Newspaper of The New York Herald, December 15, 1846, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated December 15, 1846 Page 1
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gggL ? TH] Vol. Xii, Wo. XiN-Whol* No. Mil. RB?OSlf j or thk SECRETARY OF THE NAVY. NaTT D*P*mTMrnT, D?c. a, 1846 ! Bib Slnre thf laa: annual rerort, no nival futca j hli Wd miintiinC'l in the Mflditemtifin Under the earnest request cfthn 9(>ani?h nuthotitie*, the depot at 1 Port Mfchoa ha? been broken up, ami mramroi taken to remove the ?to~re?, and withdraw the office'* in charge | or them. It W proposes in ine coming year to tend a suitable force to that *tatlon. After exchanging with the proper officer the ratifications of the treaty between the United State* and china, in December iaat, Commodore Bidrilw, with the Coltimbaa and Vincenne*. the ships under hit command haa I visited various important point* in the China aaua. In the month of May or Jane, be|culed for Japan, and expected to extend hi* cruise to Kamschatka. There is no reason to doubt that he will render the valuable sorrice to be expected from an officer of hi* experience and judgmept. byjnaking our country, its resources, and itt friendly disposition towards the people inhabiting those remote regions, more favorably Jtnown. He haa probably returned to Macao about this time, and in the montn of January or February, the Columbus and Vincennet will commence their eruite homeward, by way o'. the north Pacifl". On the 6:h of January last, order* were sent from this department to Commodore BlJdle to proceed with the Columbus to the north we?t coast of America, and assume th?cemmand cf the nival forces ef the United State1* on that station. No acknowledgment of the order ha* been received, and thoro is no reason to doubt that he had left Macao before it reached that place, or that he will promptly obey it en ita reaching him. Commt>dore Skinner whs relieved in the command ol the (quadras on the coaat of Africa in the month of Juae last by Commodore Head. Our naval forces on that station hare been actively and successfully employed in the humaue duty of suppressing the slave trade. The squadron consists of the lrigate United States, 44 ; sloop Marlon, Irt; brig* Dolphin and Dv>xer, 10 each; and store hip Southampton, 0 guns. The judicious measure* adopted have secured to the officer* and men an extraordinary degree of health in that Inhospitable climate. It* effect* are, however, so injurious, that the cruise* have not been, and ought not to be, *o long on that a* on other (tation*. The prize* captured and eondemn?d will contribute coma thousands of dollar* to the navv pension fund. On tha Brazil station, the cquadron uuJor Commodore Rousseau haa been reduced by tbe return or the frigate Raritan, Captain Gregory, and of the sloop Plymouth, Commander Henry, and the detachment of tua floop Saratoga. Commander Shubrick, for the CaciAc. The frigate Columbia and brig Baiubridge remain on the station; and although thin lorco is amall, it has secured protection to American commerce within the limita of iti operations Tbo frigate Constitution, Captain Percival, has returned to the United States, having made a voyage around the world. The special duty assigned to Captain Perciral h?i been satisfactorily performo I. In the Pacific ocean tbe naval forces of the United 8tatea, under command of Commodore Jehu u. Sloat, consisted, on the 1st of July last, of the frigate Savannah, loop* Portsmouth, Levant. Warren, and Cy aue, schooner Shark, and store ship i> rie. They have been reinforced by the frigate Congress, sloops Saratoga, Dale, and Preble, and the razee Independence. The sloop Levant is on her return home, and authority has been given to send home the Savannah end Warren, the time for which the crews of tbese vessols enlisted having aspired. Commodore W. Branford Shubrick went out in tne Independence to relieve Commodore Sloat, under orders issued in August last In confidential instructions dated on the :14th of June, 1845, the Secretary of the Navy called Commodore Sloat'a " attention pat ticularly to the pi esent aspect of tha relations between this country and Mniinn. It ii the earnest desire of the President to pursue the policy oi peace, and he ia enxiou* that you and every part of yonr aquadron should he assiduously careful to avoid anr act of aggreiiion. reaofutely bent on hostilities, you will be miudful in protect the penona tad interest* of citizens of the Uuited States near your station : and should you aacertam beyond a doubt that the Mexican government has declared war against ui, you will at once employ the forces under your command to the best advantage." " The great distance of your sqnaJroa.and the difficulty of communicating with you, istbe cause of issuing this oid .-r " The officer who waa thns instructed, observed the line of conduct prescribed to him with such intelligence and fidelity that no complaint has ever been mi4e of any unautho rixed aggtet-ion on hi* part. On the 7th of June, 1848. at Mazatlan, Commodore Bloat received satisfactory Information, tniough Mexico, "that the Mexican troops, six or seven thousand stionir, had, by order of the Mexican government invaded the territory of the United States north of the tiio Orunde, and ha< attacked the forces nnder General Taylor, and that the squadron of the United States were blockading the pott* 01 Mexico onlthe Oulf. lie properly consi-lereu "thee* hostilities a* justifying hi* commencing oit'umive operation* on the west coast;' and, on the ?Jth of June, sailed in the frigate Savannah tor the coast of California, to carry out the order* ot the department on the 34th of Jane, 1815. He arrived at Monterey on the 3d of July, and on the 7th demanded a surrender of the place.? This was evaded, and an adequate force, landed from the aquadron, took noaaesaion oi the town, aol raited the flagjofthe United State* without opposition or bloodshed On the 9th, Commander Montgomery of the aioop Portsmouth, under the Commodore's order*, with like succeaa, took poMesaion of Francisco and that part of the country in the name of the United States. On tho 17th. he eat Parser Ksnntleroy with a detachment a* far a* the Mission of St John's to heist the flag of the United States, and to recover cannon and munition* which had bean buried by the enemy. On hia arrival, he found that the plaee bad boen captured an hour or two previously by Lieutenant Col. Fremont of thtr United Stale* army, with whnn h? PA turn ad 1a matitarov on #!?? IQtH On the 16th of July, the frigate Congress arrived a* Monterey, and Commodore Stockton reported to Commodore flUat lor doty, a* a part of hit icjuadren On the 3Sd he ?m ordered to the command on khore, and on the *itth Commodore Sloat found hi< infirm health to enfee bled by hi* arduous duties tbat he determined to avail kimtu of a permission which had been Riven him, in his dlsoretion, to aaaign (he command to Commodore Stockton, and sailed for Panama on his return home. After encountering much peril and hardship, this gallant and msntorious oAeer arrived at the seat of government aarly in November last kOi the 23th of July, the Cyane, Captain Marvin*, sailed from Monterey, with Lieutenant Colonel Fremont and a small volunteer force on board, for San Diego, to intercept the retreet of the Mexican itonerai ( astro. A% few day* after, Commodore Stockton aailed in the Congress trigaie for San Pedro, and, with a detachment front bis squadron, of three hundred and sixty men, marched to the enemy's camp. It was found that the camp was broken up, and the Mexicans under Governor Pico and General Castro, had retreated, so precipitately * that Lieutenant Colonel Fremont was disappointed in intercepting him. On the 13th, Commodore Stockton wa* joinsd by this gallant officer, and marched a distance of thisty mil** from the sea, mad entered, without opposition, Lb* Cuidnd do lo? Angeles, tho capital at tha Call fftfniti. And on the J11 of August tho flag of the United State* wu flying at every commanding position, and t.aiifornia *u ia the undisputed military potaeiaion of the United Statee. The coadoot of the officer* and men of the iquadron in these important operation*, has been characterized l.y activity, oeurmge, end steady discipline. and entitle* . them to the thank* of the depa'rtraent. Efficient aid waa rendered L>y Lieutenant Colonel Fremont aod the volunteen aoder hie oommand. In hi* hand* Commodore Stockton inform* the department bo will leave the military government, when ho ahall leave California, in the farther execution of hie order*. In tho novel aitaation in which both the commander* of onr naval force* have been placed, without in*true ties* to regulate them In the detail of their conduct, ibey have adopted measures to preierve cocial order ana maintain our authority, and to wfthold from the enemy any advantage* from the conquered territory which are believed to bo warranted by tbo lewe of war. The conduct of both commaadera ha* been marked by discretion, a spirit of conciliation, and a aacred re*pect for private rights, while the military movements have been ably conceived and brilliantly executed. On her outward vovage, the Congress touched at Honolulu, and landed Mr Ten tpek, the commissioner of the Uaited States to the H.indwn-.u Island*. It was the K1 fortune of Commodore Stockton to contribute sly to an amies tie adjustment of an unhappy miiu? demanding between our former agent end the king's government, which threatened injury to our commercial interest* Tha home iquadron on the ISth of Mar last c insisted of the frigateiCuniberlend, llaritan and Potomac; nloopa Kaimontn, J olio Adam?, and St. Mary'a ; (teamen Mia alaaippi and Princeton , hriga Homer* and Porpoiae, and aehoonor Flirt, under command of Commodore Conner It baa Uu increaaed aince br the iloopa Albany and Boaton , ataaura Spitfire and Vixen; brlga Parry and Tnwton; achoonara Reefer, Petrel and Bonito ; and atoroahip Relief jyDuiing the laat two yoara the menacea of ho*tilitle* oa the part of Mexico hare made it ncceaaory to conflrie the operationa of the fqnadrou principally to the Ualf of On tie '29th of March, 1?U, the acting Secretary of tho Navy, in a conBdontial despatch. interned t'ommodoro Connor " that the Praaidont of the United State* la impreeeod with a belief that it ia a poeaibie contingency ; that the government of Mexico may mort to acta of | hostility againit the United State*, and haa directed me to ofdor the other vowel* of the hoaae tquadton onder I your command to join too at Vera Cruz The dlipotition of the Praaident ia to maintain the moat Inen>liy re ! latioaa with tho-Mexicaa republic, arid to meet any bol- i liferent movement on the part of that republic in the i moat doriiive manner. You will, therefore, ao di*p?eo of the fore* which now ia or may be placed under your coitmand, aa will gire the mo?t effectual protection to I our ciUMoa and commerce. Yon wii bo cauti >ua not to 1 vioMa the ilfthta of otliei*, but to re*i*t and pumah any : oggreaaion on our* II a publie deciarat on 01 werthwil t b? ?ide by Mexico agaiuat the Ucited Statea, y ou will | ao roadaat your opoiationa aa to ahow to her and to tho world that, while ready to do jmtioe and to maintain ! peace, wa aia prepared to vindicate the national honor, | and to viait on our public eriemiea the utmoat aeveriiiea of tho war thua provoked. If, withunt aucu an open def deration, hoetilitie* ahall be commenced on hor port, I yaw will meet and viait them with tho utmoat prompt- 1 oeaa and energy and on tho I?th of Anguit, l&U, It waa again impreaaod on him by tho Bacroiary of tho - Navy, " that tho policy of thi? gorei ment ia tho praaor- j ration of pooce If pooafblo." lb tho extremely deiicaU circumeUnce* ia which ho E NE NEV | wa* placed by the menaced hostilities on the part of Mexico, Commodore Conner fully iiiitained hi* reputation for sound judgment in the performance of hi* duty. On the 3d day of May, 1346, he received intelligence at Vera Crut, which left no doubt en hi* mind that orders had been divert by the Mexican government to Gen ArUta to attack tlie American army ea*t of the Del Norte with the force* under hi* commund. On the 4th, the Commodore sailed with the principjl part of hi* iqufdron for the Brazos Santa (ago. And anchored off the. baron the 8th, while the battle of Pulo Alt* wa* ragingt Vlthough too late to take part in that memorable con flicthe arnval of the rquadron was most opportune, and effectual security was given to thi> depot at Point liabel, by lanJing five hundred Fftrarn and marinas under Captain iho Raritfln. \ detachment under Cap- ; tain Aulick, ofthe Potomac. Proceeded uo the river to : Bitrita, aud aided in establishing a military pott at that I plai-a. For these prompt and gallant moramanti the Cam mo dora, hi* officer* and men, received the thank* of the President, through thia department On the 13'h of May, iho Secretary ef the Nary informed him that ( ongrea* had declared that a state or war exists between the United State* and the republic of Mexico, and ordered him to exerciae all the right* that i belonged to him a* the commander-ia-chief of a belligerent squ.dron. Under theae order*, he declared a ad enforced a Mockode of the principal port* ef Mexico on the Oulf. The enemy had no ihip* of war which he dared to *how 0:1 ihe open *ea; and determined on commencing war, precaution had been taken, in advance of the meditated attack, to place hi* public vessel* in aituation* where, from natural obstacle*, they could not be reached by the ship* of our squadron. A* soon a* authority waa given by tlio appropriations of Congress, measure* were taken by the department to purchase for employment in the tquadron small vessels of suitable draft of water to croaa the dangerous bars which guard the ports of Mexico. Three aehooner* and two imall tteamers were purchased ; but the la*t of the*e did not report to the squadron, irora uncontrollable causes, until early in -November On the 7th of Aiiguit, Commodore Conner appeared off the bar of Alvaiado, with n purpose of attempting the capture oi ?Ua enemy'* vowels of war in that river. The return si' had weather, endangering the small vesselsin the open roadstead. an 1 the rapidity of the current from the swollen atute of the river, inducod him to abandon hit design and to withdraw hU force. On the 1Mb of October he made another attempt to enter the Alvai ado river for the same purpose. In endeavoring to cram the bar. one of the stoamers, having in tow the principal division of tho attacking force, grounded at>d became entangled with tho vesielt in tow. The current could not bo overcome in the itate of the wind without the aid of steam; and the commodore had the mortification of being compelled to retire. On the 16'.U of October, Commodore M. C. Perry, with the steamer Mississippi and the imall vessel*, left the squadron at Lix><rdo, and sailed for Tobasco. On the 3'fcl he arrived oil'the bar, and with great judgment and gallantry captured .the town of Fronteira, with the enemy's steamers and vessels in port, and proceeded up the river a distance of reventy-four miles, into the interior of a settled country, nnd appeared before the city of Tabasco. Ho captured tue vessels in the port; and, at the earnest ruquust of the foreign merchants, humanely determined not to involve them in ruin, by destroying the town, lu dropping down the river, one of his prizes giounded, and a large body of Mexicaas opened a furious tire on her, which was promptly returned with great fleet - the stranded vessel was got afloat, and th? Mexicans beaten otf But in this treacherous attack, one American seaman was killed, and Lieut. Charles W. Morris and two seaa&en were wounded. Lieut Morris survived until tho 1st of November, when he died of his wound, on board the Cumberland. His commanding ofllcers bare paid a (id tubule to the worth of this brave young officer, whose untimely death i* c levore Iom to the service. The object* of the expedition were fully accomplished; and, by the oepture or destruction of evory vessel and steamer of the enemy in toat important river, a check has been given to a commerce, by which, no doubt, muni liana of war were introduced into Mexico from Tucatan. Much praise i* due to Commodore Perry, and to the officers and men under his command, for the skill, judg raent and courage manifested throughout the expedition. On the 13th of November, Commodere Conner sailed, with a large portion of his squadron, and on the 14th, the town of Tampico capitulated unconditionally, without resistance. Three floe gun-boaU and other public property fell into the hands of the captors. The enemy, anti cipating an attack, had withdrawn the garrison, removed the guns, and destroyed hi# munitions of war. The success of the enterprise is of great importance, and the enemy ha* lost one of the most considerable ports on the gulf Arrangements have beeu made to hold it; and the commodore is instructed to relinquish the cemmand ashore to the officer of the army commanding the garrison, ami resume the operations of the squadrou. Addit,ons of great value are made to the navsl forces in the gulf, by the capture of the enemy's vessels in Tabasco and at Tampico ; and the prises adapted to the navigation of the mouth* ol the river* aioog the coast will be equipped and uaefully employed as cruisers. "t ne pollucal coDomon el the Stat* ot Yucatan bad induced a course of conduct toward* her which exempted her Irom tlie will of war. Haviug received information which juaiilied the bel.uf that thi? gonerou* course on the pait of th? United State* had beeiiabuaed, on the 1 Oth ?f Ooteber last, I instructed the commander of the (quadron that "the President ha* given to the new position in whioh VucaUn i? placed by tie pronunciamiento of Merid a, a careful consideration, and direct* me to inform you that the atete mutt be tegsrded a* an integral part of the Mexican republic, and her people a* a portion of the public anemia* with whom we are at war; and you will act toward* her a* toward* other portion* of Mexioo." Thane initruction* will be carriod into effect During the pa*t season, the brig Truxton, ha* been lo*t and the t) rig Perry wrecked \ but ha* been by great exertion* of Lieutenant-commanding Blake, got to Key Weit, and will be brought to Norfolk lor repair. The ef Acer* and crew of the Truxton became prisoner* to the Mexican*. An inquiry will be had aa to the oau*e* of both di*a*tera?a proceeding due to the officer* and to the service. No genreal cartel ha* been established between the two government* to regulate the exchange of prisoner* daring the existing war. A proposition of the Mexican government to exchange the officer* and crew of the Truxton against General La Vega, and the officer* who bin iiriaoMPi r?f war in ITnit**4 a?*t**a til by your direction acceded to, and the exchange has been carriad into effect Our officei* and men were placed on board our squadron and Mat home ; and the Mexican officer*, being at full liberty, have been offered a free pistafce in one of our public veuels, and, 1 have reason to believe, bare (ailed from Pen*acola for Vera Cruz. In oocludiag my report of the operation* of the naval force* in the Oulf of Mexico, I aeem it but an act of justice to call your attention to aome consideration* which moat be borne in mind, when forming an eitimate of the remit* accomplished. The navy of the United State* is designed for the protection of our commerce in the aioet distant sea*. The vesiel* compuaiag it are authorised by law, and have been so conitiucted, in size and draft of water, a* to navigate the ocean with safety. a w ttuiMi1 vi wa u*?i? vwywinn uiiu mr EUll ir-g protect ed by bara, which afford hut a aniall depth ef vmer, ail tit* navigation of thia confined Ma ie expoaed to dangers lor many month* in the year, by atorm*, sudden and violent ; to that a vetsel, constructed with a draft li^ht enough to creta the bj?a, ercouritert considerable riak in keeping tha nl When hoitilitiea with Mexico commenced, no auch veaaels belonged to the navy?they would have been almost tueless, except to prosecute hostilities in her watere Sine* tha neceatity wrote, and authority waa given, vigorous efforts to sapply tbe?c meant have been made, an I will be continued ; but tome tune haa necessaiily eUp?o?l befoie they could be provi dad to to* limited extent which haa bean reached. It givae aa pleasure to bear teati mony to the ohivalraua patriotism which haa animated tha officers ol the alf giadsa, In preasrting toe at to teak active seiviae against tha enemy, ana to offer, with the moat anmieua da aire, to be permitted to engage in tha most pari lout enterpriaea againat the enemy; while those engage ! in Um Mmmm and i-arraating duties of a blockade have perforated their dull and heavy task without a murmur, and with no stronger desire than to exchange it for some active and uaeful enterprise, however hazardous or difficult of execution. By the terms of the annexation of the republic of Texaa aaoaeof the Statea of our Union, the public vessels which compoeed tha Texan navy were ceded to the United States. On the eleventh day of May last, Hiram O. ftunnrls, Kiq , appointed agent lor that purpose, received at tialveaton, from the Texrn authorities, the loop-of-war Austin, brigs Whatton and Archer, and the schooner San Bernard. The sloop Austin has beeu brought to Penaacota, and willjbe rebuilt, and form an interesting arceaston to tha navy of the United (Mates.? The two brig* end schooner, after anrrey, were found toa much decayed to Juattty their repair, and have been ordered to be sold. The proceeds of sale will be paid into the treasury of the United Statea. Under order* from their government, certain officers of the Texan aavr ware ia charge of tha vet*-la in ordinary when the delivery waa made, and oontinued in that employment at the requaet of our agent. They could not be paid aa officers of tha navy of the United Stales: but believing it to be jaat and proper, directwoa have been given to make them compensation for taking care.of the property of tha United Mate*, at the rate of pay wiiton wu aiiow*i them By Texas at the date of ita'illcorporation into our Uaion. Beyond thli, I hare not considered that tha lawa of the t'nited Statu authorized me to make payment to any one became of hia having baen an officer of tha nary of Taxas. The estimate* for tha naval aerviee for the next lineal year have been prepared by my direction, and transmitted to the Secretary ol the TreaantV. according to law. I have the honor to present herewith the repoita from the aaverai bmeau*, and estimate! i.i detail for the aeveralbraDcUea of tha naval aervice. They are baaed ou the employ ment pendiog the w r, ol ten thouaanj men, ai allowed by law, and a numl-er of veaaela in commisaion to give them employment A ?tatcroent of the claa*ea of veaaela, with their rate and number, ia marked K, in the papera accompanying the report from the Bureau | i f t onutructton. No eetiuiatee are presented lor the construction of veeaeU aa permanent adddi ions to tha uavy. t deem it. however, my duty to suggest, that authority lor btiildmg at least (our tea stenmeri, capable ol beating an aimaaieot eufflcient lor their own defence, would e?- | aentially peameta the interakts of the public service. The I < *r?at utility of such vsssrls in the squadrons in the I'a- ; i cifu-, the t;hii.a saaa, on the coait ol Africa, and oa tha ; , Brazil station, is eeubiiahed by the experience of other nations whe employ them. The eatimaiaa from the I urea n ol yards and docka | have bean prepared In reference to tha existing and pras- , aing wants ol tha public ear vice; and attention ia respect | ^/.^edUt^wmMkaol tha affle r at the head of , that bureau. Tha diflkuiUee which have baen expert- , W TO 7 YORK, TUESDAY MO cnced in the work on the dry dock at New York, have retarded its progress, but iu practicability is not doubted; and its great importance to the navy induces roe earnest, ly to recommend the appropriation of the required funds for its prosecution. The importance of Peniacola as 4 naval station,with the necessary facilities of repairing and refitting ships of war, has for many years been pressed on the consideration of Congress But at no period has the public interest so imperiously required that improvements should lie made at that r'ui-o as at tim time A large naval force is employed in the (iulf of Mexico, exposed to injury from tempesis, and engaged in hostile operations. If any ol our vessels become materially disabled, they cannot be repaired without leaving the station, and coming as far north nt Norfolk; and in the voyage the most serious disasters may befal them. A dock with sufficient capacity to receive veseels of the largest class,is an i dispensable improvement at Pensacola. and I earnestly ret-omm nd that an amirODriation may be made for that'purpose. A fever of the most malignant form hu prevailed in the hospital at Penaacola during the paat aeason. 1 herewith transmit a copy of report of ajoint board of army and navy surgeons, who were directed to investigate the cauiea. Their opinion is, that the place will be reatored to ita former salubrity, by removal of local cauaea of diaoaae. Estimates are submitted for thia purpoie. By the act of Cc ngresa of August 10, 1K48, the appropriationa lor the navy yaid at Memphis for tha current year, ara to be confined in the expenditure to the con?traction of a rope walk. 1'roper meaaurea have been adopted to conform to thia restriction. The eatimatea Qro prepared with thia view. If it ahall be deemed adviaable to make thia yard a place o( construction, and in view of ita great advantage* in the building and outllt ot steamer?, I may hope that tlio oiiginal purpose of the eatabliahmont will not be abandoned, it will be adviaable nut to continue the restriction on the appropriation for the next year. Tho pioce of ground sailed flt Helena, opposite to the navy yard at Oosport, hi* been bought, by virtue of authority given in the act of 10th of Augutt laat. When the State of Virgini.i sh.ill have consented to the aaid purchase, an estimate will be aubmittedto make the improvements which were contemplated when the authority te make the purchase was given. The system by which clothing is furnished to the navy has realised tha expectations of those who devised it. The supply is abuudaut, of excalloflt quality, at a cheap cost; anil no appropriation ia aaked for the next year, or without aorne great disaster, will ever be required again. in supplying our aqnadrons abroad, depots or stores, in which provisions are collected in anticipation of the wants of the vessels, are indispensable. I concur in the recommendation of the chief of the bureau of provisions and clothing, that the act of June 17, 1?44, requiring the Secretary of the Navy to order commissioned or warrant officer* of the nsvy to take charge of the naval itorei for foreign sqtiadrous, ought to be modified. The compenaation allowed would command the service* of competent and experienced persons in civil life. It is a duty which but lew officers deaire, or are qualified for, and it doe* not appear proper to i equire of an officer to enter into bond to perform dutie* under order*. From the experience had of iu operation, I have no doubt that money would be saved by allowing tho appointment of civilian*, with the advice and content of the Senate, and Uiu* onlarge the sphere ol (election. The act of March ad, 1648, requiring supplies for tho navy to be procured by contract, on advertisement, with the lowest bidder, ho* not been construed to affect contract* executed prior to it* enactment. Contract* for the apply oi cheese and butter for five years were in a course of execution at the date of the passage of this law, and will expire, one in December, 1840, and one iu May, 1847. Tho rciult ol a caieful examination made at the bereau i*. that economy ha* been promotod, and the qua lity of the ration greatly improved by thi* mode oi contracting. 1 respectfully invite attention to the recommendation on that subject. The naval school, diii-inr the nast vatr. hu haan ran. tinued under the judicious superintendence of Commander Franklin Buehaoan, and gives renewed promiae of uaefnlneaa to the aervice. At the laat aeiaion of Congress, it waa made the aubject of no apecial appropriation; but permission waa given to apply a limited earn ($48,600) trom the existing appropriutiona to " inatructiona, improvements, and repair* at Fort Severn." This moderate provition hia enabled the department to make aome necessary additions to the accommodations of the school, and haa been found sufficient for ita economical support. It ia hoped that a aimilar provision will be adopted for the ensuing year. The propriety of affording to midshipmen the mean* of acquiring that knowledge which ia eaaential to the skilful discharge of their proteaaional duties haa beeu long recognitor! by Congress in ita annual appropriation* lor inatructiona on board our ships of war. In the prosecution of a like pjrpose, a naval a-hool, it ia believed, will be found to add little to the coat of the present detective ay stem, while it cannot lail to be attended with the inoRt important benefits to the navy. Connected with the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydro graphy is the Observatory. Besides conducting an extensive series of astronomical observations, it is the duty of tliat office to coustruct charts, prove nautical instrument* before purchase, rule chronometers, and supply our armed cruisers with the nautical books, instruments, maps, and charts necessary to their safe conduct at eea The arrangement is such as to promote economy, and to give aaaurance that these indispenaable aida mav lie relied on. The nhisrvBtiom nuH? end mihliihftd are exclusively the work of naval officers, and are highly creditab to their scientific xttaiumenta. There cau be no doubt that, with the facilities of the Observatory, we night produce our own nautical epbeineria, for which we are now dependent on foteigu nitioiia, and without which our ihitx that are abroad could net find their way home, nor those at home venture out of tight of our own shore*. A small appropriation would be sufficient to accomplish the object; and it may well be anticipated that the expenditure would be returned by supplying our merchant vessels with the American nautical almanac at cost 1 invite attention to the report from the Bureau ol Medicine and Surgery. The authority to appoint a sma.l number of assistant surgeon* is necessary to the public service. Under existing circumstances, it has been found necrasary to employ citizen physicians in some ot our smaller vessels. The Commandant of the marine corps h?s prepared estimates for the number of officers and marines as fixed by law. I am strongly impressed with the opmion that an incre^ro of the rank and file of the corps would greatly promote the efficiency of our ship* in their 0|>eratioui against Mexico. With light pieces prepared a* field artillery on board each ship, the expeditions which mua* inclule operations on shore, would denve important akl lrom increased guards of marines. The act of August 4th, 1842, provided that, until other wise ordered by Congress, officers of the navy shall not be inci jated beyond the number in the respective grades that were in the service on the 1st ef January, 1844 This restriction has been construed to apply to warrant officers, other than midshipmen. The number of boatswains, gunners, carpenters, anl aailmekera, hepconed to be small for the wants ol the service at the date fixed. Embarrassment is ofien felt for want of au thonty to Md to toe unmoor. It i* a powor whic ; bo* never bean abnaed, and ai *uch appointment* ore reward* of moritoriona leamcn or mechanic*, it appear* tu tno that the reatriction mi<ht ho removed without detriment to tho public interest or danger of abmo. I cannot conclude tbi* report without inviting attention to tho operation of tho act of Cougreaa ot Match 3 1. 1845. in regard to the appointment ol midshipmen Tho jiMticc of the principle eaUbluhed U unqu^stiona ble, and its application ha* Riven general aauafaction Previoualy to iu pnaaage, appointment* were mad* without regard to reaideoce, and ivmlled in inequalitiea, which it will take many year* to remove. The law forbid* any appointment from a State having more titan ita proportion. Some application* for midshipmen'* warrant* have recently been made in bahalf of aona of officer* who have fallen in battle, which could uot be granted on account of their reiidenc* in Slate* not entitled. I recommend that the reatiiction of Be law may be *o far removed, that on* out of Ave mx vacation*, aa they occur in the Rr* e of mid*hipm?C may be filled at large, irreepective of the place of reiidence, in the aame manner aa a portion of the cadata at Waat Point are now annually appointed Caaee of peculiar merit occiatonally preaenting tbemaelvea, might tbua be provided for under the direction of the President I have the honor to be, very roapectfully, your obe dient aervknt, J. V. MASON. To the PakBiDiitT. M porting ntelllgencr. LonitiKi Aaaoi. taTiot*?Kali. Mcetiro.?Fifth D*v ?Saturday, 5th December, 1840?Jockey Club Puree $6"0-Entrance 10 percent added to the purie. Kour mile heat* j. s. uai n * cr> g. Jerry Lancaster, 07 31111 Moor*, dam by Johanna ?;o 3 1 1 8. T. Tayl ir's If m Fanny King, by imp UlenCM, dam by Sir Richard, J to 1 3 3 J. 8. dughe*'* rh h. Warwick, by Stockholder, dam. by imp. Leviathan, 3 y o 3 dii. Tim#, 7:31, 7:43, 8:08. The whole stock of race colti and fllliea of the late Si mi' Johnson, were sold at New Orleans oa the 6th init. aa follows:? Bay colt, 3 y. o., br imp. Olencoe, dam imp. Delight by Reveller?F. Bouligny, purchsser, $140 00 ay colt, 1 y. o., by imp- Ulencoe, dam imp. Pickle, by Emiliu*, own brother to Thornhill?A. Carueal 140 00 Ch. colt,own brother to Peyton*. 1 y. F. 8. Cable 370 00 Ch. Colt, own brother to Beacon Light, by imp. Ulencoe, dam Ua? Light, by imp. Leviathan, It. o?Rutherford 130 00 Bay Filler, by imp. GUncoe, dam Betaey Malone, by Stockholder, 3 y. o? D Kenner;.. . 330 60 Bay Filley, by. joip. ulencoe, dam imp. Pickle, by Kmiliua, own aiater to TUoruhill, 3 y. o? F 8 Cable 60 00 Oray Filley, by imp Ulencoe, dam by Mohawk, 3 y. o?F- 8. Cable 136 00 Uray f iller, by imp. Ulen-oe, dam by Tacole, 3 y. 0?D. Kenner 130 00 Bay Killey, by imp. OUdcoc, dam imp Refugee, by Wanderer, 1 y. O?J. J. Hughes 63 00 Ch. Klley, by imp. Ulencoe, dam Lark, lifter to Lionet, by imp. Leviathan, i y.o?D. Kenner 360 CO Rimiim or CtPTiin Ri.micolb ? The New Orleans ! Picayune of the 6th eay*:?The ('.eaauhip Telegraph brought to oar city laet evening what of earth remains if two gallant spirits?M*j. Ringgold and Lieut Cochrane. The remain* ef these distinguished and gal tint ' |*ntleaien were removed from the Telegraph, nnder a proper escort of M*j. Oslly's artillery, to the rotund* of [he St Luuis Hotel, where thev lay in *UU. Uuns were ' 3red daring the afternoon or yesterday and last night K guard of honor ha* attended them since their removal from the boat. A committee ol arrangement* will meet st the St. Louia Exchange to-day, to arrange ceremonies

lo be obeerved in boner of the gauant deed RK 1 RNING, DECEMBER 15, K3FOF.T of run POSTMASTER GENERAL. Post Ornci D?r*aTM?nt,) December 7, 1846. $ 8m?'The general intereit felt in the operation of the art of the 3 J of March, 1845, on the revenue* and expenditure! of the Post Office Department, induced me to di- [ rect the Auditor to prepare a quarterly atatement of thorn from it< re organization in 1836, to the 30th of June laat. The tablaa accompany thi* report, marked A and B. From table A it appea>a that the annual average income, from tho lit of July, 1836, to the 30th of June, 184S, amo'into to the turn of $4,864,614 66 Whilit the income for the year ending the SOth of June, 1846, the flrat under the new law, amounted to 3,487,100 36 Making a low or revenue the firit year under the new law, when compered with the annual average of the nine preceding year*, of 877,426 30 And making a lou of revenue the flnt year under the new law, at compared with the preceding, of. , $KU,64J 40 The reveuuet, aa above atated. include the pottage paid on matter which went freo through the mail* prior to the paawge of the late law, of which no account waa kept prior to the commencement of the leal fltcal year. This diminution of the revenue*of the department ariaea principally from the lou on letter poitage,which, when compared with that of the preceding year, amounted to 778,S33 64 Being tho entire lou luitaineil by the department. except $24,108 81 No incomitlerablo portion of thia deficiency in the revenuea of the paat year may be traced to other cauaea than a reduction ef the ratea of poatage by the act of th? 3d of March, 184.) Kirat. Karaite a aUll continue to be run between the principal cine* with aa much regulaiity aa the mailt, and, it it believed, collect and tram port letter* for pay out of the mailt in great number*. The penalty provided by law for the commiaaion of auch ofiance* can rmiely be enforced for the want of infllcient proof. The writer, the receiver and tha carrier refuie to tettify againit each other, becaute by ao doing they may aubiectthemaelvea to a aimilar penalty. The agenta of the department have no authority to arreit the offender*, and ei/.e upon their bag* or trunk*, and have them examined before a nrouer tribunal, thoush morallv rortnln that I they contain letter* : and bene* conviction* leldom take place ; and if tboy do, a recovery of the money after judgment, from inability of *uch oflenders to pay, i* a* uncertain a* the conviction*. Second. Advantage i* taken of that proviaion of the law which limiU the weight of a tingle letter to half an ounce, to cover the correspondence of third persons; and even package* of lettei* addressed to different individual* are collected together and placed under a tingle cover, and directed to come third person for diitribution, by which mean* one hundred letter* thai enveloped, weighing eight ounce*, are charged under SUA mile* BO ccnu, and over 300, $1 60, when the department ia entitled to receive, under the law, Ave or ten dollar*, according to the distance. Theio practice* can seldom be detected, and when detected, the only penalty is the payment of the trme postage. The department ia thu* compelled to pay for the transportation, whilst those who collect and distribute receive the profits. Third. Advantage is taken of that provision of the law which authorizes letters in relation to the cargo o be taken over mail routes free of postage, to cover .correspondence in relation to other matter*. They are generally marked on the outside of the letter?" in relation to the cargo"? fre?. Agent* are unable to detect the impocition ; those engaged in the practice refuse to discloie the fact*, and the carrier* are themaelve* often ignorant of tho truth of the case, and the offender* etcape with impunity If that privilege had been restricted to the bills af lading or open letter* relating to the oargo, much abuse would have been avoided on the principal railroad and steamboat routes. Fourth. Transient newspaper*, advertisement*, printed or lithographed circular*, in great number*, are addressed to postmaster* and others not ordering them, which are not called for, and if called for, refuted to be taken from the oflicet. iiichd buu iiimiir i'lbtuum iw ovnuo lue payment 01 postage, with the immense mail of dead letters, averaging annually between una and a half and two millions in number, encumber the (tails unnecessarily, and without any profit to the department. To remedy these evils, I respectfully suggest that the law be so amended as to make the single Tetters weigh one quarter instead of the half ounce, except in the case of a letter weighing less than half an ounce, and written upon a single sheet of paper. That the satnc power bo given to the post office department, to prevent a violation of its revenue laws, as is now given tho Secretary of the Treasury against smugglers That all letters passing over mail routes which relate to the cargo, be freo when they am unsealed, and subject to the inspection of the poat office agents when fraud is suspected And that the postage on newspapers be ao adjusted as to approach more nearly the cost of transportation and delivery, and be made more equal and iuat between the publishers. This may be accomplished without any ma'enal interfeienco with the policy of diaaeminating intelligence among the people by their general circulation. When this policy was first adopted, newspapers were few in number, and published in the principal cithia, and low pottages seemed necessary to aecure the object; and tho rates were Axed without much regard to the sisa, or weight, or the distance they were to be transported; whilst the letter postage was made high, ?o aa to cover the expense ot transportation oi both. The reasons upon which this pelicy was iounded, have, in aome measure, ceased. Newspapers are now published in the principal villages throughout the Union, and furnish the means of information to almost every neighborhood.? The injustice to written correspondence, by taxing it with the transportation of newspapers, has been partially removed by the reduction of the rates of Utter postage. Krom this act of justice, an injury has resulted to the community at iaige, by transferring the cost .of trans porting ne wspsper* upon the g*neral revenue*. No *atistactury reason now exist* why thoM who bay and aell newspapers should hare the coat of transportation paid out ot tiie revenue* collected from the great body ol the people. I'm low postage* on papera, without regard to tize, weight, or the distance to be taken, operate unfairly bo twe?n the publishers themselvea, by enabling thoae papera published in large commercial cities to compete with the village presa lor circulation in their respective lucalitiea, wlulat the sending papers free for thirty miles from the place of publication, counteract* to some ex tent this auvantngv?each alik* unjust to th* ether, and both unjuat to the community, aa th* burden of both ia thrown upon the treasury. Aa an act of justice between the publishers themselves, the rate a of postage should be regulated according to the tize or weight of the paper, and the distance to be carried; reserving the right t* them of taking their own papers over mail routes out of the mails; and aa on act 01 justice to th* community, these rate* should be *o hign as to cover any deficiency which the reduced ratea of postage on letter* may make, so aa to render the iucome of the department equal to it* expenditure*. Transient newspaper*, or those sent by other* than the publisher* to the subxeriben, a* they are usually cnt in lieu of latter*, should be rated higher than other newspapers. All piinted matter pauing through the mail* thauld be prepaid, and all letter* be prepaid, or rated with double pottage. Some such amendments of the lata law are believed to be necessary to give th* cheap-postage system a fair trial, by securing to the department it* Fegitimute revenues, and if adopted by Congrest, it i* confidently believed, from the reduction* which have been mad* in th* two section* already l*t to contract, and anticipated mvlng* in th* other two section*, with a pro,>er sconomy in the other branches of the service, that there will be no ne#d of calling upon the treasury for further aid, after the first of July, 1848, when the whole service will be placed under the new law. Table B exhibit* the expenditure* quarterly under the appropriate haadi. From this it will be seen that th* annual average expenditure lrom the flrat of July, 1836, to the 30th of June, 1815, amounted to. . . $4,4/<J,5!>3 58 And the expenditure for th<t year ending the Sfilh of Juno, 1816-the first year under the new law?to the sum of. . . 4,084,297 39 Making a reduction for the first year. under the new law, when compared with the annual average expenditure of the nin* preceding year*, of 415,094 36 And when compared with the expenditures of the previou* year, a reduction of 233,431 77 The whole expenditure for the year ending the 30th of June, 1840. amounted to 4,084,497 il The income for th* mine time, including the postage* paid by the Different bianches of the executive government amounted to 3,487,199 H> Leaving a deficiency ot revenue of. . ,. &97 097 87 The deficiency wu supplied ?>y drafts Irom the treasury u the service required 600.000 00 Leaving a balance In hand on the Drat of July of the money* drawn from the treasury during the fiscal year, of. . . A9.P0-J 93 The tables submitted by the Pint Assistant Postmaster General, accompany this report, marked C, 1, 3, S, and fnrnl?h many minute and interesting detail* of the service. The mail service of the United States, exclusive of Texas, is performed bv 3,430 contractors on 4.9M poet roalos, the aggregate length of which is 149,070 miles. Its transportation throughout the year ending the 30th of June last, amouuteil to 37,394.414 miles, and the engagement* for said transportation, stated by the yew, amounted to >l,6#a,07b. This exceeds ttie amennt of service rAtdeved the pre- j ceding year, in the length of route*. A,739 miles, and in , the annual transportation of the mailt, 1,764.143 miles ; hut it is less than ti?e expense of the preceding year by I the sum of fisMV?,913 There is, however, %4,bi>z excess in the eost ol mall agencies for the last over preceding year ; and about >9,1 W> for 4H months transportatiou cf malls in Texas, from the loth or February to the 30th ?f June, 1M8, to be deducted frem this difference, which wonld leeve the cost of last year's service at the rate of >ISH,IU1 a year leas than that of Use preceding yeer. This saving is not proceed by retrenchments in the 1 service, for whilst the retreiichmonts ordered during < said yeer amount, when stated by their annual results, < IEHA 1846. to about $45,000, the new and improved service, excltw ! live of that in 'i'oxaa. amouota to about $7i,C0<i, of which 131.000 is the coat of the new routes put in operation under the poat route act of March 3d, 1844. It ia the caving effected in the reletting of the contract* iu New England and New York, that producea the reduction in the coat of laat year1* aervice : and alao the amount that the new ?od additional service costs, over and above the retrenchment* ordered during the year. And I am gratified to itate that a aaving in a ratio equally as great ia effected in the re letting of the mail* iu the northwestern and southwestern States nnd territoIko ...hi., I. 1,... ioce the close oi the last contract yeur. Comparing the cost under the present contracts in that lection or the Union?stated by the year?with those that expired on the 30th of June last, there appear* a reduction of (313,901 per annum,being a saving of 33 per cent. Thii, a* in the case ofthe New England and New York contract!, ia not produced by the curtailment* of the service, but by , the reduction in the rate* at which the contracts were taken. So far from lessening the amount of ai-oommodation which the mails dispensed, except in reducing the grade from coach to horse conveyance, whenever re- , quired by the special provision in the new postage act ' of 1840, the department has, in the new contracts, in- j creased the frequency and despatch of the mails. The mails have been expedited one business day be- j tweeu New York city and New Orleans, and twenty- ) four hours from Washington to St Louis and Nashville, by the way of Louisville?flfty-Ave hours te St Louis by Springfield and Dayton Daily lines have b?en established between Montgomery, Alabama, and Vicksbttrg, by Jackson ; from tho end of the (ieorgia railroad to Memphis, by Tuscumbia and Holly Springs ; and to Nashville, by tho way of Huntsville, and a trfweekly to Knoxvillo. A similar increase in speed and frequency of trips has been given to other sections in proportion to the importance of the routes, which is sufficiently shown by the increase of transportation over a million and a half of miles during tho year The operation of the set of 184A, has been favorable to the revenues ot the a reduction in the . cost of transportation in the two sections of the Union | let to contract under it. The regulation of the depart- I ment whicn compelled an under bidder to take the atock , of an old contractor, was repealed, and tbo contract* were , directed to be siven to the lowent bidder without regard j to tbe means of transportation other than what wai necessary for the ' due celerity,certainty, and security of the mails" These provisions enlarged the field of conpetition for the service, and caused a reduction in the cost. While the revenues of tho department have been benefitted by these provisions, the service has been occasionally greatly impaired. The department has boon compelled, in many instances, to reject tbe bids of contractors of established reputation, well known to it for their energy and efficiency, as well as ability to perform the strvice, and accept in lieu of them new and inexperienced ones wholly unknown to the service, and of doubtful means, when there was but a difference of a few dollars in thftir bids. The provision of tbe law introduced a species of bidding and contract until that time unknown to the service, by which the bidder proposed to take the mails with "due celerity .certainty, and security," reserving to himself the right to use any mode oi conveyance that his interest might require; thus taking from the department the right to prescribe a specific mode ol transportation which a ad always before boen exercised. In many instances the department was constrained te accept that ferm of service, especially from old contractors, who hnd their stock on ths road, in consequeace of the great difference between that and other bidsw here a specific mode oi conveyance was proposed. The efl'ect has been frequent failures to execute contract! m required, or to put the lines in operation according to their propositions-, and when put in operation, an Inability, in some instances, to keep up the service, and changes and uncertainty in the mode of transportation, These have produced failures and irregularity in the delivering of the mails, causing much complaint in some sections of the country, and occasioning great trouble and increased expense to the department belore new conti actors could be obtained. These evils were more sensibly felt at tho recent lettinge, because o( the great distance of portions of the lection from tu? ?eat of government, and the unavoidable delay in lending through the mailt the acceptance* to contractor*, receiving their repliei, and making provision lor tho new lervice in the caiei of failure. Notwithstanding the inconvenience to the department experienced in putting into operation these provisions of the law, and the complaint* produced by it, they are wiie and salutary in counteracting, to tome extent, a spirit of monopoly, and in keeping tho expenaei of tke department within proper bound*, The deduction* froi# the pay of contractor* for failure* and irregularities in tho peiformance of mail lervice, for the year ending 30th of June lut, amounted to $46,273 64. The aervice in Texa* ha* not been satisfactorily performed. Upon the panago of the act of May 29, 1844, establishing post routei in Texas, the lata Postmaster General of Texa* (Daniel J. Toler) wai appointed the special agent of tho department, and deipatched, with proper instruction*, to put the routt* in operation, and superintend the service generally. A contract was made with Charles Morgan to transport the mail* from New Orleans te Oalveitou aud back, once in every Ave day*, in ocean iteamer*. 1 he Galveston and New York were engHged in the performance of this service, when the New York was lost in a storm on the gulf The agont (Toler) we* on bo.ird, and reported the loss of hi* papers connected with the seivice, which had been prepared for the department. The other vessel, (the Galvoiton) it ia understood, ha* been much engaged in the transportation of troop* and lupplie* to the Itio Grande. Irregularity in the delivery of the mail* at Galveston ensued. Independently of thi*, great derangement of the mail service existed in other part* of Texa*, and wa* justly the ?;uu?o ui muv;u uviu|naiui. ou auuu * me nepirimeiii wan informed of this state of thing*?which information was greatly delayed from tome unknown cause?a aecoud agent was despatched to Texai with proper instructions for the regulation of the aervice, and the postmaster at New Orleaua waa directed to forward the mails to Galveston whenever opportunity occurred, under the provision* of the 17th and 18th aectionaof the act of 18:J5 The lucts of the case did not aeem to warrant an annulment of so favorable a contract us the one with Mr. Morgan, who it ia expected will, at no diatant day, supply the place of the New York, and cause the aervice to bo again regularly performed, llscent reports from the agents induce the bfelief that the whole aervice in Texas will ho soon iu operation, a* authorised by the act of Congress. Ou the 30th June, 1646, there were 14,041 post office* H77 new office* were established during the year, and 459 discontinued, making an increase of 418 office* during the year. On thi* day the number is 14,703. Taere were appointed during the year 4,!>i8 postmasters, of whom i,90i were appointed in consequence of resignation* or death*. 301 iu consctiucncn at change of site* of the office*. 877 by the establishment of new office*. 871 hy removal*. 4 where commissions expired and were not renewed. Near ouc-third of the offices in the United States, have been voluntarily vacated since the passage of the act of the 3d of March, Id 15. This, in a great degree, ia attributable to the increased labor in the office*, and the diminishedcompensation to postmaitor* produced by it. Prior to the paasege of that law, a certain per centum on the proceed* ol the office* wa* given to the postmasters as a compensation for their services, and for thepaymont of the expense* of their offices, including rent, ftiel, pay of clerks, &o., together with the franking privilege. The Utter wki much more valued by many holding the smaller office*than the pecuniary consideration allowed them. This mode of pai inn the expenie* of the office* from the commi??iou* allow ed to the poctmaater*. ?u the beet that could have bean adopted to ae?nre proper economy In their management. The commiaaiona allowed to |io?tmaiteri by thu Uih aection of the act of IHja, a* tbe pottage* were regulated, wero an ample if not liberal compenaatiou for the aervicea performed by them, particularly in tho larger office*. The act of 3d March, 1H4J, uboliihed tbe franking privilege. and left their commiaiiona aa regulated by the act of 1843. The reduction of the rate* o7 poatage increaaed tbe buaine** of their office*, in aome caiei, more than double, and, at the Mme time, diminiahed the revenue of the office*, ane the corami?*ion* of the poitmaater* ; thu* doubling their labor and diminiahlng their oompenaation They were thereby deprived of the meaoaof employing the additional aaaiatant* which the increwed fxnine** of their ofloe* required, and even of the ability to retain the number, at toe same price, engaged in {the ??nrIce prior to the pa* *age of the law , and hence, within the Or?t month alter that law went into operation, four hundred and (eventy*eren resignation* were received at the department. Tbe conduction placed upon the act by the Attorney General, which wa* communicated to Congreia with my annual ieport, enabled the Jepaitment to increase their compensation to the tame amount they had received the preceding year, and had the effect of a treating in aome degree tae reiignation* which were going on ; *o, in the month of Augutt, they numbered only 30.i, and in Hop)ember JW?making 970 resignation* in the flrat quarter Tbi* order of tbe department only enabled them to continue tha fame number of asaittanta, at the lamecnmpeniation, which they had prior to tho paiaage of the inw, wlflch wa* not greater than the businei* of th? office* mjmreii, anu wnoiiy inadequate la iae periorm uce 01 their increased dutict. An accurate opinion may | be foimed of tha reduced amount of compen?ation by a i compariaon ol the revenue* of ion* of the principal ofIlea* lor law year* past : ? mi. itn urn mi. t??. New York .... .$114,771 SIJ 19f? Mt,4S? ?t Ml 191 CHI Philadelphia... l?T,r? 141,717 1M7II 139.748 Mitt Baltimore ?I,*W S4.1U H.7J1 II.3M 4I.0M There are noreturna mo.le to the department by which the increased buaineaa of the ofllcee can be correctly aac-ertained. Some idea, however, may be formed by comparing the weight of all the mailt aant from the above named offl ??, which wt? taken for on* week In June, lS.Tt, under the order of one of my pradeceuor*. with ; the weight of the maile aent upon railroad and ileamboat routea only, taken under my order for on* week In the month of May liurt Poundi. Weight oftha mailt lent from the New York office for one weak in Juaa, 19.941 Weight of the mailt taut from the Philadelphia office tor one week in June, 30 B4? Weight of the made aant from the Baltimore office for ona week In June, 1M0 3,730 43,700 Weight of the mail* tent from the New York office for una weak upon the railroad and ateamboat routes. ?... . * ** * *t 00,009 WV.iht of \hm roMli Miit from tho Philadelphia offtce for one weak upon railroad routet 48,387 Weight of the mail* aent from the Baltimore office for one week, upon tha railroad routea, eatimated 30.000 There can be no doubt the buaineaa in tha office* i haa greatly inrre?*e I, perh ape in a greater ratio than the ! ( ompenMtion ' of poeimaatera ha. been reduced, in 1 cooee<|uenco oftha low raUa of |oatage under tha act of " ' ? ?U. f T T\ t*rtcc Two C?nU< H15; and ynt the postmasters ere left for thair compenae tion ari'l tlie expenses of thair offlrn. to the par centum allowed by tha ait of 1825, deprived ot ihf franking privliege, ami unable even to leceive rtttjial let ins fiaa, without tha tiouhle and expanau o' n?t inning tUem at vaiichpm, accompanied by an nlli Uivit to the An lituf for settlement. It i? of the utmost importance to tha con munity that the otti-ej, distributed m they art- in everr neighborhood, aud intimately couovrti ! with eve>y m'.e lest, ihotild be under the control i>l man of integrity, qualitied to dikchaigo the dut.e* Mi l: accurac> and promptimde. It caunot be expected t'l .t uoh men will irive their tima an 1 attention to the discharge ot tha^a duties Without a reatoualiie conn enaation Ttie uuiission ol the net of 1840 to provide tin iuci?u<ed compensation, proportioned to the increated 1j)>oi?. has deprived tha department of the services o> many of ita most efficient otticers. mid itiil provei ta, in many cases, individuals qualified for the discharge of theio duties from accepting them. It is a duty which 1 owe to tho public to call attention te the express which ban heretofore been inn, aad will probably bo again during the business season, at Naw Odeum. At iojoiw ot the year, when much advantage can be derived from the exclusive postoifion of early cuniiiiurt'inj iniewi^enro, i priTHie ezprevi u i no over that part of the mail route w hich i? covered by coach ctonvoyaace between Atlanta, in Georgia, and Mobile ? The matter to be conveyed U forwarded from New York through the mails to Atlanta or Montgomery, in Alabamu, ai.d ii (Vsj)dti-lied by a relay ol noraes with more than double the expedition that can be given to tha mail stsge conveying daily ita thouaanda ot pound*. By the timo the mail coachea reach Mobile, the expreai, if run from Montgomery, overtakes the mail of the preceding day, gaining ?J4 hours ; il from Atlanta, gaining 48 hour*, and proceeds in the mail boat to New Orleans The matter aaid to be taken generally, consists of a single new a- / paper, containing intelligence of the, brought to Boston by the Kngliah teamen In addition to the time gained by the express, it ia obvioua that much more may bo aeoured by uaing the telegraph to Washington, fiom which place tha intelligence may ke forwarded before say portion of the mail by the foreign a teamen can be delivered even in New York. The department has been urged, with much earnestness, to eatabliah a government express over that part of the mail route where the service is now performed in coaches. This is represented as the only mode by which the private express can be put down, because It abstains from the transportation of written matter, for which alone the owner or carrier can be subjected to the penaltics of the act ol the SJ of March, 184S The revenuee of the department are not materially affected by the express II the whole poatage on the matter taken by it for a year was paid, it would not equal the expense* of auch a line for a single day. Its effect on Individual interest is far different. It gives the speculator undue advantage over the regular dealer. It enables the purchaser to defraud the seller in open market by obtaining his coramodoities at loss than their value. If the right to take a newspaper over mail routes out of the mails for such purposes be secured to the citlxen by the act of the 3d of March, 1840, as is claimed, it mav be questioned bow far the government should interfere in its exercise by creating ta competition sgninst ita own citizen* in their lawful pursuit* and enterprise*. If it be not secured, the* it should be ?o declared, and the practice auppreised, by tho imposition of penaiitiea suAcieut to accomplish the object If such a line should be established by the government j it must necessarily be for the transmission of intelligence similar to that taken by the pilvate express, and must bo ; special and conclusive in it* character, and limited to tho I use of a Jew, or it would bo .broken down by its own ! weight. There would then be two mail lines paa.iug over the same route?one going with the utmost despatcn for the benefit of a few, the other with tho usual speed of tiavei lor the community at large. The department cannot say what portion of the matter put in the mails shall be sent with groat deip.toh, and %-hat shall bo taken with the common speed of the mail*. It cannot so regulate the rates of postage as to charge more upon tho mail matter taken witn great speed, than ia paid npon that whfch in taken with less. Tho postages, by the act of the 3d ol'March, 18Id, are made uniform. If auch a line should be estahlithed, tho oiijeot of thoao urging it could not bo accomplished. The u*e of tho telegraph being uudor the control Juf privato individuals, would enable those interested to communicate intelligence in New Orleans a day or two in advance of the lottors brought by the foreign mails, with Um atmost speed that could be given them There would be n Jincieaseof the pottages by ita establishment, whilst the increased expenditure would not fall ahoit of flfty thousand dollars annually, to be paid oat of tho treasury. If the department had tho power to establish such a line, and h' d yielded to tho urgent soltcitationa for it, imilar appeal) would havo been made in behalf of other important commercial points, and could not, with justice, haveibeen declined; and thus the department would havo been .involved in heavy expenditures, which ita present revenues would not justify. It is the duty of the department to give the utmost expedition to the mails; but this is not performed by attempting a speed wh ich all muit *ee cannot too maintained aa the law now stands, and which canuot bo usefully undertaken until the department has the exclusive control of rue leiegrapn, un aa ?oiagriea vo tin me postageaeo high na to exclude front the mail* mrck of tho matter that now give* weight to them. Similar appeals were made to the <lepertment, during the Ust session of Congress, for the suppression of an exprecs line then in operation over the aiame part of this important route, instructions were given to tho agent* of the department to refer the case to the district attorney, lor prokeeution. For the reason* assigned in this report, no prosecution was instituted. The whole subject was then laid belore the appropriate committees ot Congreaa. For thoso reasons I hsve declined establishing the express line which has been so anxiously sought by a portion of thafoitizena of New Orleans The aontractors for tho transportation of the mails between New York and Bremen by ocean steamers, are rjpidly progressing with tho eonatraotioB of the first vensef; and but little doabt is nnterteinod that tho service I will be commenced early in the spring. From the reports of the agent appointed to inspect timber, machinery, be., the work has so far proved most satiafacterr, and ! promises to add to the high reputation of tho mecnanica | of this country, ior the judgment and skill exhibited in i its construction. The act of 3d of March, 1845, providing for tho transportation of tho maila between thia and foreign countries, under which the rontraot was made with Edward Mills and his associatea, seemod to contemplate the establishment of more linos than tho one selected. Varioue propositions were received, and communicated to Congress at its last session?among tho number, a line from Charleston, by Havana, to Chagrea, in eteaaurs, and from Panama to Oregon in sail or steam vessels, was recommended, and no action taken upon the subject. Tho clause in the act of tho lfHh of June, 1844. appropriating Vtt.000 (or tha aervice between New York and Bremen, provide* " that do further mm ihall be diverted to ujr other object than the trenaportation of tha raaila within the United State*.'' Thia ban nut been regarded ae a repeal of the act of the 3d of March, IB4A, but aa an intimation or the wish of Congre** that no further contraot tor foreign aervice ihould, at thi* time, be mado und< r It. No further effort* hare, therefore, been made to aecare additional aervice, notwithstanding tha anatoue da aire of the depaitmont to provide a direct communication with our lettlement* on the Tacilc coaaL Recent event* in that remote region woui l leem to add to the importance, if not ueceaiity of tha lino aa propoaed at the late aeaaion of Congrcia. The finance* of the department, however, will not admit of ita eatabliahment without the provioun legidation of Congroae. The telegraph between thia city and Baltimore haa been kept regularly in operation antil the lat of December. A itatemont of the inoomo and expenditure* from the time it wa* placed under the control of tha department i* herewith aiarked D. | Under tha authority given at tha lait aeealon of Congreaa. an arrangement ha* boon made with Moaara. Vail and Roger*, the principal officer* having charm of it, bjr which the line will be kept up until the 4th of Marok '* . neat, lor Ita profit*, and without farther oalla upon the r' trea*urjr. In my lut annual communication, I brought to your notice thi* extraordinary invention of Profoaaor Mora* for the tranamiiaion of intelligence?ita importance in all commercial tran*action* to thoaa having the oontrol of it, and to the government iteelf, particularly la a period of war. 1 than tipruwd the opinion that an instrument, to powerful for good or evil, could not. with safety to ttao citizen, bo permitted to remain in the of individuals uncontrolled bjr law. Another year's experience giro* additional weight to the oplntoM then expressed. Telegraphic line* have been established fna New York to Boston, Buffalo, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington City, and others are in centemplstion {torn this city, south, aad iron Buffalo, weet; aad will be emtended to the principal cities of the Union ia a few years. It now enables those controlling it to transmit intelligence instantaneouaky between the dtfhrsnt cities, where it has been established, and to the important cotamaroial points in the south and west, sevsral days in advance of the nulls The evils whieh the community nar suffer, or the beneflta which individuals may derive, from the possession of such an instrument, under the Control of private associations, or incorporated companies, not controlled by law, cannot be over estimated I may further add that the deportment created under the constitution, and designed to exerciee eaehurivt power for th? tram mission eT intelligence, must necessarily be superseded in much of its most important business ia a few veers, if the telegraph be permitted to remain under . the control of individuals. It is the eetUed conviction of the undersigned that the pubhc interact, as wall as the eataty of the citisen, requires that the government should get the exclusive control of It, by purchase, or thst its use should be subjected to the restraints of law. Kntertsiniag these opinions, I addressed a letter to the president of the aseocietien owning the patent right, to ascertain, as far as practicable, the probable cost If Congress should be inclined to amhe the purchase. A oopy of the reply is herewith communicated, msited t. The association ia willing to dispose ot the right to the gevernatent, but Is unwilling to enter iota aay negotiation upon the subject without authority 4-st given by Congress. I also caured inquiries to he made frcrn the best soureee of f nformatieo, as to the cuet of construction, the expense of keeping ap the Usee, the preAts, end the capability of such lines lor the transmission of intelligonoe I have reoeived replies, glvh* minute aad detailed atatemeats upon the subjoeta referred ta, whieh remain on the Ales of the department for the nee of Csagrass, should tkey be deemed necessary. Very respectfully, your obe<Uent servant. C. JOHNSON. To the PmasioairT of the United States * Taaooi* or Da. Birutra -Jlie Ilocheeter Drmvcrm/ stys Dr. Blegler received hi* pardon irom (lev. Wright on Wedneaitey. and was iilieisted from the Auburn Stata riisonon Thursday.