Newspaper of The New York Herald, December 24, 1846, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated December 24, 1846 Page 1
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I __ J I . I 'ggg r thj Vol. XII, Mo. 337?Whol* Mo. 4SOU AMERICAN AFFAIRS IN EUROPE. TBS IRISH, ENaLIfH, .a AND ENGLISH-COLONIAL VIEW op the I.I3ZIOAIT WAP.. THE EUROPEAN VIEW or THE 1 fflMMERfUt AND POLITICAL POSITION jJ OF THE UVITBB STATES. 4C. fte. [Krom ?ho London Time*, Nor. 30 ] . 1/ Mr. Trident Polk hud (bought fit to shape hit con- | duct in strict conformity to our prediction*, he could not , have mora entirely an 1 accurately fulfilled them ; and ' we are now not without hop.-* of iceiup the just retri- 1 bution which hif r;*h i>nd ?g<re*sivo i?oiicy calls down upon hi* b**d eventually cruih the democratic leaders and the present Cabinet of V ruhinpton. under tha retentuent of 'he American people He fo'ind it an ea*y task to iocito the country to embark (n the war, which he had caused by hi* own instruction* to the army, and daolsred upon hi* own re*ion*ibility In tact.t'ie crMwl petition in which Oen.Ta>lor found himself between Mntamora* and (ha mouth of the Rio Bravo, at the opening of the campaign, left the Congre** no option. Prompt support could alone prevent the utter rnin and prob&blo calculation of the at My : *o thnt.by a carious turn of alfsirs, it wns a threatened disaster which in ieality pledged t)i? Vnitnl ?t?te? to this absurd, unjust, and udcodstitn'i'-nal war "We had lorr ago shown that'the demo cratfc party in Imprica, an t iHtT tncceitor* of Geueral Jack ton, lii' > ?fr own cipeciaf reainm for regarding a war with nai'e of that avemion and abhorrenca which re rn'.eruincl Uy no?t other civilized Government*, and pr. Jei?? d by all. The exploit* of a aucceaiful campai^n u air . Ttoliavn their u?ual effect on the populace; ha atm.v lUelf ?rns iikelj to offer great attrac. tleu* 10 t!ia Duineioua body of loos.* advun'urer* in the a?? glutei, snl military honour* acquice un uxoeiaive value and importnr.cc i>< a country who ro uther looial diitioctioa* do not exht; but, above Ml. the Government released iueli by a bold declaration of war Irom the jlMOMpretention; of the comtituuon and tbo votes of a ^^^populir aiaenbly, and it c?uU -l oi>co indulge in un^^bo'itwled patrouage and unlimited expenditure. No doubt, Mr. I'olk aud hi* adviser* were *angaine enough tc hop* that the brilliant termination of the campaign and treaty of pcace^or rafhar a treaty of rpollation. dictatod tin er the wall* of Mexico, would piove an effectual ??? ver ti tue attak* of the Opposition on the meeting of Con^rrt*. Aud it 1* not improbable that decided *ucMm would have obliterated fiom the memory of the lTni ed SUteathe iniquity in which tbil war originated, mo th? abuse* by wnicb it ha* been carried on. But, if inch wnre tire anticipation* oi the American AlinUtera, ?' > u : cl'im for ourselves the credit of a more correct tippracmiHinof the atate of their affair* than they had kM...u.l \IT. I?t 1 ???? they would find ?hemtelvo? at the close of the )?r, scarcely more advanced iu the conquest or <<Micion of Mexico than they were in April; we poio'el out the impossibility of making any rapid military movement in advance, in a country destitute ?f 10 da and of water, whilst fever and dysentery were more certain to thiu the rauka of the army than the as-aults of the enemy; in abort, we foresaw all the evils of an exhausted treasury, and of a war which cauiiut he carried on with such means as the Uaited States posress, or abandoned without disgrace. In on* rttpiel Mr. Polk hat betn more fortuna'e than he deterved, in the ttrict fo> b< oranee and neutrality .bierttd by thii ctvntry. We believe that neutiality to be the line of policy most consonant to onr henor and our interests; bat, after the language Mr. Polk had used in the Oregon dispute?which wss still pending when Mexico was attacked on the Rio Dravo?the American government had certainly ht? right to reckon with implicit confidence on our standing entirely aloof; and our reserve ia no excur* for th*ir imprudence We are happy to find that this troth is nnivertaily recognized in the United Statea; and nothing ha* mined the charaeteF Of the English government to a higher position in their eitimitwn, than the fact that we dul vot stoop tn take advantage of the folly of thtir own Cabinet. The main difficulty ol Mr Polk lies, however, in the finuncial etnbarmesments with wbieh he ia surrounded; and these must come under the full diauuaeion and control of Congress. Somehow Lor another, we art aeiured by eur eorre$j>ondentt, that n0 leta than forty milfiono of do Hart hive been tfjrnt upon I hit war tit the lait tijcmanthi; and we caa believe that this calculation is not excessive, when we remem ^^t>er that the army and fleet had not omly to be supported In the field and at if*, and provided with pay and ncceafanes, bat that these fcrcos had. ina great momure, toba formed and equipped. A eouatry in possession of an immense accumulation of etore*, and a considerable standing army, may carry on a war on a limited ecale, I witbeat a very large addition to ita anaual ex' penditnra. Bat the very existence of a oorpa of twenty thousand men, operating in a foreign country, and drawing ita supples entirely from home, is an ?nKtord of roeelty in t/te United Statei of America?a novelty in their eitimatei, ar.d a novelty in tkeir political condition. We venture to affirm that when Congress passrd a precipitate bill to authorize the Presidant to aill out 60 $M volunteer*, nobody but the admi nutration an ) the contractor* had any i/ea of the euormous burden they were imposing on the country Vet that act will be invoked by the Government ai a formal reocgmilion by Congress of a war which it had rot declared, and a* a sanction for all the expenroa that war haa occasioned. The** fact* are so clear that we are not aurpriaed to And that Mr. Folk's popularity and power are on the wane; that in many State* the election* have turned in favor of the whig*; and that there I* a proipect of hi* having to render an account of all the proceeding* of hi* Fraeidency te a hoitile Houm of Repreaentativea. li'such be tbo event, the strongest aeaiure* which the American constitution provides, and which the manners ( oar tin* tolerate, will hardly if too ttrong to pittiiiA the erroi t and milder di mof turh an Mniniotration. We do not anticipate that any important intelligence from the aeat of war will arrive to disarm the resentment of the American people, or to improve Mr. Polk's position. At Monterey the Mexicans hare recently thown that they can flght w ith the ancient bravery of Uioir Spanish progeniton behind walled fortification*; and although the town waa ultimately taken, the capture coat the Amerioftn* more than the low of it did the Mexican*. In eon eeqttanee of the refusal of tho American Cabinet to ratify General Taylor** armittice, we ihall probably ahortly hear of aimilar attack upon Saltillo, the remit of whick depend* very ranch on the combination* by which the raapeetive force* may ba concentrated on that point.? Santa Anna will ?ot be able te bring hi* army ap in time to defend the poeition ; but it l? net impossible that he m May precede the m*iu body of hi* troope, ami that the roB gtwtance of the place may be prolonged till he arrive*.? At any rate, even the Ion* of Saltillo will not prove a doB ciiive blow to Mexico, for it ia more than GOO mile* from f the capital; where** the ftilnre of Oeneral Ta> lor> at [ tempt upon it wouM compromise to the laat degree the ' safety of hi* army and the credit of hi* arm*. In a military point of view it waa * mi (take to weaken the email Americas force by allowing detachment* to march off to California .and Santa Fe, when thera waa no enemy whetever to encounter. The poimiion of thoee province*depend* not on a mora military occupation by a party of marauder* and backwoodsmen, but on the term* of the peace eventually to be concluded by the belligerent p*rtiee [Fmm the London Tim**, Nov. 9*1 ?? To **y that bnman nature i* human nature all the world over. i*. iu.'??d, iar lei* ttriiung than the indication of thoee example* which teaiify It* truth The fatnon* oppra*?i?n ot a deapotic, the unprincipled temerity ?f a republican government?each of thoao ie bandied about In general terma by the asaailaiit* of either respectively. But a "ingle inataru-o of an oppraaaive republic, or en unprincipled monarchy, come* with ellect to lb* ralief of monarchical or republl an odvocatee. It i* worth ail tho gonaral abuse. ami all the ooilective prejudice, In the world It teachea a lesson which all *tatc*men are reedy to repeat in word*, bnt few remember in .U. tL? alma JamaoaatL. WI..I. mill equally prNMd I rem the utmitigated violence ef tnmu imkiiu, or the blind anecrnpuleaeneaa of human ignorance. Writers on Amonce vlten amuse na by the curious instances they give of th<- thoiough miseppreheneieB about our country and iti cuMomi which 4 prevail* in the United State*. We do not know to what extent the tables n.ight be tamed egain*t ourtelree io Id America But we suspect an amusing little book - might bo compiled of the absnrd fancies pre Talent inone 11 onntrr to tho prejudice of the other. If wo giro an i^negiMtive coloring tp the prevailing tyranny of mobpower, the pretty retribution of Lynch law, or tho do it *00 pleasures ol elav. ownerabip, tho citizens of tho Nate* hev* es numerous subject* of Meal gratification In matefnplating notion where blahopa are fattened on tho taxes, and fox hunting lorda flog tho peasantry to death If wo Magnify evile ofa mob-elected President, they gloot over tho teriora of an hereditary sovereign. .IliogrtStr el et? ftrkapt en ffwel term, in titimaling Ike peculiar*tiat '/ e?r i\f*rtnt iiaAliMi. One thing it quilt certain ' ?t koik teei fkew ty tktir ntrrmtt. Thie io . isegree obfc matter of redootioa. The mind, sated with tho a*greg'ite of antagonist imperfections, at last inqnlree what middi* point o< similarity eon bo (o and, at looat inofleasive to tho vaaity of either nation, or to tho pride of ! hnma4 netnro. where inatitntiona differ, pricciploa i may (fell bo idenlieel. A good and wise policy is lode- i pendent of a particular form of policy. History telle na 1 that the lawa which have boon enacted, or tho cuatoma which ha?e been tolerated, in democracies,are not necoo- | eaiily uMppreaeite. Let ua no longer look for the repetition of tluo tauut Lot na not bo continually throwing in one another's teeth our mutual error* or vice*. Let ua * look for something whereon to congratulate each other and oar common humanity. Haa either ol ua Ixnibited a deaire to produce some great good for the world at largo' Haa either of ue recognised a great principle, 1 otig eschewed by the prejodicee, or denoanced by the ' ignorance, of peiitioians 1 More than this, Irnve we both united in one coi.tt mperaneona effort to give a practical refutation to a dominant error, and a Tigoroua rapport to the promulgation of deotiinee at ooco mere en I lightened and more benetclal- We think we 'may aaI iwer the latter queaiion with a feeling not the leaa self1 complacent because it concerns both ccuntriea alike It ILJtrai our duty a few months ago to announce the direrr? E NE NEW which we had ouimIim lately entered. It it now our 1 duty to congratulate loth countriei altkt on the gtnerml recognition of thoie principle! of cnmmercieU intercourse which, with the one no lt?i than with the other, achieved a tlow and reluctant triumph. We all remember tha peculiar difficult!** with which free trad* had to contend ia i England? difficulties ot which the mode in which H waa advocated wai not the laaaL Monopoly waa aaaniled and defendad aa part of our inatitntiona. Tha Radical identified it with Tory (am; tha leveller with the peerage. It waa daeriad aa a function of rank?a privilege of a claaa, a remnant of faadaliam?an appanage of tha Crown ? i no kim 01 ID* popular, aa distinguished from tha commercial, agitation cl tba question waa to repreeent tha landowners aa ariitocrata, tha aristocrats as trrants, the people aa slaves. This waa, perhaps, a consequence inseparable from all popular remonstrances. Revolutions are nevsr made with rote-water. The voice of the people ia not a atill. amall voice. The gentle accents of theory and -abstraction preoede the loud tampeat of Indignant vehemence ami impatient passion. But the nature of the aaaault may sume times startle even the aaaailanta. Many who were friendly to free trade looked with suspicion on it a championa aoi horror on its tactics. They who had etodied thn aubject aa a pnre acience shrank back whan they found themselves mixed up with comrades who sneered at the church and declaimed against the peon Men of studious and thoughtful minds could hardly reconcile themselves to the noise and tha glare of a theatrical display.Out this waa tha only way ol forcing a momentous question into pnblie notice, and of carrying a great abstract truth into practice. In America there were none of these obstacles to its success; but, on the other hand, there were none of these excitements to stimulate its progress. There weio no institutions to attack by a side-bio ? ; no aristocrats to denounce aa the pensioner J ot aseltWb or the lirotectora of a foolish policy; no church to revile with deliberate invective, or deride with ponderous jocoseuess. The policy monopoly was the same there aa here But the supporters and the opponents of the monopoly wete far different there from what they were here. In KngUnd it waa the manufacturing industry and commercial energy againat the sluggish tenacity of the land ; la America the old landholder of the south, or the unstable emigrant of the weat, against the artificial interests of the east But it waa alao the people against the people The people cried out for free trade ; the people also refused it. The man who clamored against the tariff that forbade him to buy his woollens aud his cottons in the cheapest market, was on a level with him who allied the Bute to tax his fellow-citiaens for his own profit. They wero both eqaal as cijiieas, equal as haters of church, crown ana privilege. Tne strife mere was withdrawn?not, indeed, from the arena of petty passions find selfish inter est*, but? from the atmoxpheie of ciaai distinction! and national institutions Itwasfougnt out as strenuously and aa obstinsrtely?with as ranch spite, as much ignorance, aa many invectives, aa many random prophecies, as many falae " facta"?in America aa in Knglar.l. But the reault?though) long doubtful?waa the same in both nations. And now that the people of the United States and the United Kingdom enjoy an emancipated trade, what do they both think of tha prophecies an 1 the invectives which were thundered in their ears, of the interests which cried out for protection, of the monopoly which waa claimed aa a right I? In England even the agricultural mind is subsiding into repose. Goodwood is not demised at a pepper-corn rent to a Manchester emigrant. Belvoir, Hatfield,and Chata worth are not going to be put up at auctiou. Wheat ha* not fallen to the luted and fatal 30s a quarter. The complaint?In unfounded and unreasonable one as we think, hut not, therefore, unpopular?uow is, not that we shall be inundated with corn, but that we have not enough of it Another year may witness deputations soliciting an impost on the exportation of British grain. Gentlemen are buying land actually as safe investment. Kents aie no: felling ; leases not repudiated. When the laudholder ia ao little dissatisfied, it ia ?ee<lles? to say that the merchant and manufacturer <*0 not grumble attba result. And what is the sentiment prevalent in America ? Do the citineas of the United Statea murmur' that they are no longer taxed fifty-four millions of dollars for the protection of the eastern manufacturer Do they complain that the poorest among them have no longer to pay from 300 to MX) per cent, on articles of daily use 7 Let the address of the ciiiiena of Washington to Mr. Dallas give u?i ??? mi umu wai y ice-rreaiueni ui me senate wbea the new tariff came under discussion. He represented the State of Pennsylvania?a manafec urinf, tberetore a monopolist, State. His constituenta were violently opposed to it ; but be voted for it This was not all. The contest was long, angry, and doubtful. The votes on the division weie equal. Mr. Dallas gave the casting vote, and returned home to receive the approval ef his own heart and tUe execrations of his constituency. Ho was burnt in effigy, of course?reviled, calumniated, and lynched in print, by the excellent " drab" men of that fraternal community. He had contracted their profits ; he had stood against their ideal interests ; but he had conferred a real good on his country. Her citizans hare now begun to leel this. They acknowledge that a vote which was generous, humane, dismteras'el, and philosophical, can not have been unpatriotic. They pay homage to a ** gacity which regarda America as a vast and untried field of future produce, which would be mulcted of half its wealth, and diverted from it* evident purpose, by the stunted and short-sighted policy which tries to build up the petty interests ot a few craftsman and capitalists at the expense of the myriad* who throng to her coll. They, with him. tit the minion of American hvibandry, in4 the great fnture of American commerce ; and. teeing then, they ito homage to a man who l^at devoted vote, voice, and plaet to the vindication of a great democracy from the deipotiim of capital and tht encroachments of morn poly, [From the London Standard, Dec. 3 ] The American papers, received by the Britannia, tell that the United State* army in Mexico has found it con venient to come to a halt. The interruption of the campaign i* ascribed by some Journal* to want of money. This may be the case, and as the halt has been come to earlier thsn we expected, we suppose it is. Sooner or later, however, the war must take this course, and the sooner tho better for the invader*. The battle of defence i* "never won until it ha* been lost." The hiatory ol war i* uniform in this respect?whatever the ultimate event of an invasion, the invader is alway* triumphant in the first instance. Ttia Iftta Mr Mill ?? h?a an eloquent chapter of hia history of British India, explaining the crumb of thi* ao uniform phenomenon; the principal of theae cause* will, however, occur to must readers. The invader ha* reason to fancy liima -If the stronger, or he would not invade, lie mtikes hia preparations at leisure, chooses his own time and place for attack, proceeds with a settled plan and an unity of purpoee pervading hia whole scheme of operations?all these advantagea are wanting to the invaded. But when the war has made some progress, when each is in the face of the other, and can choo<e time and place of *ttack, when the preparationa of the iuvaiter have been exhausted, and hit plans are broken or deranged by the events of war, and when they who are defending their country are driven by present danger into au union as s'rict as that of their enemiea; then the adversaries ire placed on more equal terms, and the advantagea indeed turn to the side of the invaded, who become animated with the irresistible spirit of patriotism, are nearer to their supplies of provisions and of men, and cac choose at pleasure the most promising points of defence Thus an invasion becomes a protracted affair; and a protracted invasion in nine cases out of ten, ends in the utter defeat of the invaders; which will, we have not the slightest dou.it, le the termination of the war in Mexico, if only the northern republicans do not manege to put an en I to it in a very snort time. In any case, however, they have created and organized a hostile power against themselves, that will be an occaaion of molestation and dinger to the commonwealth daring its existence, even should that existence, contrary to all probability, be ex tended .to century [From the London Standard, Deo. 3 J The truly great men in every country are the men who make the mind of the country. Burke was the great man of his age in England, and the younger Pitt was his (accessor, as the elder Titt had preceded Mm ? No man of their intellectual rank has followed, and therefore K can scarcely be s?M that there has boen a complete nnien of mind In this country for the last forty years. M. Unheot appear* to be the great man of France (he has, however, a dangerous rival for hi* fame la the king he serves ;) bat M (Julxot's miuion has been as yet too short?let us add, without meaning offence, the pvvpiv ui'vii wnum UB ecu Irs TOO Volatile, to allow 8 confident prediction that bi* *ucce** will be correspondent to hi* virtue* inl hi* geniu*. If b? ba (pared by Providence, however, for a few year* longer, whether in oflce or in an independent atntion, ho will do mora to K've aolidicy ami a right direction to tho French mind, an any nan of a ceniury. TV treat aaan of iht Unit r<t 8'mitt it Mr ITtliftr. Ha U the oieoW of tba northern, thatia of tba intelligent Statae. and ha merit* tba distinction. It ta with daap iotaiart that wa look to everything in the American pa pen bearing Mr. Webater** name, and that intaraat la alwaja juitifledThe laat American journal* preeent an a<ldte?a of *ome length, pronounced by the learned gentleman at a meeting at Bo?ton, collected to celebrate the triumph of the Whig (In America the Cooeervatlve and rrotectionUt) party at the late election*. That triumph baa been complete beyond expectation, and it I* truly aacrlbed by Mr. Webater to the unpopularity of the Mexican war, and or the am*$i free-trade tariff of 1846. In New York the Whig*, formerly the minority .have obtained iS member* of Congreea oat of 34, the whole number; and the return* in tbe other province* are equally favourable to the Pretectionleta; but let Mr. We Inter bimvelf I peak:? HF * * I We congratulate Sir Bobert Peel upon this earl7 fol- ' Almant of hia prediction that all the nation* of the faith would hasten to imitate hia free-trade policy. The /ollverein have increaaed their protective duties twelvefold, la ordar to contribute to that falMntoot, and bar* "we hare something like a political involution In the t.nited Stale* against the supposed too liberal tariff of IMS We told oar reader* aome weak* ago that tb would be the case. Tha tariff is indeed, far enough Irom liberal; bat we felt that it could not stand agaiunt the alarm created by tba insulting vapouring of Mr llobert reel, hi* parliamentary aapportar*. and hit journal*, a* to the certainty that free-trade woald give n* a monopoly of manufacturing industry?a monopoly in tha matter wa seem like enough to bava, but it ta a : monopoly of the purchaia of all wo (ball manufacture. ' Tba tariff ot 1849 i*. it ia plain, under sentence of death, and a Mara prohibitory tax iff than that which it di(placed : will certainly soccer <1, far Repnblioan* never do any- | thing by balvaa and the Whin* have now the republic intbair hand*. The Whig ascendancy, too, promise* an I early termination of the Mexican war 80 that all the j money wa are aending to tha States tor cotton, tobacco, : grain, and other prorUions basidca grain, will bo nv.ulabla lor tba eetabiiabmont of manulicturea. that is, lor tba augmentation ot an Interest mortally o|>poaed to Manchesta# Huch are tba first fruit* of Ira* trader? and of >he insoles* veporin ot the free-traders.? I What matter, sky tba maa who look only to the getting | 1 over tba year, bava wo not a property and income tarn I | drain, by whioh we can draw tha last guinaa from tba ! people, and la there not, moreover, a great railway fond 1 into which a bold flwmiec may dip kfc band deeply 1 W YO ' YORK, THURSDAY MC I WhUperi of thl< latter project are inde ed already abroad, i >n<l we warn all iutere?ted to be prepared (or It. More of the matter, how* ver, by tmd by. Meanwhile, rei turning to the Ameiiian pronpect ,wei aarneetly recorrmend a cartful peniiel ot Mr. Webater'a moat eloquent < aJreaa. (Frem the Liverpool Chronicle, Not. 31 ] We begin to have our deubta about the ieiue of the war between the United fttatea and Mexico; that ia, if j the people of Mexico Lave only the courage of mice iu their compoaition Of ike mperior pluck of our brelk ren of Iht jfntlu-Sason race, we have at Uttle doubt at 'tnr. and if the affair were to be dtcidrd by *nt great battle, we would etill Hark tknI against any odds uthick tkeir opyonentt could bring againit Ikem, But thov have not the tinewi of war at command to car. . y on it long and protracted content. Neither hare they the numeiical strength for following tip the victorie? which they msy win 1 he whole lore* of the United State* now In Mexico, is not mere thnp enough to form the vngu.ird oi the army which would he required to hold the country as well a* overrun It wherever they aro, they are master* ; in whichever way they aiarch, they drive all before them If, however, they have a dream of advancing upon the capital itself, then their real <lifftculties will begin. The blood turned price of Monterey amply teatifiei that tho Mexican*, like the Spaniards, arrant coward* In the field,can fight bravely behind atone walla. If every town in the march were to he defended with equal courage, the American army would be destroyed by ita succeasea before it could emulate the fortune* of Cortea and his companion*. Bnt even with an o|ien road before them and a* enemy to obstruot them, >h? comronttJer-in-chief would have so to divide and subdivide his amall force into detachments, In order to k< ep up kis communication*, aa he advanced farthei and farther from his own frontier into thn territory oC the enemy, tbat he must eventually be overwhelmed by the superior number* which the Mexicans woull bring down upon him from all quaiter* Add to thisthe wear and tear of sickness, the cons'ant harassing attuck* of the guerillas, and all the other acoidenta wbich befall an iuvaJing foice, and the p si'ion of Oeneral Tavlor and hit gallant band is, we think, very little improveJ bj their late brilliant exploits Of oourae, we give this o iriion in ignorance of any understanding which they may have with Santa Anna. That slippery person may be in It-ague with them for all we knew to the contrary, and such is inobably the case. They calculate matter* tolerably well at Washington; and, although Praaident Folk ha* not had thn advantage of a regular apprenticeship to any member of the Luropean bureauocraoy, he mny know very well what he i* about, and have tried his ground well, beioro he pushed thn troop* of the United State* so far into the eneui) '* country. That, at all events, he ha* bought Santa Anna, we have *mall doubt. Whether that worthy will *ell himself again, remain* to bo *een. [From tho Olaigow Herald Nov. 30 ] By the Caledonia, we are in roceipt of Now York panars to the 31st ult. Thev furnish us sneciflc intnll . gence of importance, but their content* m e far from being devoid of interest From the sent of war no new event in announced, but it Is evident from the whole complexion of the newa that the riiflicultie* of the American General are not becoming less. The Mexican* now are piunuing their true warlike tactics, and if they are endowed wiih the native obstinacy to which thoy bare a hereditary title, thero is sufficient rcanon to believe, we miry aay to hope, that they will yet beat back with lu?s their unjutt aggressors. Gi tinting that the American* have gained tverj victory to which they lay claim, a very liucia! atsumption, their array is yet ill the midnt of * doiert?destitute of any regular sources of supply- surrounded by KUt-rilla warrior*, who take a Ion battle a* a mere contingency for which they are preparod, and are ready for the Held again, with undiminished hop**, whenever a new opportunity presents itself. It is, moreover, now thoroughly ascertained, that the Americau lo<s during the three day*' fighting at Monterey wa* Car more sever* than had been previously stated. It Ads, furtktrmnrt, no ted nut. that tKt "capitulation" leaf rfftetcd, not *t fAs with af /As Mrrican, hu' aj the *1mr>icm General. The armittire was tolicittd firit on tht part of the jlmtricam, Jar the oitrntiblt purpaje nf burying tAtir dtai. The whole ada.ir is calculated to give uew couiage to the Mexican*, anJ fliscoursge th'iir invader* The troubles o* the Utter are only beginning There i* another clan of difficulties *hich the American Government will find every <)u) presMag luore urgently nnnti tkam Thern Im tou<i? n t/i ii*1iaha that thutp Anon. cial affairs arc in tlio tno?t wrotchcd condition. Thrir expenditure, it it fair/, timrmrutly txceedt their tnlirt income, including loom: in I dibit to a large amount hovt kten incurred.aceot Jing to rumor, for wkich the trtatury Annat m dollar to ojfir it jte^mtnt. Tim only attempt at i onaolMion on this lie d ia the assertion of the Oovarnment organ at Washington, that four millions of dollar* till remain in tlio trca-ary Tho meeting of Congress next month, will probably 'licit moro certain information. In tbe meantime, it It -nlM ntly obvious, that the current of popular opinion ia tutnicg ugain.t the Mar putty, and ft ia aui4 that the farm.) Jv.uiiani have return* i'd delegates to Cvarreaa totally opposed to the present a'liniuiHration. To Urn complexion it mustcomo at last. It will be for the new CoiifTeus to ?ay how far the ruinous and interminnblo war with Mexico la to he maintain> d The commercial newi if not of great importance ? The prirea of grain, which the la*t accounts from thia country had raiaed to an extreme height, were again tie ciiuing. They may go below, as they have alieitiiy g?uo above, the proper levrl. Tliia ia a trial year. All tbe absurd notions o the enormous influence of the Corn i iw must be practically driren ont of the heada of speculatore. Until experience ntMhl them, we tuay look for sudden and unexpected rises and talis, nut for steadies j oi pricea aa the League promised us. But m courte of time we will shake down into our old position, ami be unable te dlicover what advantage we have gained from the repeal of the Corn-laws, lit the meantime we are happy to learn that ho reports of famine here bad induced so large a supply from tlM.interior to the seaboard, us to ensure us a sufficient supply at not much higher rates than the present. We presume that un.ier these circumstances the ai.nual cry for the total rejatl of the corn taws wtu leave lue eccon uwiniurutu tur iwoui, (From the Dublin Nation, Not 14] Thirty years from the ftrst discovery of America, Hernan Cortee, on? of tha moat fortunate of adventurers, hid ronqnered for Hpein tha accient and almost civilized empire of Mexico. Thereafter for tan generations nee royefrom Madrid reigned over its people, ui.M, in 1819, ou Fray Hidalgo, cauceiving native government better than foreign miirula, poured in on tha capital at tha head of the peasant* and miner* of his district, and affected a revolution. In 1811, Don Juan O'Donoju (Tfiitmicc O'Donohoa), being Captain General of New Spain, acknowledged iti independence aa a lepublic. The population at that time was upward* of eight million* of iouIi , it ii now let down at ten millioQ*. For nearly a generation tho Mexican! have been free in name, but subjected in reality to a dynaaty of intriguers, succeeding ejeh ether by the right of superior artifice. Their Bnu country they have allowed to go into neglect?their mines they hsve deeply mortgaged; their lug.ways they have suffered to he peopled with banditti, and their commerce they have supinely resign- I a<l into the hinds ol stiatigor. -i.il which facts furnish a grf.ve lesson lo 8tate< that may aohicve sslf-g ovsrumeat, ii em which they are to k arri that (hat privilege can only be preserved by the exercise of it?that to neglect its use is viitnally to aban Ion it to the Orst intruder who may be inclined to take it away. And the further lessen of univetsal education, that all people may know tha inestimable value of liberty. The tirst practical proof of the Impolicy of the republican Governors of Mexico, wea the revolt of the lich and extenaive province of Texas in 13/#; the next. ?h? annexation of that province to tha United States in IMS. The first led to a civil war?tbe latter to a foreign war. still ia progress, end daily assuming a more serious as i>ect -i wmr which, in alrtring tha map of "iJke CT?ii?n," mutt alto affect tht prttmt condition of tit European ratal tun t. This is the state of the war, according to the latest American news s?The main body of thetnvadiag army, under Uen Taylor, ha* taken Monterey, the capit al of the elate of New Leon, a town of about l-J.cuo inhabitants. Another division, under Oen Kearney, has taken possession ol Santa Fe, the capital of New Mexico,where they have hoisted the "star spaagled t'anuer,"' sworn the ulcade* and people in allegiance to Jheir republic, and piocuiir.au lorir utiwui ut??ii<?r ui ,i?* ucailv iu structivna from Washington, it i? MiJ, bin been despatched to Hen. Taj lor, exhorting him te vigoreus piesecution of the wor, and rumors float that ba intended to msrch oa Vera Ciuz, and to lay siege to the castle of Han Juan da I'Utn, the Gibraltar of the On If : hoping Iran th?nca to dietete tarn* to the Mexican*, or to li vunce on their capital. in that city there seems to be little practical exertion for defence. Beat* Anna has been recalled from bantehment, and placed at the head ef the army. He la, b> repute, the beet Oenerat of hie nation, though hie conduct on the fleiit of Hon Jacinto, in the Texien war, where he wa? teken prt.ener in hie tent, i* not greatly in hie favor. rare fee, en os-Pieaident, hat landed iu England, doubtleea on dipk?oa'ie bu iten, where Mr Bancroft, the aew I'Litea b atee Minister, f.es eleo arrived It ie no rath i<redioti>>n la aay thet Lord Palmerston will And hie hemli in 1 enough of hie butinee* if anca ha ioteiferce with it. '? et, lite inter ference ha caanot wall avoid. The minee of Mexico are mortgaged to Britieh marchantefor aiore than ?11,000,000 ecariing, the produce annually, according to Humboldt, $4S,M)0,000, or between ?9.000 0. 0 and ?9.000,000 sterling. Yet, with thia imaaaeapioduce, beeidae their ten or eleven million* of annual exporle i.i gold and ailver bullion, cochineal, plate and augar, the Mexican proprietor* have never triad ta pay of'thit foreign incumbrance. Now, It la clear that one ol the chief object* of the invasion (though not the avewvd one) ie to get poiioeelon of theeo minea, in part or whole; for while the Unite it ntatee are rich im copper, lead, a id iron, they era aoas Mill) imilBU w IM I'm i Mil IVIVU, Ulll Ul? 1VWVJI/ VI peri* on mort than out ogcuiuii. hud wail nigh ran dared than bankrupt, from Maiuo to Miaaouri. Auotber, ad hail avowed deaig-' ol um mreaion, n the coiiqiim of hat hour* on Ui? (Jul.. u A on iba ?ea of Cartel. Vara Crux and (fen Vranciacu \kv loaf been abject* of aaaioua attention to In- Cabin*: at Washington, uad now, t laat, they aeem aimou wiUiin ita (reap. Tbeae bar l>era are the two on lbv eat>in ana westaru coatta ol North America, Iran wbic.li a vVeat Indian and an Aria- , tic commerce could'>e > ? c-ir ltd on Lord Falmirnon, i there fort c<n<u( ?fford to j? > rel ItKrir ecc*jntiun iy (At ; 8 atft ieiiho?t rrtumilf Hi", or ivwHtAimg more It it lolly to Imagiuo liuit ut^acla l?aa iBpertant than theae would induce the Ifnib.i Htatee government to

wage the war they ara no* wnging. To at* He food the annexation of Teui, ilia iio aioie noceaaary to occnpy the cattle of San Ji.auUmn to occtipj Quebec; to deletul the Rio Bravo boundary, tt ia lie mot* aeodiui 10 poeteta Tampico than to take Toronto. A deeper and awrt daring acheme, under thia feint, to being carried out; and if eiita Anna, or the rainy aeuaeu, de not arreat Um march I of Oeooral Taylor .he will mm be on the route of Cortes orar the CerdlUerae to the oap*Ul. The whiu pojm KK 1 MINING, DECEMBER 24 lution, utmipported by Europenn aUion^e, mu*t retreat lie/ore hii Bpproach into the land of ttieir kin-Jted, to Central or South America, and the Creole*, Indiana aod Blacki will become incorporated with the victora, and the Entendeciae of Hidalgo'a republic be turned into ?tate< ot *' the Union." Of the injustice of inch an invasion we wonld uk no pi oof. An an ioT?ai#n it would be altogether indefenaible. The Mexican! have a perfect right to covers or minffovern themselvea aa they will?to mortgege their motintaine of aflver and gold?to neglect their highwaya and their comma roe, if it pleaaea tham. The Cabinet >t Washington h ?a no charter to chnitia* nationi: and we frtiafr llint nnlilr* />nntin? HMNIllAfl (if F.limna it does not ?It act to have any! But tiler# are other powers in Mexico than ita own, and concerning these there are considerations which materially mitigate our indignation against the invader*. They are .not warring so much against Mexican bulletins, which are harmless enough, a* against British mortgages. By neglecting their own commerce, the Mexicans have invited British factor* to their shores and British fleets to their harbora. The conduct of England and France, moreover, in the coalest of the republics on the Rio de Is Mats, against which the Statas protested in vain, seems to- have operated as a warning to them to guard against the encroachments of European powers on their ewn proper continent. The$t.an4 tfktr conriieraft'onj wKUh we cannot new g*a good won to iuitijy, te frUk mini*. i&*? ? ?** Mtaic* In ?ngi&ad. ef coarse, it is hs*4 ty? h* altogether nnfnstaw! timer ssMr jr. [( 'rem the Gioroaie del Lloyd Austriaco.] The abolition of the protective system in Kngland, hoth as regard* grata, the chief product of cultivation hi th teinprmt* suue. and sugar, the principal product ef the tropics. mast have a considerable ?ff.?ct, not only on the prices and th* production of these two great articles of consumption, but also ou those of many others, a id ?fp*<-ially of cotton, which is to be considered as stalling third In poiat of iai ortaace amongst the products >r agiicul'ure cultivated by civilised countries. Intelligent individuals, well informed respecting the cultivation of the middlo and southern farts of the United States, nre of opinio* that the effect of the chance in the srruiiut laws will be fslt even this year (Idid) in the diminished supply an I increaaed price of cotton ; but be Uiataalt aiay, theie Is no doubt that the change will, io a few years produce a great effect on the price and the mode of cultivating this and many other articles. The effect ot op irug th* porta of the country to th* admission of grain, me >1 msize and rice, Irom all parts of the globe will lie to offir to the cultivators of th* cottongrowing Stat*. of America a choice of i.arkets inch as they hail l.nherto iwver possessed. Up to the date of thi< grett riomaicr i<ti revolution, the planter of the United 8tatea coniu not cultivate, in order to obtain a good markit, snyt ii-jg but cotton and tobacco ; hone*, however the oil >? el thes* articles ml#ht fall, ha had I no other alternative fru' to cmtinue the production, or to I produce in their article* ol difficult sale. The confluence of thin *a?, t!mI tho production of cotton in the Cuitel States vu wrHc??>1 during the lait lour year* at price* at wh:cli. a few ye in j*o. It waa deemed Impossible tp produce it ; nnl, farthetmore. the P'lviu^tion of thii article ?n roon red need almoit to nothing In the British Indies and in Bratil, in which two countries the cultivator* ikiMe??*d the meana of planting augur, rice, and other marketable commodifies Thia itate of thinga if now at an olid in the United State a of America, tiuca America grain ef all aorta?wheat, maize, and rice?ia now not only edmUii ble at nominal dutiea into England?the greatest market in tho woild?but if, moreover aaleable at very high price*. J?t may, ikortforo, rut atmrtd that the pi nduction of cotton will go en decreasing in the United St fit* of Jlmeric?. tmleet it 1 price thould rite iu/JI cientiy high to rtndr* tho /traduction of cotton as lucrative a* ihar of groin will hmcrfortk As. Thia may, at first sight, appear an evil, and in the onaet it will be undoubt tdly accompanied by considerable inconveaienee to tfc* nuBiIwtann * lk? eoantry: but in the aequel it will prove a grant good, lince it will again induce the cultivators in BritMi India. Braxil, and Kgypt, to turn tnelr attention to the production of cotton, and ao to free the English manufacturer* from their preaen atato of entire dependence upon tb* coUonof the United States. In the year 1841,the Britiita ludiea mpplied Kngland with nearly 800,0<)0 bale*, and if the prioea of that year had continued they would now probably have furnished 600 000 In 1038 Brazil aent to Kngland 137 300 balea, which were subsequently reduced to UO.'JUO. These facta, aa also that of the aomewhat slow inciease in the produce of tb* cotton of the United States, are only to b? explained by the circumstance that the profit upon the cultivation of cotton ha* recently been reduced almoat to nothing, if we except the States of grant natural fertility, poaseasing the advantage of aneaay and cheap usccn to the outport* of the country. H hi lit tun repeal of the duties on grain thu* tend* to dimiah the enhtvation of grain in the Union, tr.c- optnmg 01 una r^ngu?n maricta to ronton augar tciuK to remove evesr luotivs (or cultivating the cane in the British colonies, in preference to other articles of colonial produce TheBriti.li ropicalcolonies are btcotn? little moio than sugar plantations. In a few yearn, betides, the legislative protection of colonial sugar will cea*e. both ia the Hast and West Indies, and there ia no reason to doubt that the?e couutriea wiii then dccide to produce less sugar and more eotton anil other article* of colonial produce. The Katt indie* were formerly, for some time, a cotton-producing country, and the Weat In I dip* produced large quantities of cotton, when it was ihoiiKht imi>Msible to introduce iu production into the United States. With the repeal of legislative piemiumi nnd uncnurog?tnont?, agriculture, aa well in the torrid a* in the temperate zones, will follow ita natural course, to the benefit of all parties, and to the increasing supply ol eveiy nece?s?rv article, especially of grain, cotton, and *ugar, which being products of a wider surface and a Kroator variety of localities, will become far more abun :ant and uniform in tho supply oud the price, than the products of a single country or region could ever become. [From the Bermuda Herald, Not. 98 ] The war between thee* two republics does not seem to be rapidly ar preaching ita termination The Amerl can army, it is true, has been able to penetrate some distance inte the enemy's country,but the sn ceases which hare produced this result hare been dearly bought, as respects the sacrifice of human life, and its victories hare been far from bloodlees. Indeed the warfare that is waged on both sides is of o most sanguinary character ; the farces of the United States, wherever they bave been opposed, have suffered severely, and the Mexicans have evary where manifested the most determined and rancorous hostility. We have not seen it any where noticed, but the proportion of killed to wounded, far exceeds that which generally attend* modern waifaie, and the wounds that were inflicted were of the moct deadly character, such as must always result irom close encounter, and where the short-sword, the bayonet and the Bowie knife are the instruments with which they are inflicted. The number of prisoner* also is remarkably small, and few ot them a;e enumerated among the tiophit* of victory. liven the official accounts that have i-een published in the United States, evidently do not tell all that Blight be teld , and for ten da) ? afur the battle of Monterey, it is pretended that General Taj ior^had not been able to make up his lists, net having received returns Irom the regiments that were engaged ; but enough haa been pub li.htd to sanction the conclusion that ne must have lost in killed, wounded anu missing upwards ol one-filth of the troop* under his command. A few more such victories would be equal to the most disastrous defeat The American papers do not e3brd any information as to tire stepa that are beiog taken to strengthen the army ; nor is it apparent that aoy additional quota ol volunteers had been called for by the general goveraaNM; oonseq'lently the American commander ia left to artltoati i.irr.s?ll from the perilous situation In which be Was placed at the date et the laat accounts, to the beet way tie can. l'ae adoption of more energetic mmm i loudly railed (or by writers In the public preaa, and direction, by an attack on Vara Cruz, or to* occupation ' o: the town, even if the castle could not be compelled to sniroaJtr, appear* to be a favorite measure with the nation at large TV.a' 'At .Jaitricen Iraoft, 1?<A rtfuUri end vlunlttrt. haul k'ltatfd wt n |A? uimcit 1 rattry no one will prtttnd m 4*i. y ; aud in* ilrong forition* ?*Alc A wert. aitailrd end c<rpfa> ol Mo-tirty,under a moti 4tttr?*U?tAr*. mmni/??(? ih' ulm*tl inir-pidlly ; end (AiXn t\t/erf ?/ ivpt rter nwuktr* iitcppytit/i a end ?* wmi ihiimki, irivu/titx*.- ftuhi ii' I KM whoever li*s made himielf acquainted with the Mexican i hirrc er, mutt acknowledge that the natieu ia one whicU it it difllcnli, ai d even almost impossible te subdue. Whan ihe Spaniards conquered toe country, they met with 'he n.ott d?-iermiued rebalance ; their supeilor nuD.tr> ctuli nO'or I to let* flte men to one. Whet the Meiican io?< ? a- in tbe recent encounter we have nomeanaot Juigiug , a uifce and well appointed array marched out alter at suirtuder of Moaterey ; but even if their loaa exceeded tiiat ol tbe Americana?which we very much doubt?it could not put meai to any serous Inconvenience, as they would tall beck ti|>ot> froth foroes, which were advancing to inrir aid ; while the American Oeoeral, should beadvsnce, must do so with a reduced force. as a strong party mutt he leit in his tear, to keep open hie communication, an 1 to set. ure the coaaient transmission of supplies, both ol aw munition and proviaion, which his troop* reqaue. We observe it itated ia aome of the pepere, that an additional volunteer force cunnet be called out, without the senction ?f Congress, which we believe does not e>s?nible till December,an,I if such is the f?ct, the American army stands a fair chance o? being cut up in detail, aa their edvance aa mibi to have been supposed , and if the itatrmenta that ara published id ti.e l mted States? wbirh itia *el<l bar* been received from Mexico?are to be relied upon, any atap meUe ia advance will aaat with tha moil deteraUaed opposition, w here the Datura of tha country will enable tha retiring loa to make a itand ; whiia My retref rade movement mutt ba attended with cartain destruction. Jlliogtlktr, it it a west eatratrdinmry war ; two na tiona aia engaged ia hostilities ; and moutbi altar thesa have commenced, neither o< th?m have msJ? afotnal declaration of war ; and tha ocean it navigated as secuialy aa if it wara a peri d oi profound peace and international tranquillity. [From tha Jmntica hi.patch, Got. 34 ] Tha advance* tewaids that end which appears to ba the inevitablo result ol 'rn- u.Jj as applied to colonial produc'.ious, evileneed > tho M !? oi tne produce markets at :bo tiiiiu ol th? i'ej ai'tire of the lust mxils liwm LngiauJ, hive in/t tr.uied iv >| wet the ap|>rehai<at?tis whttk i.m i bam jMdj i"im<11 > tLe colouuts MUanthr Jki'hleai c>lict wan but p>'.u.u>g4te<!. 1'hay wcie uut taken by stupnse. therefore, wi mi they heaid that stare tugaia vteie laat snper?eJi0g t'le produce of these fiae colonies, otitlier oid they htai ate tt? accredit tha repoit el a Uiuloo piper, wikicti Ks?uies ?i that alava must cou'.mue tu ri^itude lite laooi. \Vno, ilidstd, could doubt it??be, ihaiknowa tne diAeulties under wkk* iU(<r ia produced et all?who. that has oxpeiieneed the ungrateful expenditme of to J and capital on the cultivetiou of our tap lea, even when these ataplea were pietected by a duty prohibitory ae against slavery f if 3 Eft A 1846. minitter* periiit In maintaining tbi* free-trade theory, cultivation ot her iag?r colonic* muitcea** They cannot, do what tliey will, breaat up against the unequal competition to which they are subject. But great aa will be the loaa to tho proprietor* of our soil, the injury will be icaroely leaa aerioua to Oraat Britain. If ahe carries out her policy ieirly?if the give* <11 the advantage*, ?uch at they may be, on the one hand, whiUt she *ubject* ua to the injurion* affect* of free trade on the other, we tell the Hritiih people that ere long Jamaica el Uait will te a Britith deponceney only in naMt and government? her commerce will ho confined exclueively to tho Ulit lei Stm're : and f hii mutt be. lot tho feoltv of hot poo pit it never t0tir?ng. If we muat hav a diiect competition with Cuba, and can only import our sugars into England at an equal duty with tfaa slave produce of that island, it follewa that our eugara muat . ataad at tlie same price in our market aa Cu* ! ban aogara do at Havana, or they muat be excluded from consumption. Whenever this event occur* ?if it can occur, for aa yot no one knows y what process the cost of tree production can bo reduced to a level i with tbe l ibor of alave?but whenever it does occur, I England will cease to bo the maiket to which West In' dian sugars will be consigned. It will never be worth I the while of the Jamaica planter to send his sugar to the Kngl*h. market, when the net proceeds will be tcaicely wortn the discount wbich be will have to lose on his bills. Tkt United Statee will bt nfeeiitrily our mat kit for tent or tupply. All the provisions consumed in the ialaud will be derived from the United States and frem ' Biitiah America, anJ our only meuna of purchasing them will be by means of such produce as we may be enabled to manufacture. Our commerce with England will almost cease. At prasaiit it is confined almost exclu'ively to linen and cotton manufactures, and Uii mingham and 8hettt?id hardwares. America will probably compete with Jhese ere long ; but as the value of our staples will decrease, and their quantity diminish, iu the saiae or n eater proportion will the remaining export trade of England to Iheee colonies fall off. We belief* that the people of England have no jmt conception, and the Queen's ministers are quite unable to ioatruct them, of toe ditt.-nltiee with which the planter has to contend in the production of the staples of our soil, and his utter inability to produce sugar at the same coat as the slaveholder We believe tula ignorance to be the cause of that fronted demand for the application of a principle to oni indus-ry which must paralyse and destioy, and wuiws mu?i ?i mo inniv uid? inomiuw ma n > uiivn Hi ahippiu^ and manutaftuiea which theae colonies have -o long allot ded the mother country. It may be difficult to reoede in tha ttapa which government ha* taken on thia qneation, but junk* and policy may yat dictate tha necessi y of somo backward step for our safety. awl for tba ratantion of our commerce with tha mother country. In 18*1) In can tha praiant measure ba allow a J to run ita courae, tha labor of tha alave and tha induatry of tba fraa man will maat on even tarmi. All sugara will antar at 11a par cwt. Why ahonld wa pay thia duty an our auga<?, whan tba British agriculturist tanda tail grain to markat fraa of duty?when tha Birmingham and Manoheatar manufacturera baar no ?uch tax on thair capital ? la thia fraa trada I la it fraa trade to ua ; or ia it fraa trad a to the British people 1 la it a fair application ol a great principle to ua, whau our induatry (aa much Britian induatry aa that of tha Manchester millocrat) ia subjected to a duty of from 50 to lOO par cent, whilft tha Britiih manufacturer and tha Britiah farmer pay no anch tax I la it a fair application of the principle aa rogarda tha conaumer, who haa becu taught tha leeeon that bla lood ought not to ba taxed ? No. If we are te have free trade, let ua have it altogether. If we are to meet the slaveholder on equal terms, let ua meet him freed from flecal axactiona totally at varitnce vftth thoea principles which minktara maintain to be the true aource of national wealth and popular ha-ppineaa If minkatera denre to retain the commercial connection of thair Went Indian coloniea, they will take early atapa to aboliah all dutiea on thair produce. [From tba Hamilton (Canada) Spectator, Dec. Iff ] Mr. Polk ie certainly not (lumbering on a bed of ro?e* at the present time Tba anti war party and the abolitionists are hard at work, and tha ' plot thickens" so fast, that ita final consummation may be expected imme diately. In tha House of Representatives, on the ftth instant, Mr. Davie,of Kentucky, moved for copies of all ordera to generals or commanders relative to tha establishment of civil goveromenta in territoriea conquered during the war with Mexico?an amendment waa attempted, but " it was no go." Tha debate on thia reao lution, which had lasted two daya, waa atill in progresa by our laat advices. The President's friends were doing all they could to defend him, but the opposition are very powerful, and him determined not to give up Ike conteit until lkey have imptmektd Jamti K P?lk. This measure waa freely spoken of in the ceurae of the debate, and from the present aapootof things wo have no doubt but that it will be carried into effect. The opposition contend that the President haa usurped a power which the conatitutioo of the United Slates does not confer?that tUe law of nations docs not authorise the establishing of rl*il governments in possessions held only by right of ronqoeat, and they challenge Him to produce a single authority by which he waa entitled to declare New Mdxico and Upper and Lower California to be territories of the United States; havirg each a governor and an organiaed civil government. Our opinion ia that Mr Tolk haa gotten himaelf into a " regular fix," oat of which his own ingenuity and that of his friends, will hardly be sufficient to extricate him. [From the Montieal Herald, Dec. 17 ] The Message of the American President reminds us of the conclusion of a most eventful year. At the ootnmnnce?ent of a new one, we may (airly congratulate our fellow countryman, as well aa the inhabitants of the neighboring republic, upon the improved relations of the two mighty powers to whose government they raa pectively belong. Oregon, and war lor Oregon,waa last y ear the exciting topio ol the address; and every word on the aubject excited a thrill of breathless expectation. To-day, war actually exiata on thia continent; but wo regard it not as actors, but spectators. The portentous chapter, of which Oregon was the text last December, has therefore dwindled on this occasion to ths dimensions of a paragraph We are not surprised to find Mr Polk's recommcudstlsns on thia head in a very condensed form. The field over which his influence extends, is narrow indeed, when compared iv hibi fmi iriiitui j wiiiuu no av mivkauuj auu wi loudly claimed. Instead, therefore, of the display of Bo. man irsolution, which formerly prompted the determined demand for all or none, we have new only a quiet recommendation to Coogrmi to take care of its own half Bat if one cause for warlike clamor hat been happily removed, another ha* arisen, which amply supplier its place. Oregon being held by too strong a hand, Mexican feebleness has oilered a ready gratification for American appetite. Florida un>'g Texas are yet scarcely digested. Tasnaulipas, Santa Ke, and Mexico are added piece- meal to the Dover ending repast, end tho land pirates of the Mouth are (till uusatufled. Like the blest in t'aradi?e? " In/iii.nlct ttmptr rdunt et tdmttt Inkiant." But they are not lion* to ravifch the i rey tr?m the strong, o they are forced to content themtelvea with a jackal"* feaat on the carrion exuemities of a moribund empire. [From the Toronto, Canada, Examiner.] * ? The commercial world fan* evenr thing to fear from the ecceation of foik'a opponent*, the whig*, to power I be preient administration jadispoied to join hand* with England in tho glorious march of free trade Daniel Webster is the leader of the whig*, and with him it i* all protection or monopoly He recently made a great speech at Philadelphia,denounaing the whule course of the administration, and especially what he regai ds as the abandonment of protection. Bat he doe* not, and cannot meet the qeeation on it* own merits He set* up Ueueral Jackson as an Infallible standard, and denounces everything that deviate* from that standard. Tbe whiga are gaining majorities in several of the State legislatuies, and this revives their hopes of yet being able to carry out their suicidal tariff policy. VarliUM> Hon. Samuel B. Moor#, formerly Governor of Alabaro?, died at Carrolton, Ust weak. The Virginia Legislature take* a recess of three weak* daring the holidays. In Charleston, on the 10th inst, a seamsn named Michael Orace, Iron Frankfort, Maine, was (hot by some persen unknown He is not expected to recover. Tne Constitutional Convention, Wisoonoio, bare pace' ad negro suffrage resolutions by a vota of 6* to 44. The eaw-mill end axe factory near Pittsburgh, ewned by the Her H. Coeton, were entirely deetroyed hy lire on Friday morning lad. Lose fiOOO ; no insurance In addition to various other sums oolloctad, $-jao waa promptly made up in Mobile, for Sergeent Kelly, tha faithful teamster of tha late Major Ringgold. Advices from all quarters represent tha late gale end snow stoim, on Thursday last, as very destructive to the shipping. A plank road is to be built from Utlca to Martinsburg Distance 10 miles-cost estimated at JlflOO per mile ? The Csneda plank roads were bailt for much less ' money. A gentleman landed from a steamboat at nttsburg last week, tbe ceptain limited his stay te one hour. As he strolled thiough the streets ha passed a lottery efflea and want in and purchased a ticket, which draw a pi lie of ?a,eoo. Monsieur Charles, the groat wreeOer, was thrown flat on his back by John Key a, at Baltimore, last Saturday evrning. John pocketed the $100 offered to any one who would throw Charles. A movement la mining id u?w?jo couinj, to concentrite the public building* at miti? central point in the county. They are now dirided between Pulaski and Oswego. The lonf pending trial of Thompson k Co.'a Exprea*, in the lotted State* Citcuit Court, at Boeton, of Thomp' ton k Co , for an alleged violation of the Poet-ofllce lam *, retulteJ in a verdict tor the department. porting; Intelligence. Martian Coraia, New Oauim, Saturday, Dec IS, I04d-Bwoopetekes? throe sjbaertber* at #*>0?forfeit $J??three mile heat*. i John F. Miller'* b. I by Cotton, dam by imp. rriam ?4 y. o (Chuel'em.. 1 1 1 R Ten liroeck, Jr.'a ch. m i '??i Blevlnt, hy imp. Ltviaiban, oat of lilanco, by Wild Dill- t > o.... J 3 [t?ac Van Leer'* gr. c., own brother to Reel-4 y o. pitNo time kept ht'PDtr. Dec. II, IHW ? Proprietor* j ur?e flOO-mile | haata? time between heats, 10 nuuute*-entrance 10 (or I cert, added. . I Kotiert O'JIanlon'* ch. m. by Olaneoe, dam ; 6 year* e'd 1 1 P.r ( aawell** ch. f. f'rottv, by Kolipao, out of Betsoy Baker; -? oars old a a T. B. Poindester J. Kilpetrick'a b. 0. by Sir Sidney, out of an lap. mare, 4 years old.>1 Time, 1:M| 1:47. Both haata w?a easily by the mar* L D. Prte* Two Cent*. HIGHLY INTERESTING FROM THE SEAT OF WAR. MOVEMENT OF TROOPS. Town of Farru In the PoiMfiioB of Oeneral Wool. The Reported March of Saata Anna to the Capital. General Taylor's March to Victoria. | Special Despatches to Uu New York Herald OIBee. ?fcc., 4o., Ac. The ite tmihip Alabama arrived at New Orleans on the 1Mb iMtant, bringing dates from Iraxos to the IKh and Monterey to the 1st. Among the passenger* are abeut 26 officers, part of them sick, and sick and discharged iol 'it ra, including a number wounded at MooUrey. The third Indiana regiment was uuder msrehiag eiders from Monterey fer Camargo and onwards The third and fourth rriftmcnts of Illinois volunteers bed returned vo Vluno rns from the mouth ofthe river, whitbrr the** bad proceed* ? ed a f?w days prnviom on their way to Tamptce by s?aOerieral Shields wss kt Tsmpico. sad these two itmi. ments would inarch under Oen. Petteroon to ?*rt htm there The tiimhn cavalry, ?nce their arrival at Me'smorss, bad bean re-organixed into rquedrons Cel. Coffee, with the remainder of the Alabama regiment, arrived at Ma'.amoraa on the 8th The portion whioh pre vtously arrived, had takm snip for Tampieo. but wsre ordered ashore again. All *u life and baatl* at M aterooi.ii The tchoooer Policy, chartered by the Gov or nment, had been lo?t. The ateamer Sea waa (till a* bore on the north breaker*, and it waa feared would pre ve a total loss. Oen Taylor had returned from Saltillo. which waa in theqniet poaaeaalon of tne troope under Oen. Worth. No demonatration had been nude againit him; thouxh at a distance of only thirty mile* the acouta of Oen. Worth had diacovered about 3000 cavalry, aaid to bo (oat from Potoai. Oen Wool baa been ordered by Oen. Taylor, to oooa|iv the town of Pariaa Tbe inhabitant* made no opposition to Oen Wool, bnt wore prepared to receive lum peaceably. Hi* troopa are enjoying excellent health .and are in the.Sneat state of 4 iscipline. It waa understood that Oen. Taylor would occuot all the poat* and towns uyon the line of operation* to Tampieo. He would himself shortly tske up the line of march upon Victoria, where rumor soy s Santa Anna hss 10 000 choice troope. The poesession of Viotorie is indiepensably necessary to Oen Taylor, to secure his lines of communication m au attack upon Potoai.' Santa Anna would do doubt resist the attempt Gen Teyler waa expected to march by the 10th of December, with the 3d. 4th, and 7th Infantry, the dragoona.under Col. Harney, Bregg's battery and two | regiments of volunteer*. . Oen. Butler will be left in;command of Monterey, if . his health should admit, otherwise the commend would devolve upon CoJ. South. Oen. Butler's wound was not I imnrovinr. ft wes Mi 1 on good authority that Santa Anna f arise that tha new Congress, which wes about to eseesnbla at the Capital, would not auatain him, had march ad thither with (even thousand men. under tha pretence of putting down another outbreak among the populace- Potoai wee in e strong atate of defence, and daily receiving addition* to ita strength Gen. Shielda waa to take command of Tetapioe. Gen. Pillow waa to teke command of the volunteers attached to General Patteraon'a brigade, and march fer Victoria. A rumor prevailed at Braxoe on the 11th, and woe generally believed, that aixtjr government wagons, with provisions and specie, had been captured by Canales, OS the road between Camargo and Mier. It waa believed that Santa Anna intended to hum General Taylor, and make a stand against him w hioh wo aid soon require hard fighting. HERALD MILITARY C0JtRK3I?O?CDK<CK. Matamqbas, Mexico, Nor- U, INI. It seems now to be decided that the next two weeks are to be emjiioyed in pushing forward our troope, and fully occupying the conque-ed territory. Gen. Taylor will advance up to the mountains with hit army end rapplies : during |the coming month he will look at Santa Anna through the gorges of the Sierra, and afterwards he will act at to him may seem proper. I understand a column of two thousand men is to mere from this point to the interior in a few doye. Preparations are actively going on. A considerable wagon train | is now ready ior tbo transportation of forego and provisions. Pack mulea will be used for carrying tents and baggage- General Patterson, now in commend at Ca* m?rno, will lead this expedition. To cberacterixe or define it would be difhculL Fighting is not to be expected any more this side the mountains. It mey bo regarded as a species of colonization, and I wish heartily our oolumn was followed bv a thousand or two Yankee families with their ploughs, and their harrows, and their hoes, to dive into the bowels of this hitherto neglected land. I would eee the poverty etitoken reacts, containing a score of half naked, indolent, natives, give way to the comfortable farm house, filled with the indubious members of * race worthy to inhebit so lair a lend. The hiimhU writar nf thta iaon amh *?Us>*?l?<1 .ia*..*. | ol the annexation ot all the Mexican territory thua far , conquered. We have fought tor it in a war which haa been ioiced upon ua Every philanthropist and ChrteI tian should desir* that a land, which but a little labor 1 would cause to flow with milk and honey, may pose into ' the hands of man capable of appreciating the advantages nature has eo bountifully given. Never ought our government to lurrender one inch of this aou; and It if hoped that no more party dlvisioos wilt interfere with such a MttleraeLt of this matter, is the vital interests of our nation and race demand. Our flag ia at Tampico and Monterey and Raltillo. In a few days it will float at Ban Fernando and Victoria, and Linares. Lot it Dover come down if Mexico will have war, let her pay the bill. Trade is becoming quitr brisk in Matamonu, and large supplies of our mannfacturea are daily arriving. T&a couatry people come in more freely, since the tear of Caiialrs and his rancheros is no longer before their eyee. Ureat quantities of goods ot every description arobotag carried to Monterey, and will soon start for other towns, which wo are to occupy. Thia, after all, ia the moot of. ftcient modo of making war against this eo oaliod Mexican government -open thoir ports?atop their supplies? give to their reopii cheap goods. I observe in the New Orleans pepers a report of a dlai turbance in the capital, which ia said to caueo no llttlo I uneasiness to Santa Anne. This rumor teached thia I city, sere'el deye ago, through Mexicans, but wa navar know what reliance to gire their stoi int. Tim A lead* now beliwvei ttauta Ann* i? b? i prisoner. He if considered traitor, for having abandoned Tampico and with* drawn from Saitill*. A Mexican Wenerai that* days baa a hard fat*. Unless h* d?teau Oeu*rai Taylor, h* ia roted a traitor to hia country. I an nut quit* inr* that w* ought not to take po*e*e ion of tb* entire country, and begin to send oaf del*g*t*a to Congraaa at Washington. X. T. Z. MtTiMoui, Nor. M, 1M6. Th* movement of troop* from Cemarge h*a oommcnccd, and ia n*w going forward with gr**t aotirity Na?riy an entire regiment has already arrived, and mry teamer thence ia io*d*d to or*Mowing. Tb* C*loo*l Croia yaitarday brought six companies of an IUia*i* ref intent, which ia to proe**d to Tampico by water. Oaa. atterson i* expected daily, and by *b*nt tb* 10?h, if not J before, wlii mora from M stem ores toward* Victoria , with about 2000 man. Th* T*naaaae* oaralry ragt1 ment of Coi*n*l Tbomaa, tb* *<1 Ohio, *d India** aad Illinois regimenti, commanded reepectirely by Colawala Curtis, Laua, and Bah*r, will c*mpos+* part of this **aamand Colon*! Ri'*y, with th* 2nd Infantry, aad a few othar I regular and roluntear troop*, hara air*ady m*r*d from Camaigo into tba interior Th* commaadiag g*n*r*l, at the laat account* from headquarters, had proc**d*d to I Saltillo to ** that olty garriaoa*d by th* let blind*. It > ia the good foitun* of thia army t* eerr* under a oaai ' mender of tba greateat induatry aad aotirity, aa wall aa ' tba moat indomi abl* en*rgy. He ia *t ail pMnt*. aad I ieea for himialf that important labors a re well perterm; ad. Though his ay* is quick and unerring ia th* p*rI ceptian of th* qualities of thos* under him, a**ma j to he so well satisfied with bia own Judgmaat la , military matters, that be chooses to snperiatoad hiauolf I what many es?e taring generals would l*ara to thahr i subordinates. No sooner has on* ?ictory been aohierad, I than ha ia busily engaged preparing the way foraaotbar, I and that such a man-that r*ry man, ahould haro h**n ?? i. taaa .Ilk I ia lillla Hafa/>kmanl (a Iha aslna frontier* of T?x*s, (H on* of the moat fori a mate ithU I in the history of oar government. 80mo wioo obm w I have, who discover nothing praiseworthy is the Maw of tho rre*ident io tho proMnt war, or admirable in the 1 conduct of tfao Oenotal. Tot the *obor, reflecting per1 tioo of oar countrymen; when they consider the d>?caitiei which here boon mot and overcome, a pen tho die1 tent theatre of tho war, ?ad then look at tho wiailaiM ! result* in tho conqneot of aa empire, stretching through snsny <!egreee of latltudeend longitude, will taka a juet pride in the vigor of their government, and tho genfcmof tho military commander. Whoa, before, w?ra aaeh 000quesU made in *0 short a time? Before this, nearly one thousand artillery troop* compose the garrison of Tempi00. Vary soon that will ha the principal depot, and most advantageous will ha tho change to tno government Interests Tho dlOenlUaa aad dela> s at the Brs. os, cause enormous expense*; boaidae. fter being landed, the stores and public property are by ao means safe ir ?m tho rsrages of U10 storms, ao (It quont on this coast Though wo forget parly politics bora, tho distinotion of whig aud democrat baa bean apparent in the laet fair days The fotmer are known by having baud from tho ' Ntw York election, ua accounts having yat reached the ners of tho latter. Has there boon an a lection in Haw York? Among this lying people wa know not what to ' txlieva. X. Y. Z. [from the Matamora* Flag, Nov. M ] Matamoras presents quite s lively iwnnm, aad every department of the amy looms to bo actfcrt 1 train of wagon* will Joe re soon for TtaftN. through