Newspaper of The New York Herald, December 31, 1846, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated December 31, 1846 Page 2
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NEW YORK HERALD.' Sew t'orh, Thursday, Ui ttiutirr 31, lM4t>? I he Weekly Herald, In consequence of New Year's l)ayr coming on Friday, we shall issue our weekly sheet this tno ming. It will contain the lates'. news from Washington?the late and melancholy intelligence from the Gulf of Mexico; proceedings i? Congress; late advices irom the army: New England Society celebrations; po'itical, financial, and com. mercial news, up to the hour of publication. This edition of the iVetkly Herald will be a complete and perfect history of the times, from Saturday last to Thursday. It will be illustrated with an engraving representing omnibus racing in New York, and one giving an accurate view of Whitehall, Staten Island, and Sou h Ferries, Slc. Price 6i cents, in wrappers, for the mails. The Herald for Kuropc. The Herald for Europe, to go by the steamship Cambria, which will leave Boston to morrow, will be ready at half-past one o'clock this afternoon. It will contain a variety of matter, purposely compiled, from the sailing of the last steamsh'p, and continued to the time of publication, of great interest to European readers. It will embody late news from Mexico?the ar- , my and navy?from Washington?proceedings in (.fongress, 8ic , &c., and a variety of commercial, # linancial, and political news. Single copies in wrappers, sixpence each. Thf Melancholy Tiding* from the Gulf?The Bravery of our Naval OJHccra. The mclancholy intelligence of the loss of the U. S. brig Somcrs, and thirty seven of the crew, reached this city by the Southern mail, yesterday afternoon. At the time the catastrophe occurrcd, j it appears that the vessel was under a heavy press of canvas, in order to cutoff a vessel which her commander supposed intended to run the blockade. Full particulars will be found in another column. The country will sincerely lament the fate of Passed Midshipman.Iohn K. Hynson. Our readers will recollect that he was one of the gallant spirits who set (ire to the brig Creole, which was moored to the walls ol the Castle of San Juan, and who sustained a severe injury by a burn, caused by firing his pistol into the magazine of gunpowder. Lieutenant Parker, another of that gallant band, is among those saved. be founded on the ingenuity of the name which they have applied to a lamiliar compound of sulphur, nitric acid, and cotton, whose explosive properties have been known to the world as lon^ h#o as nitric acid and gun powder were known to bo made from saltpetre. The principle is laid down in chemical works, both old and new. In Brande's Chemistry, edition of 1?<36, it is stated, not as a new thing, but ns an old established truth, that nitric acid will communicate to silk and other substances of animal and vegetable origin, the property of burning like gun powder. The fulminating mercury used in priming percussion caps, as is well known, derives its explosive properties from nitric acid. Mercury, or sdver, like cotton, and many other substances, act as mordants in holding the nitrooxygen of the acid in such a feeble state that a very low temperature, and even the warmth of moderate faction, will cause an explosion. The chemical allinity pctween potash and nitric acid, forming nitrate of potash, more generally known as nitre, or saltpetre, and the decomposition of that salt by ignited charcoal and sulphur, comprise the whole theory and practice of gun powder. Gunpowder, as is well known, is composed of rharooal. Nitre, or taltpetre. Sulphur. And gun cotton is composed of cotton, instead of coal. Nitne acid, instead of nit if Kulphur, (roan sulphuric acid. "1 tie us*? of cotton or other lurneous tihre. in. wad of charcoal, tor gun powJer, has been alien urged by various miters; and the use of nitric moid, instead of nitre, which constitutes the principal difleronce between " gun cotton" nnd K'>ul owder, cannot claim the idea of novelty among those acquainted with the two substance*, or lamiltar with the cause ol explosions. Saltpetre ia composed of nitrij acid and potaah, in the pro portion of 9 ol the former to 8 of the latter. The 1 explosive force of gun-powder and of " gun cot- ' ton," in both cases, roaulu from the nitro-oxygen, set free by combustion. The proportions are relativelyNitric < Oiygsn.. .40] Acid } Nitrogen.. .14 l _ , rot,,h>0*ygo?... ?> b / Pota?wnm...40j la other words, saltpetre furnishes 62 in 102 parts, while dry nitric acid is entirely composed of these two element*. Sulphur, by igniting at a j low temperature, adds quickness, and, consequently, force, to exptoeions of this kind ; but it may be dispensed with in " nun cotton*' and in j gunpowder, as ww abundantly shown in tit* ? j n?ii? i mi i tmmjam*"* It will bo perceived that somsbrilliant instances of self-devotion were exhibited during the crisis, which we believe have never been exceeded, and which prove the noble spirit that pervades both officers and men in our navy. After Captain Semmes had ordered n boat with Midshipman Clark, Doctor Wright, Parser Steele, besides seventeen men, to pull for Green Island, those in the boat frequently solicited, by name, each of the officers on the wreck to take their places in the boat, and implored Passed Midshipman Hynson, who was partly disabled from doing anything to save himself, on account of his injuries, to go in her. Several of them even jumped out to make room tor him. This gallant young man preferred, however, to share the fate of the noble vessel, and perished with her. Kven after Mr. Hynson had refused to accept these kind ofl'srs, several of the men wanted to leave the boat and share the fate of their officers. We question if such incidents of disinterested devotion hav? ever before occur ted, and they prove conclusively the good feeling and discipline that exist between the officers and crew. The Somers was named after Lieutenant 3omers, who volunteered to destroy some vessels of the enemy during the war with Tripoli. Willi several boat.*, containing gunpowder and picked crews, he left our ships in the Mediterranean, and some time after they started, a brilliant flash, followed by a loud-explosion, was seen, and the gallant Somers was never afterwards heard of. It was supposed at the time, that a hot shot from the enemy hit the boats, and blew them and all on board to atoms. We hope to be able to give in to-morrow's paper a full account of the hazardous expedition of Passed Midshipman Rogers, of the Somers, a few days beiore she was lost. He left his vessel and landed on shore, for the purpose ol making a rfonnoiMnrt of the magazine at Vera Cruz, with the view of marking its locality so that it might be reached by shell from our navy, or of blowing it up himself, if an opportunity offered. While engaged in this undertaking, he was unfortunately detected and made prisoner. Truly, the toast given by one of our naval c unman deri, at a public dinner, a short time since was an appropriate one. " Opportunity" was the toast, aud " opportunity" is all our gallant navy officers want to distinguish themselves, and perform deeds of valor unparalleled in any country. Wli?u w*? (inn Cotton Discovered I This is an important scientific question. The claim to original discovery of gun-cotton, by Professors Schoenbe-n, Otto, and others, must plosion of Messrs. Crocker & Warren's store in ' 1845, where 340,000 pounds of nitre and about a million pounds of (arbonaceous matter, without sulphur, caused a most terrible exploa on. Mr. C. K. Durnnt, in his letter to the Mayor on the subject of that explosion, says : "Wood, coffee, sumac, salttower.Para hats, hempen sacks, shellac, Arc., matter proved to have been in the store, will, either of them, alone, ilny two, or the whole of them combined, explode saltpetre, without the aid of sulphur." The Broad street explosion does not appear to have included cotton in the list ol articles destroyed; but it was otherwise prolilic of " Run wood," ~,rgun coffee," " gun sumac," 4tc.; and, in point of period of time, it ; certainly preceded any European claim to discovery of 44 gun cotton." It is ditiicidt, if not impossible, to make a large quantity of 44 gun cotton" of a unilorm strength. It would cost 50 cents per pound, which is lour times the price of gunpowder. It is inconvenient and unsafe, in practical use, on account of igniting at too low a temperature, as, for instance, of ;i heated gun ; and, if a small piece be touched wuh linseed, or other drying oil, it may, in days j or months thereafter, spontaneously ignite in the magazine 01 a snip or lort. At page <mo 01 me saltpetre report is an account of two ships that were blown up by that means. The gun-powder used by the United States government costs thirteen ccnts per pound; it is I made by manufacturers in various Stales of the Union, anil is required to be of a definite and uniform strength; but it is not as strong as the sporting powder of commerce, and it is much i weaker than powder that can be made from pure j salt-petre and charcoal of soft porous wood, such as willow, poplar, &c. The open and finely di- j vided particles of cotton render it a good substi- | tnte for charcoal in gun-powder ; but like charred j willow, it would increase the price of the powder j beyond what consumers would be willing* to pay for it. Is gun cotton in old or a new discovery 1 News from Boston and Along Shork?An Ex- j l-RKss.?The Long Island train arrived at 8 o'clock j last evening, with a large number of passengers. : The heavy rain here in the morning was snow of j considerable depth at the eastern end of the j i Island. The train which left Brooklyn at 2 o'clock, for Stonington and Providence, via Greenport, arrived there at 5 P. M. and left in the. New Haven, j to cross to Stonington. This is a most delightful night route to Boston and Providence. The Sound is crossed early in tne evening. An express from New York to Boston, via Long i Island, has been arranged?supposed by govern| ment?with a view of transmitting the latost Mexican news to the steamer to leave Boston to-rnor! row. Shall wi have a Railroad to the Pacific 1? ! It will be seen by a call, published in another column, that a meeting of our citizens is called to conftider the policy of Mr Whitney's proposed railroad Irom .Lake Michigan to the Pacific. It is a scheme which from the first -w have advo- ! cated, as a great national dcfideratum, and as worthy of the attentive consideration of Congress. Much usefu' information will be adduced on the UUVOfllVlIi ; Ooa Navy.?Several days ago a letter appeared I in our paper relative to the execution, some time since, of a mutinous sailor in the Gulf Squadron. That execution appeared to be absolutely neces! sary for the discipline of the squadron. Steamship Caledonia, from Boston, arrived nt Halifax on the 19;h itist , nt 10 A. M., and left in tlie afternoon for Liverpool. One Day Later from Fr.anck.?The packet ship Iowa, Capt. Lines, arrived yesterday from Havre, whence sbe sailed on the 3d instant, thus making the run over the Atlantic in twenty-six j days. Our files of Ja Comnurct, Galignani, etc., con- i tain no news of conscquence. They are filled with articles relative to the con. fiscatioi^bf Cracow. We give the following? it is the only paragraph I that we can find:? Pakh Stock Eichidoi, Dec. 1, half pnit four.?The weaknesi which declared itself yesterday toward* the clute ot business seemed inclined to continue today, and ell kinds of securities were at first offered. About , two o'clock, however, matters changed, and a general , improvement took place. The Three per Cents opened 1 ail. r.ll oif. en. aif. uc. : After the Bourse they were done ?t 81fr. 90c. The ' continuation! for the Three* were at flrtt at par, and af terwar.ta at 13X. The Fivea wer* firmer all day than the Threea, andfhow an advance on the prices of the day before The continuation' on them were at 37,V? For account, fivea have risen 30c; Threes are unvaried; Roman has fallen X For cash, Fives have risen 10c: Threes hara fallen 10c. Railway shares at first inclined downwards, bat afterwards recovered, and closed at about the prices of the day belore. The continuations wer* unusually low, many o( the lines being oither at par, or with a profit. Musical. The ar0ll0!*a0*?.?The farewell concert of these children takes place this evening at the Tahernaclo, and for the sake of the reputation of our citizens, as patrons of deserving genius, we hope to see tha building crowded. The instruments on which they perform are, the violin, the viola, violoncello and piano, nor is their per ; formance a mere specimen of mechaniaal difficulties 1 overcome; on the contrary, it is expressive, harmonious, pleading, imbued with the soul of genius, and evincing an advance in musical science almost incredible in chil. dren of such tender years. At the St. Oeorge's Society 1 Concert, on Monday evening, tha large audience joined with the artists present in awarding the youthful per; formers the very highest meed of praise ; and the perI formance of young Anne Maria Cole, on the piano, wa* such as draw from Harr, who waa present, most unqualified commendation. The vocal power* of this beautilul child of but eight years, are as extraordinary as har instrumental execution ; her voice is sweet and clear, her soprano notes exquisitely rich, her contralto full, deep and aO Tim rnmla (rIn?a and hallnHa ann<r )>v I Bullock and Cole, with little Anne, are not the least intereating part of the entertainment. Thii evening some ; choice song* are selected, besi^ea n variety of inatnimen tal piece!, the compo*itiona of the great masters. We are I leased to learn that Madame Ablamowicz, the unequal. ] led vocalist, and Mr. Timm have in a meat creditable man. ner volunteered their tervice* on the occaaion. Letonr public notice thia, that artiita who miftht be supposed to be *a!iatod with music, yet have that intereat in the proaperity of true genius, aa to come forward voluntari , ly to their benefit We hope our citizen* will not be be1 hind hand. Let all come, those who would onjoy a rich 1 treat, and atthe aame time a**i*t in removing diffleultie* | from the path of geniu* en its road to p?ifec:ion Hc**i Haaz.?The inclement weather and an attack of illneai compelled the "Emperor" to disappoint our neigh' bors at Brooklyn laat evening, and hi* other engage meats will compel him to postpone his concert till uext I Wednesday night. We learn, by the byo, that at hia concert in this city next week, a new feature in a musi cal way will b? produced, of which more anon. Sivori was to give hi* farewell concert in Philadelphia lajt evening, asaieted by Mi** Julia Northall, Do Begnis and othere. Coi'RT or Eehors?Tuefilny, D*c. 29?Pre?*nt, L eutenant Governor Gardntr, Chancellor Walworth, Chii'f Justice Brouaon, Juitice B?anlt)ey, and twenty nine Heimtora. The resolution offered by Mr. npaiKer jeateruay, 10 nut n commiuee 10 enquire wnether the axmtenre of thia Court will or will ,iot terminate with the prevent year, wa? adopted ?ajrea 30. noea 7. Committed ?Mr. Spenror, the Chancellor, the Chief Juatice, Mr. Lott. and Mr Letter. No. 30? J. Clark ra. ) S. Heilbuth et al; the < hancellor, MMM Ppencer, Put ; nam and Lott gave wiitten opinion* for affirmance?judjc- I roent affirmed, 14 to 0 No SO ?A Stone et a1 n K Hayea, I hancellor, M?in Wright, Putnam, Tortar, , Barlow, 1.enter, Lott and Johnaon. gare written opioiona, ai?l Mr Talcott, Mr. Beer) and Lieutenant Uov Gardner ' oral tpinlona lor hWrmance Mr. Spencer and Mr. Hard ' gare written opiniona, and Mr. Kolaom an oral opinion torreverial; Judgment affirmed, Is to S. No .11 ? K *tarr ad al *i. J t hil.1 ad. al; Chancellor. Meaare Johnaon, Lott. Talcott and Barlow written opiniona for reraraal, and Meatra. Porter ai d fpencer for affirinince; judgment rertraed, 13 to S. No. S3?M. Woaan ?a M. Ilabuapaw; Chancellor, Meatra Spencer, Wright, Lott, Hard and Putnam written opinion! for affirmance; judgment affi.-m- j ed, 17 too. No. 33?T. t>aorga and al. ra. I. Lamed, t hancellor, Mr. Bpencer, and Mr. Lott written opiniona, anil 1 aleott an oral opinion for affirmance, and Mr. j Hohnaon an oral opinion for rerataal, judgment afflraed, | i 1* to 1. | Thr?tt1cili> Pas* Twrim -This it the lait week of the Viennese children. Tliey continue to attract crowded houses. They have given great variety of entertainment*, and startled a* well aa pleased t>y their novelty None moie brilliant has been preiented on ourboarda? lew more interesting. Attitude*, grouping*, action, grace, have been exhausted-it would .arem that nothing in their varied rsnge had been loat night of, and all that i* imposing, picturesque end beuu'ifm i* here presented?dowers an l shawls, and even scythes,are the instruments of harmony and grace; and national manner* and coitumea are here accurately and tastefully portrayed. We gaze upon their forms of fairy grace and lightness. a* they Hit through the scene, and lose eight of the world around u* ?they are like the creation* of another sphere?*o sweet, so sportive, *o airy, so graceful. Thi* week they have added to their dances one new aud striking?"Le* Moiasouera," styled, too, the "Sheaf Dance." They come forward in large groups a* peasant*, with their scythes in their hands and sheafs of wheat at their side?they gracefully repose on them in slecap- rite from the midst of them with startling surprises, group around them, now with quiet archness, now with accelerated motion?they thresh the wheat on the floor with their flails, the sounds in harmony with the orchestra music. All wears a rustic charm?all is activity and life?'tis the scene of rustic labor and enjoyment, of rustic tastes and joys and recreaions?'tis a sweet picture of feasant's life. Bowery THriTaK.?The " Wild Steed of the Prairie, or kick r.agie, tue uronze Horse, ana tue "uhijJreu oi the Wood," were again repeated at thii popular theatre last evening, with their usual success, bringing out the able talents of the entire company This even ing will be presented the " Horse Thief," " Flying Dutchman" and " Widow's Victim." Vache, Booth, Clarke, and Hadaway, will all perform, and those who visit Old Bowery this evening, will enjoy a rich tront. To-morrow night there will be a powerful array of rich attractions presented. Go and see. OaiucNwicH Thkatrc.?Thero is an unusual degree of interest in the performance at this theatre this evening, owing to the expected Jebut of a young gentleman as Claude Melnotte, in Bulwer's beautiful play of the " Lady of Lyons." The piece is admirably cast, Mrs. George Chapman sustaining the character of Pauline. Afterwards, Mr. Chapman will sing a comic seng, and " La pelilt Maria'" dance a Highland fling. The comedy of "Charles the Second" will conclude the evening's entertainment. Bowiit AMrHiTHEATKK.?His Honor the Mayor, Generals Houston, Husk and friends, visited this populsr place of evening recreation last evening, and seemed to enjoy the entire performaice with a good deal of satisfaction. Mr. North's riding at this popular circus, in connection"with the general talents of the whole company? Gostin, Carlo, Gardner, Sergeant, Stc. &c , drew vast crowds nightly, who evince their warm appreciation of the able talents of the company by the moct rapturous applause in all quarters of the house. To-morrow evening there will be a perfect jam. See bills of the day. Amkbican Cibcus.?There was another bumper house nere ibsi evening, ana Mr. oanaa aeligntea ine wnoie audience by hii extraordinary gymnastic foats. The twin poniea were exhibited with their uiaal success. Mr. Myers as the Indian Hunter. Mr. Ruggles in hia Corde Volonte feat, and the beautiful May Fly in hii dancing feat, were loudly and rapturously applauded. The bills for to-morrow evening present a rich treat to all who are desirous of witnessing the splendid amusements of this truly popular circus. Ai.NAMnaA.?Capital entertainment is still to be found at the Alhambra, where the prince of magicians, Herr Alexander, is still engaged in the laudable enterprise of making all who choose to call during the hours of exhibition, perfectly well pleased with themselves and all around them. Jugglers have juggled the public heretofore, and tricksters have palmed off their transparent attempts at deception, but Herr Alexandec has come now to establish a new order of things, and to show that progress in magic is like progrets in every thing else, a tuing to be looked for, unless indeed the ?e pint ultra has been attained by the master spirit of the Alhambra.? It is so rational, loo, that the children should fall in tove with Santa Clause who deals out such nice candies and j nil sorts of sweet things, manufactured out of nothing, but uhstantial to the tastu. Go to the Alhambra, big folks and little, and see for yourselves. Yakkke Hill at the Tauerhaclk.?Yankee Hill hat ' engaged the Broadway Tabernacle for New Year's night, on which occasion he will present, to all who favor him with theirpresence, ia great variety of anecdotes, imitations, tic., in his own peculiar style. Mr. WincHELL at 8tarwix Hall, Albawy.?Mr Winc.hell entertains the Albanians on New Year's night at Stanwii Hall, with those inimitable drolleries of bis.? Corpulent people should take care of their sides, and lmn people of their limbs, and all soits of peoplb are warned of the necessity of taking with them the requisite amount of linen cambric or silk, in the shape of handkerchiefs. Mr. Alexander,! the young American magician, is doing well in Philadelphia. On his benefit night, Monday, the Chesnut Street Thea'ro was crowded. i V>..nthilo<h'ism and Magic ? Signor Rossi, who ar> rived In this country but a lew weeks since, has taken Palmo's opera house for New Year's day, and will give aftermon and evening performances, in magic and ventriloquism His rank among the magii, is of the highest order. Miss Yates, the beautiful datueute, is eiuracrd to assist him. Thk Viknoii Dawckhs.?It appears that late on Tuesday night, or early yesterday morning, the proprietors of a small private German theatre, induced the eldest of these gitls to break off her engagement with Ma-lame Weiss, and to withdraw herself from her protection? under what circumstances, or what inducements, were holtl out to hsr. wo htva not boon nhln to Uom. K..i ? .11 events, a writ of habtai r or put wit obtained from Judge Oakley yesterday morning, on the application of Madame Weiu. returnable immediately. In pursuance of the writ the partie* appeared, but it turned out that some of the document! nectssary to sustain the writ were in German, and hi* honor could no; proceed until they were translated. Further proceeding! were therefore adjourned to this morning. Movement a of Travel lew Yesterday's arrival* were by no means inferior, numerically, to those of the two preceding days at the following ho'els: ? AMraioAM.?John Smith, N. Reeve, Newburgh ; A. Jackmen, U. 8 N; T. Baily, Geoigin; M. Dawson, U. 8. Army ; Mr. Foster, Colonel Young, Mr. Trumbull, Norwich. Astor.?8. B. Willis, Boston; Cspt. Griswold, P. Ransom, Albany; J. Neil, Westchester; G. Hutton, Baltimore; Mr. Joseph, Montreal; C. Wiggins, Boston; H. Libby, Iowa- (.'apt. Webster, Massachusetts Infantry; L. Donliey. Boston; Mr. Odell, Pro?; H. Cleveland, Prov; 8. Whitwell, N York; J Galbraith, Mas*; O Miller, IJoston; J. Burnham, Newport; Dr. Macauley, do;H. Crook, England; H. Bynan, N. C; C. Daly, J. Boker, Hartford; G. Tollman. I'hila; D. Bar.y, Baltimore; G. C meron, Charleston; W. Crawford. Baltimore; Mr. Blake, Boston: T. Gardner, C. Delavan. Mr. Crawferd, 8 Lee, Baltimore. Citt ? Mr. Brown,L. I.; H Hastings, Providence; N. Weld.'U. 8. N.;T. McGrath, i'hila.; D. Kellogg, N. Y.; Thos Convera, Zaneaville. Ohio; H. H. Freeman, Phita.-, J. Robinson, Concord. N. H. Franklin?G. W. Kerr, Poughkeepsie; George DIxoa, Vt.; F. Boardman. Conn ; John Ross, N.J; J. Leonard, Watertown; H. Tbilips, N. ilaven; Hon. M Fillmore, Buffalo; E. Mitchell, New Haven; J. Bishop, N J,-. P Calhoun. Bridgeport; W.Sheldon, do; P. Holmes, Canton; W. Lock wood, Norwich Howard?S. Lyman, Niw York; A. r'.nglish, Phila.; T. Miles, do.; W.Bent, Saugertiei; N. Wheeler, Va.; R. Adams, St. Louis; C. i'eck, do ; A.Smith, Ilattfiold: J. Kingsloy, Boston; AY. Young. Schenectady; J. Henderson, Baltimore; W. Barnes, Washington; J. Blensdill, N York; Captain Wilber, Troy; D. Porter, Pennsylvania; A. Burkitt, Lansinburgh; F. Taylor, Springfield; 8. P.rkina V*la l Vvarir.l Hill-. -I- . r> I.I r? Howaid, Syr*cu*e. Jumo**? O Shelien, New Haven; Mr. V'pham, Maine; Mr. Steven*, N. York: Mr. Chapen, frovidenoe; P. Daly, New Haven; J. Smith. New *ork; J. Mitchell, Waterbury; V.Cornish, Hartford; M. Hsiughten, Columbus; J. Hovey, Norwich; W. Carter, N. York; Dr. Marcy, New Haven. t'. S, CommlulDiitr'f Offire, Beforo Commissioner Gardiner. l)ki .10.?fit R* H'm. //. IVritrtrr?The examination in thii case was resumed this day. Mr. Kerr, the cashier of the Newburgh Bank, was examined, and proved a letter marked A, and a draft enclosed in it, and that he sent the drnft afterward* to Tweedy, Jennings it Co., of New York ; prove* letter marked A, No. 3 ; wrote it on Saturday, the ddih of November last; sealed it himself with only one wafer ; put it iuto the port ofllce at Newburgh on the same day ; never received any answer to that let'er ; no person except Tweedy, Jennings & Co. ever called upon witnei* for the draft, or claimod to be the owner ot it. Jasixs Bmiir -Postmaster at Newbnrgh;recollect* the let'er marked A, No. 1, coming to my office. The waybill now produced came with it; they came on the evening of the J7th of N?vemt>?rr: the letter now prodnced marked A, No 3, was nailed at my office on the evening of Saturday, the 9*th of November. It was scut from my office the next morning with a way-bill, in whioh it was described. If the letter, four dav* afterwards, reached Port Jervi* without the way-bill* anil envelope, it must have been opened. On his crosa examination tho witnes* swore It was a common practice along the liver comities, after the mails were made up, for a gentlem in to go to the m.iil carrier* and prevail upon tUem to let them put a letter into the mail bag. Mr. Ci'PDtBicx?Is a student ot medicine at New Ha van; is acquainted with the prisoner; has known him lor Are or six years; l>orrowed money front him, the first Was a smell sum 1 got front him last summer. The first of Octol>er I borrowed $U0 lrom him; my impression is that I received two ten dollar bills; Weisner and I left Port Jervi* on Monday, came to New Yoik; remained there un'll Wedn??da); then left (or Albany; re'urned to New Vork and arnved in New Harenon -tuteru'ay, in November I also receive*! f:0 at New Haven. 1 received from hi*) on the Sflth November M" on* nnd the remainder in two $10 bills; the r*a*on witness asked it from him Was that he knew he had money and to spare; he know witacaa wanted some and lio said be would let him have it. After the croaaexaminalion of thii witneaa the ca*e wai cloaed. Mr, Whioht, on th? put of the pnconer. moved for hia Hiacharge. on the ground ol the ina liNrjeucy of th? evidence. Mr. Marhury, on the part of the proaccutiou, replied; after which Mr. < on tiaaioner (Jjrdtner reviewed the evidence at length, and in doing ao, till he felt it hh painful duty upon all the facta to commit the priaouer; but he would, however indulge a hope, that upon a mora thorough investigation ol ni< cn?e Ixfote another tribunal, he, the priaoner, would be nb.o tort tabliih hia icnocei.ee and return to hia frienl* with the ??me uublamiihed character whirh he hail, according to the tediraouy, unqiiealioiifehly enjo) cd up to the time of bringing the pre*ent charge. Conrt C?len?l?r?Thla Day ( omul rLR?*-?ir?t Tjrt?OA, 97, 99,37,101, ioj. Hacoud Part -1*8, 140, 144, 144, 14<1, 14*. )A0, 103,164, IM, IM, ISO, IM, 194. IN. | | City lntelllgeeee. | Tmk Wuthh.-There is still a sort of struggle he I twecn frost and rainy weather, and even " the oldeit inhabit?nt" reems at a lot* to know what are the " real intentions" of tlie clerk who attend* at the weather office. I The frukt of the preceding night wu succeeded by rain } yesterday morning, ond about two o'clock the air wai warm and spring-like, Toward! evening it again began to Ireeic, and Broadway- was quite alivo with our moat distinguished fashionables. TUe winter, ae far, haa pasted oil'agreeably, and with the exception of some few dayi, haa proved extremely mild Oaf*ehal Hoi'iton hid Khiehoi ? Hu Honor the Mayor inc3ra;nii) with several of our citizens, eacort d fiom his otlice. yes'erday at li>, o'clock, Generals liouaton and Husk, Senators from Texas: alao, the Honorable Judge 1'ilabury and Mr. Kauli'man, members of Congress, with .Moreliead, Ksquire, to the Governor's Room, City Hall, where they were waited upon by several of our most leading citizens, and received the warm congratulations of a vast concourse of the ' I one and sinew" of our industrious and woithy citizens in general. There appeared to be a goad deal of anxiety among the crowd to see the distinguished hero ol Sao Jacinto, and the tush towards the City Hall Irom 13 to j o'clock, was large and continuous. The Ex-President of Texas, now our sister State, is a tine soldier like looking person, over six feet high.with well proportioned limbs. There is a something both distinguished ?n<< patriarchal about his air and manner, and tie ent'uusiatic and cordial welcome he received matt have proved gratifying to his feelings. ? In tlie course of the day General Gaines waited upon the General an t his friends, an I every demonstration of respect waa rail to the distinguished Grangers. After 2 o'clock, his Honor the Mayor, closed the ceremony of presentation, and escorted Gen. Houston and his lriends to a carriago, which had been in waiting, and all drove opposite to the hotel, where they are at present staying ; We understand that it is the iutention of Gen. Houston i and kil friends to see our principal public buildings be: fore they leave our city, and that the Common Council will diapente the hospitalitie of the city to the whole company. Common Coi'mcil?There will bo special meeting of the lionrd of Assistant Aldermen at noon to-day, for the purpose of concurring in ceitain appropriations, to meet demands made upon the City Treasury, prior to makiag the regular appropriations lor the enduing year. Moac ?uiobaiit9 a.hd uoac Dkstitutioi*.?From

Tuesday, 4 o'clock, P. M., to yesterday aiterooon, more thin BOO emigrants ariived in this city. A very large number of them ute in a deplorably desiituto condition. TcMrEBSNcK ?We are informed that a very rm'.sent United States Senator will be present as a spectator at the great Washington l'areut Society Meeting, at National Hall, Canal street, this evening. The Late Limk.itkd Cirrus Liwasscs.?The remains of this lamented patriot were removed privately yoaterday, from where they hod been so long deposited, to a new family vault The inscription on the cotttn wus quite legible, as follows:?Captain James Lawrence, June, 1813?3J years. Swobd Pitsst ntation.?A handsome sword is to be presented to-night to Lieut. David Scannill, of the new regiment of voluuteeis, by the Champion Order of Clever PjIIaici na u nmrkf nf thoir rmnai^t f.-?r l imit A 14 ti indicated by the inscription upon the scabbard Militarv.?There will be a meeting on Monday even ing next, at the icstaurant of Mr. Bonnard, No. 0 Nassau street, of our Hwiai and French resident citizen*, for the purpose of lorming a military company. Assault.?A sailor named Hall iu yesterday brought to the City Hospital shockingly beaten about the face, and otherwise multreated. It appeared that he was stopping in a boarding house belonging to a man naaied Kuaulf, in Houston street, between Sheriff and Columbia stieets, when a inisun lei standing arose between himself and the steward of the Woodbury, when the latter beat him in a most deiperate and savage manner. He nuw lies at the City Hospital, and hopes are entertained of his recovery. Acciderts.?A horse was killed in Piatt street yesterday morning, in consequence of an iron shutter falling accidentally on the street where the animal was tied up. An ox was run into in the Bowery, on &e railroad, track, yesterday, by one of the train wagons, and had the hind leg severely tractured. Another Landmark Gone.?Jonathan Thompson, formerly for many year* Collector of the Port of New York, and lately President of the Manhattan Company, died yesterday morning at his residence in Beekman street, at an advanced age. He wa3 a man ol great probity, and universally respected. ^ < e.M/?iax> Ta. nndkn as tr wvia Thft C ArrtQAr i was yesterday called to bold un inquest at 141 Delancy street, on the body of Jacob Levy, a native of Auitria, who committed luicide by hanging himself with a rope, at the above place. Deceased had oeen in this country about three months, and had been employed during that time in the capacity of glazier. He had managed to save a small sum of money, besides paying lxis expenses; but he continually sighed lor his home, and alwa> s ex- , Eressed a desire to go back. Though melaucholy,he I ad never intimated any intention to destroy his life. Yesterday morning the people with whom he boarded missed him, and on making search, lound his lifeless body in the rear of the house, suspended by a rope, which was attached to a fence post. Ver Jict of the jury ?death bjr hanging himself with a rope, when in a state of melancholy. Police Intelligence* Stealing a Drunk.?Assistant captain Dwyer, of the 1 1st ward, arrested last evening a fellow called James O'Brien,on achuge of stealing a trunk, valued at $61), ' belonging to a priest by the name of J. K. Scouller, under the lollowing circumstance* It appear* that the cabman who had brought Mr Scouller from the Philadelphia train of cars to the finance Hotel, had just taken in one trunk from off the carriage, when the accused \ O'Brien, grabbed the other tiunk and walked off, before 1 he (thecabman) returned, (.'nptain Dwyer met the fellow with the trunk, and asked him where he wa* going with it, to which he replied, " It i* none of your business consequently he was taken into custody by the CaptaiD, and before getting him to the Station Heuse, the nwner, who was searching for his property, came uii and identified the trunk a* his property.?Justice Drinker locked him up for trial. Patting Counter/fit Money.?A min called Bartholomew Newman, was arrested on Tuesday night, on a charge of paaiing counterfeit money, on Adolphu* Mancki, ana locked up in the Eleventh ward Statiea House; bnt was subsequently discharged by .Alderman i Johnson, of the abore ward. Stealing a Pitae of Cloth.?Officer O'Brien, of the 14th ward, arrested, yesterday, two black fellows, called John Williams and John Potter, on a charge of stealing a piece of cloth worth $30, from the dry good* (tore of John Hherfei1., No. 343 Centre street. Locked up by Justice Timpson, for trial. Receiving Stolen Goodt.?A man cfc'led Spencer F Jackson, was arrested yesterday on a charge of receiv iog stolen good*, knowing them to be itolen, from the two Maclf thieve-*, Williams and Potter, on whom weie found several pawn tickets for clothing and jewelry.? Locked up by Justice Tlrapeon. Excellent Appointment ?Mr. Oeorge flelyoa, the principal conductor of the Independent Tolice, was ap pointed yesterdny by his honor, the Mayor, a member of the police deportment and detailed lor service at the 3d district police office, Kssex market. Mr. Relyea has been, for many years past, one of our most vigilant and expert officers, and will without doubt prove an efficient ' member to the already popular system of police. Bur/tlmy.?Th? store No. South street, occupied by W. i^uiDtine, was robbed last nicht by some thier secreting himself in the store, aud stealing therefrom twelve dozen of Britannia spoons, twelve dozen knives and forkr, also a Mack cloth dross coat. No arrest. Charfr oj Fal e Prtttnctt? Officer A. M C. Smith returned to the city yesterday from Syracuse, having arrested a man there by the name of Daniel 8 Raymond, on a charge of obtaining about $700 worth of dry goot'afiom Theo'.ote McNimee, in Pearl Ftreet, ou the 34th of August last, by talso and fraudulent representation, setting forth that he was worth $3,000 over and above all his liahilitiea The officer was unable to bring him to <hi< city, in conrequetce ot illness, it having been decWed by two phj sicians, that the accused was tco.uriwell to t>? removed, which resulted in the accused giving in bail for his appearance to answer the charge before a Supreme Court Commissioner, ia the sum of $1,000. Jlrrtii of a Policy Dealer.?Officer Prince John Davii arrested, yesterdty, a policy dealer by the name ol Stephen Paton.ol No. 83 Kulton street, on a charge of felling a policy ticket commonly called a "gig." for three hilling* to U->orga W. Thorp, on the 6th of December, which "gig" became a " hit" of $18 bat not being paid according to promise, evidently led to the complaint. Held to ba-1 to answerJlrrttton Suspicion?Officer Smith, o( the Eighteenth ward, arretted ytsterday a woman called Elite Wait*, ! on suspicion of stealing a watch from Constance Wahan, ' reii'ling in thn Third avonue, near Tweuty<ftfth (treet. j Lost ai the Cirtm?A lady, while on a visit at the Bow' ery Circus, Uit evening, either accidently loat from her 1 pocket or was robbed oi a gild watch, chain and key. I Conifiiracy to Drfratid.? Officsri Stewart and Prince John Davis ol the lover police, arretted yesterday, three individual!, called Henry A Auld, Thomat Dusenberry I and James Irwin, on a cnarge of contpiring together to che?t and defraud their creditors. It appears that Mr. Andrew C. Morns, attorney at law, No. 13 Beekman at., on the 33d of July last, obtained a judgment in tho Supreme Court against Henry A. Auld, for the sum of S364 Hi, an J issued an execution on the property said to belong to Auld, at No 6 Howard street, consisting of a six horse engine worth $600, Are lathes valued at $-300 a r lining machine valued at $600, and various other articles ' ot property, amounting to many hundred dollars more, 1 when,nr. executing this process. Du<ent>erry produced a | bill ol salu dated on the iid of December, 1845, (dating I that tlie property belonged to him and not to Auld. Upon Mr. Morris teaiubing the register at the Hall ol Recoida. ' ht discovered the following mortgage executed br Auld I to D'luenWerry, bearing date March aj, 1814, which was file i 14th of Kebruary, 1840. A copy ot said mortgage endorsed, is: "I hereby certify that thore still remains due 1 on the mortgage of. which the following ia a copy, tho sum of one hundred dollars with interest, for the (d of March, 1846, and that this copy ..4 ~:a~~ Ai. A. ik. k? I th? (tatete in auchcaaea made and provided, dated N. Y. I Feb. 14, 1816" However, upon the 7th day of September I laat, before the levy of the execution, Mr. Moriia oiled at No 8 Howard xtroet, and law Jamea rain the third party accnted, and enquired ( him who owned the property, when herrreived an answer that he (Irwin) waa the owner, and that Anld had no intoreat in the property whatever, he (Irwin) having purchased the whole ot the property for $>000 cash, from Daienberry, Thu? the partlni were anvated on the charge of defrauding their creditora, by playing Into one another'a band* aa above atated Juauce Drinker held the accuaed partiea to bail in $1000 each, to answer the charge. jfrrrit on Suspicion,?OlHcer Xtephena, of the Lower Tolice, arreated a man called Michael Gall, on a charge of stealing a pocket-book, containing $60. and two notea for belonging to John Y. Syne, a paaaengeron hoard the iteamer Highlander, on Monday night, from Newburgh The accnaea, it appears, waa aeen to go to the berthof Mr. Syne, who lay aaleep at the time,take something from the birth and put it in hia hat, consequent! v, upon thi* circumstance, the teemed waaarreated in Brooklyn, yeaterdav, by the above officer, and j committed by Juatice Drinker for examination. 4?rij|?iJiiu vi tit* uaav I'lacn. Ttm* BUit ?f Ri*f. (ii jitara Dec. 5 ft. a in., falling. Lcuiar lla(. Dec. -J3 7 IV 6 in., falling. Wheeling. ....Dec. J1 4 It 9 in, falling. CiaeUnA . ^^.^.Deo. ,91. .11*,taUl*. { Thm HataUjr Herald. We have been constr&;ned to publish another, the third, edition of the Annual Pictorial Herald. ( credent as a remittance to the country?as a holiduy 1'ijtm for the people. The illustrations ol j the Mexican war are really valuable to historians, and are, therefore, worth preservation. Sa.lt Business or iXaw 1'6hk ?Salt is apparently abundant all over the world, *ml i8 found in all clime*. The most remarkable are the ult mine* of Wieliaka, in Poland; Catalenia in Spain; AlUmoote in Calabria; Loowm in Huufcsry; Turn* in Algiers, ani I Cheshire in England. These mines are rocks of pare fait. The mines in Poland are upon an immense *cale Dwellings and chapels are formed in the solid rock, in the sea, in all latitudes, it is found in solution at au depths. Many inland lakes are impregnated. Salt spring* also sbound in all countries. In short, salt is inaxaauslible, and second in supply to air. All the salt manufactured iathi* State is from (alines, with the exception of small quantities at two places om Long itfand, wnere *ea water ii evaporated uy me ?uu. lu early times, a brine spring wa? o peri ted in Oiwego county, containing only four per cent of aaline matter, to upnly the neighboring inhabitanU. Thii wai (low work, lint wa? only one of the inconvenience* of a new ettled country. A brine wii found in 1833 near Delhi and a rock haa been bored 400 feet deep?tome laltmado, and finally abandoned. At Vernon Centre, Oneidacounty, a spring ha? recently been discovered, but never worked. There are alio print* at Lenox. Madison county, and several (mall onea in Ofwego county, net uied. Wayne county hM v . eral taUnei. The one at Galen , is well ipoken of, brine pure. Work* were once erected in the town of Savannah. The brine yielded but nine per cent, an-l the manufacture wai abandoned.? Salt waa formerly made at Lockville. At little Sodu* Bay a (priog hai been experimented with, and found to require 140 gallon* of water for a buihel. Boring* were made by a company, in 1831, at Clyde, to the depth of 400 feet A good bftne found at first, but it ha* now ceaaed. In Dundee, Yate* county, alto, ipring* have been diecovered, and tome very fine salt produced, but they have never been worked to any extent Salt wai formerly made in imall quantitie* at Irondequoit Bay, and in Greece, nine roilei weit of thi* city. . There are three ipring* on Salmon Creek, in Clarkson. Twenty years ago they were worked on a limited scale. A well of fifty feet was sunk in York in 1834. A good brine flowed lor a week or two, and then ceased to rise. Orleans county has a number of ipriagn. In Carlton brine has recently been obtained, of a good quality, borin* 67 feet If the quantity proves sufficient, and a* wood i* low, it may be worked. Salt ha* been made at Kendall in small quantities for aoveral years. At Holly, there are three ipring*, which have yielded considerable salt, but are now abandoned. Mr. Bennett haa bored at Oak Orchard 147 feet, and made *ome *alt Salt ia *ald to have been made from a ipring three mile* from Lockport, in the early settlement of the country, La Grange, Steuben co , also formerly furnished some. The spring* at Montezuma, Cayuga county, were hown the first settlers by the Indiana. In 1823, the quantity made was not lar from 20,000 buthel*. Since then the manufacture haa decreased, and i* now almoit abandoned. Governor Seward twice called the attention of the Legislature to erect pump works like these of Onondaga, to revive the work*. If our memory serve* i na, it was never done. The salines on Onondaga Lake were found out from the Indians, in 1768, by Comlort Tyler, Esq. He took an Indian guide in a canoe, and crossed the .Lake to Mud Creek, and there lowered an iron veuel about five feet into the lake and came to salt water. By boiling the water, salt was obtained The business was carried on rudely for many yean on a small scale. The Erie Canal added much to their importance, and since the completion of that werk, the yearly increase has been rapid, i'he State owns the springs and land, and they cannot be sold. In 18-JJ, hydraulic machinery for pumping was erected. The lessees are required to erect works, and no rent is paid except the duty. The increase of the manufacture of salt will be seen by the following table of the quantity annually made for 1 the last twenty-five vears:? Year. Buthelt. Ytar. liuthelt. 1826 HJ7.S0J 1836 I,9i2,8j8 11127 683,410 185' 2,161,287 1828 1,188,888 18J8 2.570 0W H>9 1, *91,188 1839 >,864,718 18)0 1,415,646 184U 2,262 305 1111 1,514 837 18(1 3,340,769 183 2 1.6 >*.935 1842 2 291,933 183 3 1,834,648 1813 3,127,400 183 4 1,913,252 1814 4,003,552 1835 2.209^67 The law of 1817 raised tho duty to be paid for the use of the salines from 3 to 13)* cents per bushel, which amount was pledged to pay the Erie Canal loan. The Constitution of 1821 ratified this pledge. In consequence ftf tha rlntv hoinr r?rliirnr1 hv rontrmn on fAraiirn Iftlt. in 1832 the State reduced her tax on the Onondaga rait to 6 cent* a bushel, at which rate it continued until last season, when it was again reduced to one cent per bushel, the United States tariff of 1840 having lowered the duty on foreign salt to 30 per cent. These reductions were made in order to retain the market against the foreign article. Rising of $3,000,000 have paid to the Hta'e within the last twenty-are years. In order to compete with the salt of Pennsylvania and i Virginia, the latter sending immense quantities into Ohio, a move was made in 1841 to extend the market of the Onondaga salt into those States, and occupy the inviting mart ol the great west. An agent visited those States for observation, which resulted in allowing a drawback of part of the duties charged on the manufacture. A drawback of three cents a%ushel on all salt shipped at Elmira, Oswego or Binghampton, down the Susquehannah River; faur cents per bushel at Beaver, Peun.; five cents at Columbus or Portsmouth, Ohio; and also a drawback of 81 per cent on the amount of caDal tolls for salt delivered at Beaver, Penn., or Portsmouth, Ohio, and all delivered at Troy or Albany free of State duty ot 6 cents per bushel. This gave a more extended market to the business, and as will be seen by the statistics presented above, increased the manufacture. The intention, however, of gaining a market at Portsmouth, on the Ohio river, at the i (outhern termination of the Ohio Canal, or at Beaver, Penn., waa never realized, aa no applications were ever ! made for drawbacks at thoie points. The Kenawha ; work* in Virginia, whose extent in the buaineas ia near! ly equal to those of Onondaga, supply the marketa at a less rate than can be done Iron this State, as their coal : fuel islanded at their works for a dollar a ton, while the | price of wood is annually advancing in Onondaga.? | Roehetttr Advert iter. Later from Rio.?The brig Brandy wine, JCapt. i Smack, arrived at this port yesterday, from R.10, whence she saiied on the 11th Nov The Cap'ain reports | no political changea aince the laat advices, and nothing ; further had been neard from La Plata. The frigate Independence, Captain Lavallette, sailed from Rio for the ; Pacific on the 1st November. The frigate Columbus, Captain Ritchie, bearing the broad pennant of Commodore Rounseau, remained in port on the 11th. Offlcera and crew all well.?Phil*. North American, SOth. The jury in the case of the will of the lata Col. Abijah Uoodridgc, at East Cambridge, have confirmed ita validity. Col. Ooodridge died in Apiil, 1845, without iatue, leaving some twenty collateral heirs. He waa possessed of pioperty to the amount of about $35. (HO A tew day a before hia deceaae he made a will, giving $8000 in leg* cies to four orphan neices and nephews, and the balance of his property to hia wife. The will was conteated by a brother of deceased. More Wonderful Developementa.?The National Police Oacette of this week, will be issatd THIS (Thursday) morning, and will contaiu some wonderful dereloptraents of erime. >n? lading a list and description of numeron< HOI EL THlkVES, fce j Ever? hotel keeper in the United States should seenre this' 1'rice $1 per annual; siugle copies only 4 cents. Stoutenbnrgli, 143 Kultnn street, near Broad way, hit 8olar Lamp*, Tea Trays, Girandoles, Cattle ry, silver plated Castors. Cake Baskets. Itc., at very 1 jw ; piieci. Ladies, tall on hiui before you bay. 150 Broadway, Mom' late Rommel's, Per. fnmerv, Cosmetic and Toilet article Depot.?Krery vsnvty of perfume, hae aoapa, shaving ereami, htir oils, pomatums, colognes, Ammdine, for chauptd hands, and coametics or every description, both fbreign and domestic. All aniclea warranted genuine, and sold at reaaonable but fixed prices ? Superior ravors, hair, nail, tooth and ha'r brushes, combs, dress casea, lie MUpSL late ROUSSKL'S, Perfumery, cosmetic Tand toilet article desot, Broadway. Rodger's Cutlery?Consisting of Pocket and FeokniTes, Scissors, Nail Files, lie., of the most beautiful liuish and uui.jue patterns, can b<" <lit ined of O. SAUN Dp.KS k SMI >1, 177 Broadway, a few dnora a bore ( ourtlandt street. Portable Dressing Cases?In all that Iks I name imports, compact and complete?rontaning articles of I the very beat quvlity, and of dimensions most convenient for l use, with addition ol the Metallic Tablet Kazor Stro.i, sufficient in itself to recommend it. Korsaleat G. 8AC.NDt.RS St ?ON. 177 Broadway, opposite Howard liote'. nONKV 1HAKKET. Wednesday, Dee. 30-0 P. 5T. The dock market opened rather huiyant this mornlog, and prices improved a fraction; but before the eloaa, they fell oil", atd the market closed heavy. Norwich and Worcester improved per cent; Harlem,^; tanton, V i Reading Railroad, ; Long Island fell ofl" l(. The news from the Sou'h, received at about two o'clock, had a depressing efleet upon the market, but the bulls were going ahead a little too fast, and could not sustsin themselves. TK* fnllntrinv nov rnnnUrf.tita art ir?n in lon't Bank Salt Re porter: ? Ten?, Bank of Montgomery county, renriylvaiua, No 4*91, da'ed Morriitown, October 17,181ft. H. 8 ing! lull. ceah. Tha lettering ia very badly executed, and if any caution i* eterciicd it can eaaily be da tec tad. Kive'a, F.aat Haddaa Bank, Conneoticut Vignette, a female with apinnieg wheel ; at bottom, the buat or Venua ariaing from the tea?poor imitation. Tha Bank of America Hai declared a aemi-innual dividend of per cent. The North River Bank haa delared a dividend of three and a half per cent., payable on the 7th of January. The Kairfleld Co. Bank haa declared eewi-annnal di vidrnd of 4 per cent. On and after Fiiday the let of Jan aery, 1BI7, the Independent Treaiury Act will be atrictlr unforced. It will go into operation even if it ahotild he modiflod or altered in any way, in a week *fl?rw*rd?. It may be well enough to eee what the effect of thi? act will be, before it i* utter y condemned, that iti most defective featnrvi may he mora distinctly point H oat, end a proper remedy applied. While the epecie clause of that act ia in operation, Dm Government; wlU not be abto to mate direct low I upon any favorable t*rm?, and the only alternative will be ea issue of Treasury not** bearing six per cent inter. eit, giving holder* the privilege of turning these note* into itock at any time, having twenty year* U> ran. Thi* privilege would give them a value and a currency which they otherwise'would not enjoy, and they would be more caught after, and not become *e much depreciated ^ u they would without thi* method of diepoaing of them By adopting thi* system, the government could get out an iiaue of thirty or forty million* of dollar*, at a very light depreciation at the extent, and the Independent Treasury act, ipacie clause, and everything else attach ei to it, would have very little influence upon the fiaan. cial operation* of the government, a* theae notes would haro a tendency to increase the paper circulation of the country, and reduce the demand for specie to make payment* into and from the public treasury. There is no other way to neutralize the specie clause of the lode. Pindent Treasury act, but by a large issue of treasury notes, and it is our impression that the Secretary ef the Treasury will be compelled to adopt that system of rai* ing money. The public depeait* mutt be reduced to a very imall amount, a* the expenditures on account of the war have lately been very Large, and the revenue from cuitoms exceedingly limited. At yet nothing km* been done in Congre** in relation to railing way* and means to carry on the war, and the Treasury will be empty before meuurea are taken to r^iie more money. There i* very little probability, judging from the feeling among the western member* of ongreM, of a duty being placed upon tea and cofl'ee, and the amount required to meet the extraordinary ex- & penditurea, over and above that which the tariff, a* it ^ j now itandi, will produce, must be railed on the credit of the Oovernment, and by loans at the most tavorable depreciatien. Whatever may be the sacrifice, at which money can be obtained, it must be submitted to. The financial skill of the Secretary ot the Treasury will be tried to it* utmost before he get* out of the emberraa* menttj the change* in the commercial and financial ay*. tern of the government, connected with the Mexican war, have produced. There could not have been a more unfavorable period pitched upon for the radical change* made in these two lystcm* than thi*, particularly on account of the heavy expenditure* growing out Of thi* war. The tariff wa* cut down to a strict revenue ctandard, at a time above all other*, when we wanted double the annual income from that *ource ; and had therj been no alteration at all, tho old tariff would have been far below a revenue itandard, during the continuanoe Cf the war. In connection with the reduction in the tariff, cum* the Independent Treaaury Act, eatibliahiag the finance* of the government upon a specie ba*i?, which i* c?l. culated to inoreate the value of money and reduce the upply, at a time when it ia extremely important that money thould be very cheap and plenty. These mea*ure*, at a proper time, would have operated to a charm; they are periectly well adapted to each other, and in favoralle times, would have had a very favorable effect ,' upon the currency and commerce of the country. We io nun iu mu oiuuoiiosaou |iu?iuvu( iuu iuq cuorgvncjr require* meaiurea particularly adapted to it, however temporary in their operation they may be. The approaching annual election of the directors of the Long Island Railroad Company 1< one of no little importance, both to holders ol bond* and of shares, and we advise both to boon the qui vive, if they expect to protect the bonds, or save the stock from annihilation. The not loss on the business of the last year, ending August, 1845, (after paying interest, $41,800, and rent to Jamaica Railroad Company, $33,300) was $68,409 74, vis Lonu Island Railroad. Oross receipts $108,678 60 Expenses, rent, interest, &c. . .. 237,088 34 Net loss $68,409 74 * * This is exclusive of the Norwich boats, and of Are damages. Or, deducting the running expenses and repiirs only, from the gross receipts, there will remain $8,300 for the net profits of the road, leaving about $07,000 in. terestand rent unprovided for. The Boston day line proves a dead loss to the company, and should be discontinue J; the gross receipts for the past year, ending August, 1840, being only $64,000, while the expanses exceeded $00,000; and since September the monthly losa on the "New Haven" has averaged $10,000 per month. It will be seen that the Long Island Company pay the Jamaica Company for the control and use of their nine miles, more than five times the whole profit made oa the whole 95 miles of road,including the Hempstead branch; or taking the way travel only, and the expense* of way travel, we shall have the following resalta f Way-travel ior year ending August, 1840 $100,121 Do. expenses, do. do. 87,413 Net profit of way-travel $31,699 Rent paid to Jamaica Co 33, BOO Net loss on way travel $11,001 *JI It is obvious from the above statement, that unlees then be a new arrangement made with the Jamaioa company, at a greatly diminished rent, or until there is an increase of way-travel of at least 25 per cent, and a reduction in expenses of at least 25 per cent, the company are only sinking every day deeper and deeper in the mire of difficulty and debt, and had better sell out cars, rails, Ice. kc., pay what they can, and wind up their affairs. All the profit made in running cars is on the first fifty miles from Brooklyn; and unless thejBoston line be discontinued, a vigorous retrenchment adopted, [the rent to the Jamaica company diminished, ?cc. fco., the stock is ;,.r?<r{<>vahlv sunk and rone. and the $000,000 of bonds ia great peril. Old Stock Exchange. 11000 U 8 6t, 1992 101 < SO shs East B ston Co 10K SIMM do let AO Harlem KR ilS 4?V 0)0 do IKS 99 403 do 50 SU00 do >45 100 do lit 49V IM00 do *60 WV ISO do *13 49'. 1000 Ohio 6s, I860 91}J 50 do *?s50 49^ I looo d > 18>6 91 200 Lone Island HR 24V, ! 40'IU Ohio 7i 100 ISO do (10 21V 10*09 Ind Dol Bdi J5y? 33 190 do W0 24 V 2000 111 6s.1970 33 ? Nork WorRH 47% >1000 Heading Bdi 74 12i d > 47V 100 ha Farm Tr s?0 >3 139 do 119 47X 100 do 13 V 50 Reading R R 99 100 Caa'.on Co 27V 25 do 8^ 190 do (90 27 >4 Beeeod Board. 50 iht Long Island bl5 24 V pi shs Nork Wot 49* 59 do blO 34'J 25 dt 49fc 10 Msnhattan Bk SO 59 "do bl9 41* 50 iNor fc Wor bS9 48 V 50 . do 491? I [jo do 49V 300 Harlem MV 1 2', do 48V 50 do *39 59 I 23 do b3?t? New Stock EichM|(. ! 59 shs Canton scrip 1*60 2 V 50 slit Harlem R R s3 50V 50 Harlem R R suw 4??J 50 do iS 5HV JO <Jo mo s? a roorei wor CUD 17* i 50 do t.1 51 25 do b3 -<7*; si SO do si *Vi 25 do b43 U I i 5< do >1 50^ 25 do ? V'% A ! 50 do s'O SOsJ 25 do tl M \ Died, On Wednesday, the 20th init, of scarlet fever, Joiei rxiMB, youngest daughter of Joseph and Josephine Thompson, in the 7th year of her age. Tue friends and acquaintances of the family are respectfully invited to attend her funeral, this afternoon, at i 4 o'clock, from No II J llud.on street. On Wednesday morning, the SOth Inst, of coiuumpj tion. A*6rk* Jmim, in the 40th year of his age. Hi* friends and acquaintances, and those of the family, are respectfully invited to attend his funeral,thii (Thursday) aftornoou, at 4 o'clock, from his late residenoe. No. 904 High street, Brooklyn. (s&~ Watertown, Jefferson Co.,papers please copy. On Wednesday morning, Dec 30, Jonathan Thompson, in the 74th year of his age. ' His friends and acquaintances are respectfully invited to attend his funeral, without further invitation, at 10 o'clock on .Kiidav morning, January 1, from his late residence, No M Beekman street, to the Brick Church, where the funeral services will take place. Hi* remaiiyi will be conveyed to tho family burial place, at lalip. Long Island. On Tuesday oveoing, 29th iait, Riiodt F. Haniman, aged-J3yeais . Yosteiduy afternoon, at 3 o'clock, Jon* McNult ., in the 03J year ot his age ' The luneral will take place on Friday morning at 0 ] o'clock, from his late residence, No. 36 Hast Broadway. 1] The frierda of the lamily, and of his sons-in-la?fJh>drowr J <1 (Jarrigxii an<l Joua Mitcli-.'ll, are invited to atteftj, with V mil fnrth*r invitation A ] la Newburjrpirt, on Sunday ayauinf, Mr?. Ltnr* Baa.io, ?#cd 91. . wM In Nowburyport, on Monday, Dac 33, at tha Alma Home, Mm* Hi-hick Kazan, aged 90 year*. la? LETTER BAGS by the ?teamer Cambria, from Boa'tu,.for l.iterpool, will eloae at the riehanae Rendiag * , I Minima, (Iffi ig Magnetic Telegr?iih >tew? Kiwm, comer of Bearer and It we' *treet*, thiaday, *t?V P. M. Letter* tau ba pteiwl '? any n^n ol the < ontinent. d3l KANC* Ub'AltD^, A I' I i iUiN ! THE MEMBIflUl of the above Ueaepeer are r*jneated ir, meet at Ceuirl Hall, on Friday nioniug, Jan la', \%0, at half p<at ? r dock preciaely, folly atmed and equipped, for the aecood inntial paiaJe. By order of tii? Captain, W. M. BOUCHER. j Jon* OoBCMra, Secretary. Faacy Ou ird'a line ol march from Central Hall, throucli J" Centre to Pprtug, d wu Rp-mg to HuUoa, down Hudaoi to 4 ( anal, through Canal to Greenwich, down Greenwich to I 'haaiher. th>oagh Chamber an Centre, to Naaaau, down , Naaa <u to Maideo-lmie, through Msidea-lane t<> Bro dway, ]H an Broadway to Fulton. through Full n to Weat, op Weat to ; H Veaer. up Veaey to Broadwav, up Uro*d-?av to Band, i H I through Botd to Bowery, through Bowery to Grand through I (1 aii?t to Eaat Broa Iway, Uown K.a ,t Broadway to Chathaai, down I hailia'H to Barclay, t?roaih Barclay to Weat Broad- f H way, op Weal Broadway to Canal, through Canal to Centre, through ' entre o Central Hall, and there diaiaiia*. dll It**r Jrmj VOLUNTEER, NO. 111. f fl THE third number of Ihia weekly, will be ready thi? a tnor .iuf. lu coateuta are very nea. Among tham 4 , M Oar Opposite Neighbor, eftntinaed ; Kiaaing One'* Con- Ufl am ; New Year'* Day; Odd Fellow*; M-ie* Km tioaa; Kuah i^H ing to tha Field; oobil ty of Aral; Offlce of Lieut. General Heaidea, Laieat Maw* from til* neat War ; Sam aary o |M I Coagieaaional Newi; Draw'* L-fe'fr'm Waatengtoo; of the Mohegan ; City Newa; Homhold Market; Editor JMjpH , *Vi?ee ?v; eaat*. Uflca, 111 Nauaa atr*?t, ar atxin^

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