Newspaper of The New York Herald, March 15, 1847, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated March 15, 1847 Page 1
Text content (automatically generated)

/ TH1 #?it. sm, m?, 7:1 .wkv;? ? , H70 THE NEW YORK HERALD. JAMS COUPON' BENNETT, PROPRIETOR. Circulation?Forty Thousand. DAILY HERALD?Every cay. Ittee J e.ale PMeopy-$l 46 per amuui?payable in advance. ... WEEKLY HERALO-Every Haturday-Yrice 6* eenu per copy?J 1 iW cent? per annum? payable ib advance . HERALD KOR KuROdE?Every Steam racket dayfriee cents per eopy?$1 per annum, payable mad^ANNUAL IMCTORIAL HKRALp-rubliahed on the lator January of each year?ainale copiee aupence each. ADVERTISE viENTS, at the uaual pncea-alaraya caab in ftdvnuce. AdvertitemenU should b? manii?i. i no rrn|>ricu?r w 111 uwas rvafounuiv i?r trun that may occur in there. PRINTING of all kiudi executed beautilully and with d cap-itch. All letters or communications, by mail, addressed to the Srlabliahmeut, muat be post paid, or the postage will oe tie ucttd Iron) the subscription money remitted. JAMES OU.RDON BENNETT, Proprietor of the Nkw Yokk HcaiLn Estabuihmsfit, North \V..i Mrur al Vnltnn aed Neaaae atreeta t % \ y t- ot.i tu ACH <#joastni,* vaonw ciiANGjnjFHoutts WINTER ARM A NO CEMENT. On'^aud after Monday, Dec. Itt, 1 i?6. Traiua will ruu na follows!? Ca-ia A-ooxLTtt?at 7 o'clock A. At. (Boston tr-us) for tSreecport daily,(except Suudaya) itof>|iic al Narrnic^daU anu ft. (Jeorxe's Manor. al?)i A. M-, daily, for Oreentarrt and'intermediate placei. ** at t P M. for kariningditle, daily. Lcavk Hexv-rvoPT?at ?)d A. M., daily accommodatioa train far 3rouklyti. at SX M., (Boatou Traiu) or oi the amval of :he beat fVvn Norwi h, daily, (except Son4'71.) it ppmy it 8t Oecrie'a Menr' i*.t Kartmr.fid- Ir. k KaRMinooiuK at A. M. daily, {except Sundays.) eecomtrodati i train; cad 13 M. and P. M. Leitk Jamaica?hi O cloc ( A. M , 1 P. M., and tX P Al., for Brooklyn, or r.e the arrival of Boatoa train. SUNDAY TRAIN# will herenlter run to Thornton Hta lion? leave Brooklyn at9 A M. for Thompson and intermediate piiicea.fcommrnciuK Sunday the Sth fevember. return nig leave Thompson al 3 o'clock P. Al., Kr.rmingdale 2X. Jamaica 3XKant to?Bedford, 8 centa; Eeat New Verb. 13)%: Race Cnnrie, tSVjTrotting Comae 18V; Jainnicn. 3's BruaovilU, Jl.VJ; Hj terark, (17 milea)l7K; Clowaville, (duriux tl.r ae? ion nt'Court) 3'X. Hetnpsle.-.d. J7)?; Br.uicb S7X; Curia riser. 44, Westbary. 44; Hicksville, 44; Karioipgddle, 62V D^er I irK.Mi: Thompson, 88; Suffolk Station. 81; Lake Road Station, $1 18V; Medford Slatiou, 81 18V: Yaphnuk, 81 37V: 8t. Oeor e's Manor, 81 67V. Hiverhead, 81 62V Jamesport, 81 62V Mattetuck, 81 62V; CMchogue, 81 62V Houthold fl 62 V Ureouport Accommodation Train, 8' 7); Boston train. 82 25. Ktnge* are in readiness on the urinl orTminia; the several Htmons. to take passengers at very low lares, to ell puts nl the Island. U.igL'aire Crates will be in readiness at the Toot of Whiteliall street, to ruceive baggage fi r the several trains. M minutes be'ore the hour ol'startinir from the Brooklyn side. The steamboat "Statesman' leaves Oreenport for Baa Hsr bor on the arrival of the Boston train from Brooklyn dtSrh ^4?n sM ''Hi; PROPRIETORS of Steamboats Bells harif. woald do well io pay a "sai on boaid the steamboats .Niagara, Iron Witch, Governor, iron bo*t John Stevens, Worcester. Tra ve'ler, Thomas Powell, Ac., and examiue ,H HOMER'S improved style ot Bell Hanaiuy. put up neat and strong, and warranred for one year, by H. H. No. 8 Ann st. fll lm*rre NOTICE. jCM On and alter Friday, November 10th, the steam boat SYLPH, Captain Braisted, will ]K>3laK.mak( the following tripe to and from Statea Intend onru further notice, viz Le?ve New York j Leave Staten Islaei At 9 A.M. At ?V 11 A.M. i 1ft 1 P. M I 11 M. *>< " 1 r- M i)i " I IX" nllr " ir i."imi a"ii mam. i.inr cnu koktiin VIA NORWICH & WOR. vxVJ , tMi-'i ,* 0K8TKK, without ch&n^* ( m?{& jpC&r* or Buoyage, or withonu^^^^H *iT? -I-crossing any b erty. ssseiigen taking theirseats at Norwich, are luiflrrd then I t u through 10 Boston. This being the only inland route tl; t communicates through by steamboat and railroad. Passengers by this line are accompanied through by the conductor of the train, who will have paiticuiar charge ol' their baggage, and who will otherwise give his attention to ineir ease and comfort. This line leaves sonth side Pier No. 1, North River, foot of Battery Place, daily,(8undaysexcepted) at 4 o'clock, P. M., ai. yes in Boston iu time to take all the eastern trains. Thr tew tteuiner WORCESTER, Capt. Vsn Pelt, leaves every Tuesday, Thursday, and Baturdsys, at 4 o'clock, P. M. Th- steamer CLEOPATRA, Captain Williams, leaves very Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 4 o'clock, P. M. For furttier information, inquire of J. H. VANDEltBILT, No. * T-allery Place. North Hiver. dM tf re Jtmmn, 0A WINTER ARRANGEMENTS.?The MM?Norwich, Worcester and Boston Rail Road and Steam Transportation Line?The substantial aienin propeller Trumbull, Captain Daniel Havens Will "in regularly between Norwich and New York, making two passage* a week; leaving New York Irom pier IS H. R. Old Slip. For freight, which will be taken at summer rates or passage, having elegant accommodations apply to the Captain, on board, or to E. A. BILL, Norwich, Conn., and to J? lm*r J.& N. BKIOO". 40 Month sr. NewYofk. JKlllSfi Ai\i) INUltTll Avltlt CAN ROYAL M.ssi* STEAM SHIPS SLeV?*"1 1200 tons and 440 horse power etch, tu *?5w^|jfl!^Jder contract win. the Lords of the Aomi HIBERNIAj... !T. Capt. A. Kyrie CALEDONIA Cap. E. O. Lou. BRITANNIA Capt. J. Hewitt. CAMBRIA Cnpt.C. H fehJudkuu ACADI A ?(Japt. Win, Harrises. TTlllKHXVUI AJUIUt'UVl U'i <IV?Wm, 111 lltJIlftl. II IVI* lows raoM Bo?Tos. rioM uiiwool. Hi he mis Feb. 1. 1817 Hiheruia Jan. 4, 1M7 Cambria March 1, 1847 Cambria Feb 4, 1847 Hibaruia April 1, 1147 Hibernia March 4, 1847 IPasiaue MojrrT. From Boston to Liverpool VIM. From Roiton to Halifax... , 80. No berths scented until paid for. These ships carry exJerieaced surgeons. No freight, except specie, received oa ays of sailing. For freight, passage, or any other information, apply to D. BllIOHAM, Jr., Agent, AiHAENDKF Ik OO.'M Wallet. (CT*- 1? addition to the above line between Liverpool and Halifax, and Boston, a contract has been entered into with Her Majesty's government, to establish a line between Liverpool auil Sew York direct The steamships lor this service are now being bnilt, and early next year due notice will be given of the time wheu they will start. Uuder the new contract the steamers will sail every Saturday daring eight months, and every fortnight during the other months in the year. Going alternately between Limrpool, and Halifax and Boston, and bntween Liverpool and New York. j6 r tlNllbU aTATES AND EUROPEAN EiVllGRANT OFFICE. M && ?& WK8TERN >0lhl8 A>l> COMMISSION MKRC HANTS. ripHK anbacribers havin" h d long experience in the bnaiM. nevk.are prepared to offer every facility to those wishing passage to or Irom eveiy part of Hie it Britain or Ireland, Havre, and the Oerman, flelvitn, and Holland portaon Any of which places Bills of Kichai ge can be furnished, in man to snit. Pasrage can also be engage 'from Liverpool to Boston, i liila 'elphia, Baltimore, or New Orleana, direct. Those wirlung paisage frnin New York to New Orleaaa, Mobile, Charleston, Savannah or Teaaa, can at aR times be accommodated at the lowest r tea. To those emigratmg to the West, the i nbteribers have unequalled arrangements for the forwarding of passengers to the West, by the different routes, viz: to Buffalo, and the intermediate lind'ngs, and ajl parts ot the Canadas?Chicago. Milwaukie, Baltimore, Pittshqgfi, Cincinnati, St Lonia, Ac , by steamboats, railroads and canal i H i's, of the first class?and Fleet c-re will be taken that passeuiren will meet with no delay or imposition on ths route. Letteri (post-paid) will raceive prompt attention. For luither paitieulnrt apply to M. r O'HKRN 8t CO., 110 Sooth street, corner of Dover, nmi JR West meet, cornerol Hector, ft lm*rrc WALOKON O'HKRN 8t CO . Liven<ool. PAbSAUh TO ,\NI> FROM LIVERPOOL, BY THE NEW LINH OF PACKETS. LfjV Packet of t'te 21-t ol March.?Th* sp'enJiJ, fistKyJfSVfM1'"* Packet hlup nOSCH/Sv 1 00 u,us burthen. ni l ml from i'fiv 1 OrK Oil the mat of March, and Lorn Liverpool >B tha 1 Ith of May. 'J he Hh'PSi- m.,ris lie tins line are the following, and will astl tu and In,in Livtiponl on their regular day*, viz Toss. K*om n Yum, kaovi Livzeeooi.. GAHPIf K... 1100 21th of Kehruary, Mih of April. ROSClOBi ... H50 26th ef Vaich. llthnffray. BlDDUINS 1100 IKihnf April. 11th of Jur e. BHKtfll'AN ..1IM Mth of January. Ilth of July. i erenns about to embark for tha Old Coontry. or ihoae wishing to aeud fir (jieir frieiida. will not flil t'l aae the advantages to he derivedfrom selecting this line ol magnificent Miipa, as ih-ir great ca|>ecity lenders them every way more o^mlo-tahle th iiihipa of amaHer ela a ; and their aceommn. datioi.a lor cabin, second . abiu, and ateer&ge paaaangera, are superior to any other line. ... ... , /'en na wiahicg to ari'nre bertha ahonld not fail to make car.y at piicaliun on board foot of VVall alreet, or In W A J. T. TaPSt.OTT, At their General Passage Office. 06 South street, (4ee?uddoor below Hurling SI in , Or to OfcOftUR RTF A KD A HON, or U M. TaPHCOTTiM Waterloo Iload Drafts for eay amount, payable on demand, without diagonal, m all the principal towna of Kngland, Ireland. Scotland or Wal- a, can at all times be obtained oa application (if b, ieiter postpaid) as above. Hill rh *~jg?j? KUH nITyv oilte-ANs" Louisiana?New York JfvSfVliiie of Packeta. I'oaitivrJy ihe only regular packet MBMtafeio anil ou Thursday, Mitch 18 1847. Tlio new and atdendid fatt tailing pa' ket bark AVOLA, ('apt Wl it'emore, la now loading, and will poaitively sail at above, her regular day. for fre gbt or p isaage, having superior accommodations, at ply on hoard, at Orleans wharf, foot ol Wall at., or to I D K. COLLINS, >5 South N if ??iuppern m?y rely on this vessel tailing punctually at advertised fosHiyely no goods will he nceircd after Wednesday even fig. I?'h mat Agf nta in New Orleans, JOHN O. WOODRUFF It CO., who will promptly forward all goods to their addraaa m 11 ie ate. CON [) \n i.I.nk OK~ P~m.KK.Te-Cachet ol j?l)b 16th m'rch?The Pack#t Ship WfcLLINOlON, MHHk' Hsdwici, Matter, will atil at shove,Sher regular 'J he aeeommoda ions for ' abin, Second ('abia and Steerage IVasengera, i s to comfort, are nnequdled by any ship in port. I'erao.a wishing to embaik should make early a| plicv lion on hoard, loot of Maiutn Lane, or to J. McMUHRAY, cor. Sonlh and Pine streeta. Cerxiit desirous of sen ing for their fnruda can have them brought out in lha above ship or any of the regular line ol pack H, by applying na ahnya. nihil j.rre 444k. "w ANTRd?Vh.SSh.L8 of the huiilieii of from (jtjWfV I'll to 300 r.ina will betaken by the month. Apply JMBUwIo BOYD A HINCKKN. Broker., ml No. 9 Teatiat Buildiaga, No. M Wail atroot. E NE N] > an????mia | 1 i MONTHLY PAY OF U. H. ARMY OFFICER*. Major Gcnaral $878 Brigadier General 340 Adjutant General 18* First Assistant Adjutant General 141 Second Aaeiatant Adjutant General 98 Inepector General 183 Quartermaster General 'Jto Afiiitant Quartermaster General 183 Deputy Quartermaster General 101 Quartermaster 141 Assistant Quartermaster 98 Commissary General of Subsistence 183 Assi-tant Commissary General 18i First Commissary of Subsistence 141 Second Commissary of Subsistence 98 Paymaster General 908 Paymaster 134 Surgeon General. . . * * * 908 Surgeons 149 Aacitiont fltirornniia OBD.NARCE DiritTHINr. Colonel $183 Lieutenant Colonel 163 Major Ml Captain. 88 First Lieutenant 81 Second Lieutenant 81 MOUNTED DAAOOOltl. Colonel $183 Lieutenant Colonel 161 Major 141 Captain 10<> Flrat Lieutenant 8(1 Second Lieutenaat 89 ABTILLKIIT AND IMKANTKT. Colonel $189 Lieutenant Colonel 149 Major 119 Captain 70 Flirt Lieutenant 89 Second Lieutenant 84 NATAL NEWS. [From the Boaton Tranacript, March 13.] Liat of offlcera attached to the U. 9 bomb vesael F.tna, late achooner Wolcott:?Commander, O. J. Van Brunt; Lieutenanta, Oeotge R. Uray.and Benjamin F. Shatturk; Pained Assistant Surgeon, John S. Messerimitb: Acting Maater, Charlea E Fleming; Paused Midahipmen, Thof. Pattiaon and Julius S. Bohien; Aotiug Ounner, F.dward 8. Hudaon. Washington, March 7, 1847. The Twenty-Ninth Congrttt?The Mexican War. In tracii g to their tint causes the various political results that present themselves to notice in the history of the Twenty-Ninth Congress, I will find it necessary to mention in connection with them names deservedly high in the world's esteem. Need I say such mention will be made in all courtesy! and because, to be silent regarding such men as Mr. Calhoun, Mr. Benton, Mr. Cuss, and others, would be to oiuit an important portion of the history of the period I treat of. I have no polecat animosity or partiality to gratify. My object is to speek the truth impartially. I have said the Mexican war will be regarded by posterity as the great event of the Twentytyimh Congress. Men will be apt to enquire why the recognition of the war was opposed?why the President of the United States was denounced as having by his imprudence called it into existence I ?who opposed and who sustained its prosecutiont and, moreover, why the measures necessary for its vigorous prosecution were delayed from the beginning to ihe close of a session of three months duration, when it was known that every day's delay was of material detriment to the public interests'! Let me endeavor to answer these questions. Mr. Clay, Mr. Van Buren, and Mr. Wright, when their opinion was asked on iho annexation of Texas, d. clared against that measure, predicting that it would involve us in a war with Mexico. Mr. Calhoun scouted this idea, and dt clared it to be his firm conviction ihat therettould be no war. That the anueXitionot Texas was the pnmary cause of the war, there is not a shadow oi doubt. The moment the act was consummated here, the Mexican minister, Almonte, demand) d his passports, declaring that his government would hold the United Mates to account for what he designated an outrageous act of aggression on the rights of Mexico. From the time Mexico received official intimation of the. annexation to the United States, as far as the act of this government had foiee, of a fSiate to which she still ret up (an empty) title, she prepared for war. From that time a state ot war actually existed, although hostilities had not yet commenced. Our government endeavored by conciliation and kindness to arrest the threat ened rupture. As soon as Mexico intimated her willingness to treat, a minister was si nt. It was only when our offers of amity were conturricltously rejected?when our minister was insulted -wtien to have withheld our army longer from the detence of the boundary would have been suicidal, that General Taylor rtceived orders to advance to the Kio Grande. Even then we forbore until longer to forbear would have been criminal. A number ol otir soldiers were murdered belore we struck agblow. Hut Mr. Calhoun had predicted that war could not result from the annexation of Texas, and bo doubtless believed so. His mind was prepared ilien to rtject every evidence lending to fnlsily bis prediction, and even when we received ihe disastrous news ot the murder of Colonel Cross and the eutting off of Thornton's dragoons, he still counselled against the recognition ol war. ' But Congress, disiegarding this c.i unsel, did with commendable alacrity and unanimity recognise ; the war. Mr. Calhoun has ever since been endeavoring, with tho aid of circumstantial evij denoe, to vindicate his prediction, by proving that the President of the United Stater, and not ' Mix'co, had taken the initiative, and brought about the war. To the fsct (exclusively) that lie 1 predicted that war could not result Irom the annexation of Texas, many would ascribe his opposition to the recognition of the war, mid his desire to inculpate the President in its origination I do not. When once tho mind of such a man as Mr. C. receives a certain bent, the smallest circumstances will bias his judgment, " Trifles light as air," afford alunent to his convictions. Every evidence that tends to strengthen his opinion, is sought after, and swallowed and digested. All W V o EW YORK, MONDAY MO MEW OF THE TOWN OF BUR] --?* | FROM TB testimony serving to invalidate his case, is re ject- p eel. Mr. Calhoun's conviction was that the an- p; nexationof Texas could not result in war with ^ Mexico; and although it has since so resulted, he has rejected every evidence that could at all S shake that conviction, seeking to hinge the origin si of the war on causes too frail to sustain his con- ti elusions. This is why he opposed the recognition of the war. He did not wish to admit, even with M the fact staring him in the face, that war existed, d When that fact was put beyond cavil, as he could ?| not yet be forced to the belief that it was owing . to the annexation of Texas, he was compelled to adopt and maintain the position that war existed t? by the act of the President of the United States, it Jt is not my purpose to examine into the merits of , either side of this question. Both sides are stated with signal ablify ? the one by Mr. Calhoun,? P the othor by Mr. SjuIo, in his masterly and logic- li al speech, beside which, as a defence of the Uni e ted States against the charge of making war on , Mexico, the President's message ol December Inst sinks into utter insignificance. With Mr. Calhoun and his friends (for, to th" te latter his word is law,) the wings united, with > what zeal 1 need not say, in denouncing the President as having, by his act, brought the war into n existence. They were for a time at fault, some ad- tl vocating, some opposing the war; but after the pi first month of the session just terminated, they ' settled down into the policy of denouncing the " war as unjust and iniquitous in its inception, it prolessmg, however, their willingness to vote f. the supplies necessary lor its i rosecution.? At the same time they adopted the safest and ? most efficacious means of opposition. They did a not exactly oppose?they procrastinated. They ti had no desire, they said, to embarrass the passagj tt of administration measures lor the prosecution ti of the war; but they desired to give their view* 9 on the general policy of the administration; and, tt of course, the (nominal) majority in the Senate o could not ho so discourteous as to refuse; and so r< it went on front day to day. Speeches were h made, and time was consumed They moved cl adjournments, called lor divisions, and retorted n to every means the details of legislative business alTorded them to delay action on the various im- n portant measures of the session. Mr. Calhoun u and his Iriends were with them on almost every it division; and thus they were enabled to carry out tl their procrastination policy* They were, be- h: sides, ever ready to take advantage of their op m ponents, by fostering and availing themselves of a> the ubsurdest whimsicalities ol the crotchety ti among the aUtninistration members, in order to si produce delay. The democratic party in the k| Senate had no leader; and il they had, they could d have effected nothing, us they were in an abso- o lute minority. Kenton does not know how t j o lead; he attempts to drive. Sevier was the real n leader; although he, with all his excellent quali- ? Mentions for the command, was by no means c uniformly successful in leading his minority, in t< solid phalanx, against the combined forces o t< Mr. Calhoun and the wings. Some crotchety member would stray from tbe ranks, in mere tl wantonness; arid his whim, how preposterous 11 soever, would he nt once caught up by the op- p position, and tnagnilied into a proposition of the n gravest moment fins course was puisued tiil v lite very last day of the Session, and thus a groat tl many important measures were defeated Mr. si Benton's course contributed in no small degree to a the success of this system of tactics. Ho spent rr whole days in useless debate when his duty 1 was to press measures to a vote. Many a excellent measures would have been passed the a last two days ol the session, but lor his idle p opposiiion to a resolution winch he knew would fr be carried. General Cass gave the war and the h administration a protty tinilomi support the last tr session, although somuol his friends in the House were in tieice hostility to the administration, tl But, wiih tire exception ol the Calhoun party, the |, democrats were all in lavor of the war. to lar lc the Senate. * w In the House things stood nearly in a similar ti position. The administration purty had no si leader. A large portion ot the democratic party ol was in undisguised opposition. In addition lu tli Mr. Calhoun's Iriends, some of the ultra flity-lbur bi lorty men, friends of Mr. Wright, and the th enemies of Mr. Walker, were in open hostility, g; The Wilntot proviso brought the North into pi antagonism with the South, and its disi-msion a? consuimd rnucii valuable tune, to no purpose. ol 1 trust 1 have thus shown, in a tew words, why m the recognition of the war was opposed; why T the President was denounced'as having cubed it hi into existence?who opposed and who sustained bj its prosecution?and wiry the measures neces- in sary for us vigorous prosecution were delayed vt ti.u i.a..i tu fi.^s ? ~c llUill III*- l'( IU IIIO V/IUSC VII IIIC OvOulUII Ul JU Congress just terminated. AitiiOii|^ti there was a provoking and factious ct delay in passing these measures, they were all th per tec led at last?the treasury note and loan m lull?the li U for raising ten additional regiments, th and a in plemental lull to organize them into bri- ai gades a.. I divisions under the proper oliicers? b< thu bill granting additional bounty to soldiers? m the appropriation tor the army and navy, and the tu many other minor measures necessary for liie ? prosecution of the war, have all passed into law. M J.'he three million appropriation hill, too, pasted in without the meaningless proviso sought to he at- th tachedtoit. do that, though faction was ram- O pant during the last session ol Congress, the po* ol pular will, which is strongly in favor of the war, p< triumphed over party bias in the passage of every ei measure necessary lor its prosecution. It Oai.viknsiv le hi Waskikoto.x, March 8,1847. 77it Tvytnty- IS'inih. Congren?Hartvt. I?

I have already glanced at the position ol the S< various parties in the Twenty-Ninth Corgrcss, in n: relation to the Oregon question and the Mexican ^ war. Their position on the tariff and sub-treasury questions?tie two most important of the sossion next to ihosc I have already treated of?is too wefl Hl understood to demand particular notice. With the ex .option of a few delegations, the democratic d KK t RNING, MARCH 15 134^ IN AND PASS OF SALINAS. -' ~T CD.EAST. arty supported the tariff of 1816, and the whig r arty, with still lewer exceptions, opposed it ? c lew York and Pennsylvania, the two democratic ? tates, the delegations of which gave it most e gnal opposition, did not sustain the course of * teir representatives when they presented themslves for re-election. In Pennsylvania, the only emocrat who voted for the tariff of 1846 was relected, and most of those who opposed it were efealed. In New York, at the last election, the triff question was not made a general issue, and exercised little, if any, intluenee in controlling ie vote of the State. The excitement which its assage caused has altogether subsided, and it is kely to remain for years undisturbed, with the xception, perhaps, of a slight modification, for in purpose of raising additional revenue The sub-treasury has not yet been sufficiently >steJ to enable one to form a definite opinion of le intluenee it is destined to exercise on the lonetary affairs of the country. Still more on le question of the passage of this measure than n that of tin tariff, were the party lines distinctly ! rawn. Whigs opposed and democrats supported v with very few exceptions. It was an old party b uestion, and there was very little variance of J pinion, except between the partios The public v ttention is so much occupied by the grave ques- 1 ons affecting our foreign relations, that neither 1 te tariff nor the sub-treasury has lately attracted " le interest 01 me people to nnir great extent. in *40 the sub-treasury, and in 1814 the taritF were 9 le all absorbing questions. Now every question 1 ("domestic policy is?if not di-regardeil?at loast N yarded as out of secondary importance. Tliey ave been so regarded during the session just 11 losed, although during the one preceding it, 1 j3 eed not ssy tney excited a great deal of interest. 1 F have said before, the two great political orgn- ? i/.ations have been, during ttiis Congress, split v p into many sections. This sub-division and J: tingling of parties is the great Characteristic of 1 le twenty-ninth Congress. The harriers of party 11 ave all been thrown down. Whigs, democrats, " stives and abolitionists, have, at some time or 11 aothnr during the last two sessions lo-t their par- V son individuality, nnd side bv sale, shoulder to 1 loulder, the abolitionist of the north, and the aveliolder of the south?the red-hot enthusiasm; emocrat of Illinois, and the cool, cautious whig I Massachusetts?have been tound advocating or pposlng the same measure. Again, western de- 11 uocrat and eastern whig have fought against outhern democrat and southern whig. But the ombinations are too complicated and manifold 3 be traced aitd unravelled. 1 can but endeavor 3 furnish a key to some of the most prominent. n At the commencement of the first session of , he last Congress, the two parties were severally nitcd?at its close their disruption was couiiete. The Oregon question first broke the liar- * rtony of the democrats. Ttie whigs stood pretty i rell together until the Wilmot proviso shattered l leir union. During the whole of the two sos- , ions, the friends of Mr. Calhoun have maintained ( distinct and separate organizat on. The ndillustration lias had, as yet, no distinct party, 'he partisans of Mr. Wright attempted to organ- r :e tficmselves last session, nnd tailed to elfect * light but mischief both to Mr. Wright and to the t< ublic interests. Their natural enemies are the [. tends ol Mr. Cass, who, with a few exceptions, ave conducted themselves, so far, with coin- * lendable propriety. " 'i he Oregon question arrayed the West against I te South and a portion of the North. " forty- h ine men" and " tilty-four-forty men" were, ,, ir a tune, the only two parties in Congress? j( 'higs and democrats were found in both s>-c- a on? The South, desirous of limiting the aeces- _ on of strength to the West, advocated the line a [" the forty ninth parallel. Tliey were joined by h le commercial men of the North. These com- ' ined lorces triumphed. But the Western men, " lOUgh infuriated, were not yet nearly so much jj! i its they afterwards became. They assisted in j tsMi.g the tariff bill, on the tacit understanding i they allege, that they would have the support n the South on the river and harbor bill. That b loasure passed,and was vetoed by the President. b ban Use SMSltUSel their wrath was indeed lull: nt it did not overflow until they were deserted f the Southern democrats, who had previously isisied them to puss the hill,,on the vote to re- fc srse the President's veto, by a constitutional ma- w rity ol two-thirds. si From this maddened state of feeling sprang the 1 ilebrated Wilmot proviso. It was hatched in 01 e heat of the rage and resentment engendered " the breasts ol the western members, first by j? 0 course of the South on the Oregon question, tl id afterwards by the veto of tho River and liar- ai jr bill, and the desertion of the Bouth on the lotion to reverse that veto. The uppropria- " 1 i ol two millions ol dollars asked for by the j? resident, to enable hi in to make peace with ,t lexico, wus seized as the means of embarrass- q v him and annoying the South. The eastern <h smocrats, who had been with the Booth on the ' regon question, united with the west in support ,c the Wilmot proviso, as slavery is aught but a 01 3pular institution nt the north ; and thus a pow- *' till combina ioii was lormed against the South. ? was at tho close of the session?men had not tl: isure to examine the proposition, and if they th id they were too much blinded by passion on t> iu one part, and love of popularity on the other, 01 i heed its absurdity. It passed the Houso by a b ,igo miijornv. It could not have passed the ^ enate. Whilst the House was in the extrnurdiary ferment produced by the violent contention t, f sectional interests, the session came to a closv, ,| nd every body went homo dissatisfied with him- n If and with every body else. ' The last session opened with the consideration nd discussion ol tho war question. The two f' allies were again for a time distinct. The a 'higsattho commencement of the -ession, blun- j, ered into violent opposition tit the war, and lu 4 1EHA r. i: i ; j j! i i c ! > ? = i: ions denunciation of the President. The demorats were driven, sotne of them,to unwilling sup>ort of tire administration, in self defence. Bat s soon as the whigs adopted the milder and more i Ificient policy of procrastination, and the pres- ! ure upon the ranks of the democrats had parially censed, dissension began to appear in the nidstof the latter. The friends of Mr. Calhoun, it the Senate, and those ol Mr. Wright, in the louse, were most active in producing this disinion. The Wilmot proviso was again brought in in a different form, by Mr. Preston King ot sew York, but the House totally repudiated Ins (ill. The proviso itsell was moved afterwardB iy its author, as an amendment to the three mil ions appropriation bill. A large party was still n favor of if, but not by uny means so largo as hat which had carried it through the House the irevioils session A In rise mninritv nf nin? nn nn inusually lull vote, gave token of its ultimate ailure. But white these tilings were passing in the louse, Mr. Calhoun and his friends, holding the mlnnce of power in the Senate, were aiding the /tugs to thwart the administration. Mr. Csl- I on i's hostility to the present administration is asily traced to the causes detailed in tny iPtter of esterday, and is further ixplained hy the fact ' hat lie was Secretary of State at the close of Mr. Tyler's administration. His friends have undelatingly lollowed his lead, and lie lias thus lar teen enabled to control the vote ot the senate.? dr. l'.enton gave the administration a sort of ulky support. Sulky is not the exact word. He vas pompous and patronizing, and defended the 'resident against every body but himself. Mr. ' 'ass gave the administration a quiet, temperate, nd dignified support. The whigs, whatever their liversity of feeling, betrayed none in the senate hamber, except oil the anti-slavery amendment ntroduced by Mr. I'pham. But even then there I vas a silent vote?no discussion. These are the prominent subdivisions of party u the Twenty-ninth Congress. .There were ithers of less importance?such as the division on j i he tea and eolfee question, the lueutenant-gen- j ralship, the Inland relief bill, (about which I I vill have something to say,)uud others not of suf- : ie.ient general interest to demand elucidation.? i 1 The course of Mr. Calhoun and his friends has : . iinted the democratic party in support ?f the dmiiiistratioii. The number of malecontents is | iow very small. Harmony prevails to a greater xtent than one could have thought possible at he close of the first session. And yet, 1 very 1 rincfi doubt if the two great parties that have so >ng divided the country, can ever again hedge lieinselves round with those barries which, dur- ( ig the Twenty-ninth Congress, were not only, tirowu down, but broken into small fragments. Ualviknsih. i l.etters from the African Squadron. ' 1 tie town ol Monrovia has un agresshle sitimtion ou point of elevated laud, extending into the ?ea, and com- 1 nonly known Cape Meaurado. It in doubtleaa the >?at (ito which could have been selected ,ai every breeie thancing to blow, ialelt by the inhabitant! ; and iti ap- 1 ' cot ranee fiom the little river li quite piclureaqtle and leautiful. The irregularity of the houiea?the profuion of Aoweri-tho dark back ground?the giuaay tream, meandering through the low level manh land leneath?the ateeple of an occaaional church?the mer- | y laugh of children?the roar of the diatant iuif, end the oft, low long of the Kroo girl in the near valley, all tend 0 All the mind with a multiplicity of pleaiing and poetic inciei. On the day of our visit, after *trolling about for ome time, indulging in a tramp on t'rra firma. ngain we etind oureelvea nt the houie of the renowned Colonel ( I., who, by the by, ia, independent of hit abilitiea a a a i oat, a rare apecimen of the human apeciea. Hie extreme 1 oliteneaa?hia inexhauatihle fund ol converaation, ming- , , pit with the moat brilliant acintillationa of genuine wit i nd karc.erm?bia volubility ol tolenbly bad French 1 -hia inimitable atore of racy expreaaiona?in n i word, hia Inult mt rmhle wero only equalled J y hia powera ol divination ; ao, of courae, rea- i ily giteaaing our-wnnta, a Annri'-h of the colonel'ahand 1 1 a modeat looking little negreaa, and the jingle of gle e- I a in an adjoining room, apendily brought lotth a bottle i f palatable ule, and a lunc heon, which we leiaurely S eapatched, and then ordered dinner. c A a the hand ol tiino waa already upon the prick of r oon, we again aallied forth, and koiating our umbrrlbia, j unt our atepa down a circular pathway, leading to the 1 rink ol the liver, and towarda the aouthein part ol the t sttlement. Hero wo found a cnnoo at our dunoanl. and t Iter hauling it U|ion the bench, to ensure n safe em- t sikution, we seated ourielvei, nn<) were gently ivunoh- t I by the Kroomcn. who, giving it a desperate impetus ' a rward. when alihat, leaped in at tlie tump instant, and "I e "hot swiftly as roan the narrow itream,without furtlier i I coition running high and drv upon the oppose shore I timing an angular clump of trees, we auddenlv found ' unelves in the centre ol a Kroo village, (numbering ) ime twenty huta,) the nroximity ol which we were I id to imagine, by the loud chatter of female voice* mediately upon landing I waa fotcihly atruck with 10 appearance of their habitation*, indicating, t a glance, an evident inclination to native < liginnlity, and the totul absence of every thing i ko an approximation to civili/.ed life A group ol I imalc* soon .unrounded ui, whose simplicity of charac < ir and modeaty of demeanor, far exceeded a similar < ait in many of the Colonial women, and. peibapa on < iat account, made quite a favotablo impreaaion. rbeir I reia conaiated "imply of a narrow strip of cotton cloth > cured arotind the waist, and extending nearly or quite I I the Itnee; generally wearing in addition, aome tutlirg I rnnmeiit on the head. We found them inveterate t noketa, and. a* a natural consaqimnce. tha moat incur- 1 gihle hrggars of tohacco. On tnqiiiilng tha roaaoti of f mnny speaking Knglish, to out surprise we learned, < iat in In it of being tha result ol miaaionary labor, or t e tuition of those employed for that purpose, It waa at- i iluitahle to the force of a decidedly mora creditable clr ' jinstance: that of all being either the wive* or afltanced < rideaoi tha Kroomau employed on bond tb* cruisers 1 nd trading vessel* on tire count Their countenances I era peculiarly eapiesnve of contentment with their ioda of living, except bow and then metbought I could 1 'ace a gleam ofjealoury in tha aye of some less favored 1 {souse The intarnal arrangements of their huts were ecesaarily few, but extremely neat, and devoid of vary thing like superfluity. The articles ol furniture nd tiersonal pioiiertf, consisted generally of a woodtn owl, a rude ruoitarsnd pestlo, a small earthen Jar, and ominonly a black *">k bottle, but invariably a pipe and raaor. The but*ware built entirely of the leaves and ranches of the palm, noatly thatched, and in many re pee.ts hearing a strong resemblance to the wigwams of I L I). rttM V?? Utllt, ILe North American Indiana Uua thing, however, etrwk DIM, viz : the of atainibg the innJe, by net permitting the ttrioLi- to ?ecepe- a trifling advantage In look*, peibepi, hut judging from the profusion of "foelmh Lean" aheJ bv the annates iu consequence, e palpable ecriflce of bodily comlort anj a waate of " keeliog'a bright embodied form.'' The color imparted thus to the roof and aides, is musk like the polish of ordinary stove lustre, but whether this >e the result of seme peculiarity in the polm wood itself, iri property of the particular fuel consumed, I seuld lot learn, we lingered some time among this singular (roup, chatting away in a manner only commensurable vith the frequent obscurity of conversation? bein^ a DOCKm( DilJiiurv ui uau &.ngiiBii uu uiair |?n, IM 91 vorae Kroo oo our*. Bat th# ?un had long began hi? lownwird march in tha waatarn iky, we thraw them av sixpences, and ratraated hastily, with tha laugh ef ha marry acramblara in our aara. Tha aama prooaaa of mbarkation, and tha retracing of tha aama cirouitoua athway, brought ua again at tha Colonel's, whara wa ound quite a party awaiting the hour of dinner, la a ew momenta the ia-appaaranca of our hoat, who had left o arrange hia toilata, announced bia readinaaa to aarra ta, and wa followed him to tha " dining aaloon"?a back >orch, by tha by, and Dtiu Mtrci, nicely ventilated i 0 my rurptiae, I found myaalf aeatad upon tha Colonels eft, an honor. I honestly confess. which cauaad a monantary mantling of tire blood to uiy cheek, inaamuck u our party had crJered a separate dinner, and aa perhaps thia wua the brut practical oppoaitiuii I had mat to ny political principle* ; but appetite, and tha neoeaaity Of ' doing In Rome a* the Roman* do," were forcible aigu neiita which I could not itaiat A barricade, formed by 1 towering gla?* of celery, and u mm circulating hottlo iif Ht K*:< phe huw ever, quite concealed the conipicuoua I oiition I enjoyed, and gave n>e a tola table opportunity ul rcconnoiteiiug the p -rly . Tlio company consisted of the doctor and puraer. the tupeicurgo oi a Dutch trading vessel, a little tickly looking agent iroui noma commercial house in Ilienien. our bust and ho*tc--s, together with two or tlnec luidiliipmeii, among whom war your obd't m i v't." The conversation wui eugrosseil by thaColonel and the older cur* at table, being lor the uiuat part, in relctence to the prospect* ol tha colony, mingled with hu occasionally ludicrous <011 plimont, "suitable to tha place, and the rclutiou ol the paitiea," which w*i duly nwullowcd, cun mutko guile, ny our worthy ho*t with I i? dinner. And, ultbuugh many ol them were i aiculated to krriourly atl-Ct thu limbic* of a by pochouililac. I w*s too t.ungiy and dtguuli to enjoy them. But,injustice to tht Colonel I cannot letiuiu fioin lidding, that lie onco whn in possi asion of many redeeming qualities, even if there du\ of vacillancy and change hate given b.m the slip, and lett him amoi g the neglected " has t ems''? In ) eat* ugoue his enteitammeiit* were giatis, and many a one wlio now despise hi* means of living, was doubtUs* mice a greedy paitaker at the sliiine of his bounty. If he (cloud lie* been a little politic, It i* nobody's bu?r sess,ui:d. in teed, 1 can . oy to with *11 sinceiuy , notVithstaoding the irrcuistibie outuur*toi toy poii'nai piocsaioni, icthmo It map hi. The shade* of twilight fell softly above us, and the vest tvus uiillotvid into a thousand hnlliant tint* by (he itlul gituniN ol >un-ut. i be gcntlo tons of many a carbliug hud, rung delight!uliy among the tall tteea ipon Mesurado ; and here and there, the inuaical buret of - madcap rivulet, in it* Uuriied course to the shining and bench beuoath. cainii to ui. with a memo! v of our .hildish your*, a* glud'uing ui its own impetuosity. The vateia of the roadstead were ei placid aa the brow of (uileleai woman, and only now and then waa board, the :old aopulchural tone of billow aa it broke upon lha larkeued rocka of tba Cape. " It was an eve, intensoly beautiful?aa eve Calm aa tba alumberof a lovely girl Dreaming of hope." But tba gliat'uing.dew dropa, like gentle apiritr, oama ere tbe tiuta of twilight faded from the eky, to warn ue that we were in a deadly clime. If. A T The Harvest* of Oreat Britain. [Krom the Liverpool Times] 1810 ?Kxtremcly cold and wet throughout. One of the woiat harveata ever known. Bad timea. 1817?very cold and wet imJaly and Auguat, but vety fine iu September, which favored the barveat . 1818?Intenaely hot and dry; the thermometer twioe at * fe9 acd often above fcO tiood liai veat. 1819 ? A very fine hot rummer; the month of Auguat hi tenaoly hot Scarcely uny thunder Oood bar veat. lsh)-- A flue summer uu the whole, and very productive Oood timea. Bit ?Some very hot day* occasionally, but for tbe most part cold and ehowery l&ig?A splendid year; hot and dry for tbe moat part, but heavy raina at timea, with much tbuuder. A very abundant harveat. 1873- A veiy cold showery aunnner In July it rained every day except tbe dttb. V ery little thunder |td4?Very flue and warm throughout, but novor in tensely bot. The thermometer atood higheel Sep. 1st, and was at 78 IB-Ji?Very bot almost tlnoiigbout. Jtilv 18, the ther mometer Stood at 91). which is the liiirlmat nhaar vation in the course of all these summers. Oood harvait. 18-40?The hotteat and driest summer ever known; It began eaily anil continued lata Tba termometer wui twice at dM, and olten at t?4. (iood harvait 1817?Hot and dry, but Dot to auch extremity at laet summer. Much thunder. ISIS? Immense rains, whicn began July 9, and continued almost without cessation. Large Itoods July Hi and HO. Heavy thunder storms. Bsd harvest 1819 -Very cold, stormy summer. In September the rains wet a very heavy. Ia30? Very ro.'d and wet, especially in June Much thunder. 1831 ? Warm, gleainy, ahowery. and electrical. A sickly suminjr. A great number of insects, especially house Hies. 183-1?Moderate for the moa' ; ait, without much incline tion either one way or the other. b33?Very tine, the.eaily pait especially. An abundant harvest. 834- A very lino hot summer, hut heavy rains at the end ot July. An early and productive harvest. u3.'i? Hot and dry. with rorae showery (sorptions Another abundant harvest. Oood times. r-30 - In the midland counties dry weather predominated Itemarkable for the ulmcsl rntirn destruction oi the turnip crop by die Hy. Harvest not amiss 837?A lair average ol hot weather, hut preceded by a vory Severn spring. Harvest deficient. 838? A sold, wet summer, and a late, unproductive harvest. s3??Very heavy rains almost without cessation. The harvest not unproductive, but much damaged. Bsd times. 840?A Hue warm summer, with intense heat in August. Kino harvest weather kood deficient. ull?Fine end warm in May ami June, wet and cold lis July and the beginning of August, kino harvest wonther at the end and in September. 841 ?Very fine erring, summer, and autumn. Harvest not abundant, but excellent grain. Mild winter. 1843?Mild May; tolerable summer; good harvest. Winter windy. Oood time*. 1944-Verydty Deficient hay harvest. Autumn fine. Hat vest excellent, and heautilul grain. Winter very sevete. krost trom October to Fektnary, 1444?Spung lata and cold. Hummer not cold, but aunlea*. llarvoet plentiful, but deficient ic quality Cuaioua C*m?A cnuie which ha* excited greet ntereet in the ariitocratic circle*, wa* decided by the Coiir Hoyale, on Saturday, attar a litigation of aeveral month*, 'ilie partial are the Duke de Valenoay, the on of the Durlie** de Dino, niece ot the late Prince de Talleyrand, and the Duche** de Valeccay, hi* wile, who i* the daughter ol the late Duke de Montmorency. The partie* were married very young, with the consent of their parent*, and the Prince de Talleyrand, an the ocraaion, nettled on the Duke de Valentay the [ *tate of Valenoay, but a* thi* wa* not to come into the Duko'i po*?e**ion until nfter the death of the Prince, and not then utile** a certain numtier of year* ahonld have alapaed, the Prince allowed the Duke a flxed income of loixiof a year during hi* life, and the Ducbe** de Dino lettled the *am* amount upon her ion. Tho Duke end Ducheta de Valeuyuy had other and larger eourcee of -avenue, hut it apjieai* that the Duke dj,l not lira Within it* mean*, and got considerably Into debt. Wh?n tho duke and Duche** de Montmorency died, the Ducheaa le Valenoay became entitled to a lortune of about i.oou oooi, and fearing that her huahand might maka uaa if her fortune to repair hi* own, end that thoir children vould tiiiia he injured, (he aued for a ??paratinn it iimi n ordrr that her property might he entirely taken out of tier huahand'* control. In ?npport of thi* application nuch wa* taul by bar rouniel of the exceteive expeudt ure of the Viuihand, and of the dehta which he beo rou reeled. In we* contended, that the debt* of lie I'tnice were not *o large a* had bean repreaented. ind that the eatate of Valenfay .which i* valued at about ' OOO.INHif . hilt \ irld* onlv I (Ml IMHII n?r annum era* cane ile ol gr? at improvement, eml would thue enahlo the Juke to get ri<{ of all hie pecuniary emharraaamaDta. I he Court decided in lavor of the Ducheee, by granting er the separate and independent control ol her property or which ehe eued ? Wtlignani't Mnitnftr Tub I'orui.ATioN ok Paris ?The Suclt, alluring to the recent nenaua ol the population of Paria, eaya : " The crneue of IHIti haa ihown that the pomlation of tho capital amount* to I ,053 (?07 persona, aad if the ilepmtmriit of the Seine to I *ttl7. The ceneu* if |h4I had given l,ISI,4J.'i Inhabitant* for the depertnerit ol the Seine, that of IHlti, |, 1041,000, end that of IS3j,9M,000 Thue, in the Ural five year*, the increase if tho population ha* lin n 10 par cent, in the second 7 ier cent; and from 1H41 to ln4?l, 15 per cent The de wrtment of tho Heine contain* at preaent U J OOu inhabi ant* more than in lH:ti. The movement of the popule Ion of Tari* exceed* *o greatly the regular proportion* [oveniing the iacreaae of the reit of France, that it cen inly ha explained by on emigration fiom the provinces o warda the capital, an iufluv which inctea*e* or dlmin hea according to circumstance*. Itl*ea*y to compre tend that thia mllux had the elfect of a varitable overlow if,er the troublea of 1830, 1831, and ISM. From 1836 to 1041, the aituition remaining nearly the leme.the progie** of the pO| ulation wa* nece**aiily U*? fenaibla From Idll to lt<4A, on tha contrery 'he great tail way line*, by extending the reditu ef*i pply for I'ana would cause :.n >ucicafc Simpering that the actual pioportion of the mciease should h# maintain) t), in twenty years hence I'aria and ita hanlieux will contain two million* of onls. That inonatioilt a**eint>l?ge ol men, inloreat?,and hnu*ea, called London, will find i'aell njualled. The era ol great cities ood great cap taU will lie iuuiigureted with relet It will be nei-ii what lecilitii'* civilization will biing to ih?- government when at pie?ent 1,400,000 men, ami *oou 1 ooo 000 a>, iu live within lb# ?*me wall*, without contusion or appaiout dword) t "