Newspaper of The New York Herald, 11 Aralık 1846, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated 11 Aralık 1846 Page 1
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i TH1 V?t. XU, Ho. 3S4_W*?le * . 4MT. REPORT ! OF THI lacratery of the tw??Bry. Ts*a*v*y Dkpartmi*t, Dec. 9, 1^6. la obedience to the " act supplementary to tbe mot to establish the Treasury Department," the undersigned respectfully submit* the following report The receipts and expenditures for the fiscal > year ending the 30th June, 1846, were as follow*? i BBCSIFT* 4M HUM. From custom >36,713 M7 97 Fram sateeefpaMie lands It Frea mlscsllsaesus seurces 93,136 71 *1 Tetsl receipts 3fl.499.347 M jmo MM in UN ireaeory in July, 1646, 7,668,306 33 Total mean* 37,167,663 26 The expenditure* dazing the mom fiscal year amounted to the Mm of. 3d ,031,114 30 Leaving a balance in the treatnry on the 1ft July, 1648. of 9,136,439 OB As appears in detail by accompanying rtatement A. Tbo estimated raccipta and expenditures for the flacal year ending 30th Juno, 1847, are aa follow* EtiBirra, >ii ! From cuitom*. lat quarter, by actual returaa o( tba ooUector* *6,163,6*6 3? Far tba 3d, 3d, and 4th quarter*, aa estimated 31.681,904 63 Total from custom* 37,836.731 00 From sale* of public land* a,400 000 00 fcrom miscellaneous source*. ........ 100,000 00 Total receipt*exclusive of treasury note* audioes* 31,336,731 00 From treasury notes under the act of 33d July. IMS *6,000.000 00 From loon under tho same act 6,090,008 00 10,060,000 06 Add balance in the treeeury 1st July, 1846, 9,136,439 08 Total means, a* estimated. . . 60,463,170 08 axraFoiTvaca, riz : Tho actual expenditures for the 1st qaaiter, ending 90 th September, 1846, P amounted to $14,086,661 37 Aa appears in detail by accompanying statement B. The aatlmatad expenditure* for tkm MiKltA a?Mfi/?? ring the other three quartera, frotn (kt 1st of October. 1846, to 60th Jane, 1647, an M foltowi, via.: Cirll li?t, foreign interoourM, ud mieoellane ui purpoeoa, 6,S10,03a 61 Army proper, including toluntoera 19,570,467 OS rurtiflcationa, ordnance, arming militia, fcc 3,471,766 Sfl Indian department, 1,643.773 18 Penaiona 1,498,613 61 latereat on the public debt, and treMury note* 1,086,966 83 Redemption of the reaiduo of the loan of 1841 3,000 00 Treeaury notea which are Cot outatanding and peyale when preeented 430,183 97 Naval e? tab tubmen t, 0,378,771 41 *66,341,313 00 _____?? i Kxceea of expenditure* over meant lat July, 1847,. . 77 . . .7 4,779 043 01 The earn of 660.000 lor aepplying deflcienciea of revenue froaa poetage, end alao of $900,000 lor pottage* of i Cengraaa and ol too executive department*, are included in the above ram. The ettimated recelota '? tho fiscal j ear commencing the lit Jnljr, 1847, and ending ?th J una, 1848, ara aa follow*, via: i From cutout, for the four quartan;.... 000,000 00 , From aalaa W public land* 3.90U.0U0 00 i Krom nuaoelhmem sources 100,000 00 _________ Total revenue $3 000 00 ! bed act deficit oa 1st Julj. 1847 4 770.Mi 01 ' i Total means for the service of tks fiscal < year ending J cute SO, 1848 $27,220,057 99 | urmrtrits Tho expenditures during ths same period, as esti- . mated by the several depart?au of State, Treasury, < War, Navy, and Postmaster General, vis < The balance* of former appropriation I wluoh wiU be required to is yen-Vd t fippropriMW * { peelHe appropriations asked for this year 41,717,16ft 48 ^ Total estisaated expenditure $4ft,7RI,784 61 ( This sum is composed of the following particulars 1 Civil ii*t, foreign intercourse, and nu?ccl i lintmn e ts e ?e e e e ?s eve e e e (Ml ?6,044,399 80 ( Army propnr ^ 1 Volunteers 17,W2,a?l 00 , Fortifications, ordnance, arming militis, kC I 07J.IW 00 pensions a .( oo Indian department 1.946 913 00 Nsral establishment. . 9,u04,7-2T 74 Interest mi pablic debt 1.406,344 *#46,781,764 61 Deduct total means for the service of the usoal year rndtof June So, 1*18 U7,*i0,967 99 Kxcees ot expenditure* over means lit July, 1848 $18,660,*Mi 51 The iub ol MKMl.te aapplyiag deficiency it revenue from poataf es, >*73,000 for poatagos of CanfttM and executive eOlceH, and f 117,750 of the debt assuned hj the t'nhed States for the cities of the Distiict of Co luabia, are incloded in the above sum. TUia cxcms m l>?scd on the assumption that the whole amount of five millions is outstanding of treasury notes authorized by the act of 22nd July, 1846, under a renewed authority now requested to bo conferred by Congress to issue the same ; but, as the whole amount oaanot be outstanding at toe same time, on account of the number of notes caucelled before a new note is issued, the excess of expenditures over means on the 1st of Juiyt 1848, should be estimated at nineteen millions of dollars; which will cover all expenditures, including that or the war, if con tinned up to that k is important at all times, as shown by uni form experience,but especially in a period of war, to heap a balance of at least four millions of dollars in the treasury, in order to supply the mint and branch mints with bullion for coinage, and foreign coin for re-coinage, as also to be enabled i ai mil nnw u> ptj me public creditors at every I point, both in and out of the country, with punctuality and despatch. Although, than, the actual 1 deficit on th? 90th of June, 1848, might not expeed nineteen millions of dollars, Uie t ecessity of having a surplus of four millions in the treasury at all Hies requires that a loan of twenty-three muMmm sbaulrt be authorized, unl -ss additional revenue is raised by some new provision ol law. As one ol the means of augmenting the revenue, a is propoeed that Congres* shall authorize a duty of twenty-five per cent, on tea and coffee, which it is estimated would reduce the loan required to nineteen million* of dollars. Aananed (marked C) ie a table of impart* o( i tea, and also of oeflee, frost 1821 to IfMtf. It will he percstved that the imports of tea being 10,891 tflft pounds consumed in the United States lor the last fiscal yea/, amounted to the value of ; and of ooffise, being 121 JSC,051 ? sasdi, el the value of' #7,802,HiA, making an of >U;il,W s duty of twenty live mm rent. oh wnicn wouh viMd ma annual rerenao ?r gt,Mt,m 7?. After making a full allowmm fur drosaaaed contnmpnon on acoount of tha (turn, the additional annual revenne from i)ui mm nufcHwWy aitiiruttd al JJ2,500,000. Thit duty, Uowaver, would be rendered nugatory u> part, lac several years, unlet* it were impnaad aanag u vary early poriod of the mnxw, aai to no hhu offset at a umo not later, if posstI>4a, than Uic 1st ol January next, Between that Mi and socnr time early in the spring large impmmtmm of toa, and, to ?omo extent, of coffee, mm t>ra?0u into the annutry, and ought to be ?ubjaoaed to tho duty, in order that revenue should fee tossed bans mm* import! 11 thit ii not done, end the duty win go into operation at a much later peetod, Mm tax will operate as an enhanced poe* M Mw oonsnmer, witnont producing a oorf en hand, and that would be imported tonbwitn?undi, a| oodre from Cuba end w Ltamiogo, and aome other porta ; and of tan, ta part, from tn* bonded warehouse* of liu rup? rnniM m fits of daty, in aniioipaiion 01 the Inw. *"wd oontrthnae nounng to the revrnae d onautry ) whld tho prine of the stock on hand Ian, as wed ae that (has brought us Iran of 4aiy, wowd I* augmented nearly in the same piwpor ton as if the daty had actually gone at wee .au> effect A delay, than, in imposing this defy on tan and eotfoe, whilet it wonld tax the i Mstumer lor several years nearly ea much aa if ?M dot? Were msiisl al oml would, during mat wheie period, Winn vary hula revenue into tho tseuenrv (fetch a delay, than, would only aahte a lew individuals to amass latge fortunes at the aspens* of the people. Such hue been the sltooai uniform effect uf die postponement of the opesauoa ei laws napoeaug now or additional dunes if watch ihe aannploa are numerous under the inatf ol UH&, ae alfo pr seeding laws. The reductsen of the lean irotn twenty-three to nine? teea ? miens, nyiaer with the im position of thu duty en tea and coffee, towards taocung the payp?oM mil, H to oonnatved, make ditteieaee in E NE NE\ the term* on which the loan can bo effroted, I which, m the period of twtatr jrnri, would nri largo amount of tax ?o ike people of the Unitod Staiea ; wher-m, ii no eat-h Jti'y i? impo*eJ, *nd, aa a conaequence, a loan lor a wm ?o targe aa tweutjr-throe million* without Una ad<li>ional revenua must be male daring a parted of war, unovrtain in ita duration, and attended with hoary ax- ' penditurea, judging of the fumre by tl?e pan, tha govarnmcnt ma/ be aubjecuc! to a aarioua loaa in uagotiating tha loan, or involv?d ui e.nberraaameota alike iujarieue vo the credit and honor ol the country. In negotiating for ao large a antn aa nineteen or iwcui/ iaire million* in tun# of warf with heavy expenditures, uncertain in their duration. mil experience at bom*and no. >?J proves that a loan tor a long term will aave a large amount to the ire a-1 au/y, compered with one of ?borter date ; and it is ?elieve<i tlint, in thiacaaa, the loan should be for a pariod oi twenty years, reaerving the power conferred t y existing laws to purchase the stork at the market price at any prior date, when oar means may permit, to that the debt may be extinguished a* ?oon as possible, and long before its | practicable In this way, \mJrr ordinary circumstances, the advantages of a long and a abort loan are to some extent combined. The Arat half of ilie loan should, it i? though', l?e negotiated early in the spring, payments being required only as the money may be needed; aod tne remainder, if wanted, should b? negotiated some time during the succeeding summer or fall, payments only to be made, alio in this case, its the money may be required; so that no larger sum may I;c borrowed, in any event, than may be demanded by the wants of tne government. In compliance with the proviso of the first auction of llio act of the 10th of August last, a full statement;? heiewithcommunicated (marked D) of all uea^ ury notes paid under the proviaiona o( that act, amounting on the iirat of thia month to #17.446 31. Table ?, hereto annexed, ahaws tin payments made since 'the 4th of March. 1H1R of th? principal and interest of the public debt up to the tirit of the present month. The amount of principal thus paid was 81,690.605 2, and of interest, $1,628,042 82?making an aggretta'e of public debt paid since the <ith of Marcn, 1846, o f$3.2H8, 647 64, ol which (except the sum ol 9518 4100) the whole amount consisted of debt or interest upon debt, incurred before the 4th of March. 1845. Statement F, hereto annexed, shows the amount of treasury notes issued under the provisions t?f the act of the 221 July last, boing a total of #3353.100; of which the amount of $1,706,460 bore an interest of one ini'l |>er cent on every hundred dollar?, and ?2,066,65!) an interest of live and two-fifths per cent per annum. In thft same statement will be found the amount paid into the treasury on account of the , flve million loin,whtch,in pursuance of the public notice hereto annexed (marked FF) was nego- i tiated at six per cent interest, under the act of the 221 July last, cither at par, or (as was the case lor a small portion) above par. The sum paid and entered on the books ol the Register of the Treasury was, on 1st December last, $3,461,600. The payments are still progressing, the stock bearing interest ?mly from the date of the actual deposits of the money in the Treasury. In the same table will be found a statement of i the publio debt of every description, principal , snd interest due by the United States, including | loans, treasury notes, Jtc , amounting, on the 1st < December last, to $24,256,494 SO: ol whiob i 917,788,799 62 was contracted before the 4ih i ivlarc.i, 1845, leaving the whole debt incurred j since that date $8,467,694 98, embracing $320,000 at the Mexican treaty indemnity debt assumed | by Congress at its I art session. I At the date of the repeal of the tariff of 1842, i [ha r?v?>niifi ?ra? rfm-liniiiir Th? 1? ?? ? - ?? ? ? ^ * ?v iw?i|(ia umuvi it into the treasury were lets by the sum o( |815,444 83 during toe last fiscal year terminating >D 30th June, 1846, than the receipts during the litcul year ending on the 30th J line, 1815. That this decline was progressive, and arosj Vom tfa- prohibitory character of tho specific In ties, is "proved by the table hereto annexed [marked G.) from which it appeurs that, for he fiscal year ending 30th June, 1844, the excess rfi?wrcwts jyyuie^Qix ?p?ci&c over ad valorem I I ,-enr ending 80'h June, 1845, the ait valorem ixseeded the specific duties #1,737,370 57; and luring the last fiscal year the ad valorem exoeed id the sptcittc du:ifsy2,tl63 53191 As the -pceiric iuties in their practical operation were becumiug jvery day more prohibitory, the revenue under he tariff of 1842 must have continued to sink so apidly as soon to have caused a great deficit, jven in time of peace, and thus have required lltimately a resort to direct taxes or excises to mpport tne government. The duties collected at the port* of Baltimore, L'hiladeliihiA, and New York, during the first Ive days of December, 1&M?, under the new tarin. i imounted to #416,802 t(7; and daring the first Ivo days of December, 1845, under the old tariff, :o 9208,374 60 This rate of augmentation, it i* lot supposed, will continue; but that the revenue Irom duties this year will reach the amennt estimated now, and in my report to the Senate oi :he 16ih July la*t, at 927,835,731, is, for the reasons therein stated, fully believed. Herewith are transmitted the regulations, [marked H,) adopted by this department in obedience to the provisions of the law of the 6th ol ituguat last, establishing the constitutional treatury. It will be perceived, by reference to the St 1 instructions, that this department ;has proceeded to carry into foil effect the intention* ol Congress in the enactment ot this law. The rules established in i elation to treasury drafts have rendered it impossible that they can ever be converted into a circulating medium. The bill, however, is detective in some of its details. Mo appropriation is made by the law for the payment of the ?alari?s i ol the assistant tMaanrera, or the additional sala- i riesofttie treasurer* of the mint, nor for the compensation of the* examining agBnts.authorised by the law, and whose services are ^so necessary, < under its provisions, for the security of the public i money. The provision for incidental expenses is i wholly inadequate; the number of clerks also is insumciem to iraesaoi me pueuc ousiness unoer tbe provisions ofithis law; and it in thought, ought to be augmented from ten to twenty?more i than Ave time* the latter number having been i required te transact the nme business when these moneys were kept, transferred, and disbursed by the banks. Wo adequate security is provided by law for the safety of the public money in the hands of disbursing agents; and whilst transfers are required to be made from place to place, ol specie, do appropriation is made by this law to pay the expenses of these transfers, or to enable disbursing agents to pay the public creditors at All times and places with punctuality arid dispatch. Tbe powers of this department in relation to that portion of tbe public moneys which must be paid on tbe other side of the Atlantic, or in any toreign country, through the medium of agencies existing, or to oe created there, and by tbe operation of toreign bills ol exchange, are nut sufficiently defined by law. Tbts authority, which expedience has shown to be necessary at all times, ? now rendered of the highest importance by the payments and disbursement* required to be made in so many portions ofthe republic of Mexico, and many of them so distant from any depository. Tbe great object, in these cases, would not be to circulate paper among our troops in Mexico, but to facilitate tbe obtsuning and transferring specie there lor circulation, through the operations of foreign exchange, on terms highly advantageous to tbe government. It being the aaxions deauo of this department, even for beneficial purposes, never to exerciee any doubtfil powers, the propriety of some more clear and adequate provisions on this subject is submitted to the enlightened consideration mi Congress. In connexion with tbe amendments proposed to the bill organixing the constitutional treasury, far the most {important would be the establisnir.cnt of branch ot the mint of the United States fit th* <*itV nf Nnw Vnr Ir Irk nartnrm amnna its ... -V -"-I I ?* ? other function*, the duties appertaining to a dep sitory of the public tnon? y. Luring a period of more than halt a century, the mint and branch minis have Imd deposited with them about one hundred and sixteen millions of gold and silver bullion and coin, no portion of which has ever been lo-t to the government; and as two-ihirds of our wtiole revenue is collected at the city of Now York, a branch there would place beyond all hazard the security of the public money, and at the , sama tune gruaily enlarge the circulation of gold and silver. For the reasons stand m my last annual report, loreign gold coin will not, to any extern, circa late as a currency amoog the people. It is necessary that this com should receive the American stamp, by rtcoinage at our own mint, j into eagles, bau and quarter eagles, in order to enable it to pas* into geaeral circulation. When we consider the vast amount of foreign coin that is brought into the city af New York t!irough the operations of busineee, as well as of the euatom- | house there, as also by emigrant* tram abroad, the importance of con verting all this at once there into American coin can scarcely be over-evtil W YO V YORK, FRIDAY MORI mated. If tho specie now flowuig within our limits remains in foreign coin, it may find in way, not into circulation, but, into the vaults of the banks, where it might be made the basis, as often heretofore, of bank nnd paper expansions ; and if so, ruinous revulsions could not fail to ensue It is important to all the great interes's of the coun'ry, but especially to manufacturers, that the currency should not be redundant or depreciated, and excessive imports of foreign merchandise brought as a consequence into the country. In connexion with the constitutional treasury, a branch of the mint at New York would be most useful in converting the foreign into American coin, encouraging thereby its circuli|uon among the people, instead of triple and quackupie issues of bank paper. We are beginning to realize the benefits of the Aew tariff, many imports having been warehoused in anticipation ot the new duties, and some al ready pa id. By freer interchange or commodities, the foreign market is opened to our airri. cultural product*, our ton nag* and commerce are rapidly augmenting, our exports enlarged and the pnce enhanced, exchanges are in our favor, and pecie ii (lowing within our limits. The country waa never more prosperous, and we have never enjoyed such and profitable markets for all our products. Tuia is not the result of an inflated currency, but is an actual increase of wealth and business. Whilst agriculture, commerce, anc navigation, released from onerous taxes and re stricuons, are thus improved and invigorated manufactures are not depressed. The large pro his of manuraoturers may be in some cases sotn? what diminished ; but that branch of mdustrj now reposing'more on its own skill and resoMjcei is still prosperous and progressive. New manula( lories arc being erected throughout the countrj and still yield a greater profit, in most eases, thu-. capital invested in other pursuits. Commerce between nations is but an exchange of their respective products, specie liqnidatini only the occasional fluctuating balances, and can not long be maintained 10 any great extent by salts for specie only. Thus, ii England opens her markets to our products, whilst we exclude by high duties most of the fabrics she would sell in exchange, her specie would rapidly diminish, and sucn a commerce would languish and decline. She might still, lrom necessity, purahase \ portion of onr products; but a necessity equally stern and irresistible, from exhaused means, would soon compel her to reduce the purchases and price, and thus diminish the balance demanded from her iu specie. To maintain, then, permanently a profitable commerce with England, the barriers must be broken down on both sides ; her corn laws repealed, and our duties reduced, so as to nermit nn ?vnh?ncH> ? >(' r , 1 ?? B? V? Ml i idUliV9 Itfl uur products. With high duties on our part, we ixmld realize but little permanent advantage from the repeal of her corn laws. Such high duties would continue in force, as against our farmers, the British corn laws, nearly as effectually as though tU?*y bad nevor been repealed. Before the re)>eal of those Uwi, the acwocates of our protective policy coeceded that, if England would open her inaikets for our bruadstuns and provisions, we should receive ber.fabrios in exchange. Now ber markets are thus opened to these products; and the friends of m protective taritf, abandoning their former posi'ion, would still arrest by high duties the exchange of English fabrics for our breadstuff* and provisions. If the reduced duties are continued on both sides, so as 10 permit a reciprocal interchange of commodities, the foreign market, now opened for our ureadstufT* and provision*, must be maintained Our farmers now have, and must retain, otir lorae market, with or without the tariff, because jruadstutf* aud provisions cannot profitably be mported here, The tew diverted from fanning o manufactures, by a high tariff, bear no comparison in number with the people of the werld, vhose markets are lost, in whole or in part, by igh duties. Nor is it chiefly the farmers, but (he ueicliaut, the shipbuilder, and shipowner, the teaman, and the thousands of laborers in the marts >f our foreign commerce,that furnish much the larger portion of those who are driven by a high tarilf rom existing pursuitsinto manufactures; and conluiuiog, as they all did, our own breadstuff* and provisions, a* well before M altar Una change of ^ ?uTBirto'tntM?!***?iditiQua.l market is thereby n - I oss, in so far a* the machinery of the inmmlacturer | >vhich consumes no breads tUft or provision,is sub- j mnictl Ibrtlie manual labor engaged in agriculure, commerce, and navigation. I he number ol nanufacturers would not be increased(ifinereas? d r. all) more than one tenth by the differ* noe bo ween the tartfT ol 1H42 and that of 184ti; and of .bat tentfi, more than one-half would not have | shanged Iroin agricultural pursuits, lu the inean;une, when commerce and navigation flourish unler low dimes, a larger number of consumers of >rea<lHiutl'?'mii<l provisions aru diverted to those Diirsni's Ironi agriculture, than would he driven om it into manufactures by high duties. No ning, then, is gained in a home market to tho arrner by high duties, whilst the markets of the world are lost or diminished. The population ol he world is now one thousand millions, increasng at the rate of not less than tea millions per innam, with but little augmentation anywhere of >read?tulTs and previsions, except in our own country; yet our larmers .are asked to abandon I this immense marker, in the vain attempt to crritr. an adt quale home market, by sacrificing agucutture, commerce, and naviga ion, for the hentit ol manufacturers. Experience is against the protective policy. In GiiKland, after a long trial, and rninou* results, itis abandoned; ai.dhere, under the tariff of lH-ti, ih- prices of breadstuff* and provisions fell, and nave now risen with the reduction of duties and the opening of a foreign market. From a long peace Europe is becoming so densely populated, that her poorer soil and mere uncertain climate afford a less adequate supply of feod from year to year for her rapidly increasing population. Under * system of law duties, and a reciprocal interchange of commodities, it will be the interest, not only of (rreat Britain, but al?o of most of the -ontinent ol Europe, to take a large supply uf lood from us; t>ut, hy arresting ibis exchange of iheir fabrics lor our producis, it l>ecotne' their in terest, and in fact a necessity, to look lor and enuonrage markets elsewhere; and also by extraordinary means, and high governmental bounties, 10 drive capital into agriculture there,to supply the wants of their people, unable to purchase our products, for which, by high dunes, we demand payment in specie. If we receive the fabrics ot Europe in exchange lor cur products, it will be their interest to encourage and enlarge that commerce ; U11U II III UBl gu UU l?p?w? 7 o?^iliriiunn, Mil ill WI country become* the granary tor Europe, and oar | export there of food shall even exceed that of coton, great as that i* destined to be under a system of low duties. With this enlargement of our ex j I>orts will come a correspondent increase ol oar import*, and a great augmentation of tha ravenue j of the government and of the prosperity af the t people. There will be a greater number mare profitably engaged in agriculture, commer r, and navigation. The increased number and prospe- i rity of thoae classes, constituting lour-fifths of the I whole people, wilt enable tbam greatly to extead j their purchase*; and the manufacturers, by the increased ability and mean* of our own peopta, will derive, iti a series of years, a greater bene- T tit, than by destroying the ability of thcir.cii'toiners, by excluding their prodncts from the foreign market, and depriving them to that ex ent ol tne means 10 purchase at home or abroad. If die ship- | builder constructs, and the navigator freights more vessels?if the fanner sells mora breadstuff* and provisions, and ihe planter more cotton, and at better prices?if tha inerehaat transacts a larger and more prosperous busiues*?if the seamea increase in number and receive better wages?if the wotkiug classes employed in connexion with tiade in our American marts of foreign com- 1 merce are increased and rendered more prosperous, they must all be enabled to purchaae more ....i .. i...... 1 tii our own iii?uuimvuivi, ? i'<?u??. Under such a ayttemol reciprocal interchange ol commodities with all the world, the great city ol New York would become (what the now k (or th<State* of this Uaion) the great mart for the commerce of the various nation* ol tne earth. Located nearer the centre of tlie commence of the wdrld than any Euronean^owy, the would goon augmenting until she nadtui patted tliem all, aud witlun lier own limits and tuburbt would atford ? larger home market for our breadttalfi and provision?,, the whole number woom a piotrchve uuiff would drive front agriculture to manufactures. Such would be the ellect on Ne\v Voik as a maiket for breadstuff* and provisions; wbdst Now Orleans, Philadelphia, Boston, Baibmore, and our othef groat commercial marta, would move onward in an accelerated progress, augmenting the demand for agricultural products, as well aa lor foreign and domeatic manufacture. Tins ts tho (rue method of buildiug np a home market tot the products of all our industry. This is the moat aquai, juat, certain and permanent, as well as the mo? ntfectaai and comprehensive prelection and encouragement, not only of manufacture*, but alto ol agriculture, commerce, and i*a RR ] NING, DECEMBER 11, 1! vigation, and th* labor connects! with every branch of AmeriMq indurtry. Table 1, hereto annexed, (bow* that the aggregate value of cotton, rice, whe?t. rye, lad lac c-orn, oat?. asd barley, wan. on the Mtt of July, 1844, under tbe old tariff. $493 831 904; and on tbe 1st December, 18*0, whan the new tariff went into effect, $900 27i.ftW?making an aggregate difference in the price of 118 9U 969. It i* true, that tba failure of certain crop* la Greet Britain and the continent baa, to aone extent, affected prices; bat then there ere oppoeiog oaaaea?aoch aa Ike enormous freight low exchange kc.?which, in thi abac dc* of reduced dalles. nnit have kept the prioee on SO'.b July and lat Deteiber eaare nearly the mm If. however, but sixty millions be added by the new Uriff to the va^ue of the prod net* of agriculture and the profits of coBKtereeMd navigation, more than one-half would be empUyaiTM purchase of domestic fabric*, which, in the a bee nee of thoee augmented means and profits, could not have found a market at (air prices at home or abroad. Whilst vast sums have been, and still are, being expended by the construction of railroads, canals, and other improvemsata, to transport our prod dots to our great aeaboard citiee, when they reach tkee*. point* the farmer sad plantar, jMfttf finding the ocmq as a highway pttpiml to carry their crop*, fro* of all toll or tax, to all the world, met the Uw* of their own government doting In whole or la part that highway to those market* for their product*, by heavy dutie* on nearly all the tabrie* that can be sold in exchange. Xhe labor employed In agriculture, commerce. and a? vigatioe ia a* much American labor as that engsged in manufactures, with let* of machinery a* a substitute ? As you depreaa theie three great interest*, the demand for workmen in those pursuits is diminished. The labor thus deprived of employment ia thrown into the powe' of the m^iufacturer ,*nd must ensbtotheas to brin gilou u wages to tho loweat point which will afford a scanty subsistence; whereas, if agriculture, commerce, and navigation are improved, as the result of low datios, there must be increased competition and demand for labor, and its wages must be enhsnced. The borne market osn never be sufficient tor oar tepidly increasing agricultural products; bat it is for all oar manufactures, and for a vast amount besides, which is imported yearly from abroad. Let us enlarge the market for otv own manufactures at home, by removing taxation and restrictions from agriculture,oommeree, and navigation, and, with augmented means, thoee engaged in these pursuits will lurnish a larger and bettor home market for our manufactures than they can ever derive in a series of rears by diminishing the profits of other puriuits by hign duties end onerous restrictions. The great body of American consumers not engaged la manufactures are the customers of the manufacturer, and, to affect injuriously the means of those who purchaae. must eventually diminish the profits of those who sell the manufactures. By extending our own commerce, agriculture, and navigation, by increasing the profits of those engaged in those pursuits, by relieving them from heavy taxes, and opening to them unrestricted exchanges with all the world, a far larger, and batter, and more permanent, and eventually more profitable home market will be secured to the manufacturers than any they can ever derive from diminishing the means of their customers engaged in other pursuits. When the wrmer ana planter, tne mc reliant and navigator, are mo?t prosperous, they will purchase more of American at well ae foreign manufacture*. In this manner, labor, untaxed and unrestricted by legislation, will find iti way into the most natural channels and prosperous pursuits, and the aggregate wealth of the whole nation will advance most rapidly. Thus, whilst u large and profitable market, not dependent on legislative bounties, or restriction*, or itoxee, will be buQt up at home lor our own manufactures, the foreign market for them will be extended jy freer exchanges. The export of eur manufactures last year amounted in value to $9,tffl.340, which must go on rspidly augmenting under a more liberal commercial policy. Such of tour manufactures as, from their interior location or other causes, do sot require high duties, constituting far the larger portion of the whole, are, especially, greatly injured by the protective system; and the higher the duties, the greater the resulting injurious effects They are injured both in tne home ana foreign market. The injury arises in the home market, by diminishing the means of their customers here to purchase their Fabrics; and they are injured in the foreign market, by restrictions unon the exchanges thereof their experts of home manufaoturva lor foreign import!. I'adera system of low duties, ell our exports weuld be greatly augmented, and we should export large ly not only breadstuff's, provisions, cotton, rice, and tobacco, but aleo, in time sugar and molasses; and ultimately large quantities of wool,and hemp, as well as manufactures of wool, hemp and cotton Already Indian corn has become new article of export; 1 and in time, by a system of liberal exchangee with all the world, iron would take its place on our list of exports '?u U u wpUMant to etjual right* and repubbcun principles, to force, by legislation ?y claas of the community |o buy frofci or i?lf only to toother High duties are jqulvalent to legislative resolve that the farmer slislFbuy asd sell only in the home 1 market, aod n -t to any eaiant in any of the other nartcyj5tj>* w<w1'1- brings Into ther Bat, by upering ullthe markets at home antrtlfftad to all our pc-jplo engaged in every pursuit, agriculture, cauniibrCk. iranclactsucJ, and navigation, ltutotid ot be icg antagonist interest*, would soon all be united *u<l harmonized in advancing together the public welfare. Such a tariff must soon satisfy ail eleaaes and ?U branches ot industry, placing this great question on a permanent CmU, taking it, 31 vol: is all the punuiu ot business, out of the arena of politics, and out of the struggle to advance or depress rival political parties or aapirants. 80 long aa it is sought to advance particular branches of industry at the expense of others, by high duties, the tariff will bra source of never-endin t political agitation, rendering uncart*!) all the punuits of business, defying all calru.atluu as to the investment of oapital, fluctuating with every election, and rising or filling with the successive elevation or dowotall of political parties Mo tariff ever can be permanent whiob forces tho American people, for tUe bent lit of any class or portion of them, to buy or sell only In such market aa* bo prescribed by law. Such a system, although it migut for a time obtain a transient victoiy, cannot ultimately and permanently be sustained by the American people. The llritith corn-laws and our taiiff of IM2 were identical in principle, although applicable to different im porta In Kngiand, the rfloit was, by the corn-lawa, to build up a home market for agricultural products at the expense of manufactnrea. H*?e, the effect was, by protective duties in favor of manufactures, to Impair the market abroad (or our suaplua agricultural products, in tngl*nd,lt was railed the protection of agriaulture; here, the protection of manufactures, la Kngiand, the Mow was aimed at manufactuies; here, the injury was ictticted oti agriculture, commerce and navigation. To bmld up an adequate home market here, for our vast and r*l>iuiy itU|inoiiiiu|| skiivuiiuib* "/ i?**? v 11 ilit! exchtbge of our export* in foreign markets, wm u impossible as it would he to establish sufficient home market for British manufactures by the com liwi. Manufacture* sre the greet British export*, and agricultural product* the chief Americas export*; and any restriction upon .be exchange* of either in the foreign market, to which export* man always look for a purchaser, mult he disastrous in it* effect*. The rainou< consequences of the protective system haring been proved in Kngland by her own moat enlightened tateemen, and demonstrated by experience, it he* been surrendered there, by mo*t of those who sustained it hereto ore. under the lead of its own former moat able and distinguished advocate ; and now, when it ha* failed abroad .after reducing million* there to want and miaery, we are aiked. after it* overthrow there and here, to reeatabluh at home the condemned and abandoned Britiah protectivepolicy. At the very time when the market* of Great Britain are opened to our product* by the repeal of her corn law*, we are desired to prevent their o|>?ration in favor of thoie product* by high or prohibitoiy duties on the only fabric* fur which they can bo ex lutoged. There yot remains tobacco?one of our important sts plea?on which heavv duties, not for protection, but for revenue only, ore (till imposed in Kngland ; but if our present commercial poiicv la mainlmned here, it H not douMed that eve* on thi* article the present high duties will be reduced, with the progressive advance, there and throughout the world, of the more liberal and enlightened sjstem of unrestricted exchange*. It i* believed that the tariff of 184A Will vindicate it*eif by iU i?*ulU : that it will furnish more revenue than the act N superseded. and more rapidly advance the bu*ine*s and prosperity of the Whole country. The duties aie impoaod only lor revenue to support the government, to bring money into the treasury ; and not to enhance prices, or to advance particular classes or pursuit* at IM e aye nee of other* The duties are a**o**od on all Imports in exact proportion to their value, and not according To Use system of specific duties and minimum*, by watch the per centsge of taxation invariably rises as the vaiae ot the ariK-ie is depreeeed, and sinks as it rtoaa la t?Im ; Uiu uniformly dtocriminahng in faror of tlx weeI thy faw, awl ipuiit the loihng uiillioni No ada<juata rw?-n hai M bean advanced wby all dutiaa should not be impoead on all article' in prsportion to thai* reel ?elu? Aa to Iraoda, oar merchant* and public linn aia aa familiar with tha foreign ai with the Mm prkw currant The dyty being aaaeaaed on each cargo in proportion to Ita ralua at tha port of asportaUaa, that value Nrinf governed by tl<? price at tha ana pott from which the aliipnent was made, U much mora eaail? aacaitalnabla thin tha home value, which to lifleraot In nearlv all our principal citiea. No epprehenetaaa ara entertained by thia department of impaaiuoo by fraudutont inviMcae or Calao valuattona It to laliy believed that a niun of fair and honaat valuation can and will ba eatahttohad, by lacreaaed vigilance at ba?a and abioad, bt mahlng ana cuatom houae and ona at af apptaiaaia a check upao tha othar?tbua aattbltohitig uniformity throughout tha I'nlon, and Anally tubjectiag the whale to eupervtafon bora, under th? InaieWat* nirarttati and upenntebdouoe of, thla dapartman'. It to beitovad that tha aggregate rarauaa undar tha now land ?xcao'ling that uaoar tha aid, will damonatrata that tha gavaraaMWt baa not loet by fraudalabt invoicaa at alalaa veluaitone undar tha ay>lam of duuaa ad valorem. and thai tha datiaa will ba eailoctad according to tha actiaal value M tha MaparUi which M to nat pratenJad. no.-WM it daricead that tbay ihould ba undar jataiii af u.immumt or incite duuai II h teiptcUally dial lb- saw 7?U<a. *o /Jit Ufc] tqiiai 111 ail im purpaaaa, >kaul<l U*t? t (atr iml. Lvtn tboaa what Ol>MM M, fM ?MIW CMl< tcUoa tbal II 1 IIIUMtUI, u?ui u jeewe tkx a u>oiit4 Im iwijr triad If it hilt, Umx bmiw, it can ikan ba ?haa<aa?< tad lha aUl fdaa taaKwl, b<u U tba uaw Unt laocaaJa, u la tb? cf i laa> baltat c4 Ui* >|aitMM. 11 *M l>? triumph af juaUea aad a< aqaai tba bigfcMt honor (jo our fro# Iftilitiinai II ta MarhaUa Lbat all Iba abla and |>bi'o*or>hk*l wntan ?a thia giaal q???UMi. iu hiuopa aod Aaai lea uarMwariad arMb p*.ty or pUttri. ami luflaonci aai; Oy a ifu-i Nm iriu* and tita b*ai hkiwu af all t awtft, ktit MV M tortUutt* HTWNi <* jraat JERA 346. I dootrina ot free exchange*, ere n wiien the practice of gorenjmente wa* oMM to their ritwi; Ml they bow enjoy the high ?*ti?fLotion of fiag what ther regarded w axiomatic truth* incorporate! into the policy of the two greatest power* of the woild, and movin* oawarJ to the groat and fl >ai victory of unireraal peace nod unreatrietod commerce A copy of the instructions for carrying into efleet tha naw tanif ia hereto annexed, aarkad J. | Ia oonnoxion with the fioanoet, the suggestion* made i ia a*y last annual report, in i*gard to the reduction an'l ' graduation of tho price* of the public land* in fnror of i aettlora and calUTatora>ar? again respectfully submitted to theconsideration dkCtetrw, n? a certain mean* of i augmenting the reYoaMANke public lands now lubject to *ale at private entry exceed one hnadrod and forty milUna* of acre*, a raat portion of which, long in market, ia I Wholly unoaleable at existing rate*, bat would, if reduced and gradaatad, And many purchasera at lower I ratoa. Tho aoloa ia tho Chickasaw teuton :? i>.? oI Alabama, MteelMippi, tad Tuhmm. eatablish the <Mt, that tha application ?t Um principle of redaction and graduation rapidly augment* the proceed* of th? tale*, the addition to tha wealth ar tha nation, in the augmented value of the*e land*, u wall a* tha cu|>? that have baan already rai*ad upon than, cannot be than thirty million* of dotlars. This district having baau sold for tha benefit of tba Chickasaw*. 1* tha only one of tha land districts in tha naw Sttte* to W&Joh the principle of raduction and graduation ha* baan applied; and the remit ' ha* proved tha beneficial effect* of this great measure, both a* a mean* af augmenting tha reveuue, and increasing the public welfare My a communication from tha General Land Office, hereto annexed (marked If) it appear* that tha Quantity of public land* in that caa*iaa is acre*, of which :i,MI 309 bare baan sold. Tha avenge price realized in lea* than nine year*, np to tha MOt or Jane, 1*43, was ninety-ona canta par acre; tha land* being subject to *ale by tha treaty, tha first year at M 9* par acre, the second year at ? per acre, tba third year at'llfty cent* per acre, tha fourth year at twefity five cants per acre, and tho fifth and all succeeding year* at twelve and a half c?nts per acta. This is a lower price, and a mueh more tepid reduction thsn was proposed in regard to the public landa, an! yet this diatrict in which the aalea ware made in the iimo manner, (excent the graduatiou.) by the United States. as other pubUo lands, ha* commanded a 1 larger proportional aum in the una period than any other 1 land district in the United State*. It alto appear* by tha official report from the Commnaioner of the General < Land Office, that if the whole of the public lands in eech 1 of the land districts of the several new States of the < Union had been sold within the same period at the same 1 rates, there would have"been a saving to thi* government, including interest at aix per cent, on its revenue ' from public land*, uf $4l,99U.fiAT. But few of these land* were purchased tot njae?l?iiiin " ? ?1 how) chiefly by eettWia and cultivator), distinguished 1 for autarpriM and industry, as wall a* for moral worth tod io'eUigence : aad whilst contributing largely in mono) from the aales, hava added many million* of dollor* to tM aggregate wealth of the nation, in the improvement and cultivation of those lands. If graduutiou bill, la the form in which it |>e*?ed the Senate on it* raturn from the Hoc**, dating last sesiiou, should beeome a law, it would increase the i*venue from the public land* from half a million to a million of dollar per annum ; and, if adottod, together with the uropotod duty on toa and coffee, the loan might be aafelv reduced to eighteen millions of dollar*. 11, however, the piUcfole of graduation applied to the <'bickt>s*w OMOOU were adopted at regards all the public lend*. it would increase for many year* the revenue Irom that source, as proved by the data presented in the table before referred to, several millions of dollars por anuuia. It is believed that the sates, at the prices reduced and graduated, should be confined to limited <|uuntities, sold only for settlement and cultivation. In this manner, whilst the aggregate wealth of the nation aad revenue of the govarmaant are rapidly augmented, the wages of labor must be eahancod, by affording to oar working classes and the industrious poor certain means, whenover a reduction of their wages shall be proposed, of pur chasing home* for themselves and families, at the reduced rate* to bo tabiiahod, In relation to the public lands, by the graduation bill. Such augmentation of the revenue might be produced by removing several onerooe restrictions in the preemption law. and especially 'iy extending its |u?t and saluteryprovisiona to|the|Unsuiv*yedUnda to which the Indian title h*> been extinguished. By return* from the General Land Office up to the 1st of November la*t, it api>ear* that whiltt the surveyed lands not yet offered at public ale. to which the preemption punclple now extend*, mounted to lb MA.441 acre*,the uusurveyad.towhich the Indian title has been extinguished, amounted to R7Jacre?; the opening of which to pre-emption* could not fail to angaamt the (revenue it would carry thousand* of settlers upon these laud*, in advance of the ?urvoya as well as the sains, who would Ueetrc to purchase the forma occupied by thorn, tho existence of which would giv* inoieased value to the remaining Iinds, and largely augment the proceeds of the aale*. Whilst tho measure would thu* increase the rtnenuo, it would lo 0 cure ho=te* to those eiiterprising and patriotic settler* who move in advance into the wilderness, extending the y u.r....iK?Vi uTiuMiwii,uim?,u|wi luntiiuicu ? t'i aj. , uLtmmhhti^n frfiigiple,. in.1 ?ooi. , revenue by authorizing the sale of thai portion or me ' public* uoi>Uiiiii.i( copper bud oib-u oie<i vUilst the ui?wiur? woulrifiuoit: tepidly develope (lie resource* ' of this valuuble ri'gion, and at th?* >?iue tluie cunveit j into owwii and proprietors thorn-, who now occupy the relation of tenants to the federal government as a laallord If rongrass, at an early p-1 md of Ut? i>r*?ent se?aiou, woalJ impose the propokod <iuty ou tea and colfee, reduce rind graduate the price of the public lands io favor of settler* an>l cultivators, extend toe pro eaptMu aystern to the unaurveyod laud* to which the Indian tule hai been extinguished, and antborixe the sale ol that portion of tha public lands containing copper ami other valuable ore*, the loau might mifely he reduioJ from twenty-three to seventeen nulllons of dollar* Annexed are copies (marked L>) of matrncuoaa, iss-ed by this department, to oerry into elWt the act of the 6lb of August la't, establishing the warehouse system. The Urge majority by whicti this Ian- was passed, and the beneficial results already accomplished, clearly indl rate that it may be regarded as a part of tb? settled policy of tbe conutry. That it wonld havo been more advantageous if there had been no limit to th>< time for retaining goods in tbe warehouse, is the belief ol this department; but the measure having been adopted la its preNout form as a compromise of competing opinions, no lecuniinriiu'tuuu a* riwiuiiipu iw <u?iuiviuai ^wy^ ivi.iov. It is believed that, heieafler, tbii great measure will Tin- 1 .licate itself so clearly by its rc?nlti), that amendment* 1 may be obtained by \tr> general consent at a future ne- < riod. Both a* a mean* of augmenting rev?mte, ana of iocroa*mg the commetce and prosperity of the cauntiy, it is a moat important,measure. I'uder its beneficial in- ' finenee, our own rreat commercial cities will soon I rival, and ultimately surpass. the largest marts of 1 Kuropaan commerce, augmenting moat rapidly the wealth and business ut the whole country Important as it is to agriculture, commerce, and navigation, manufactures also iwill derive frooa it, in a series of years, great advantage*. The benefits in augmented means accruing to those concerned in agriculture, commerce, and navigation, aiising from the warehouse bill, will enable tbam to purchase more of oar own manufactures, whilst that interest will not l>e so sariously attVcted as it has been by auctions and farced sales of foreign merchandise. Most of thee* goods, under t lie | ware house bill, will wait in store for a puretater. Instead of forced tales in our market, became the goods cannot be warehoused AsUsis bill will also render our great commercial citiea immense marts of assortod cargoes, where merchants from all the world will eventually come to seek a sup ply, our own manufactures will often be t ought a? a part of thoso assorted cargo**, by purchaaera that never wonld have beau found in the absence of such a System In Liverpool and its suburbs, the num'ier ol bon. ed warehouses is estimated at live hundred ; and in London and other ports of the British empire, at many thousand*. These immense structures, stretching along then tine docks and mighty basins-a single warehoue* olten covering many acre* of ground, and stoiing throughout tha year assorted cargoes of several hun died millions of dollais in value?la vita to these marts tbe merchant! and commerce of the world Indeed, this la one of the great mean* by which Kngland ha* buiit up her Tkilcomtnesct ; ami for a long series of year* her wholepeople, whether for or against protection. acknowledged tbe Important benefit* of thi* aystam. Hare, the a<l vantage* would ultimately be ?till (fteater ; ma-much a* our chief commercial citie* are already nearer thau ihobe of Kurope to the centre of the territory, population and commerce of the world, awl are declined, at no dictarit day, to be brought still nearer, when the water* of tbe Atlantic and racific ihall be united at the Mexican iithmn*, which, combined with our poscessions on the Pacific, would revolutionise in o<tr favor the commerce of the world, and more rapidly advance our great no**, wealth, and power, than any event that haa occurred unce the adoption It ho constitution. It I* deemed important that our revenue Uwr ihould be extended to Oiegen, not only a* a meantol collecting , dutie* there, but alto to defeat any t lTjit that might be mide fiom Atia, or el*ewhere, to Introduce foreign met- ; rhandixe free of duty in?o Oregon, (now acknowledged | to be a part ot the bnton.) and then chum.the light un der t)i? constitution to bring *uch article* fivm Oregon, exempt from dnty. into any other pert of the I nton Two collection dulrict* might, perhape, t?e conveniently established?the one near tue mouth of the Oregou Ki- ' ver, and the other at or near Puget'* Sound. With a cycles of liberal donation* ot tract* of land in Oregon, cufficlent (or taraa, to lettlera and emigrants, thi* highly interacting portion of the Union would toon contain n considerable population, and, near ami convenient a* It U to Acta, Ma commerce would rapidly increase, and large rsvenues accrue to the government. Much time and attention have been given by thi* department to the highly important subject of our lighthouse lyatem, placed by Congreaa un lor iu capervi'inn. I lo tbe month of Jane, lt*4A, Lieut*. Thornton A. Jenkm* sad Richard Bache, of the navy, were detailed by the iu imi, u liucr murucilOIM from iu? rrctaury, mm of the punclpal F.aro;??o light hoa?o? ? wall our own. Ilariuc complex! their a*amiuation beioto tho clote of the laat aeaiiuu of Congraae, they cmioiumgm?<1 uie leault to tlu? dewu toiaut, ia a i/io?t bio aad inlereitixif rei-ort, containing fall and valuable tafenaa1km upon this labjcct. Accompanying thl* report w?* a moil able paper from Mr. Lao nor rreioel, tlic dlaUogulafaed aocrataif of ilia t?ard ol light-home* la Krauce. That paper, together with tha report from Ihla da part neat, war* communicated to (ongrea? on tha nth of Angoit laat. fUvin* eiamioed with great cart tha relative advantagaa of tha reflaeting lights, aad of tie refracting or lena | i>?r?tu?, uo doubt l? entertained o( the rut ?ui>eriortjr of the letter, aa I'mriihing a light more brilliaat, aa wall aa mote ecoaaaaicai. In the report of 1 tfcfci 4aiwla?rot on thin cnbjaet, on th?t Ath of Aoguit i Uet, the mairitt? ot a boanl, wHtooat may Mpenaa to At fmiwiasi* (?uM t( Um riftk awum.tb iiwtt XI), P*tc? Tw? Out*. iateadent of tUe court ?urvry, two nmral officer*, two en flnaer officers, (one e military ttc other a topographical engineer.) and a secretary, v. hn might ba a junior officer of the ntr-, vat recommended <w the tnovt efficient of combining tba? Infor.natiou poaaeaaed by no an* parnon, In regard to coaata ar.J channel*, the want J of navigation. the location and construction of the light 1 house*, and the mechfinical principle* involved in light in*. which would enable this department to render the wnola *y*tem more useful ar,j economical Tb<j coam survey nn.1 the light bou?e >y Mem, the warehouse bill anl the ad valorem revenue torture all (treat, efficient and co-operative instrument* in giving to e?r own country advantage* over ail other* aa cooipetiton for the oommurct of the tvorl.l The atirvey ot thecoaat of the United ^tAtes haa mad* replj end si'i?f?ctory i>rorr<?M luring the piat year.? This department has wattined with |?reat intcrwatthe ??icdual devr4op?ment of tb* plan for extending the nurvey to all *oction* of the mart, an I it ha* in suereihivH jeirn sanction! 1 ili-> iXllIf fur this important object. Those now presented hy the anperintendent are in pursuance of the policy which has received the approval of the department and of two aucceaaire Congreaaea. Tlie plan ia recommended by economy, and the rapidity with which the fruit* of the work are realized in the production and circulation of map* and chart* of different parta of the coaat. The highly Interesting exploration of the rtulf atream. which ha* proved no important and ancceaafal a Vert of the work, he* beeu attended with the leu of one of the moat valuable assistant* in the ?urvey, and an or uament te the profession to whieh he belonged. Lieutenant George M.Bache, of the navy. oonuMBtling the coast survey brig Washington, wai, with tea of the petty ofBcer* and aeamen of the veaael, awept from the deck in the hurricane of the 8th of September, never to regain the (hip. The turviving officer* have borne cheerful testimony to the coolnesa and ability which he diaplayed en thia trying occasion: and the execution, after he bad perished. of the laat order which he had Biven, was the means, under Providence, of saving the rea of tlioae under hi* command. This d^iurtment baa united with lhat of the navy in recording theac opinions, m uIko in expreaalng a strong approval of the conduct of the surviving officers aad crew ol the Washinsrton. who. in th? mi.l?? of ?h? extreme dinger, preserved perfect coolness end effective discipline, and Anally sucoecded in bringing the wreck Into port. u Having now prevented in regard to the (objects intruded to it* supervision by the two houses of Congreae, the view* of this department, it is gratifying to Know that to them belongs the power to correct all its error# ; and. under the guidance of an all-wife and gracious Providence, to advance all the gre't interests, the honor, welfare, and glory of our beloved country. R. J. WALKER, Secretary of the Treasury. Hon. Gcobue M. Dallai, Vicc Preildent of the United States, and President of the Senate. 8i. Court or thk Unitkd Stats a,?'lues, lay, Dticombur 8, ltU6.?Present as yesterday.? IVilliaai W. Campbell, Esq., of New York, and Edward linkloy, K?e , of Maryland, were admitted attorneys ind couiuollois of this court. Nos. 6 and 6? John L Haris, plaintiff in error, vs. Hiram U. Runnels. These :auies were argued by Mr. Nelson for the plaintiff ia eror. Ad journed till to-morrow, at 11 o'clock, A. M. Wednesday, December ??O. t?. Cates, Esq , of K*nucky, and H. W. Dunlap, Esq., of Louisiana, www adnitted attorneys and councilors of this court. No. U? lames Wood, plaintiff in etror, vs. Wm. A. Underbill, et tl. This cause was argued by Win SiUiman for the plainill' iu orior, and by Mr. Campbell for the defendant in srror. No. 1ft? N. It J.Dick k Co., plff*.,vs Hardin D. Itunucls. This cause was argued by Mr. Bibb for daft. No. 17.?Christopher Kord, appellant, vs. Archibald Don* (lass, et al. The argument of this causa was oemtaen-ed by Air. Meredith for the appellees. No 4 ?Isaac Jooper, plaintiff in error, vs. John Matheya, is error t* * he Circuit court of the United Statea for East Pennsjl auia. On motion of Mr. lnger<oll, who suggested the leath of the plaintiff in error, this writ of error was aba* ed. Adjourned Uli to morrow, II o'clock. From Guiana ?By the arrival of the ship Lord ieaiort, Captain Fituifn moiis, at New Orleans, ve nave received numDfr of the Guiana (Georgetown r>n<e? of the 4th ult. The weather had been highly favorable for Materia* he sugar .croji.oud for many year* the crop had not look id so luxuriant and promising fer an abundant rata in. K Confiderabln aenaation baa been excited br the dieovery or the fact, that the Venezueliana had been enicing aunay recently imported Coolies- The matter va* laid before the home government, with a view of laving them reclaimed. '.Vitn regard to the itatr r f tht nutlet,tLe paper aayi? rt?e iuoi tatio* of provision* from the United Sratee luring the past month haa been large, particularly ot lour. The amount of busicesa done on a peculation haa ?en coaaiderable, and pi ice* hare steadily advaaood to iur presoot quotation The deiaaad fer meal aad peas here ia merely nominal. int the market taket a largo quantity of Aoar, pilot read and lice, aU of whinh article* are firm. UnpQtrt Worr^rt^feisS'aT r *r ^ lidiuel, dot) Ij cents; llama 16 a a? cents par W, luty >1 to lar 100 lbs ; Oat* f\ per biuhel, duty b 00*Ui ?0 per barrel. >luty Van #4 too. Gen Cotton?We find In the 1* fell Courier, a long uid I n to letting communication from 8. I. Dun, r*Utlro Lo the explosive and projective power* of the newly 0?rovarel gun cotton The principal experiment! were made in bleating. Two holes were drilled in a rock ofa [>erpondicular fscc of nine feet, and in each were placed en ouncea of the cotton. The in??? of rock moved by he explosion wn ] 1 -Jcubic feot. and woighed about eventy ton*. To havo removed the flame, would have Tijuired ten to twelve ponnda of aomaea powder Beve-it other experiment* tvtve made, and all actually aatifactory. \Vn?t i">o ?On Monday morning two larga fia backs wiiulea) were seen playing aide and side in rrovioconwn Uartior, whereupon < apt Cook, of the bark Fairy, wd ("apt. Hoper, late of the brig Semnel Thotaaa, manned two boata and pounced op*n the leviatUana before hry could see them Captain Cook rave hit customer i harpoon and lance as quirk as lie could dart, aad urnei him up in about IA minute*. Captain Sopor aleo astened to the other, but ao far aft as t?ot to affect th<* ritals, in * onsequence of which he could not get along ii <e to lance hiui. The whale ran hi* boat to Truro, aad tiler cutting down the chocka of the boat with the line ind making her leak, the lino was cat end tho whale went away with the harpoon and about fifty fatboats of lilt* t uplain Cook brought hi* whalo to ProTlneetowa in triumph It it 0T?r Arty feat .ong and will mac* ibout V\ bbla oil. Finback* are the noit daagaroua wltalea to capture, on account ot their uncommon apeed t?H01: Poit, 91k inttNaTioaTto* ?'There wan rain yestardey, during tha early pait of tha day?the temperature ( oourae vary ffl<xl?rat??and tha (irar a* uuobatructed a* erar. A few mora ?nch Jay* would go far toward* re opening tha ranal. A* it ta, many boat* that had bean regarded a* fait for the winter, muat have made considerable pro great towaida tide water. Tho annirartary of tha " I.anting of the Pilgrim*" ta to be eclebratad at rtymouth on tha 23d inet. Tha ana'ial meeting of the American Colonisation Ho ciety will ba bald at Waahington on tha 17th Jaaoary uext. How land, who Killed Mr. Barker lattanmmer, at Manefield, O , baa bean convicted of muder in tha flrat degree Movement* of Travellers. The following comprise tha foil amount of yaataiday la ariiv Am at the principal hotel* of the cliy. A?roa?C. till x-rt, L I; K. Neaaem, rhila : C. Hough, Baltimore; A. Warraa, l.aiiunburgb. J. Wateon, Perth Ainhoy, TV. Atnjj Htomugtou; T. water*. Albany; Or. B.irney, Buffalo, H. Weed, Albany; A. Mer.wan, Jamaica; f. Brewer, OaorgJa; J. Dana. Baatao; k. Warns, do.; P. Cauuavar, Bo*ton, C. Hay the, Bo* ton; J Braeae. Ky.; Biihop Ooan, Now Jersey; C. Piatt, Phils.: J. Moore, do.; J. Joifriaa. Boeton; Nichoiae Carter, Mancheater, Kuclaixl; C Alger. Maaa ; J. Ward. Beaton; C. llenJoat, do. Ammk *i*.~ Kdarard llayoa. IT. S. ArUUtrj; P. C. BuicA. ' . Timothy O'Mahar, Waat Point , T. Me.NuUn. Huiadalphtn . Captain BitiKh, Carp* af C.S Knginoora; John iiu, New York; John Bhlitha. Mow Jeraoy. tCni R Dawaon, fitt?vj?rih, L. Broghnutd, ffcila Ulpblu. O. Yrancia. Boston, fc Hw4f, U. B. H.j D. < larko, lonaaoUcut; Calab Lyona, Lyonavillo; C. ?:htnncey, Norfolk, J. Tliorn#, Bo*ton; A Crthorwoorf, Philadelphia.*?W. Morgan, PorUaadi L4 Arary. Oooigia, W. Maada, Albany: J Thayor. <lo, Capt Dar. Nor wnh; M Va??ar. PoMgKkoopMo, H. Maaahaa. RioteMd; 8. Bray ton. Khudo laiaud, \f. (HlUrt, Boatoaj J Wwa. Now Jenay.A. ttoklamith, (oaaactiout; m. Potato, N<* York; W. Bonaa, Carthago. How?id.-Mr. Jobuaon, Saw York, Mr. ProacoU. Orange co ; J. J. McDowla. 71 rogi?oat B V, Mtalrtd, M. (Ingham. Boaton, Mr. Dawaoa. do; W taajr, WfO ( oioyor. Whitehall ? <*. J*?* ? ?*. Oalveaton; K Wing.ta, Now Ha?pahlr*; H Or*agar, Boaton, J.JIo?ay!jo; Mr r.r?ai>^r,Maaaa?:haaa?a; John kiniMMr Boaton; T. Mooooy, da.; T BowUo, Bakv morV .^JdwTja. FbUadal^ia. t r.dorick ftabinaon * I> My, RockoaUr; U. Rarla. frwriieeagi O ilowc?, J. Kmmouda. l.lijab ( obb, Tltni A JJonton; ? o ?. ??. . dtJpbw; J. Lo*an, I itUburfh, J Ctarfc*. N*w Hmm, \u?. Uuuliam, 1L Until. W Imlay, Htnlord, J Smith, II. rroicott, New lltrcn. VI t-UltAL AlO-UR K\w"( tTTo.4?taUtr ?.r^i.. ill tiu and aaerct dimM. k(.?Jwi NkliiM, i fnnlli nnr oa (ha <-r>ace?led caa??? of ika 4nln i of III art >ium from dcstfictirr coatrqoaucM, at nt?aaiT? lidnlcaac* Md yoattfal mwimi, khmmn ia bottom 4* jitttr mrt cuuftitutionni wntMM, and all Utoaa aiakiaf mi?aw and tr?i?/.ra wKifli <!! ? the araafc, tka Itdanumj aaa Ik* ? daliaatr. with WKbrtl 0kMl*<(lMi M thru tilBiai aari H. rAwCfcTT, ?*mk?r of the Kojaj ('ot'fj* of !ta aaoa* of Loadu and Edi?fcar?fc aa* eradaat* ai Jefar?ou Ma?iic*l Collate. rh'Udrlj+xt Tat Doctor u4ai y '? altad ar Mi o?e?. IW Knltoa ttrttt. *? ?H tbaaa d.aaaaaa wKara lUa Boot fta ofctttaed tor $1. dll la*r NO eUafc >0 CAK-DH CORUITT, It Daai t. (member of tht Royal Cnlltfe of l>i|iaai. UMN.i may be eon tailed la ifce itaUNH ( eeruia delicti* 4 aaaars. A P'tetiet of fuvrttea yttrt ie*o<ed io?ee-eel?e . e?n. tutblt* Dr C. to c arr t*>e want 'ora of ht? dun?; reeeet eteet taied it fit?r-aya; no noiearv aaad; kmnra cnrad iu <*.? or iwo w?ak? jriAou- e?y ?-a?a; Imkii> Monti debility Thott ii?i?i^Sal? w*a h??e ladatgid la* certain InttWoki" hthiV""' pnaiiiT?ly ha 'ri'oiad to baatrh tod i c,?l) l)i. iIi t >i inm '4 'a o#t?, a* laaluaaiet kr a certain moth. ?h*?l-atUt Reawlior 9 Data* mimi (3 Dr Jointfa t. 4U la*rfc

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