Newspaper of The New York Herald, April 5, 1847, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated April 5, 1847 Page 1
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II THJ VoL XIH. No. M-Wboit No. MM. 11 ' * ? INTERESTING DETAILS , FROM THE SEAT OF WAR. j NAKRATXVU OF *B1 BATTLE OF BUENA VISTA. Incidents of the War. AFFAIRS IN MEXIOO. &c., &c., &c. INTERESTING NARRATIVE OF THE BATTLE OF BI'RN.V VISTA. (From the New Orleans Delta, March 'J6.] We had the pleasure of an Interview yesterday with Major Coffee, of the army, who brought over General Taylor's despatches. This gallant officer?a son of the distinguished General who fought so bravely on the plains of Chalmette, and in various other battles, by the side of the illustrious Jackson?acted as aid of General Taylor in the bloody Sght of Buena Vista. We are greatly indebted to bun for many particulars of this hard fought battle. General Taylor had fallen In love, at first sight, with the position at which he finally made his stand?at Buena Vista. His movement towards Agua Nuova was merely a ntie to decoy the enemy into the Held which he had selected for his battU-ground. As soon ns M'Culloch's men. who were invaluable as scouts. Informed him of Santa Anna's approach to Agua Nueva, General Taylor quietly broke up his camp, and fell back to bis flrat-love ? Blums Vlatn This nosltion was admirably chosen It was nt the foot of a mountain, or rather of two mountain*, between which ran the road through a narrow valley On his right was a deep ravine, which protected that, flunk more effectually than half a dozen regiments could have done. The left of General Taylor's line rested on the base of a mountain. The road in the centre wus entrenched and defended by a strong battery. In front the ground was uneven?broken into hills and deep ravines?well adapted to the mode of fighting suited to our volunteers, and by its peculiarities supplying the disadvantage iff a great inferiority of numbers. On the 21st the enemy were deseried, approaching over thu distant hills. At their appearance the volunteers raised a great shout, aud gave three tremendous cheers. The engineers and officers wore seen flying over the field, and dragging their cannon about to get them into position ; but tile nature of the ground did not fsvor the undcrtaking.as it was late in the day beforo the big guns began to open. The enemy had with them thirty-two cannon, mostly of large calibre. Their fire, though kept up very briskly, and apparently well m&nnod. did so little execution in our ranks that it was not considered necessary to return their flro. Our cannon were therefore silent the whole of the 21st. F.lght or ten killed and wounded were the extent of the casualties sustained by our army on the 21st. During the day an officer approached our lines with a Hag of truce, aud requested to l>e shown to Gen. Taylor. The brave old man was sitting quietly on his old white charger, with his leg over the pommel of the saddle, watching the movements of thu enemy, when the Mexican officer was presented, in a very oourtoous and graceful manner the officer stated that " ho had been scut by his Excellency Gen. Santa Anna, to his Kxcclleacy Gen. Taylor, to inquire, in the most respectful manner, what he [Gen. Taylor] was waiting for."' Kroin the silence of Gen. Taylor's batteries, and the quiet munner in which he received Santa Anna's terrific cunnonadlng. the Mexican supposed he was asking a very pertinent question, to which, however, old Rough and Heady gave the very pertinent reply that " he was only waiting for Gen. Santa Anna to surrender.'1 The .Mexican returned hastily to his lines. This message proved to be a rate to osocrtain where Gen. Taylor's position was. for after the return of tlie Mexican officer to liis own ranks the whole Mexican battery seemed to open upon Gen. Taylor's position, and the balls flew over and about him like hail. Utterly indifferent to the perils of his situation, there sut the old chief, on ids conspicuous white horse, peering through his spy glass at the long lines of Mexican troops that could be seen at a great distance on the march. The persuasion of his aids could not induce him to abandon hts favorite point for observation, nor to give up his old white horse. To the suggestion of his staff that old whitey was rather too conspicuous a chur(rur IV... U,............-...I..- ?... .-..-II...I ..II..4 II... -1.1 r..ll hail missed the fun at Monterey, on account of a sore foot, and he was determined ho should have hU share this time." At sunrise on the S2d of Kchruary. thu battle began in ear neat. The Mcxiraus were drawn out In immense lumbers. The dork columns of inl'untry extended tin far an tha eye could reach, and the cavalry, seemed to cover the wholo view with their Interminable lines. At intervals between the tnfnutry and cavalry, their big gun*, strongly protected by a large artillery foree, kept up an Incessant cannonade aguiast our line*. Their forces were ?oon in motion. Our artillery wan thrown forward to meet them, protected by the volunteer*.? Vien. Wool led the tnniu body in perron, and wn* ecru every where, rallying and encouraging the volunteer* Tho two armie* were ?oon engaged in hot ronflict. The broken nature of the^gmund divided the forcc*.*o that instead of one general engagement, the regiment* were compelled in ugreat measure to flgbton their own hook. Our officer* were always in the ailvanee. leading their troop* ?hence the great mortality among them In this general melte. one of our small regiments of four hundred men. would he attacked by a whole Mexican brigade of several thousand. Thu* the Keutucky infantry was attacked at the foot of a liill. in a deep ravine, by an Immense font* of the enemy A large number of the officer* were killed hero?among tlu-m was Col. McKce. who fell badly wounded, and wn* immediately despatched by the enemy, who pierced hint with their bayonet* a* he lay on tlic ground. Lieut. Col. Clay wus shot through t lie thing.and being unable to walk.was taken up and carried some distance by some of hi* men. but owing to the steepness of the hill, the men flnding it very difficult to carry him. uud the enemy in great number* pressing upon them, the gallant Lieut. Colonel begged them to leicKC-Uiia and take euro of themselves. Forced to leave him on the held, tho last that wns seen of this noble young officer ho was lying on hi* back, fighting with his sword the enemy who were stabbing him with their bayonets. The veteran Captain Win. S. Willis, of the same regiment, at the head of his company, with three stalwart sons who fought at his side, was badly wounded, but still continued the light, until lie was overcome with the loss of blood. In the meantime, the Indiana brigade, who were drawn out and ordered to charge tlic cuctny. were noised with a panic, and displaying some hesitation. As-istant Ailj't. (Ion. Lincoln rushed to their front, and whilst upbraiding them for their cowardice, was shot, several bails passing through hi* body. Injustice to this brigade it should be stated, that they subsequently rallied, and fully redeemed their reputation by the most gallant and effective lighting. Col. llardin led the illiiiolsinns in very handsome style, and the sturdy suckers" fought like lion*. Their intrepid Colonel fell wounded, mid experienced tho fate if Cms. McKee and ( 'lav, anil was killed by the enemy ? not however before he had killed on* of tbu cowardly miscreant* with u pistol, which he fired whilst lying on the ground. Col. Yell led. the foremost man. n charge of hi* mountid volunteers against a large body of lancer*, and was killed by a lance, which entered hi* mouth and tore off one side of his face. The Vllssissippiana. tho heroes of Monterey, after doing hard duty a* skirmisher*, wore ordered into line to received charge of cavalry, which they did with their rides, delivering at the same time a most destructive tire among tho crowded columns of cavalry. The enemy were completely repulsed. The distinguished commander of this gallant regiment. Col. .Jefferson Davis, was badly wounded, an vncvprttt ball having entered his loot and passed out of his leg. He was. however, doing well when last heard from. The rhivalrous Lieut. Col. McClung was prevented from doing his share of the brave deeds of this brilliant tight, by the grievous wound received at tlic battle of Monterey, which still confine* him to hi* bed. and from which it is much feared by his best friends lie will never recover. Col Humphrey Marshall's splendid regiment of Kentucky cavalry wore impatient for an opportunity of allowing their mettle, and avenging the capture of their brethren, then In tho hands of the enemy. They were | soon favored with the deal red opportunity, by tnc ap- i proaeh of a force of more than JlKiO lancers and hussars. | who gnllniitly charged Ihoin. The Kcntuckians stood lheir ground with immovable steadiness, atul receiving the enemy with ft flro from their carbine*, charged in the inert, gallant, stylo tlirough the column on the right, and. wheeling, fell on their left. dispersing and killing a great many of them. A like charge wait made by < ol. May. at the licud of a squadron of dragoon* and one of Vrkanewe eavalry. against a large body of the enemy'a cavalry with like results IHirliig tlie engagement on the right. Santa \niiu. i < ring that < teneral Taylor a force war not well protected on the left flank, rent a large force of cavalry around that point, and outflanking Taylor, succeeded in throwing -(kid men Into hie rear. But, General Taylor immediately sent' apt Bragg wltli hie artillery against this force who eueeeeded in cutting them off from the main body I,lout. ( rltlenden war despatched, wllh a (lag of truce, to demand the immediate surrender of this force. The Mexican officer, pretending not to understand the . harneter of his mission, insisted that he should be blindfolded, according to the rules of war, and thus had tho Lieutenant carried into the enmp of Santa Anna himself This was a ruse to get time to extricato the Mexican eavalry from their dangerous position, and. pending this truce, they wcro all drawn oil by a different road from that by which they had gained this position I.lent. Crittenden was conducted blind-folded to the lent of the Mexican (ioncral-in-chicf. whicli he found ft j long distance from the scene of action, and which lie | thought ilic safest place he had been in during the whole ! day. As lie approached Ssnta Anna's tent lie was greet- , i <1 with a most tremendous flourish of trumpets, which might have hscn heard a mile off. bu^produced no yery 1 great terror in the mind of the Kentuekian. ills blind was taken off and lie found himself in the presence of 1 the famous Mexican < hirf. surrounded by a brilliant slnlf id hcdUetiencd. glided, and uioustnelied officers.? Smitu \niin apologised to the I.leutenant for the act of Ins officers, in having him blindfolded, saying, that so fur from huving any desire to conceal his situation, lie was desirous of exhibiting to Oen. Taylor tlie utter fully of ; resisting *o |Miwertul an army as ho had under his command. I'o w lileh the I,leitteuat replied, that his simple nil age was to ileum ml Ills [Santa Anna's)?'Immediate urreudcr to ilm liiylor When this extraordinary 1 ilemaud was translated to the Mexican, be raised his hands and eyebrows In utter astonishment at the temer E NE" i Ity and preiumptton of such a mensage. and replied. that U? would expect Osn. Taylor to surrender la an hour, or be would destroy all 1)U forces Lieut. Crittenden's reply, which we have already given ?" Oen. Taylor never Hurrendcrs !"?terminated the interview, and the battle recommenced, and was continued until night Santa Anna took three small pieces of our artillery, which, under Llout. O'Brien, bad been posted too far in advance to be be covered by our infantry. All thu gunners were shot down, and when the guu* were captured there was not a soldier left to man them. One of these pieces was an old Texan 6-poundcr. which, during the Texan Revolution, had done good execution among the Mexican ranks. As to the flags he boast* of having takeu, they arc very probably inure company markers, which wcru ilrmine.l on tin. ii..l.l -..a ..i.lA up by the valiant Mexicans IIIn F.xccllcnry of the War Department, to whom Santa Anna lion scut tbesu trophies. will no doubt bo xorely disappointed In the size. texture, and beauty of these standard*. Mexican pride in easily satisfied when such feeble mementoes of their prowess and valor as these console them for so inglorious a defeat. All the officers on our side, in this hard-fought bat tie. distinguished themselves. The details of the battle were confided to (Jen. Wool, who nobly justified the confidence of his commander and brother-veteran, by the most active, zealous, efficient nnd gallant conduct. Throughout the whole action he was constantly engaged in the disposition of our forces, and iu rallying them to the onset. It was a miracle thut he escaped the thicktlying bulls which thinned the ranks he was marshalling. There was but one complaint made against him. and that was. that he exposed himself too much. Brig. General Lane, also showed himself to be a brave and capable officer. Although wounded early in the action, he kept his horse until It closed, and never for a moment left his post. The old gpnoral-ln-chlef remained at his original ami much exposed position, superintending the buttle and narrowly wntchiug Its events. An e.ncoprtte ball passed through his over coat?that same old brown, so familiar to all the officers and men who have ever been under his command, and which has hocii several campaigns iu Florida, in Texas, aud in Mexico. On the night of the 22d, both armies drew off from I hn field of battle. Our men were engaged nil night iu bringing in the wounded and taking care of them?the Mexicans as well as their own meu. There were, however, but few of our men found on" the field wounded. They were, to use Santa Anna's significant words, in his despatch. "all dead,'' the cowardly miscreants having killed every man whom they overtook, wounded ami helpless on the field. With like turpitude and troaehery, they left their own dead unburied and then wounded unenred | for, on the field where they fell. The latter were carried to Saltillo, in aur own wagons; the former were buria I by the alcalde, under the orders of Gen. Taylor. A number of officers were taken prisoners, and an exchange was effected, by which all our men who ure now iu their hands wore released. t'ossius M. Clay's party are understood now to he in the city of Mexico. Among the killed and wounded of the Mexicans, are three general offlrers aud twenty colonels aud commanders of battalions. Gen. Minon. it appears, has not us yet realized the brilliant career of which lie considered his capture of Major Borland an earnest. He was ordered by Santu Anna to attack and carry Saltillo during the engagement at Buena Vista. With this object, he made a demonstration against the town with 2000 cavalry. Lieut. Hhover. with sixty men aud two small pieces of artillery, went out to meet the valiaut general, and at one discharge of his cannon, sent him and his large force to the right about iu double-quick time. Iu concluding our necessarily imperfect sketch of the few details of the brilliaut deeds of American valor performed ut Buena Vista, details gathered from a lm-ty conversation, we must bo allowed to express our satisfaction to tiud that the anticipations wn have so ronfldently and so frequently expressed of the bravery and efficiency of our volunteers, have been more thun realized. Let those who hnvc heretofore made our citizen soldiers the theme of their ribaldry and ridicule, be forever bushed Into silence by the unparalleled gulantry and glory which have consecrated lu American history the bloody field of Buena Vista. INCIDENT AT Tilt: tlATTI.K Of Bt'KNO VISTA. [From the New Orlrnus Picayune. March 26.] At a very critical point of the battle on the 23d. when it became ucccssury to sustain one of our columns, which was staggering under a charge made by the Mexi runs in overwnelmlng number*, General Taylor dc*. patched Mr. Crittenden to order Colonel McKce, of the 'id Kentucky regiment, to bring liix men into immediate action. Mr. Crittenden found the reglmeilt. men and officer*, eager for the fray, delivered the ordcr.'ttnd rode back to the general, by who*e Hide it wa* hi* duty to keep. The Kentuckian* moved forward in gallant stylo, led by McKcc and Clay, both of whom, ala*'. fell in a. subsequent part of the day. It *o happened that before reaching a position from which they could deliver an effective Are. the regiment had to erne* a valley which wa* broken up by ravine* and masse* of atone. Whilst crossing this vulfey. the head* only of the men could > seen from the point which Goncrul Taylor and Mr. Crittenden occupied?and tlieae were bobbing up and down and crosswise in such confusion a* to impress both with the idea that the regiment had fallen into disorder.? The Mexicans were annoying them at the same moment by a fire, which helped to confirm the opinion of the general that the Kentuckiaus were thrown into dismay. It was one of those decisive crises wliieh oeeur in erery contested field, when the issue of the day depended. lor the time being, upon the gallantry of a particular corps. Gen. Taylor, who. as before said, could only sec the head* of the troops, and misled by their mot ions In getting Hcros* gullies and going around rocks and other ol>structious.into the belief that they were about to falter, turned to Mr. Crittenden, who 1* a Kentuekian.and wit It a countenance indicating deep mortification, for the general Is a Kentuckian too.and an eye flerec with emotion, exrlaimed, "By l??d. Mr. Crittenden, this will not do this 1* not the way for Kentuckian* to behave them selves when called upon to make good a battle?it will not answer, sir;'' and with this he clenched his teeth and knit his crow and set his teeth hard together. Mr. Crittenden, who was mistaken by the same indications that deceived the general, could scarcely make a reply from very chagrin and shame,? In a few moments, however, the Kentuckian* had crossed the uneven places and were seen ascending the elope of the valley, shoulder to shoulder, and with the firm and regular step of veterans of a buudrcd fields. On they moved until they reached the crest of the hill, where they met the enemy before the flush of a temporary advantage had subsided. Here they delivered their fire by coinpauie*. with such regularity and dendly aim. that the decimated phalanx of Mexico guvc way and retreated precipitously. As the Keutucklnns emerged from the valley the countenance of the old general, who wa* rrgnrding them witli the ii>tcn*cst interest, gradually relaxed the bitterness of its expression A glow i?f pride supplanted the deep mortification which fixed its muscles, and enthusiasm qualified the fierce glances of his eye. Forward they moved uuder his rivitcd gaze, whose feelings became more anil more wrought up as they approached the scene of carnage. When they opened their lire the old general could uo longer restrain his admiration, but broke forth willi a loud huzza.- "Hurrah for old Kentuck," he exclaimed, talking ns it were to himself, anil rising in his saddle?"That's the way t? do it, give them it?11, d?n them," and the tears of exultation rolled down his check* as lie said it Having got rid of this ebullition of .Htntr pride, he went about lookiug after other parts of the field. Some of our readers may regard this iurident, which we derive from one of the parties concerned, as savoring more of profanity than generalship; but it must be Isirne in mind that, under the excitement of such terrible scenes of havoc and bloodshed.those engaged in tliciu use the uauic of the God of Buttles with some degree cf familiarity. [From the Washington Union. April tl.) As every iueiilent connected with this memorable conflict. us remarkable for its result as for the disparity between the opposing forrrs. must be interesting to our reader*, we have endeavored to group together some of them. as caught from a hasty conversation with the interesting and gallant volunteer aid of General Taylor, who was a witness of the whole scene. The pas* of Uitcnu Vista is about one and three-quarters of a tuile wide, the road being in the middle. Gen. Taylor's right rested upon the road, and was so protected by the broken naCtire of the ground as to be secure against any attempt to flank htm on that aide From the road to the monntalini on the left In 7(H) to MOO yard*, the first half of the distance being a good deal cut uu by short rn Tines. running to the rond. Beyond the heads of these ravines the plain extends to the mountain, which IsStrep and almost inaccessible. On thia plain tin buttle whs mainly fought Most of Washington's battery was planted on tne right, to defend the road liragg'a and Thomas's butteries, and others, were on the plain, and were used with tremendous effect upon the enemy, whose dense eolumns had at one time approached so near as to threaten, by their mere weight, the complete overthrow of our army, when a destructive lire from Uragg's battery appeared to open whole streets through the solid manses in front, and to bid defiaueo to any nearer approach lit the meantime, the superior numbers of the enemy had passed our left flank, while their artillery endeavored to maintain a raking position upon lis from the foot ol the mountain. Some IrttMl of their cavalry, besides infantry. had got around in that direction, and maintained a severe conflict for a time. (Jem ral Taylor directed Lieutenant Colonel May. with four companies, to charge this large body of cavalry; but when he got within about one Ifcindrrd yards, the enemy fled, and the infantry iu that quai ler was soon after seen in full retreat, 'i litis was about i o'clock, and General Taylor despatched Mr. Crittenden with a flag of truce, to say to the commander of these retreating forces. If,tliey would surrender, he would not tire on I hem Mr C., on horseback, with his Interpreter, soon overtook the rear of the retreating party. and after passing many of the straggler^ was required to stop, whirh order was enforced by the presentation of a gun. until the interpreter explained They were then blindfolded, and carried forward, Mr. [ ( occasionally inquiring for the officer in command of Hint corps. They as often said, a little further on;" and at. one time, when he refused to proceed, an ofllccr j told him lie could not be answerable for the eonse qucuces from his own men if,he did not go on to Hantn I Anna. When lie rearheil^tlie latter, in a sort, of ravine. ! below the tire, {on the plain. jMr C. soon Informed him that ills errand was tn^tluy.fflrer in command,of the re- j treating body,1and'not to hintself.ljAfter a ^whllc. a tremendous flourish of trumpets nnd instruments was the signalTnr the bandages to be.withdrawn from their eyes, I when Hnnta Anna .demanded^the.surrender of (teneral Taylor's army.- With a smile, Mr. V. replied. " General Taylor neverjsurrendcrs." Anjoflleer present, who'tin- . derstood Kuglish. .explained to ,Munta*Auna the nature of the answer when he said, " then.tlmtli' armies are In the like condition," or words to that efleet 1 Mr. ('. .then asked for a conductor that he might return When he reecbed the plein again, the two armies seemed engaged In a tremendous struggle, and after W YO *JEW YORK, MONDAY IV taking leave of his conductor, ho made hU way buck as bast ho could. In greater peril from the Arc of our own tfuu* than from thoao of the Mexican* It la not true, aa heretofore reported, that Lieut. Col. May. lu his rcconnolssance*. had loat Lieut Wood and tun uien They became separated. but all got back safely to camp. Lieut. Sturgca waa taken priaoner. but waa i released under the aubnequent arrangement for an ex- 1 change of prisoner* Mr ( think* the Mexican infantry behaved much better than their cavalry?the tatter would not wait for a charge from even onc-nfth of their number. lie doe* not know exactly how the three piece* of ar tlllcry were taken. He heard Col. Davis ray he could | have spiked them, but supposed they would la' retaken | The ruuior that General Taylor's despatches had beou j cut off waa unfouuded. Soiue of them had been de- i layed at, Monterey for want of an escort These Mr. C. obtained when he caine through, and all have been ?ute- | ly delivered to the Adjutant General iu this city. We are glad to learn from Mr. C. that Lieut. < ol. May. who is reported having received "a severe contusion.' was out and considered well uguin. before Mr. ('. left the urmy. \|1 exchange paper state* that, this gallant officer, (Gen. W. O. Butler.) was noted. In former days, for his eloquent poetical effusions. " 111* poetical productions appeared iu the years ld08-7. under the signature of the Ohio Bard.'' ami were copied from one end of the liuioii to the other Most of them were satirical, and levelled at the mania for speculation and Iwnks that at that time pervaded the west, lie murried Miss Tibbatt*. of Lexington. Ky.. eldest nistcr of Mr. John Tibbatts, of mi- inn' i iiiu'u amies uouse 01 Koprexontniives. una now rnlonel of one of the new regiments." TIIK PIMKMBARKATION AT VKKA CRI'Z. [From the Now Orleans Bulletin. March 27.] The lauding of the Anicricnii nrmy at Vera Crtta lias been accomplished in a manner that reflects tile hi|#icxt uredlt on nil concerned, and the regularity, precision and promptness with which it wan effected, hax probably not been surpassed, if it hax been equalled, in modern wa rfare. The removal of u large body of troop* front numerous transports into boats, in an open sea?their subsequent disembarkation on the sea beach, on an enemy's eoftst, through a surf with all their arms and accoutrements, without a single error or accident, requires great exertion. skill and sound judgment. The French expedition against Algiers, in 13.10. was said to be the most complete armament in every respect that over left Europe ; it had been prepared with lalsir. attention and experience, aud nothing had been omitted to insure sueeess. and particularly in the menus ami facilities for lunding the troops. This disembarkation took place in a wide bay, which was more favorable than an open beach directly on the ocean, and (as in the present instance) without any resistance on the part oj the enemy?yet. only 9000 men were landed the first day. and .10 to ill tires were lost by accidents, or upsetting oj boats; whereas, on the present occasion. 12,000 nten were landed in one day without, so far as we hare, heard, the slightest accident or the loss of a single life. The great credit of this, of course, belongs to the navy, uuder whose orders and arrangements, ami by whose exertions it was effected. nud reflects the higlnv't credit on Commodore Conner, and the gallant officers nud seamen belonging to his squadron? credit is also justly due to tho Department, under whose directions the needful arrangements wero inaile. and means provided for carrying it into effcet. [Correspondence of Tropic.] Ore Vi.Ra Carl. March 13, 1817. ? ? Nothing lias been more remarkable in this cumpufgn than the quietness with which the troops were permitted to land. I have the assurance of officers, whose experience quuliflex tliem to judge, that three pieces of cannon, judiciously planted, and masked by the small eminence which overhangs tho poiut of lunding. would liavn produced terrible bavoo amongst our troops. I believe that three pieces, so planted and masked, and served with grape and eaulstcr shot, would have placed nt least five thousand of our men hors du combat, before tlicy could huvc reached tho position which they were permitted to take unmolested. They could have spiked their guns upon our advance, and retired hi perfect safety. To what arc we to attribute this supinenras? 1 cannot guess, (ten. Scott may bare ,I,.reive.! tliel.l .,??...vl,,.l l.v l.iv rf th? 6th instant. In which ho examined the coast to the northward, hh well as to the southward of the city; but this will not account for the matter, as half a dozen guns upon each side of the city eould fortn ft consideration -of trifling importance to thcut in the wuy of defence. But so it was. * ? There is a norther in the air?The lutter part of our yesterday's gale, which has not yetblowu itself out. If it follow, ns it threatens, and lasts the u.-ual period, three days, the attack must be deferred a proportionate length of time. It will require every hour of three days, to land the howitzers and get them in position, and as a heavy surf will follow a uorther for at least two duys. I am induced to believe that the attack cunnot lie commenced during the whole of tbil next week?not until the '20th or 'ilst instant. , * * Tha nsvy can have but little to say iu the matter: her position seettls to be uiisnuderstood It may be well to say that no attack will lie made directly upon S. Jum de Uliia until the city is iu our hunds. Our lines will then lie brought near the walls, and such ships as may be manned with I'aixhuii guns, and supplied with shells; such bomb-ketches as may be hereafter sent down from the United States, and such batteries of his big guns as Colonel Romford may have prepared and shipped, will at oucn he opened upon the castle?not to lieat It down, nor to make an effective breach iti its wulls. but to render tho climate too warm for Moxicau courage to flourish in Before even this step Is taken, the plaec will be completely Invested, anil hunger may indeed render recourse to the method spoken of unnecessary

No fears need be entertained. I fancy, that the castle will open upon the city, when the latter enters into our possession I think Mexican brutality falls far short of such an slroeity. Be this as It may. I am assured that tienernl Srott. will not quarter his troops iu the city, but along his lines outside.until the castle may lie reduced. His army, will then, of course, retire to the mountains. leaving at Vera Cruz only a force sufficient to act us u garrison MEXICAN AFFAIRS. [f rom the New Orleans Picayune, March 16 ] We find little in the Mexican papers which has not been embraced in our correspondence. We note, however. a lew words in regard to New Mexico and I hitauahua. The papers speak freely of a late abortive conspiracy in New Mexico. They counted upon rising upon our troops with six thousand men and annihilating them. They attribute the discovery of the conspiracy and the arrest of the principals engaged In It to Vigil Alarid. towards whom they show no mercy They complain loudly of the successes of - the Yankees," as they call us. anil hope to succeed better in llictr next conspiracy. If one could trust Mexican nccounts, they wouln make the situation of New Mexico critieal A messenger who had been despatched from K1 Pusn to Santa Ko for artillery and reinforcements, betrayed Ins trust and carried his despatch to Chihuahua and gav e thciu to the government They know thnt their capital is threatened, and their sole hope of safety is the arrival of aid from the South. On the 30th of January the reinforcements on their march from the South for the defence of Chihuahua bail not reached that city There were there seven hundred regular troops, three hundred armed countrymen, and four hundred more were expected from the vicinity. They had. too,"thirteen pieces < f artillery four pounders and sixes. Yet this force was considered totally Inadequate to the defence of the town. Dtirsngo is still ravaged by the Indians The details are without interest, lint show a lamentable state of alfafrs. By the way. the Indians of New Mexico are said to l>c as disgusted with "the Yankee*'' as the Mexicans themselves. We annex another letter from our correspondent In the squadron:? U. S Squsnaov, Anns Lizards. March 3 ticn. Ampudia. on the 'tilth of January, addresses to his companions in arms, from San l.uis Potosl. n short vindication of his conduct at Monterey lie avows his intention of publishing, as soon as circumstances will permit, nil elaborate manifesto, supported by official documents, after the court of enquiry has terminated This court, lie says, litis been postponed against his wishes, in consequence of the absence of certain generals at their respective posts He says that although lie was in the disgraceful action of Palo Alto, he ran declare tlint lie did not for a moment abandon the thickest of the romhiit ; lie challenges any one to deny the truth of this assertion, or that be exactly obeyed his orders, even to making a retreat against his judgment. He contrasts Ills own conduct somewhat invidiously with that of Arista : ' In Palo Alto our force was somewhat superior to the enemy?demoralization reigned In their ranks, and enthusiasm In ours ; whilst at Monterey, the /imonrl of the opposing army was double our own, since it is sufficient fy notorious that. 11.000 men engaged us. and in the convention of generals and chiefs of brigades it was brought to light that we could on our part count only 4.000 men capable of lighting in the open plain To this it must lie added that all the advantage stood in favor of the invaders, the victory depending in a great measure | on tho morale of the combatant* Comparing, then, the i result of one action wiilli the other. It will be apparent 1 that In Monterey our arms came nfl with honor, after having freely avenged the blood spilt on the Hth and Oth ( of May. it being kept in mind that we lost only 460 men altogether slid that our enemies suffered a loss of '2'204 dead and wounded : and as an incontrovertible proof of these a . tions, let It he remembered that the American (ioverm ent disapproved of the conduct of (>en. Taylor I appointing Hen Scott, of the same rank, to supersede ' him in the rommund. " I would have completely routed the invaders if the , 4th brigade, amounting to JJOO. had arrived at the then- j iih mi iijtcrivunns ill til*1 linir Iiir r?uprrm? numumrni had promised. as I hfld It clear it would forui our reserve at Hultillo; and also if niy orders had been obeyed, to take from the enemy, ua was possible, 1 tMN) mules. transporting provisions and munitions of war " .After going on to say he has no other patrimony thun his honor and the pay of his rank, and that he hns nothing to leave his sons hut the good name whieh from tender years he has held unsustained, he appeals to his fellow-ettiions to do htm justice and shut their ears to the enlumniea of his enemies, with the understanding that at an appropriate time he will prove by un<|uestlona hie documents that he did his duty at Monterey .? /.o Kpora of February I Itli discusses the subject of | removing the seat of government from the city of 1 Mexico This appears to linve been a favorite plan with the federalits for many years. It is thought that the power eentraliird In Mexico jeopardises the freedom of the departments, and the proposition to remove the government to some snialler.plaee meets with much favor from those now In power _?Jen .Ventura"de Mora and the maleonteuta at Maiatlan have returned to their allegiance to the present government, and. having given up the scheme or dictatorship, have received a lull pardon The Minister of War baa asked of the government of I RK I 10RNING, APRIL 5, 1841 the State of Mexico 3.000 inen. to servo aa a reserve to the Tunguar.l of the last He hope* they will be svnt at once, aa U ia known by official communications that <1,000 men are aaaembled Senor Suartz Iriarte haa retired from the Mlnlatry of Finance, ilia resignation appeura to hare been expected El Frdtraliita aaya that on the 30th February there waa no Mluiater of Finance, of Foreign Relations nor of War, and, properly speaking. no government at all. On the 30th February (Jongrosa decreed the title of Dcneininto de in Patria to C. .Miguel Ramon Ariapc and that his name should be inscribed in letters oi gold In the bull of the Chamber of Deputies On tlio 23th February a despatch anil exprew arrived at \ era Crux bringing despatches for Gen. Atocliu. and aUo a draft on the maritime cuatoin-houae for $.>000 to be remitted to Perote The Vera Cruz papers eouiplaln j bitterly tliat fund* should be drawn tlroui that plaee. : where they have barely enough to maintain the garrison The beariug of the reply to (Jen. Atocha Is not yet | disclosed, hut is supposed to be unfavorable to any pro- ; position that the I.uitvd States may have made. Some persons appear to have inferred that if the reply of the government had been hostile, that some intimation would have bean given to the Governor of Vera Cruz so as to enable him to take the necessary step# for tho defence of the place, but the Indirador says that all such ideas urc fallacious, for iu faet that there is no government at all. and that the place has been ubandoncd to its fate A very important express is said to have arrived on the 26th inst. to the Governor of the SUitc of Vera Cruz, which has caused a great deal of commotion, as it is conjectured that the Americans liuvu disembarked at Tuapan with the intention of murching on Jalapa by way of Antigua. It is reported that .">00 moles have been taken from us. part of them laden with provisions. They were driven to Victoria for safety. It is said our troops are ignorunt of Sunla Anna's niovenvnt towards them, as it is supposed he is on his way to Mexico. The Mexican account of thn loss of the transport at Lubos. is similar to that which has appeared in your paper. The accounts from the urniy ore full of hitter complaints. because the Government has remitted no money for the last two mouths, while they are marching through a country which produces nothing to support them. On the 16th February thirty-eight deputies in Congress. after a long preamble reciting the constitutional history of Mexico, presented two propositions:? 1st. Congress declares that the federal compact entered into by tile I'llited States of Mexico iu 1831, is the only legitimate political constitution of the country, the perfect observance of which is obligatory on all tho States, and every Mexican, whilst there is no addition or change in the terms of departure from the path which the same constitution prescribes, and which the present Congress shall agree to. 3d. The law whicli shall regulate elections throughout the Republic for the constitutional Congress shall be passed without delay, designating the place in which Congress shall convene to hold its sessions. From this we may infer the strength of the ilcmoeratie party, as well as their intention to change the scat of government. In consequence of the threatened attuck of Vera Cruz, the government, in virtue of the extraordinary power conferred upon it, lias ordered a forced enlistment in the National Guards of ail eligible persona except the clergy and those physically unfit for the service. AFFAIRS IN CALIFORNIA, [From the Boston Traveller.] St. Francisco, Nov. 13, 1616. You have doubtless heard all about the occupation of California by the Boar pnrty first, and then by the United States forces. Com. Stockton hail (as he thought) quiet possession of the country ; he marched the (Jongyess's men to rueblo do loa Angelos. Castro promised to die before he would sec the American flag hoisted there, aud perhaps will keep his word, as he ran away to Sonoru as soon as lie heard the sailors were marching up, without firing a gun. Com. Stockton remained at the Pueblo a month, treating the poople with the utmost kindness and lenity, and finally an officer with thirty men was left there ; ho re turned 10 winter nl thin port, (St. Francisco) ; ho al>o loft ton inon of Fremont's party at Santa Darharu. thinking thin sufficient to assist the civil autboriticM there, and not dreaming of rebellion among tho Caliloriiiatis. lie had hardly arrived at San Francisco, when he received information that all the cotlntry below Monterey was in arnm against liiui. and the Mexican (lag again hoisted. My limits will not permit details. Briefly. then. 1100 men hemmed in the few troops at the 1'ueldo, and compelled them to capitulate. These emharked on board the United States sloop of war Vandalia. at San Pedro, with all the foreigners from the Pueblo A few days after the Savannah arrived, the Couuuodore sent her down to relieve the Pueblo Her crew landed, with those from the Vandnlia, to inarch up again. 3'JO men. They had neither horses nor cannon. At l)omingos' Itanchn. they were met by IftO ( iillfortiiutis. well mounted and with a Held piece ; the Americans were compelled to retreat to the ship, with five men killed and six wounded. Com. Stoekton. with the Congress, was on his way down, and also Major (now Colonel) Fremont, with I so riflemen, in the ship Sterling, of Boston, (the S was bouud to San Diego ) On the passage, the Sterling spoke tho Vaiidalia. and 011 learning the news. Fremont ordered the Sterling to Monterey. On the Commodore's arrival at St. Pedro, he took up his march for the Pueblo. dragging up <i ship's guns by hand, as the CaliforuiaiiH had driven off every animal At the rancho of Hepulvida, they met a large'force of the enemy?sending 100 men in advanee with orders to reeeive the Are of tiie Californians. and fail bark on the main body without returning their tire, he succeeded in decoying the enemy (who. thinking the Americans were about to retreat, anil that they were also without cannon) cloac up to the main body. which was formed in a triangle, with the guns hid by the inrn and loaded with grape and cannNter. whru the wings were extended, and a most deadly fire opened upon them. The only report we have of it yet. is the report of the Californians themselves. They stute that tlioy lost in killed 100 men. and more than that number wounded, besides about 100 prisoners The |MK>r horses suffered severely Many of these people in arms bad signed an obligation not to tako up arms dur ing the war. and were on parole; they will 110 doubt be Imug Stoekton is niueh enraged, and threatened when he went from here, to execute severe vengeance on them if they hud siied American blood At Santa Barbara, one hundred and fitly mounted and well armed I allfornlans attacked blent Talbot, one of Fremont's young officers, who was left in charge there with ten men; they were quartered in Robbtns' house The house was surrounded, and they ordered to surrender unconditionally Talbot refused to surrender on I any conditions. 1 oolly packing up their provisions, iir . they marched out of the house to sell thotr lives at a dear rate, b'Jt though surrounded witli this immense odds they were not attacked. Talbot drew his men off to the hills. Just hack of the mission, followed alt the way by the cowardly miscreants w ho were threatening to devovir I iilui if he did not lay djywn his arm*, but none of them was willing to take the first taste Halting on a hill, where the Americans had rather the advantage, the brave Itarbaraniuns set fire to the grass in a cirele round Hie little party, perhaps preferring to devour them after being cooked, but they would not stay to be cooked, and Hie bravo little Talbot marched his men through the fire, and crossing tho mountains into the Tulnres. led them enlely to Monterey on foot, where Mr. Larkin writes, they arrived safe 11 few days since. How this is ail going to terminate, remains to be seen, hut I think the 1 uilforninus will not raise their beads again ; it was easy enough to take the country, hut there must he land forces to hold tt ; the wonder Is that some troops from the U. States have not already urriTcd. I hope to be uble to aend you further particulars In a few days- therefore leave n space for that purpose. Wily do we not get a mail over the mount sins ' The latent dates from the U. States are May 35. Nov. 17.?The brig sails to-morrow. There are no further partieulnrs from the seat of war, except a continuation of the above w ith the addition of a large number of killed and wounded I wilt endeavor to send yon some newspapers by the Sterling; there is a weekly published at Monterey, and one also at Yerbu Buenn. (St. Frnne ) Owing to the war operations there has been no uiatanr.ns (slaughtering of rattle) this year, as all the horses were taken by one party or the MM The smson was good. Yrsas lii r.ss, California, November IRth. 1S-16. My last was dated 35th August, when I informed you that the country was entirely in possession of the Americans. Miner then the natives hnve revolted. More than two months now the leeward country has been under the Mexican flag The Commodore left but small forces there and came to tiie north with most of his men ; the < allfornlans Immediately commenced an insurrection, and had but little trouble in driving the few Americans from the country, or taking them prisoners. From St I,tils Obispo to St. Juan < apustan. the country is in possession ofthrt alifornians; b>0 Americans under Olllesplo. have possession of St Diego Col Fremont, with ,'?00 inen and 4 pieces of artillery, left Monterey on the 16th inst . for the South, where the U. S. shtn Conarcss wait* hi* movement* Two month* must elup*o before peace i* rcatorcd The windward eo**t ha* remained comparatively <|ulet Over MK) men have emigrated horn thl* *e?*on. many of whom art? now engaged with Col Fremont. and the other* arc forming a nu*y ecttlcment about St. kranriwn Thl* i* the central point and wo bave already Hoiuethiug of a town: next year "JIN) hou*c* will ho built, being double the number now exi*tlng A* American* tin now hold property here, they hare taken advantage of the time* to aeetire building lot*; epeculatlon I* active; largo tract* of land arc daily changing baud*, and wo *oc the hu*tlc of Amerienn lnduatry in all the north of California Another letter, dated -il*t Nov . *ay* : ? The U. H. chip Savannah ha* juat arrived here Mr Larkln. U. S. Conaul. wan taken prisoner by the Callfornian* at San Juan, on hi* way Monterey, and It wn* thought would bo carried by them to Sonorn MILITARY. [From the Newark Advertiaer. April .1 ] ( nptain Yard ha* reeolved order* to marrh for Mexieo. and ho will take hi* departure from New York on Tuesday. with lih* company of volunteer* Colonel Cidch (jiahing reached New Orleati* on the jflth ult NAVAL. [From the Norfolk Beacon. April 3.1 I onimandcr John*ton. who I* ordered to the Ooaport navy yard in place of Commander Farragut. arrived heretycaterdaylin tho steamer llerald. from Baltimore The U 8. eteamer Union, Commander Rudd. from Washington. arrived at thl* port yeaterday morning and proceeded up.toftlie navy yard g|Ri The United State* Htcnuaer hrourgo. l.leuf Hunter commanding, arrived at Havana on tha 17th mot In thlxtaaa days from Naw York IE R, r TJie Uthmiu of TehwnUpfc-Th* Commercial Mortmenl. [ From the Washington Union. April 1 ] Wc are glad to see the system of military c t lous proposed to be levied by the President In approved la advance by the Xational Inltlhg this morning It always gives ui pleasure w. able editors of that pe|>cr array themselves on tl rlcan side of any question, and we would rejo more If we should never again have occasion te trom their views, as regards the existing war wit lco. They are mistaken, however, in supposing ' system of collecting duties in the ports of Max military contribution.originated with their distin whig correspondent. Oen. Waddy Thompson, lat ter to Mexico, l.on;? prior to that publication ferenrc to the hies of the Union of the 'JJd D< last, and among the papers laid before f'ongrcs President, at the very eommencenient of the slon, will be found uu able despatch of Judge Secretary of the Navy, directing the roller duties on imports at a rate not exceeding < sent tariff, in such of the ports of Califo might be in our possession by conquest. Indcci diutely after the commencement of the war. the t ion of duties iu the ports of Mexico wus well eoi by the President and his cabinet, and approved, ro should determine to protract the contest, to collect these duties in ( alifortila. were actual! in it ted. a* we have shown, us early as the 6th of ber ln.nt. which order* havo probably reached the nution before this date, lu Tampieo and Ma however, so much nearer to the capital of Me* where the measure would be calculated to prodi feeling, it was delayed, in hope that the contest l terminated by peaceful negotiation. This. howt been again and again tried by the Prrsideut.but success, and even since the uiljourumeut of Conj have received what must be regarded, at least I present, the obstinate refusal of Mexico to nego peace. Upon the receipt of this Intelligence, f dent, with the unanimous sanction of his en! solved to put into immediate operation the s duties now proposed, as the best means of levy tary contributions in Mexico. The right thus exercised in California, hnving been laid before ( at tile commencement of the last session, anil encountered no opposition there, or through country, may well la- regarded as unanimously a Peace has its laws, as well as war ; but the si iron rules of the latter are ordained, not by legislative enactments. Imt are to be fouud in written code of tile law of nations. It is this la ing to ottr army and navy, which regulntes our rights as well as those of all other bulllgerei among these is tlie uuituestioned and unquci right of levying military contributions upon tin Tills right is now exercised by .Mexico against as to public and even prlvatu property, and 1 possess this right in a'conflict even with the enemy, or it docs not belong to us. if summoned i against the greatest allied powers of the world, render this right, would strip us of one of the vlt butes of sovereign power, would place lis upon equal footing with every belligerent, would im| welfare und interest of the country, might sacr lives of our lierole defenders, might turn our ' into defeats, anil even endanger the safety of th tie. Without this right, also, we might never l" conquer a peace, and its exercise is most appro) this time, when Mexico, unable to meet our forces in the field, now inalnly relies on a w our treasury and finances, through a lingering pensive contest, it is the Department of the 'J which iMexico expects to break down, and i sob whether our finances are not as impregnuhh armies. It is recognised by the law of nations.judinitte distinguished commentators on that law.and ail the hlphcHt judicial authorities of this eountr the vrorld. that, during a war, 'me belligercn session by conquest of any of the ports or tci another, has a right to establish a temporary government there, through the order of its exei the commander-in-chief of tho army and navy, also the right, through the same authority, t< such portH or places, military contributions u enemy. This right is exercised to aid in defru expenses of the war. to augment our own resou ing the contest, as also to diminish and exliausi the enemy, so as to compel him to agree more gj an lionorablo peace. This right presupposes nution making the conquest and levying the < tlons. relies upon the justice of her cuilse. respoi her acts to the (bid of battles, aud to the eni judgment of the civilised nations of the wo nearly the fourth of a century Mexico has infl on our country a series of wrongs, outrages, an unparalleled iu history. She has. during a perk found peace, repeatedly insulted our flag, soi confiscated the property of our unoffending arrcxicii una uiHimcu some oi mem, iinu others Of life and liberty. When she had aoknowlrdgetl some of these injuries, and | by Kolcniu treaty stipulation* to niaku at for them. not an a debt, but an a satisfaction for i wrongs and insults. justifying of themselves an i the lust reaort of nations. she has violated then compacts. and thereby reduced many American and their families toserious embarrassments, am case* to want and ruin. The name of an Amei stead of affording. as it should have done, the 1 pie protection, to all our citizens in Mexico, wi invitation to outrages and insults the ni"?t ug and intolerable. Before the annexation of Texas. a? the tables of our imports and exports show, x ally driven our merchants and commerce front and eitie* of Mexico. Krora the frequent ontra tint persons and property of our citizens trail Mexico, rendering our whole commerce there our exports to Mexico fell off from more titan sit of dollars in 1830. to $368,000. in 1840, and oui from Mexico (almost exclusively specie) fell fron 000, in 183,'). to 11,703,000, iu ih4o; and when nation as sovereign as Mexico, recognised tn dependent government by the great power earth, and with as clear a right to deride destiny for herself?resolved, with our assent, t' a State of this I 'uion. Mexico, in defiance of c of right and of every principle ol justici > after, announced war as existing with this conn proceeded in a short time, as well by atroclou eres. as by public military movements, to xlicd clous blood of American citizens upon the seen one of the States of the American L'nion. A| again, in u spirit of generous and maguauimous ance. whieli Mexico seems wholly unable or una appreciate, wo offered to negotiate for peace, a to her to agree to terminate this contist; tint friendly offers and appeals are met by insulting and she seems resolved to continue this cont hazards. This is deeply regretted by the adt tion One of the great trusts confided to It by t rican people, was to unfetter our commerce as menus of maintaining peace, nnd advancing best interests In common with those of all of tin of the world Peace was the policy and anient the administration; but it has been frustratei perverse obstinacy of Mexico, in the war wl has so unjustly commenced, and- still more insists upon prosecuting agninxt. our eoutitr war occurred at the very period when the (ration was engaged in endeavoring to fulf its sacred trusts, by reducing the duties, at tering the commerce of American people, greatly embarrassed and endangered the s this benign policy, although it did not'effect throw The question now is, must the Americ submit tn new and heavy loans and greviotts or shall wo subject II by every lawful Hon during the war to those burdens which X slsts u|>on imposing on us by refusing to lent contest ' We ha ve endeavored by every offer n negotiation tn prevent the occurrence of war itself lias been prosecuted on our part In a spiril and forbearance almost unexampled; new offer have been again made by us to Mexico, and ag the rising of Congress, contumaciously refm forlienranre and lenity have not Is-en apprei Mexico; they have been mistnken by her for and timidity on our part, nnd it would seem nothing short of the most rigorous war. and tli practicable contributions, will roni|?d her to re peaceful relations. Money being the sinews of war. the revenue belligerent are as necessary to their success as i navies; anil these revenues, being public prope lie seized and confiscated, and diverted to out during the contest. Mexico herself now seizes He property and revenues, wherever she can ti She is endeavoring also to enlist, the whole w general spoliation of our eonimereeoind revenu seizure of American merchant vessels ami every sen. so as to weaken our resources and m r own i inter fliose In- can just cause of complaint. tf we divert her revet vrd from duties from her treasury. whfi* thojr against. iin. iiiol collect those rffcniif' ourselve best mean* of bringing the contest to a speedy oralile conclusion. It will In- won tliat tin- Secretary of thn 1 whoso estimates hk to revenue heretofore have i ended the results."calculates on a lur>{?- addltii resources from these duties lie estimates nlio revenue will In- I a rgcly lurmrntPd t>y the oecu the porta ou each side of tin- Mexican t?thmu? is about one lniinlri-<l ami thirty utile* from se and securing the free tranait across that istlnni commerce, ami that of nil tlo> world Vt t Inua the navjgHblc waters of the two on prouch within about aixty miles, the intermi-il tunce being practlcahle for a canal or n railroad 1 ever such a work, at soiiio period, may be eoin| 1 would bring New Orleans within four days of tli I and within two weeks of California and Ore distance ftoin Now Vork would only lai about I greater. and our whole commerce would Iswithin nearly thirty days of Asia. This linpor ' jeet Is thus alluded to fu the extract which ' front .Mr Walker's last treasury report, of the cemher ln-t in which, speaking of the warehoUl says: ' Our chief eomiucrcial clUes arc ahead than those of Kuropo to the centre of the lerrit mcree. and population of the world, and arc d?.no distant day to lm brought -till nearer. \ waters of the Atlantic and Pacific shall lie until Mexican Isthmus, which, combined with our |? ! on the I'aelflc. would revolutionise In our favor meree ol the world, and more rapidly advam e <i ness. wealth and power than any event that line ( Inn- the adoption of the constitution " M Walker wrote this sentence, he.could scarcely I [sssed that the great measure should he so net rompllshment. as to he ranked among the great meats to he accomplished by the administrate) sident Polk -smmI Z2Z . ?* rf. , I. The eilv authorities of Portland, Me have dc to name the avenues and paths of the Western I The avenues are to bear the namca of trees, paths those of bushes or Tines