government from the Spanish army- Next in iunk, and the man we English have the most to do with, is a Colonel i or General Wright, who hold his levees at No tirt Haymarket,lrom whence commissions are distributed. He has very efficient helps in some of the members of a re > ceutly-established club house, some of whom arc now in Ireland and elsewhere raising men for the expedition. The nuval department has lor its head a Captain Charelie, Honourable East India Company's service.? i The energy ol hit character cannot be disputed. He is stiled the Commodore, and from his head Quarters in the neighbomhood ot the Moorgate street may be seen issuing, early und late, candidates lor crutches. Tool fellows ! they are ignorant of South American justice! The Commodore has for his cecond in command an enterprising offspring of the Kmerald hie The ships are fitting in the neighbourhood of Blackwall, but so secretly tuat I have had much difficulty in finding them out. One is the Monarch Steamer, lying io the East India Dock basin, undergoing, in the hands of the carpenter and liggers, a trunlormation to render her a fit and efficient vessel of war; the other is the Nep I tune- she is in the dry dock of Mr. Oreen. From inquiries 1 made, I learned that it will be some weeks beiore these vessels are ready, unless their j equipment progressed at a more rapid rate than at present Vour very obedient servant. ; London, Oct 34, 1846. A LOOKER ON. VINE/.UKLA. 1 Venezuela, ptevlous >o its actual existence as a nation, was one of the three sections that formed the Integral Republic of Columbia in South America The other two sections were New Grenada (whose capital, the city of Bogota, was the seat of government,) and the Equator. Gen. Bolivar (then the President of the Republic of Colombia,) had confided the military command of Venezuela to Brigadier General Jose Antonio I'aez, and that of the Equator to Major General Juan Jose Flores, while himsell (Bolivar) was the commander-in-chief of the army , and the actual President of tho Republic, although temporarily divested of the executive power, which devolved on the then Vice President, General SantanderCnder these circumstances, in 1836, Gen. Paez, in Vene zuela, for some of his despotic acts, and transgressions of , hie limited powers, was accused to Congress by the city council ofCaraccas, backed with a strong and numerously signed representation of the principal citizens and corporations of said city, demanding nis removal, and ' punishment for abuses ot power The merits of the accusation seemed sufficient for Congress to call General Peer, to appear forthwith to answer th? charges and vjii dicita himoell. To thti call ot Congress Gen. Paez contemptuously decline I rendering obedience, and actually took up p.rnn against the government His immediate . superior, Gen Bolivar, us a Iriend, admonished him te obey, and to gallantly vindicate himself, as he was persuaded he coald easily do. But Paez, deaf to the calls of iriendship and duty, severed the aection of Vene/.uela from the rest of Colombis, installing himself as supreme ' chief of this home mede nation. The Congress of Colombia in 1817, invested General Bolivar commander-in chief of the army, with discretion' at powers to put down this rebellion, and either send Pact to the seet of government, auspend him, or law martial him in Venezuela. Finally, Bolivar, with a handful of tha army, want to Venezuela, where the acclamations and effusions of the people in his favor, rendered him powerful, at the same time that tha general aversion to Paez rendered reaistanceon his part vain. Conscious of this, bl'ter fact, Paez gave himaeif up to Bolivar, entreating, imploring, and promising lull repentance and submission to Congress. But avsiling himself ot the magnanimity of Bolivar and the murmura of hia accomf pliers for his ready surrender, he impressed Bolivar with , the danger of his leaving Venezuela whila so well die, posed to separate from the rest of the Kepublio. Urging cunningly, the necessity of his terrifying presence there i to check the supposed disposition ol the people, and ) throwing the blame of hia proceeding on the shoulders i ol his political Mentor, Lawyer Miguel Pane, (a talented I but immoral and wicked man.) ana other supporters of 1 his own ambitious plan of sovereignty. Bolivar, partly persuaded that he (Paez) was truly converted, and ere1 dulous of the impending danger artificially fabricated by r Paez, gave in to the snare, and lelt hint in Venezuela.? s And, moreover, confirmed him in his previous post tin der solemn assurances of his faithlulness and submission to the laws and general government. Thia blunder of Bolivar, as he afterwards frankly i. acknowledged, was the cause of his premature death; r for no soonar had Bolivar returned to|Bogota, than Paez i organized, perfected and achieved hia plan of separation, t employing the greet mental capacity of Iftwyer Pana in 1 calumniating and misrepiesenting Bolivar and his real views. This time Paez succeeded in lending the meg nanimous heart of hia superior and benalactor, whose frame had become emaciated through the fatigues ol a long protracted warfare, and who auccumbed to the treble moralfblow of perfidy, ingratitude end unfaithfulness This was the origin of the actual republic of Venezuela. Immediately alter, in 1830, Paez convened a convention that formed its constitution; lramed, with 'General Floras has always maintained the opinion, that as trier* ware nd other available resources to pay the British bondholders, the nation lor whore independence the debt was originally incurred should contribute to pey a debt I to sac red, especially aa they pay no ether tag whaUocrer. ^1 I I Will I'M W YO 7 YORK, FRIDAY MORN] but iniiguiAcant variation*, on that ot the United States. The moit apparent of thete variations. is, that the Prssidant cannot be re-elected,unless with an interregnum, or lap*e of time, equal in duration to the term of office, which i? four year* Tne popular election ie biennial for renovation of both Chamber*, and quatriennisl for Preiident and Vice President, although each of thee# two functionaries is elected in different periodi. The basts or principles of this political edifice are popular, representative, alternative and responsible. It waa elaborated by foresighted patriots, who demarcated each of the three great powers (judiciary, legislative and executive) ! its proper limits. As a matter of course, the first president of this new republic was Geo. Paez, who. shortly after, fearing to be overturned by some of the high officers ot liis army and those of the disbanded army of Colombia, that had flocked to their native land, Venezuela, after the deeth of Boliver (which occurred in thet tame year of 1830) and were of higher rank and capacities than Paez, he disbanded the Venezuelan army, 1 leaving a limited number of hia warmest adherents as . his body guard, and for mounting the most important militatTposts of the Republic. The Venezuelans are generally forbearing, frugal and industrious, which explains the conformity of tne disbanded army, who immediately betook themselves to agricultural pursuits, without murmuring for their lost pensions and prospects of advancement. Paez thus well secured on the presidential saddle without germ ot revolution (army) and endearing to tbe people this self guarantee of his. as a meaiure of | republican simplicity, and reliance on the orderly diipo' aition ol the whole community, betook himself to expanding the limits of the Executive with especial decrees axacted from the legislature, which increased his power at the expense of the other two powers, until by degrees he cunninglv controled them all, being constantly active in electing and creating abject supporters of his will, and in fact layiog silently the foundation of his future autocracy. By 1834, (the time of the next Presidential election,) the people, though not fully aware of the importance of their direct and warm intervention in electoral matters, thought the time had arrived in which they could exert their right of sutlrage with true liberty, | and consequently supported lor their Presidential cundi dute, Dr. J. M Vargas. This individual was warmly supported by the Civilians, especially the commercial class, 1 while his opponent, the candidate of Paez was Gen. 8. i Marino, supported by Paez, and his administration, and the military class. The opposition of the Civilians, fairly carried tho day, and Vargaa was legally elected President. Paez took umbrage at the failure of his plan, for he had ohosen this Gen Marino to succeed him as a candid and docile brother in arms, whom he intended to lead in the furtherance of his autocratic plan. Marino is in fact 1 a brave, but too candid and manageable man, and so much ! so, that, uuconscious of what he was al>out, at the sug gestion of, and with the aid of Pae/., tormed a conspiracy to overthrow the government, change its political structure into a military form, and thence came in July 1835, the revolution called the relorms. Paez set Marino at work and kept himself at u prudent distance, surrounded as he always is, by a gang of the most ferocious and bloody chaps that he can tind in the land, no matter if they are outlawed or convicted criminals, provided they are abject and ferocious. Then he awaited the result of the absurd proceeding of Marino, which through a captain, accomplice of his, named Carajo, was successfully carried into effect, by taking, with about two hundred men, by surprise, tho ungarrisoned city of Caraccas, and the very President Vargas, whom the rebels forcibly ex- 1 pelled to St Thomas. When the peoule overcame their first surprise, simultaneously and like magic they all took up arms in support of their constitution and laws, and in n glance, chased, beat, and cut to pieces the conspirators, at the sight of which, l'aez seeing the turn that had taken place, turned himself too against his accomplices, olfeied his services to the proviaionary government, )atthe head of which was Gen. Carrino,) and fell like a tiger on the deluded portion that iu the otner States had followed the revolutionary movement, disguising in his merciless devo.ion, his criminal camplici ty. mis tactions! ana unpopular ievoit coat Venezuela many innocent lives?some criminal ones, and the loal of a great portion of her libertiea and morality. I'aez. aided by the whole nation in putting down the enemiea of the fundamental lawi, escaped at the time, the auapiciona of hia aomplicity, by the alacrity of his persecutions; especially towards his main victim Marino, (whose popularity and the great services h > had render ed in the war of Independence would hardly have aaved him, without the protection of Congress.) who. after his surrender, along with seven or eight other Oenerals, and many other individuals was indefinitely banished Though the expelled President, Vargas, was recalled by Congress, he would not ass* me the executive, tearing, doubtless, the cloaked enmity of Paez, whose hy|>ocritical devotion to Government, was justly suspected hy the knowing ones The then Vice President, Lawyer Narvarte, assumed the executive power, but was completely under the control ol Paez, who had exacted discretional powers from Congress as commander in chief of the army, and in fine was the only wire puller of the whole political machine. Thus Venezuela, by this criminal coup Je main ot Paez, performed thiough the credulous absurdity of Marino, actually lost its liberties und great share of its former morality, and became the prey of the slv autocrat Paez. Since then lie has been the factotum of the republic, and lormed a traitorous oligarchy that aided him in oppressing the |>eople, in fabricating a fictitious and truthless fame lor himself and his exploits, at ine expense in nisioncai lacu, ?ni! ice menu o: many brethren in arme, far superior to himself. A When the Presidential term of Vargas expired in 13J&, Paex had himself elected President, lor the second time. | without opposition, for he controlled every thing; and his late pacitication, or rather general persecution of the reformers and mat-contents, had spread terror and desolation throughout the whole country. Once more on the Presidential saddle, Paez continued consolidating his autocracy, ridding himself of the few heroic patriots that did not applaud his usurpation, tilling their vacancies, either wi.h supremely abject mediocrity, or accumula ting offices in odo and the same person against tha law, and at variance with one of tho fundamental principles, (alternation ) which principle, as that of responsible, in fact, had never been observed since the formation of the leputilic. Among the number of heroic patriots whom ho cast from him, was the high, talented, and merotorious A. L Uuzman, the petted private Secretary of Uoli var, the faithful Iriend of this true hero ot the South, whose patriotic deeds and views were always supported, justified and praised by this eloquent and faithful young man, at the peril of his life and interest during Bolivar's life, and ever since his death with an unexampled devotion. This same Uuzman had previously served in Venezuela, with universal applause, the ministry of the in isiinr unit was ire.nerallv acknowledged tn lm a hiffhlv talented and disinterested man. In 1840, Guzman, with the rclici of his patrimony, which consisted only in a deteriorated but once large cocoa plantation, inherited from his wealthy father, (a Spaniard holding high military offices from the King of Spain before and during the war of independence) and which he sold for a comparatively small sum, and bought and setup a printing office, issuing from it a weekly paper called the f'enrzolano, aolely edited by himseit, arraigning the moat legal, classical, and dignilied oppo<1 ion, that ever resounded on the popular tribune ot any aountry. His truthful denunciation* of the encroachments of Paex, on the rights and constitutional guaranties of the people, w-ere to evident, that every man in Venezuela i>erceived the usurpation, and the same oligarchs that aided Paez in this usurpation, had no courage, in fact no hold to contradict the charge, or to vindicate themselves instead of which, thoy applied to the omni|K> tent autocrat to curtail more and more the liberties of the people in the shape of special laws for the press, especial laws to persecute particular individuals, and special laws to pardon criminals, and every thing apecial and exceptional. Through all this oppression, truth was heard by all, and every one knew himself to be either a vietim or a criminal; no one could any longer deceive himself or any one elae. In apite of the terror that the ferocious and omnipotent Paez inspired, the encutbed victims made in 184'1 a strenuous opposition at the poll* in the then electoral conteat for the next President, hut the unlimited power of Paez carried the day, and his chosen candidate, or rather hi* successor, was legally elected. This successor was Gen. Seublctte, expressly chosen by Paez as tbe moat abject, and in fact tbe m >at timid and servile military character of the country, whom he could hurl, through fear, to any excess, even to the very bottom of perdition. Soubletto timidly mounted the presidential saddle, and became the mock president of Venezuela, or rather the formalary screen of the intruder autocrat Paex, wno from his private houae, his plantation, on his sick bed, dictated all and every measure ol his sham administration The o|ipoiition party though fairly vanquished, retired In high spirits at the light of the enthusiasm, end certainty ol the future triumph that promised the broad ba*ia of their programme that was framed on the strict observance of their fundamental laws, which insured them the alternative, and consequently the overthrow of the (n.ga'chy with its autocrat at the head of it. Dy the time of the neat Vice Presidential election in 1811, the opposition party (denominated "liberal" was so extensive, so well organized (under the direction of Guzman) and so popular for its constitutional doctrines, that tho oligarchy had to strain every nerve, and employ every treachery practicable (and even blameable) that money and long standing power would afford, to scrape an illegal and shamelul triumph through fraud, bribery and violence, net withstanding their authentical minority at the primary votatious The forbearing liberals, with their Southern O'Connell (flu/ man) at their head, lumped the trick, and patiently awaited the neat Presidential eiec tiou that wai to come off two years after, as it actually came in 1840. In the meanwhile, Houblette's adminis tration, though hesitatingly, newly began to curtail the liberties of the people, earnestly trying to suppress the liberty of the press, and to diminish the right ot suffrage, guaranteed by the conititution, through the instrumentality of the judicial and legislative powers that wore totally control] id by him, or rather by the wirepuller behind the curtain, General Paez. Vet, the well organized opposition, with its brilliant programme as ensiga, and patriotic forbearance, orderly marched to the poll*, where a sure and legal triumph awaited the liberals, to relieve them forever of the unheard of abuses of power of the oligarchs, end its criminal administration, ("ho respective voters, previous to the election, stood in the pioportion of Ave liberals to one oligarch on the aveiage. But Soubiette, suddenly shaking his timid hesitation, as if invigorated by a supernatural force, rises, or rather descends from bis high post, to tear and trample the constitution liy levying troops without the requisites of the law, and in a period especially forbidden liy the Constitution, without any cause to warrant the infraction. Thia levy of troops it ordered all through the States and Districts' wheie the liberals are in greet preponderance, in order to frighten arid acatter them, depriving the enlisted of their right of snffrsge by the effect ot the transmutation. Besides this infraction ef the lew, four days previous to the election (the elections lake place from the 1st to 8th August) Soubiette
unconstitutionally suspended eight members of the City Council of Carraccas, all of thein liberals, making tire remaining members (chiefly oligarch*) name in RK ? [NG, NOVEMBER 20. 18 their piece eight oligarchs, to control thereby the City Council, which he* ere at intervention In the primery election*. Soublette Toanded hi* erbitrery proceeding on the plee thet e few days previous, the *u?pended member* were discussing or formelating an eocusation against him for hi* infraction* of the law, in enlisting troop* end filling the capital with them during the term of the election* All corporation* and private oitizeD* here in Venezuela the right of petition and accusation ; and the executive, he* by no meena direct juriidiction over the City Council'* act* Notwithstanding thi* highhanded proceeding of Soublette, the suspended member* made him a respectful representation.convincing him and every body with the authority of the law and fundamental charter, of the illegality of thair suspension, and en traatiDg him to recall the said decree. The suapenJed member* had for reply, the icorn of Soublette and that of the oligarch*, while the liberal* remained patient, enduring thi* anj many other abuses of power, confident in the triumph that insured them their legal tenfold majority. Tha election at laat came oft', and the general suffrage nvi the liberals throughout the republic en average of more then two-thirds of the whole number oi votes canvassed, in spite of the many and unheard of ' tricks and abuses of power employed by the administra- ! lion and his oligarchs, to smother the nation's voice and 1 its sovereign mandate, that called A. L. Guzman to the ! Presidential chair, with the authority of an enormous clear and legal majority over J. K. Monages, the candidate of the oligarchs, and two other amimibious candidates that obtained a few scattered votes. The intruder and criminal City Council of Caraccas, chiefly composed of oligarchs, ana of illegal existence, then, without competent authoiity eliminated the greatest part of the liberal electots, (especially the very lawful President, A. L. Guzman,) and annulled the while returns of other States and Districts, where the liberals had large majorities. All the infamous and criminal proceedings were dictated to Soublette by Puez, who, as customary, took good caro to disapptove it through private letters, (intended to be publisheJ,) so as to bo up and above any emergency. This is the man whom his flatterers, and he too, calls himself the second Washington. Alter this enormous high treason and inlamy of Soublette's administration, the liberals fell into the stupor w hich forebodes violent indignation; but tho eloquent and patriotic Guzman, (far more bent on peace and legal resorts, than the doctrinarian O'Connell,) quieted them, and through the instigation of some of Paez's friends, to whom Paez had shown a desire of having an interview with Guzmatl for the purpose of bringing to right and replacing the nation in its normal |>olitical ostate?this patriotic Guzman, well aware of the danger of this Interview, went forthwith towards the remote residence of Paez in the interior of the country, in the delusive hope that, Paez, once listening to justice and ell'convenience, would withdraw his imperative decree, that through the instrumentality of Soublette doomed the whole nation to a social cataclism. When Guzman was within a few miles of the residence of Paez, this political Jesuit (w ho till then had no official commission) had carefully provided himself a few days before with a very discretional one ftoin his football, Soublette, doubtless to entrap the heroic Guzman, the friends of whom, on ascertaining this fact, hurried him back to Caraccas, where he had to conceal himself, for Soublette invested himself with dictatorial powers, and issued decrees for his apprehension, and that of his political supporters, as likowise lor the persecution ana extermination of the liberal party throughout the whole country These are the causes of the late revolution in Venezuela, still more singular than its origin ; for seldom is found in political history, governments tearing down their owniustitutions, trom which only they derive power and legitimacy, and persecuting and hunting, like game, the portion of the iieople which observes and supports the fundamental laws. VERITAS. Affidavits Relative to the Boston and New York Telegraph Company. I, Marvin Chapin, of town of Spriugtiold, county of Hampden, being duly sworn, do depose and say that Mr. Vale, agent for M. Y. Beach and Son, New Yoik, was at my house Saturday morning. Nov. 7, that he left there for Boston at half past four. Previous to which he wished me to give information to Mr. Noyes, who was engaged to me on express to Hartford as soon as the steamer was telegraphed as having arrived. Soon after 6 o'clock A. M., learning that she was telegraphed, I called on Mr. Noyes and informed him of the tact, and immediately returned to the office and found that a communication was being received for Mr. Norton, whose messenger was wailing at the door-, in about half an hour all was received, copies marked and delivered Ths operator then announced that a despatch was coming for M. Y Beach k Sons, Sun office, with directions to deliver a copy to Mr. Noyes, and with directions for me to send some .on to Albany with the news that it might l>e from there telegraphed to New York. Mr. John Goodrich, who was engaged to run the other exSress, is a father of Henry Goodrich, the clerk in the ofce, and was in the office at the time that my directions to send to Albany were received. My opinion is that he had not at this time any idea of sending to Albany, but immediately took advantage of the suggestion and sent a messenger there; and in my judgment from a subsequent conversation with Goodrich, the news that came first was for M. Y. Boach 8c Sons, instead of for Norton 1 spoke to Mr. Noyes who was present, and he sent Mr. Sherman with the stripa of paper as they canio trom the machine with a translation in pencil written upen them, thoru not being time to make a copy bafoie the cars loit at half past S o'clock, which Goodrich the operator said would do an well as a copy. MARVIN CHAP1N. Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Hampden county, Nor. 13th, 1840. Subscribed and sworn to before me. E. D. BEACH, A Commissioner, for the State of Massachusetts, appointed by the Governor of New York, to administer oaths and affirmations. I, Cyrus Noyes, of the town of Springfield, county of Hampden, being duly sworn, do depose and say, that on Saturday, Nor. 7, 1846,1 was called upon by Marvin Chapin, about twouty or thirty minutes past 6 o'clock, A M., who informed mc that the steamer Britannia had arrired at Boston. I went immediately to the telegraph oliice, having made arrangements to run an express to Hartford with the steamer's newi, and from there telegraph it to New York, for M. Y. Beach b Sous. When 1 arrired at the office f was told that a despatch, tho first with the steamer's news, was coming for some one else, who I afterwards found was Mr. Norton. Mr. Goodrich, who was to forward the despatch, was in waiting. 1 was in and out of tho office three or four times within a tew minutes. In a short time tho news was all received, copies were marked and delivered. Then a despatch for M. Y. Beach b Sons, Sun Office, was announced, with directions to deliver a copy to me. I urged all possible speed, fearing that I should not bo able to send it down to New Haven in season for tho boat. After wniting about an hour I received the despatch, and handed it to a messenger whom I had waiting on horseback at the door, with directions to hasten to Hartford and have it telegraphed to New Haven, and sent by boat to New York, or telegraphed direct to New York; this was about twenty-five minutes past 8 o'clock. I was then waiting for another copy of the same despatch, which I was to send to Albany by Mr. Sherman.and he was to telegraph it from there to New York. As the train whs to start in five minutes we had not time to make unothor copy. The operator, therefore, gave me the etrips of paper from the telegraph machine, with the characters upon them, and a translation of them written out in pencil, which he said would do as well as a copy; with these I hurried to the cars,and arrived just in time to give them to Mr. Sherman a* the cars were starting; and he immediately stepped on board and left for Albany. CYRUS NOYE8. Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Hampden County, Nov. 13, 184d. Subscribed and (worn to before me. K V. BEACH, A Commissioner for the State of Massachusetts, ap pointed by the Governor of New York, to adminiiter oaths and affirmation!. I, Enoch Sherman, of the town of Springfield, of the county of Hampden, being duly aworn, do depose and aay, that on Saturday, Nov. 7, I waa employed by Cyrui Noyea to carry a tnoasage from Springfield to Albany, and to aend)it by telegraph thence to M. Y. Beach 8c Bono, Sun office, New York. The despatch waa on a atrip oi paper taken from the telegraph machine, with the characters and a plainly written translation in pencil together, one above the other. It commenced with the address. " M. Y. Beach 8c Sons." I left Springfield in the half past 8 o'clock, A. M. train, and arrived in Albany about twenty minutes of 3 o'clock, P. M. 1 ran immediately te the telegraph office, Mr. Wm. Gray being with me, and having, as 1 understood, another dispatch to tend to New York. We reached the office together. I arrived first at the window, and handed in my despatch. The clerk who received it looked at it a moment and said he could not tend this ; could not read it; knew nothing about it, kc , and while speaking took the despatch from Mr. Gray and handed it to the operator for transmission, and it was ent off immediately, as it appealed. Finding that the clerk was determined not to receive my dispatch, I left the office and came back again in about half an hour, when he again refused. ENOCH SHERMAN. Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Hampden county, Nov. 13, 18-18. Subscribed and sworn to beloro me, E D BEACH. A commissioner for the 8tate of Massachusetts, appointed by the Governor of New Yoik to administer caths and affirmations. I, Timothy Henry, of the town of Springfield, county >f Hampden, being duly swosn, do depose and say, that >n Satuiday, Nov. 7th, immediately after Mr. Noyes had eceived communication that the steamer Britannia had irrived at Boston, he sent me to Hartford, with horses, :o arrange the express When sin miles out of Hartord, I was overtaken with a messenger from Mr. Noyes, who delivered me a despatch lor M. Y. Beach !i Sons, j Sun office. I rode directly to the Telegraph office in , Hartford, and finding that they were in communication ( with New Haven, I sent on the despatch for telegraph, < with diioctioos to have it forwarded to New Yoik by ] doiton Telegraph, if in operation I wae informed by he operator at the office, that another express had been lent in about half an hour before, but not then being iu | lommuuication, it had gone on by cers. I was also in- t ormed that my despatch was received at New Haven at ialf-past ten, an hour and a half before the arrival ol 1 he cars from Hartford, and that mino was the first com- } nunication sent that day. TIMOTHY HENRY. Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Hampden county, Nov. 13th, 1844. Subacribod and aworn to before me, E. D. BEACH, A Commissioner for the State of Massachusetts, appoint sd by the Governor of New York to administer oaths ind affirmations I, Ira Yale, of the city of Uoeton, county of Suffolk ind State of Massachusetts, doth depose and say, that he was employed by Roberts and Beach, o( the ttotlon T'mn. to assist m forwarding the news received et Boson by tho steamer JBritannia, either recent arri-al, to leverel newspapers in the city of New York. I left Boa on for Spiingnel l on Thursday, Nov. Ath, to arrange -xjp etscsfiuaa that point, in case the wires of the telegraph should be cut or destroyed, as was iaared. The irraugementl made with Mr. Chepin, of the Massaaoit House, end with Mr. Noyes Smith, end alteiwetda left or Boston by the 4 o'clock tram on Saturday morning, [ERA 46. Not. 7th. While I was in Springfield, I wo* inform# J by HTmi persona, that Mr. Goodrich, the tat her of tha operator in the Telegraph ofllco, had agreed with cartain peraona tin New York to deliver the Britannia * news there before I or any one else could get it there, and that expecting the wire* would bo broken horse* had bean laid on the road to New Haven, for running an express to that point The person, it was stated to me, whom three Esrsons engaged in the business, was a Mr Worten, who ad been there before on similar business, and w ho had given advice to the operator, young Mr Goodrich His place of business, I believe, was i3 South street. Before leaving for Springfield, on the nth, I was informed at the telegraph office in Boston, that the telegraph bad not worked for more than three days, except for half an hour at a time, and on arriving at Springfield I was informed by the operator, young Mr. Goodrich, and by his father, that it had worked all the time, with the exception ot half au hour, for the last three days. IRA YALE. Owing to extra judicial oaths being forbidden in Mas sachusetts, the above affidavit is not sworn to. IRA YALE. _ Peter Cruikahanks, of the city of Boston, county of sunolK, deth depose and say, that he was employed by Roberts k Beach, of the BostOD Daily Timet, to assist in forwarding the news received at Boston by the steamship Britannia on her recent arrival. I was on the dock when the steamship arrived, about five o'clock on Saturday, the 7th November inst., and received a package for Roberts ik Beach from their news collector, which I immediately carried to Mr Alfred K. Beach at the mtignetic telegraph office, where I arrived some fifteen minutes belore any other news arrived there. After I had given my package to Mr. A. E. Beach, I saw t.im make up several despatches and'liand them to the operator,one ol the despatches was forM. Y. Beach k Sons, of the Sun office, New York, and the New York Herald, the New York Tribune, and several other papers were among the names. Mr. Beach asked the operators if he was not the tirst, and they said "yes." P. CRU1CKSHANKS. Boston, Nov. Id, 1846. Owing to extra judicial oaths being forbidden in Massachusetts, the above affidavit is not sworn to. P. t'RUlCKSH ANK S Aubiii E. Bkach, of the city and county of New lark, being duly sworn, doth depose and say, that on Saturday moruiug, the 7th of Nov inst., I was in the city of Boston ,for the purpose of forwarding the news per steamer Britannia to the New York press generally, and bad been there in waiting for several days previous. 1 went there as agent and cerrespondent for six or seven different daily newspapers, and was to make up and send a despatch for each of them. By an arrangement with the Boston Timet, 1 was to have the first use of their files, from which to make up the despatches. The steamer was signalized a little before 6 o'clock, when I immediately went to the telegraph office and awoke the operator, who slopt there. On giving him information that the steamer was below, he at once began to work his machine, and after tho lapse of atiout fifteen minutes, said he had given notice in Springfield of the Britannia's arrival, with directions for the operator at that place to communicate with New York, if possible, and with all the stations on the line, as it was expected the wires would be cut. About three-quarters of an hour after this, a person, whose name 1 have been told was Keith, came to inquire if the steamer's arrival had been an nouncedat Springfield, and waa told that it had been. He immediately left, but shortly returned with another person, whom 1 understood was Mr. Norton. Nearly an hour had been spent in unsuccessful endeavors to communicate with New York, when I concluded to, and did send messages to Mr. Noyes and Mr. I'hapin, of Springfield, to have messengers ready to carry the news from that point to New York, by way of Hartford and New Haven, and by way of Albany and the telegraphic line from that city. A little before 6 o'clock, Peter Cruikshanks, the messenger from the Boilon Timet news collector, came with the papers and gave them to me ; and in a very short time alter that, say five minutes, I had prepared one ol my despatches, which was directed to M. Y Beach k S ins, Sun office, N. Y., and placed in the hands of the operator for transmission ; and within a short time there aiier, and before either Mr. Norton or Mr. Keith had received their paper*, had prepared and handed my second despatch, which was for the Htrald. About this time, fifteen minutes after my papers came, Mr Keith and Mr. Norton first received their papers, an 1 commenced making up despatches, and just a* I handed in my third despatcn, I saw the operator displace my first one and put in Keith's or Norton's in its stead. I remonstrated, and mine was returned to its position before the operator and the other moved a little one side. Soon after this 1 h-nded in my remaining despatches, but knowing that there would ne no time to spare at Springfield, I directed only the first one to be delivered there, and the rest sent on by telegraph to New York with a? little delay as possible. The first dispatch was a brief summary of all important items of news?the markets, ship news, and fixed items being written by a key, a copy of which was in the hands of my correspondents, for the purpose of saving a great part of the telegraph charges. 1 remained at the telegraph office until about half past seven or eight o'clock, until informed that my messengers were ready, and would go from Springfield to Hartford and Albany. About nine o'clock, I returned, andwai told that all my despatches were gone, and about 10 o'clock received a despatch from Mr. Chapin ol Springfield to the sume clluct. The next day, Sunday Htli Nov., 1 was in New York and saw Mr. Koss, the operator >u New York, by whom 1 was informed that a despatch for M. Y. Beach k Sous, directed in an envelope to him, was received at the Telegraph office in this city per steamer Traveller about half past three o'clock on the previous (Saturday) afternoon, and that it was immedi ately dispatched by a boy to the Sun olfice. This, by comparing notes with Mr. K., was my first despatch, ft On Monday evening, Rth Nov. iust, I was at Spring field, Mass., at the Telegraph office, in company wiii Mr. Goodrich, Jr., the operator, anil Mr. Sherman, whe was the bearer of my despatch to Albany, and while thero Mr. Goodrich said to Mr. Sherman, that the man employed by bis father to go to Hartford for Mr. Norton, received his despatch one hour and two minutes before he (Sherman) did his, for Albany, and that the cause of the delay was the fault of the operators in Boston. A. K. BtiACH. Sworn before mc, the 17th day of November, A. C. KUKDKKICK K. WKSTBUOOK, Commissioner of Deeds. Mosot S. Beach, of the city and county of New York, being duly sworn doth depose and say, that ho was present at the counter of the San oftico on Saturday afternoon, 7th November inst., between tho hours of 3 and 3 o'clock. It is customary for the boys or messengers from the different Telegraph offices to bring their despatches for the Sun, or M. Y. Beach fk Sons, and give them in charge of the person at the counter. About 6 o'clock that (Saturday) afternoon, such a despatch (the first one that day) was placed in my hands. I opened it and read as follows, there being no date to it: "Steamer arrived this A. M The (Jreat Britain was still ashore with Id feet water in her hold. It was supposed, however, that she would be got oil'. The Cambria had arrived at Liverpool " Airahv Orrica." 1 then sent a boy down to the Albany oillce with a despatch to the Albany K'nitkerfioclltrr.requesting all th* steamer news they could send, and a verbal message to the telegraph office clerk to send us all they had at the Albany office. While the boy was goue, Mr Robinson, the clerk of the Albany office, came in to know if he should get the news sent down for us. I said certainly, and he immediately left. Soon after this several despatches were brought by our own and the messengers from the telegraph office, and these, as 1 afterwards learned, came from the Boston office, the line being then at work through from Boston to this city. I bad a copy of the key by which my brother would send a part ot his despatch. No despatch referring to the key was delivered at the Sun office at all, and many other items of news which my brother said were in his first despatch never came to hand. M. 8. BEACH. Sworn before me, the 17th day of November, A. C. FREDERICK E WESTBROOK, , Commissioner of Deeds. Canadian Politics* To thr Editor or thk Ha bald : Sir : Having observed an article in your paper, designating Sir Allan McNab, " late Speaker" of the Canadian legislature, I beg to remark that he is at present the Speaker, having positively refused to accept the office of Adjutant (leneral of Militia, which yen probably supposed disqualified him as Speaker. I mention this tact in order to set the public right on a question which appears to he misunderstood i am, sir, your obd't servant, A CANADIAN. The Constitutional Vote. AMKNDSD COIHSTITrTlO*. COWK.VTIOV. Counliei. yeg. So. Yri Jfo. Mfty before given 179,786 69,594) 19*,971 3i,5tl Alleghany J 816 TIO 2,310 1,955 Gattnraugal 3,088 7i2 1,726 67* Richmond 300 766 194 405 KocklMd 38 1 84 8 213 212 St. Lawrence 6 824 235 5,611 328 i'iogl 2,9 6 103 2.077 105 Kale*.. 1,919 365 1,016 437 Wnrren 1,935 418 9JI 838 ToUlo .7?."!?. . 201,005 73,937 212 712 35,529 73.337 35 529 177,123 Vote on Negro Suffrage. _ ? Jlbn. volt Counties. y,,% So. in 1844. " orty-oue before given 45.108 162,641 11,324 Mleghany 1,487 8,754 433 -.attaiaugui I 860 1.552 41; ^hemnuK 68s 2,082 106 j0'"'" 429 2 428 3 ... Umiltoa tj 222 s ,0? lefferaon 2 791 4,536 712 iichmond ? ms i dockland ^ j 21K ; jt. Lawrence 2 585 4>?7 488 r,o*0 747 2,054) 90 1.075 1 979 207 995 772 118 ,:??ben 1.311 5,445 243 Fiflv-four conntiea 59,195 191,7'9 14.292 59 193 Majority again?t 133,534 Court for thk Correction of Error*-?Wctllesrtay, Nov. 1H?Present, Lieut. Gov. Gardiner, Chancellor Walworth, and 24 Senator*. No. 16.?41 P. roat va Saratoga county Mutual Inauranca Gompany. lodgment tavaraed and venire da novo?18 to 41 No 15,l? ?Thoma* Motham and al. va K. P. Hayer. Argued in jlace of No. 83. Mr. W. C. Noy? hoard lor plaintiff in srroi; Mr K 11 Owen for defendant in error, and Mr W. g. Noyea in reply Dociaion poatponod. No. 13 J. howler ye. B P Jarmain. No. M? W Ellis v? the name -argued together. Mr. M. T. Reynolds waa heard for plaintiff in error. J *P** LD. WM TWO OMM. | Copt. Wolden, of the II. 9. Cutter Morrla. U. 9. ScMOO.tKB Mobhii, t Key Weat, Fa , Nov ?, 1946 j Si* Iu your Wctkly HtralJ of tb? 19tli Auguat, under the he .J of correapondence from Havana, appears acommu nication from an officer of the U 8. brig Perry, In which your correspondent if guilty of malting a Btatement derogatory to my character a* an officer, and which I pronounce false in every particular. He a a'e< that I aiguified an uowillincnea* to obey the oMer ot the Collector, when requested to get my veaael underway, to go in purauit of what wai euppoeed to be a Mexican privateer brig inatead of exureasing, or manifeatiug an iinwillingneaa to perform that duty, I gava the order to "weigh" before leaving the deck to answ.r the Collector'" note The wind waa light, and i got all my boats ahead and towed my veaael to aea. : The short apace of time occupied iu getting underway alter the receipt ol' the information. i? I think ar ffi1 cient to prove, that I waa bound on no unwilling errant In addition to which. I enclose a communication from the ! Collector, contradicting the atatmenta abort alluded to 1 did not, at the time, believe there was any auch vee . I ael on the roaat , but it there had been, nothing would : have given me greater pleaaure than to hare fallen la i wnn ner. I trmt you will Jo me the juttice to |(ive thii statei meat, together with the enclosed letter, niece in your columns, that I may stand in a proper light before the public I regret exceedingly to bo compelled to appear before them in this manner ; but justice to myself, at a public officer, 1 think requires that I should do so. 1 am. sir, with great respect. Truly your most obedieut servant, GREEN WALDEN, Captain U. 8. R. Marine. To James OoBiion Uknnktt. Esq., Editor of the Hem York Herald, New York. Collectok's Ovricz, / Ktr Writ, November 3, 1848. } SIB I have rea l the letter in the Xetp York Herald, under date afthr 19th of August, purporting to be from an officer of the I'erry, and to which you nave called my attention. The assertion therein contained, upon the pilot's authority, that you " did not see lit" to go out to the supposed Mexican privateer, it wholly gratuitous ; for your vessel was underweigh within hailf an hour altar your orders were dispatched. I have the honor to bo, your obt serrt, 8 R. MALLORY, Collector. Gbekn Wai.den, Esq., U. 8. R. 8 , Captain Commanding the U. 8. revenue cutter Morris. Ai-asur, Nov. 13, 1346. The Weather?The Troopi?Probable Resignation of Addiion Gardiner?The Decline of Sitae Wright?Restoration of the BourbonsLiberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable"?The Speaker of the House?Ladies' Fair?Alex. Welle, (e. f t. The tirailleurs of the artillery of heaven have spiked their guna; the clouda have rolled back, lika a curtain, and the sun beams out this morning with a May fervor. Up to this hour no requisition for troops has been received by the Governor from the Secretary of War.? The information that a requisition had been made was received in this citv by telegraph last evening. The first regiment of infantry volunteers, recently organized in New York city, and which expected to be put in commission when the first requisition was made, will probably receive the preference now. With respect to the resignation of Lieutanant Governor Gardiner, which I recently declared to be highly probable, I have only to aay that the affair la strictly a court mystery. We have no data liy which we can piecisely come at tliia gentleman's determination. We know that the conviction that he has received the unanimous support of the anti-rent party is very unpleasant to him, for the reason that he may be regarded aa in a manner committed to that party. Resignation, and private life, is more preferable to him than an identification with thia faction. We know this to be a fact, and we did not know that any other causes exist, which, of themselves, would induce the idea of resignation. It may be proper to suppose that interests both of a public and private nature will have due weight with Mr. Gardiner in determining what course he will adont in this matter. The dissent of Mr. Wright, of which we are advised, may have caused him to abandon the project. The Evening Journal says ho will not resign. The residence of Mr. Wright, in St. Lawrence eounty, whither he will retire on the expiration of his term of olllc.e, is being prepared for his reception. Mr. Wright is the proprietor of an excellent farm in this county, to the cultivation of which his attention will probably be directed for some time to come. Under how different circumstances have different men retired from public life at different times. Washington retired ; his life and character was a phenomenon; it was distinguished for a brilliant dignity, an inflexible integrity, and a combination of opposite elements of character, never before united in any individual, and unparalleled in the history of the world. He retired with a conviction that he had done his duty, and if the long line ef statesmen who have succeeded him in the administration of the government could have retired with the same conviction, sustained a* his was by the "eternal years" of truth, and tho applause of the world, how much more sublime and unapproachable would have > been the position of America, in comparison with the ? other nations of the earth But his successors have not retired with that conviction; they cannot retire with it; they retire pledged to the support ef the interests of a party, and not the interests of the whole > Union; they retire with their atloctions'concentrated upon > a moiety or a battalion of the mighty body politic ; they 1 are not distinguished for enlarged or comprehensive i views, or for a magnanimous sell sacrifice to the public honor and the national character. 80 long as these things are so, so long the North and the South will be " divided against itself," and their quaii "union" may finally "fall." That apposite and sublime sentiment, appended at the head of this letter ?" liberty and union, now and forever, one and inseparable"?exhibits a distinction among the successors ot Washington without parallel, and is alike creditable to the man who uttered it, and to the country which gave him birth. Mr. Hasbrouck, < f Orange, is the whig and not tho democratic candidate lor speaker of the House. I inadvertently designated Mr. Hasbrouck as the democratic candidate in my letter of the 13th instant. Alexander Wells, recently of New York city, has given up his residence in that city and will remain bale permanently -, he will open an office here, and begin the practice of the law. The ladies of the Unitarian Society, of which tho Bev Mr Harrington is the officiating clergyman, have opened a Kair at Bleecker Hall for the sale of telle lettrei, ton mule, needle work, and other articles of artistical skill, all of which are of domestic manufscture. The diaplay of articles last evening was very grand ; their disposition and ariangement were very superb snd very tasteful ; their sale very rapid, and the entire (af) fair very emu, sing snd interesting. The object, I believe, is for tho roplenithing of the funds of the church, and wa could hardly conceive of one more appropriate. The purchase of the City Hotel, in this city, for a theatre, was positively effected yesterda, by Messrs. R. J. Vandewater of Now York, and H. Meech of Albany.? 1 It is to be fitted up on a magnificent scale, and we now 1 confidently expect to see the noble art dramatifur ; ably sustained here. Death never proved his right to the title of " King of Terrors" more than now. The mortality ia great?he levels the fragile and the robust?the young man and the maiden - the king and the beggar?the emperor and the slave?the pope and the cardinal?the premier and the president?the beautiful and the betrothed, and the aged and venerated. He hta just taken my father from me in an atom of time, and without any preliminary movement. _ _ _ _ John Young's omcui majority in me sui* n ingrf ll,(KiO. The ofllcial majority for the amended constitution in A6 counties is 136.910. Orleans, Cattaraugus, and Tioga, are yet to be hoard from officially. The official majority against negro suffrage in 60 counties is 136,Kid. The aboyo montionad counties to be heard from. News from Santa Fk ?A letter from an officer of the I'm ted States Army to his friend in this city, says that,Lieut. Col. Hmitb, in cosnmand of the Mormon Battalion, arrived in Santa Ke on tha 9th. Tha commanding offlcet* speak in the highast tanas of the conduct and good order of these troops, and say that with time for urilling, they will be every way equal to the regular soldiers. The battalion waa turned over to the command ol Capt. Cook, who, with a portion of Cel. Price'* regiment?600 men in all, under the command of Col Piice?were to leave in a few day* for California. An election hail bean held in Col Doniphan's regiment to supply the place oi Lieut. Col. Ruff, who has returned to take his command in the new Rifle regiment. The candidates were Captain Jackaon, of Howard county, and Wm. Gilpin, the Major of the regiment, one of President Polk's favorites Capt. Jackaon was alected by an overwhelming majority. Thia cannot be regarded as vary complimentary to the Mgjor. Col Doniphan would leave in a faw days for the South. He would flrst visit some tribes of Indians, who have manifested a hostile spirit, snd a/lar quieting them, or whipping them into subjection, he would continue to Chihuahua and join Oen. Wool, unless affairs In Santa Ke required his earlier return. ?St. Lews Rcpuh , A'es. 10. Later from Havana ?The brig T. Street, Captain MoConnell, arrived yesterday from Havana, having left there on the let inst. The new* la not ol importance The subscription# for the relief of the sufferers by the hurricane had reached en the 39th ult. The papers contain tha drawings of the royal lottery. The following numbers drew the principal ' prizes No 4600 drew the prize $60,000, No. Mt3 draw I *16 000, No. 24.310 drew >8000; No 11871 drow $6000, ; 16,706 drew $2000, No. 58,368 drow $5000, No. 96,387 drew $5000, No 6692 drew $1000, No. 10,041 drow $1000. i No 36 568 drew $1000, No. 9605 drew $1000. The Italian company was daily expected in Havana on the brig j Hannibal. The chorlsteis are already collected, end are | daily rahearsing. The music of two operas, " Hernani" and " I Lombardi," they are already up in. The papers of the fthh ult. announce the bill for the openiog of the Tacon theatre, with a dramatic company. The papers contain a few more details of the effects of the ButtIcano, but they are entirely ef a local interest?A. O. J Picayune. Tiik Magnetic Telegraph and the Foreign News ?The news of the fall of Hour in England was not generally known in New York uatil a beat 3 P. M. yesterday, although communication of the steemei'a news was sent to New York for two or three private in | dividual, belora 10 or 11. About 13 o clock the wire was I cut in two places, snd the communication was not ra | sumeduntUi o'clock-?Aov. 18.