Newspaper of The New York Herald, April 18, 1847, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated April 18, 1847 Page 1
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TH Vol. xnx. No. 107?Whole No. *704. HIGHLY INTERESTING INTELLJGENCE FROM THE SEAT OF WAIL ANOTHER B ATTL E IN NEW MEXICO. ADVANCE OF OUR TROOPS TOWARDS TU1C CITY or MSZIOO. THE PREPARATION OF GENERAL TAYLOR TO ADVANCIC TO art in l. u i a rw I U9L Tbe Inauguration of Santa Anna AS PRESIDENT OF MEXICO. A LOAN OF $?,000,000 FROM THE CHURCF. The Official Despatches of Santa Anna or THE DETAIL* OF THE BATTLE OF BUENA VISTA. AFFAIRS IN THE CITY OF MEXICO. Movements of Gen. Scott and onr Troops, at VERA CRUZ. At. die. die. AFFAIRS IS VERA CRUZ. [From the Now Orleans Picayune. April 9.] At an early hour tbl* morning the ship Arkamaa, Capt. Milliard. arrired from Vera Crus In Are daya. Through the politeness of Capt. illlllard, we hare letter, from Mr. Kendall to the 3d lnet. Wo cannot make room for liii letter*, but subjoin the following oopy of General Soott.'i order* upon the capture of the olty, and alao the tariff of dutiaa tn*t)tut?d !>y Gen. Worth. We ahall have more to say to-morrow about thla tariff. Mr. Kendall writea ua that the last report* from the capital indicate that tho lieaeneiona are not yet terminated. Santa Anna la said to hare allied himself to tho party of Fariaa, and to he determined to aupport the war at the expense of the church. A Guadalajara paper publishes the terms offered by our Oorernment for peace through Atooha. The principal one woe in brief, iifleen millions to lui paid Mexico for the line of'IS cleg, from tbe Gulf to the Pacific, and the United States to demand no expenses of tho war. These expenses are estimated at thirteen millions, maklll. Irvl.l nf ?Hi:--, f? ?I? * ' north of 2tf degrees. We will give the whole to-morrow. The Mexican paper* received by this arrival arc crowded with new*, which wo will give In our next. licADqUARTERI OK TIIE ARMV, VERA CRCI, > March 30, 1S47. ) OEVKRAL. ORDER*?No. MO. The capture of thi* well fortified oltjr, tho emporium of Mexican commerce, with tho caatla of San Juan do Ullia, the euemy's principal fortress, with 6000 prisoner* and a* rnauy stand of arms, 4J& piece* of orduance and a large quantity of ordnance store*, bare added to the glory of American arms acquired elsewhere In this war, and canuot fail to contribute powerfully to an early peace?so much desired by tho United State*. These Important achievements have established a new base, and opened a shorter and better line of operations ||upon tho enemy's capital and centre of resources. Tho general-in-chief congratulates the arrav he has the honor personally to command upon this brilliant opening of a new campaign, and tanders, on tho part of the United States, immediate thanks to all the corpsregular and volunteer, including a detachment of marines, under Capt. ludsoti?which formed the line of Investment, and prosecuted tlie|*iege to its happy conclusion. The troop* bavo borne the heaviest labors, In camp and in trenches, without failure or murmur.omidst and si units of distressing frequeucy and violence; skirmishes by day and night, and under the Incessant fire of i llA ?,1.l,fi t t f.l'i,, J ,,r f l.u unit Tl... steadiness and cheerfulnwis of officers and man. under the circumstance*, arc worthy of all praia*. The general in chief sincerely regret* that he cannot give the names of the hundred*, or rather thousands, to whom particular thauka are due on thi* occasion.? 11* cuu only enumerate the few who were isolated by rank or position, as well a* by noble serrios*. Of this class he is happy to name Brevet Brigadier (ten. Worth (now brevet major general) aud Brigadier (Ion. Twiggs, commanding the regular brigade*; .Major (Jen. Patterson (second In command) and his three brigadier general* ?Tillow. (Quitman aud Shields, of tho volunteer division; Colonel Harney, commander of the regular cavalry; Col. Tottsn, chief of engineers; Colonel Ilankhead, chief of artillery, and commander of tho batteries, ably assisted, in suscseslon, hv other field officers of artillery; Captain linger, acting chief of ordnanoe, much at the batteries, aud assisted ably in supplying them by Captains Cross and Irwin, both of the (Quartermaster's Department ; Lieut. Colonel Iiitchcock, acting inspector general; Maj. Turnbnll, acting chief of topographical engineers; Major MaoRee, acting chief of the (Quartermaster's Department; Captain Grayson, acting ehief of the commissariat; Surgeen General L&wson and the personal staff of the general in chief?Lieuts. H. L. Heott, Williams, Bcammou and Lay?with the occasional aid of Captains Lse and Johnson, ef the engineers and topographical engineers, and Captatu Monroe, acting assistant Inspector general. To the commissioners. Brevet Major Oeneral Worth. Brigadier General Pillow and Colonel Totten. including Captain Aullek, of the navy, who so ably negotiated and arranged the terms of capitulation with the onemy's commissioners, great credit is also severally due In that distinct capacity. Thank* higher than those of the gon*ral-ln-ehlef have been also earned by the eutlre Home Squadron, under the successive orders of Commodore* Conner and Perry, for prompt, cheerful and able assistance from the arrival of the army off this ooast. Besides landing troops and supplies, and the strict blockade of this port, the smaller vessels detached by Commodore Pnrry, under the immediate command of Captain Xatnall, joined for a time in the attack npon the city, at the Imminent risk of being sunk by the fire of the castle ; and the land battery No. (called tho Naval) which followed No*. 1, 3, 3 and 4, (served by the army) at the end of two days was exclusively (after being prepared by the engineers and troop* of the army) armed, manned and commanded out of the squadron. This battery, in the successive tours of the gallant Capts. Aullek and Mayo, proved itself highly effective. Jijr command or iviaj. i?en neon. H. L. SCOTT, Acting Au't AdJ Oen. The following tariff of dutleeia decreed and announced for tbe information of all concerned : 1. All article! Introduced by regularly appointed eutlure (who will be required to exhibit to the aeeletant adjutant general the evidence of their appointment) called and known ae eoldlere" neoeeaariee, ae aleo euppllea of all kind* for offlccre, are duty free ; but to avoid misapprehension. or fraud, all artlclee imported bv that claaa of pereona will be entered at the cuatoin-nouoa, and arrangement made with the oolleotor f<rr paymunt of dutiva on the whole cargo, aubject to rontitution (or freedom from duty) of inch artlclna or the valne thereof, ai may ha aold to officers or aoldleri. Said articlea or valuo to i be oertillcd andaworn to in a manner aatlafactory to the collec tor and ia conformity with euch regulation! aa he may adopt,under aanctlon of tbe oommander or governor of Vera " rur and depcndenclea. a. On provisions, a per cent ad valorem. On winee. older, ale and porter. 10 per cent, ad valorem. On all other liquor*, 76 per cent, ad valorem On raw cotton, 4 rente per pound. All other artlclee of merchandiae 10 per cent ad valorem . 3. Several foreign vessel* having arrived and been under detention, before the occupation, are admitted under the foregoing regulation* ; but henceforth all forelxn vessel* arriving will be hoid auhject to aueh du tin* as said veeeels would bo re |uired to pay In any port of tbs United States, or to exhibit before admission evidence of entry and payment of dntio* In the United State*; but always subject to tho additional duty hereby imposed. It la hereby made known to the consignee* of any and all goods entered at the euetom-liouae at thla port, after this'date. that one-third part of the dutiee on raid importation* will be demanded In each on tho landing of eaid good*, and sufficient security given for the remainder, payable in one, two, and three months at Vera Crua. Bonds will ba required, and good security must be given, for the faithful payment of two-third* of the duties on all importations, and payable to the collector of the port of Vera Crua, appointed by Major lien. Worth, now Governor of said city. The collector of thla port will draw up and submit for approval port regulations, whleh, when approved, will be duly enforced. It is further decreed that foreign goods in deposits in the United states arriving at this port, will be admitted by paying duties a? per tariff of the United States, the same arriving at this port in American bottoms The foregoing regulations jto be In foroe until otherwise directed by the Oovernor for the time being or the orders of the ffovcrninent of the United States W. J. WORTH, Governor, Brevet Maj Gen Com'g WM. J. MofLUNEY, Commander U. 8. Navy. 1 lie ship Alhambre. ( apt Wilson, and the steamship Alabama < apt, Wright, arrived yesterday from Vera Cruz. The former sailed on the 1st Inst direct, while the Alabama left on the 31st ult and touched at Tamplct and the Brazos. , utr.MOSAsn* jV b'll. '.n expedition left Vera Cruj for AlvarnI I i-l forms con?l'tln;j of I bn. (Ju.tmm's brik jl eitlin battery of l.ght artillery: th> mrnl fbree i. .isiiug of tho steam frigate Mississippi, the t'otomae, * bp of-war St. Mary's, steamers Vixen, Spitfire, and I E NE" Water Witch, thu brig Porpoise, out bomb-hatch and five gun boat*. Another expedition, under Gen. Twiggs. started same morning for tha National Bridge, a strongly fortified place,about two days' march from Vera Crux, on the Jalapa road. Unn. Worth waa engaged establishing tha goTerumant of Vara Cruz aud eastlo, The steamer Alabama left, with Gen. Jesup on board, at 3 P. M., aud arrived at Tainplco next day at 4 P. M., conveying the first new* of the surrender of Vera Crux. The intelligence waa r?euirod with cheora and a salute of artillery. The Palmetto arrived a few houra after the Alubuma. aud on the following moruiug the New Orleans also arrived from Vera Cruz, both bouts to return with hn?i.. mules, ike.. Ice. The Alabama loft Taiupioo April 3d. at noon She reached the auchorugeat Uraz><? at 3 r M. on the 4lh April, aUo conveying thu first intelligence to that place of tho aurrundcr of Vera Cruz. Ouu. Jvsup went ashore and romulned only a few uilnutue. Thu steamer Telegraph arrived from New Orluune a few moment* after the Alabama. Among the Alabauiu'i poaiongera are Gon. Jeeup. Mr. R. M. Potter, and .Major Sanders. of thu uuglueere. who. with Lieutunaut .Mead, of thu topographical engineer*, ha* been with the army uinco 1813. and la ordered (with Lieutenant Moad) to Washington. bearing the moet (tattering tuatimoniale of gallantry and usefulness from Gun. Scott and the general* with whom they had beforo lurved; Captain Swartwout. of the 3d urtlllery, after oereral month*' service iu tho field ; Dr. Witherspoon, of thu 4th Infantry, ditto : uWo, Lieutenants. Van Vllct, of tile 3d artillery, who lias been oil scrvico iu Florida, (whore ho distinguished liimaelf on several oceasiou*) and tbroughont the Mexican war, (wheru hu liax, at Monterey and Vera Crux, performed most gallant services) for nix year*. He was in the intrenehuient* at Vera Cruz *eventy-two hour* without leaving them, and commanded tho mortar battery at which Captain Vinton waa killed *oon after it was opened. Tho Lieutenant, who will, I trust. Noon be in a higher grade, ha* been ordered home for the recovery of lii* shattered health, bearing with him the highest commendation* of the superior officers with whom he has fought *o often and so bravely. Lieutenant Whitall. who has been through Ui? Mexican war. likewise returns on a sick leave, after having gallantlv partieipated in nil the battles, (the glorious Duena Vista affair exeepted) his health having been feeble for several month*. Lieutenants McLaughlin, Hooe and Drayton, of the navy, are also passengers, as well as Major Allen, of the 3d infantry, the latter returning on a nick leave, after a long term of service In tho field. There aro a number of other officers and men on their rctnrn to the Htates. most of thorn lick. Tho following vessels of war were left at Vera Crux on the morning of the 31st ult : Ship of the lino Ohio ; frigates Raritan and Potomac ; steam Krigatu Mississippi; sloops of war St. Mary's. John 'Adams and Albany; brig Porpoiso ; steamer* Spitfire, Vixen, Petrita, Scourge, Her.le and Voauvius ; two brig bomb ketche* and Ave gun boats. March 29.?'Tills hoe been a proud day for the American army. The garrisons of Vera Crux, and the much talked of and dreaded castle of San Juan do Ullia, have vacated their quarters and retirod into tho interior, and the star* and stripes float gracefully where this morning waa to be scon tho green, white and red of the ouemy. The spot selected for the ocreuiony of laying down arms was a plain extending back from tho oity walla, In the dirootion of Molibran. Our army was drawn up in two lines, faolng Inward, and occupying a mile in ex Lvui- uiu. rr urm uppcaruu on me iicm, in mil unuorui. to direct the arrangement*, and receive tho conquered troops. Tho morning was Tory clour and plbasant, and our army was in admirable condition. A detachment of sailor* and marino* added much to tho effect. At 10 o'clock precisely tho well known sound (heard under similar circmituuoes at Monterey,) of bugle, fifo and drum, played as Mexicans only can play thorn, uud us nobody else ought to do it, was heard In the direction of the great gate, and tho Mexican army soon began to appear, the column passing betweon our lines. Women and chlldron accompanied the troops, bearing heavy burden*. Their army halted botween our lines, stacked their arms, laid down their colors and equipments, and then marched off, our troops (those detailed for tho purpose from Worth's division) marched into the city at the same time, with color's flying and tlio bands playing national airs. Copt. Anderson's company, 3d artillery, and Capt. Kendrlck's of tho 3d, ontorod tho castls, and Lieut. Van Vllet's company, of the 3d artillery, took possession of Fort Santiago, ran up the American flag and fired a national salute. The effect of our shells upon the city waa now seen, and proved to have been dcplorablo. Hardly a house had escaped, and a large portion of tlieui were ruined. The shells had fallen through the roots and exploded Inside, tearing every thing into piecesbursting through the partitions, and blowing out the windows. The killed and wounded among the soldiery was very slight, but the citixens suffered severely. It is said that between six and seven hundred men. women and ehildred, were killed and wounded, more tbau three hundred being killed. March 30.?There were 100 pieces of artillery in position around the city, and as many more dismounted, many of the latter useless. The enorav laid dowu about lOUO itaud of arms. and 1000 more wsre'fouud in the city, day iuy nothing of the swords, lance*, and very largo ctoru of hell, golld (hot and powder. The groat.oaatle in garrisoned by the following companies : Capt. Andor ou'i, Capt. Taylor'* and Lieut Van Vliet'a, of the 3<1 artillery, uudor the command of Col. Belton. It ha* I CO gun* mounted, leveral of thein 68-poundora. It i? a regular baationed work, with a domi-lune and ooverod way on the aea aido. A vast ijuautity of ammunition woo found In tha work. Tha Mexican* left their national pets Itohlnd In the castle, and our troops Buffered much annoyauoa from them last night; I allude, of couree, to flea* and other vermin. Santiago Fort, that apiteful little place which played o warmly upon our intrenchments, is a beautiful work, with nine guns in barbette, most of them lino English piece*. In fact, most of their beat ordnance ia of English manufacture, though they have some fine pieces made in the United State*. Uen. Scott ordered 10,000 ration* to be Issued to the suffering poor of Vera Crux, and it was an affecting scone to wltnoaa tho crowd of half famished creatures, as they gathered timidly around to rcceiro their respective share*. These ration* will, as Mexicans usually eat, last 0,000 people at least four days, but it Is probable that not more than 1.000 will partake of the provisions The city and castle were exhausted of provisions. It is a characteristic of Mexicans that they never lay in stores, but live from hand to mouth. Wo subjoin such of Mr. Kundall's letters a* havo not been anticipated altogether. Cars. March 30. 1IU7, It ie impossible to get at the loss of the Mexicans by tho bombardment, yet it ia certain that women, children nuu nuu-comuiii.ttDiB uaye sunerou mo most. ?ome naj . that 160 have been killed, Dome more and lomt less : an regards the destruction of property, that shows for Itself Hardly a building south of the I'lnxa < irtmle but is either burnt, torn lu pieces, or much injured, and the streets are filled with rubbish and fragments. The National Palace, which is on the Plaza and near the outer range of our mortars, had fire shells burst within it, one of which killed a woman and two children lying asleep in the kitchen. Tho Cathedral, on an opposite side of the Plaza, was also somewhat injured, but tho churches south of it. and nearer our mortars suffered the most. 1 write this letter In a house which must baro been hot enough during the bombardment, for the signs of shells are all around me. The residence of our former consul, Mr liargous, was struck twice. Ono of the shells came through the roof, lodged at the foot of a bed which a gentleman had just left, and completely demolished ererytklng in the room, and the furniture was of the most costly description. One of tho inmates describes the explosion as tremendous?the house shook in all its parts as with an earthquake, and his first improsslon was that everything in it had been rent luto fragments. Months, probably years, will elapse before Vera Crus is in the situation where tho siogo found it. Many of the foreigners hore are raring, perfectly out* ragoous. at the method taken by Gen. Scott to reduce the pluco?they would hare had aim attack It by storm, and thus destroy life instead of property. The* blame him, too, for uot allowing some of trie foreign families, after thoy came to their seusee and found'that the oltyjjwas really to be deetroyod, to leave the placn and take refuge on board veesels wbleh were out of harm's way. A pretty time, truly, after all tho solemn warn Inge they received. to accuse (ieo. Scott or want of humanity. Tbay war* told, plainly, and positivsly, that th* town would b? takau. either by regular slcgo or by torm, and yat it would taem that tbay did not ballevo it; and wban tb* truth did Unaily break in upon them, and thoy discovered their error, tuey mult uooda prater Oen Hoott with ret|u*eti for a reination of hoetilitlaa. until they could more out, and thus deprive him of all the advantage! an incessant bombardment gave him Our commanding general properly referred them to (Jen. Morale* aa th* appropriate peraon to eall upon In their great emergency He had probably advtaed tbem to remain, and now he mint aid them in their extremity of peril. Kind fault with the bombardment, foraooth. Vxa* Can, March 31. 1347. Oen Qnltman's brigade aetout on the mareh for Alvarado laet evening. The place Is distant aome thirty or forty mile* aouth, and thoy will probably rearh it by tomorrow night. I preaunie that some of the entailer vesaela of the navy, under Com. Perry, will go down to take part In ca?* th* Mexicans so* fit to defend It. The im> presiion, however is that they will leave it without a struggle. From the direction of the city of Mexloo w* can gain no Intelligeno*. There appears to be nodonbt. however, that bantu Anna arrived there on th* 30th or 31st inat . aud at once took aides with the clery against (iomes Farias Nothing farther has been learned in relation to the report that there was a large foroe of Mexicans, under LaVoga. at or near Jalapa. The army will proceed In that direction In the course of a few days, and then we shall know all about It. 1 was witnees to a singular scene yesterday. A large concourse of Mexicans?old men, women and young girls?were gathered around the door of one of our commissaries. and each struggling, as you have frequedtly seen people at the ticket office of a theatre on a crowded night, to be first In. On enquiring, I found that rations were being distributed to the hungry and half-stsrved throng, and their greedy looks plainly showed to what extremity of hunger they had been driven I cannot learn tbst there was much suffering for want of food in Vera Crus during the bombardment, but there is always a large population In every Mexican city?from " bandto-mouth" people?who know not to-day where they will obtain their dinners on the morrow Since writing th* above I learn that a Frenchman has just arrived from the city of Mexico, who report* that there are not one thousand armed men, all told, on the road from thie to the capital He says there were nine guns in position at Puente Naciotial, but only sixtv men to servo them. It would seem perfect madness for the ,V< xicntia to continue the war, yet I suppose they will hold ou a while longer The amount of spoils of war taken by the capture of Vera Crux, la Imman?. Over 4,000 muskets were laid W V o JEW YORK, SUNDAY M< down on tho ground, and It I* known that a great number wuro left secreted in the city by men who went out in citizen*' clothe* instead of their uniform. The number of caution and mortar* in the town and custle. i* not a* yet known, but it ia already aecertaincd that there are over 300. To thi* should be added an immense amount ?f powder. ball*. shells, I'aixan shot. &co.. enough to conquer tbu country all the way to Acapulco. Quite a speculation for Uucle Sam. Two tin ;* are flying from S Juuu do I'lua. one belonging to the army, and the other to the navy. Tho-Krvschmun who brought the report from the city of.Mexico, nay* that he met the unarmed .Mexican*, who laid down their aim* on the 29th iu*t . scattered along the road between thi* and .Mango do Cluvo. Some of them had hardly advunced three league*, and were already suffering for want of food. lieu. Quitman take* down to Alvarado the South Carolina. Georgia, and Alabama regiment*, lie also has an artillery force with him, Captuin Steptoe"* buttery I am informed. One object of tho expedition is to open a road whence mules, horses, and supplies for the army may bo procured. Tho country down that way i* said to abound with them. OCCUPATION OK VKttA CRUZ. [From the New Orleans Delta. April 9.] At about half-past 10. A. M.. the American flag went first to the breeze over the spiteful fort .St. Jugo The same guns that so Incessantly unuoyed our batteries, gave voice to the fact thut L'nolu Mom hud got a deed uud too It possession of his burgaiu. Thousands of hearts and voices front the Ynukes army and navy ef hoed the glorious news, while every gun in the wbofo navy lurin'd sea sick with emotion, and vomited forth their sanction. The city was occupied by (Jen. Worth (sinco made Governor) and a part of his brigade : another part, consisting of the 3d Artillery and part of tho 9d. took possession of the right arm of Mexico?8. Juandc i.'tua Vt 12 o'clock precisely, not the flag, but two flags of the Union showed that the victory was complete. An incident occurred at the stalT that caused the two to he hoisted : lloth army anil navy claimed the right to hoist our colors over the castle ; Lieut. Col. Helton, of the gallunt 3d Artillery, and Capt. Sltnmes, of the navy, each with color in hand, met at the etafl; at a suggestion, both were attached to the halyard, and these two otJlrcrs together hoisted them. A salute was fired by f apt. Anderson, Co. G, 3d Artillery. The guns of tho battery used were previously loaded and shotted, and bore directly on our shipping?the first hall rlchochctted immediately through. The 3d Artillery, Lieut. Cel. Bolton in command, now garrisons tho castle, and it is thought will hold it for the summer. Their ramp equipage and baggage have boon sent to the eastle. A small quantity of Hour was found in the o&stle, and a large amount of ammnnltion and a quautity of small arms?those no doubt used by the artillery in garrison. Kvery preparation had been made for a bombardment?sand-bag traverses thrown across all the papers of tho castle left?castle left very filthy? soldiers'quarters had to ho policed before they were occupied?one hundred and sixty-two guns mounted aud ready for service, mostly lino Spanish bronze, some of them 900 years old-many new American and Knglish made gnus?guns of every calibre, from 198's to Impounders. t'lty much dilapidated?most extensive preparations of defence against assault?every street picketed, trenched, and sand-bag breastworks?in many places rows of pickets Inside the walls?house-tops for| titled with sand-bag breastworks. I'astenrtri in the Steamthip JUabama at XttoOrleans. (tnnfrftl lomin NUinr Allen Mninr SaiwInM rantaU* Swartwout, Capt. Howie, Lieut*. Hawkins, Whitull, Drayton, U.S.N., Muade, Van Vllet, Dobbins, I'ctogre. McLaughlin, U. 8. N.. Dr. AVitherspoon, Messrs. Perry, Fades, Winston, Wliittield, Mclutyrc, Austin, Mauus, Hunter, Drum, Owou, Kyau, Murdock, Mather. Wright, Kvuns, F arley, Drown, MoCleUand, Shutten, Hobiusou, Potter, Y'oatnian, Aruest, T. D. lvos, H. W. Ives. Nixon. Dunlup. Howard, B orach. Hobinson. Wo uro indebted to tho Tampico Sentinel of the 3d instant for the following item :? Deaths in the Uoepitalt.?The following is a correct list of the deaths in tho (ioneral Hospital in this place, during the lust week : Christian Simon, company (J. La. Vol. March 37; Joliu McLoughlin, company C, La. Vol , March 2U; Frederick Koler, company K., 1st Art.March 33; Jacob Keese, compuny B, La. Vol., March 31. AFFAIRS O.N TIIK RIO ORANDK. [From tho New Orleans Picayune, April 9.] The Alabama touched at the Brazos but remained thero but an hour. No mail was put on board, but wo ?n?.U*n.l a ,.rU ?tn l?f ?/,? ?V,.r,, frO.twl K? k..,ld By tbis wo learn that (Jon. Taylor has returned to Saltillo after in Tain pursuing Urrea. Ha could not reach him, though he was once clone upon him near Murin. lien. Taylor'* force couiUtad of about 1000 men, of whoui only 160 were cavalry. 1 be impression at the mouth of the Rto Grande waa that Gen. Taylor would puili ou to Sau Luis. Thla is inferred from hia ordering ao much tranaportation to be sunt forward. Col. Hamtramck was at Caniargo at last accounts. Every thing waa ijuict there, aud ou the river aud at the Brazos. AFFAIRS IN MEXICO. The editors of I.a I'atria received last night, via Tanipico, a tile of El Repubticano, from the city of Mexico, to the 27th March. The numbers from the lath to tho '11th having failed to reach them, we are not able to learn the particular! about the manner in which Santa Anna was roceived at the capital; he entered the city ou tho 2"2d, according to what we aro able to make out from several documonta published iu tho Republicano of the 25th. Gomez Fariaa waa immediately deposed and Santa Anna taking charge of the presidency, the revolution was soou at an ond. Gen. Pena Barragan seems to remaiu ut tho head ofm illtary affairs at the capital. The report that he and Gen. Halas were shot, it soems waa got up by some of tho Farias party. The latest dates received at the capital from Vera Cruz were to the orcuing of the 24th, at which time the Vera Cruzauos sccmcd(to rial m^a victory over the Yankees, aud were in hopes of being nucoesful throughout the whole affair. Gen Santa Anna had ordered acroral detachments of I.U LllttlLU IJUUlCUIAiTIJ bU f C1H ','lUb, 111 U1UU1 bU assist the besieged. The latent account* from Chihuahua wore to the 4th March The log* of the battle of the 38th February by the Mexican*. 1* attributed to the cowardice of the Mexican cavalry. The force* of the American* are stated to have been 1100, and 7piecc? of artillery; whilst those of the Mexican* were '1000 men, aud 10 piece* of artillery The Amerlcan*]took possession of Chihuahua on the 'id March, and nearly all the Mexican families were abandoning the eity. A letter front Codral dated the 17th of March. *tate* that Oon. I'rrea had met a force of American* in the vicinity ot Monterey and had killed and wounded a great number, capturing 170 wagon* and about 700 mule*, lie destroyed the wagon*, not being able to take them with him. by setting them on fire. No name as to tho spot or the commander of tho American force*, is given. [From tho New Orleans Tienyuno, April 0.J We hare received papers from the city of Mcxice Uj to tho 24th of March, inclusive. Tho movements of Santa Anna first arr. our attention. He took leave of tho army at Si I'otosl on tho 14th March In the following brief l happy address:? " Cemixtn'on* in .Irmt?Devoted cat the service of tne country, I march to assume the reius of government. In doing which I make the moet 11 y sacrifice, acting contrary to my cherished desires and fixed Intention*. But this course will put au end to the civil war which la destroying our beautiful canltal; it will give unity to our defence and impulse to the righteous struggle In which wn aro engaged with tho perfidious invaders, and In which you have fought with such bravery and decision in the field of I.a Angostura, B1- My Fritndt?l will never forget your glorious actions on that field of battle,^your sufferings iu the desert, to whioh .you submitted with heroic patience, aud, above all, that I had the honor of commanding you. The nation owes you a recompense, and you shall shortly recoive' it through my exertions, although tills is not the consideration which stimulates you to bear yourselves as worthy 10m of Mexico [la gran Mrxico]. " Solditri?you arc the hopo of your country?her beat defenders. Your duty, then, Is to guard all part* ; and on this account I have disposed that two brigade* of infantry and one of cavalry, with their corresponding batteries, shall march to the defence of the Statu of Vura Crus. the rest of the army daf ndlng thU fruitier. " Everywhere you will conduct yuurselveH as you have done hitherto, and you will ever deserve the iUustrlous name you have acquired. I am going to procure whatever Is necessary to cmifummate tho great work which is committed to you. and tie assured that In the hour of dinger you will again find In ths midst of you your Oensral, "ANTONIO LOPEZ DS SANTA ANNA." " Head-quartan. Kan Luis Potosi, Meroh II 1H47. Wo do not prsclsoly understand, but Infsr that the three brigades above mentioned are distinct from tho four thousand picked vetoraus whom lib had previously detachud from his army, with orders to proceed to th? capital under Oen. Vasquss. From Kan Luis to the city of Mexico. Santa Anna s progress was triumphal He coutlnually met delegations from Congress sent out to propitiate him. Addresses from ths different states were presented te him on his route. I' arrived in ths immediate vicinity of the capital on the 'th. ()u the'JSd hs took th? oath of office as President >! the republiaat tho city of Ouudelupe dc Hidalgo. Ths afternoon of the following day he entered tho city of Mexico with greut pomp and solemnity. A Tr IJiuir was lung in the metropolitan church, where hv received ths felicitations of the authorities and corporations. Wo give ills inaugural address below?ws havo not room to-day tot Honor Otero's roply. Ths cablnut of Hiuita Anna is composed as follows : 1). Mariano Otero, Minister of Foreign Affairs; I). Juan itondero, of tho Treasury ; I). Fraueisco Huarvey Trlartc. of Justice ; and I). Jose Ignario Gutierrez, of VVar. From anything wo find in the papers, it does not appear thnt Santa Anna's assumption of the rcios of government is a revolution. lie, of course, dispossesses Goraex Farias as chicr executive officer, but without driving the latter from ills station of Vice President. F.I R'puhtlcana, a very pertinacious opponent of the administration of Farias, claims the change as equivaleut to a revolution ; all the measures of h arias are to lie ahhndoned. It says ; but It will be proper to wait a little till Santa Anna has time to look about him. Our latest papers just bring him into the full enjoyment of power. Before Santa Anna reached the capital, he sent un order thither for (he release of Gomes f'eeraza, whom Farias had kept for a week or two a close prisoner. Santa Anna has avowed his intention of asking frmn Congress an amnesty for all political offences committed since 10!il. SANTA ANNA'S INAUGURAL AUDRKM. Smoret Drpnliti?I havo just taken the oath which tho law prescribes, and in doing so. ought to accompany It with a insnifestatlon of my sentiments, and Hie motives of my conduct, to th s respectable committee of tlin legislative body. The events which have taken place in the capital are I RK B ORNING. APRIL 18. 1847 known, anil are of auch a character aa to bind mo to give tbcm a speedy and pacific termination. Surrounded by difficulties of all kind*, interested in what is the moat Important and caaontial for tbo wholo nutiou. ua if the sustaining of a strong and decided stuggle with a foreign power, in which nothing lcaa ia involved than the existence of the nation, it would be tho beat of evlla to enter into a contest with those who ought to unite in rcpelliug the common enemy. Theao discords ought to disappear at the imperious voice of patriotism, which caHs upon the sons of the cduutry to have but one will and aim. The momout* have been urgent?I have aeun iu* iorwuru stops ol tUu onciny ?I have rushed to the fluid to repel him. and oven ut the moment of doing so. 1 have been forced to leave u brave and victorious anny, and to couiu hither to assume a power which I have reEeatedly said wai repugnant to my feeliugs, aud which I ad decided never to undertake. That wbich hiu been, and ought to be. an object of aspiration and desire, is for mu au enormous sucritlee. ltut I am all for my country, and shall ever serve it, without thinking what it tuuy cost me to do that which the nation desires I should do I have entered upon the supreme magistracy because 1 have seen that it was the solu legal lueuus of terminating the disturbances of this capital, and because 1 believe i shall thus he able to facilitate the prosecution of the war aud to suvu the iudopeudonee and honor of Mexico, which I wish to present unsullied uud brilliant to the world which is beholding us. 1 have before uie the co'.nuiittue of the sovereign Congress, of (hat august body whose decisions 1 have respected aud shall constantly continue to respect. Its derisions will be my invariable guide, and I have lirinly resolved to preserve a pure union with the legislative body, which union will give us a final victory aud tho re-rstablishnieut of internal and external peace?on which the happiness of our sountry depends, and to which we all aspire. The nation has proclaimed the political principles which oughts to lie the basis of the administration which I wish to establish. Thus 1 understand that its strength will be secured for defending itself, and Its rights for which its sons have those guarantees which belong to all men, and which civilization claims, and whic.n has been my aim aineo my reenrn to the country. This will not he denied. and the nation shall still see me obedient to ite wishes without tny having any other rule of conduct than Ite deri-ious. As a Mexican and a soldier, I shall always take Die same road of the nation, and I aspire to no other title than that, of a good citizen, and in speaking of me that it should lie said that I always loved my country?thnt 1 served It with zeal, and that I sacrificed myself for its good. NARRATIVE (IF THE n.ATTt.E OP BKENA VISTA IJV SANTA ANNA. Liburatino Abut or tiik Rr.ri'BLic, ) General in Chief: Campaign Secretary's Office, j Most Excellent Sir?In my dospateh from tho battlefield of Augostura. dated the -3d, I promised to give you details of the ueti .u of the did. auil the battle of the '.13d, so soon as I should effect the movement which our entire laok of water aud of all supplies niado indispensable. in thnso engagements the army and the nation have restored the lustre of tliolr arms by overcoming obstacles inconceivable ts all save those who witnessed them. These aroso, not only from the difficulties of this contest, and of our own situation, hut. also from tha ri gor of tiic icuuii, n ml the exhaustion of tho country along an almost desert route of over tlfty tongue*, that wnii destitute of good water, anil of all sore tlio meet limited supplies. The Supreme Government was Informed by communications made before u>y leaving Sau Luis, that the army under my command would not comuionce it* operation* till the ond of winter, a* 1 know by experience tho severe climate of tho region, which wu* *l*o scant of habitation*, provisions, shelter, and even of fuel. 1, therefore, rusolvod to go on organising, drilling, arming, and clothing the army; and, in a word, to put iuto u military shape the forces which had just been assembled. My intentions, howuvcr, could not he maturely realized. 1'he want of pecuniary resourcos embarrassed all my dispositions. The soldiers, though well disposed to coinbat with the enemy, had been badly supplied for a mouth, and would soon havo beou in want even of food, but thul the exertions of tho cuiumundera of corps prevented that destitution from driving them from their rank*. While those meritorious men were suffering all kinds of privation, certain writers, from ignorance, want of redaction, party spirit, or, perhaps, from mistaken patriotism, were zealously engaged in thwarting the plans which might otherwiso have proved successful. This they did by unjust charges against the army and particular individuals, whom they abused for not marshing to the conflict, accusing them of want of decision, and asserting that the position of tho army at Kau l.uis was more threatening to our libertio* than to the enemy. In the club* of that Capital they labored with assiduity to 1 make the army the iustrumeut ef a revolt; but 1 frustra ted their intrigue* by timely steps. There was one writer who bad the audacity to intimate that I waa in colluiiuu with the enemy. Yea, 1, to whom they may attribute orrors, but whose whole previous course has shown tho most elevated patriotism! Traitors are they who | seek not only to traduce mo, but by thsir detraction of the uriny to uuuerve its vigor for tho service of the country. It seems as if a fatality directs the destinies of this nation, and interdicts a unanimity of the public will for its defence; and from this fatal blindness, the moment when every heart and every aspiration should be directed to one object, is the very juncture when division and distrust are disseminated. Behold ma. then, compelled by every circumstance to change my plaus. Desertion had already commenced to a shameful extent; and I was fully persuaded that if the scarcity should continue, the army would be dishonorably frittered away. 1 therefore resolved that, if annihilated, it should lie with glory. Having no supplies, I, to obtain them, compromitted my private fortune and the credit of myself and friends. All this procured mo the sum of one hundred and eighty thousand dollars, with which I wax able to furnish the needful to the army for twelve days. I knew well the country we had to cross, and the necessity there would be for carrying provisions; and I sympathised in anticipation with the soldier for what he would onduro from tho rigor of the season; but to render good sorvice to the country, and save Its honor, I had to overlook all this The army moved from San Luis by brigades, so as to render available the scant resources afforded by the couutry we were to cross. The foroc consisted of 13.431 infantry, divided into 38 battalions ; 4338 cavalry, in 39 squadrons ; and a train of artillery, of three 24-pounders, three 10-poundrrs, five 12-ponndors. Ave 8-poundcrs, and a 7-inch howitzer, all served by 413 artillerymen? the total being 18.133 men Of thlstiforoe there remained behind, the garrison of the works at Baa Luis, and others Sfhich I allotted to towns on the route ; as also two squadrons to escort our small and only reserve of ammunition; a brigade of infantry, of two battalions, under Oen Don Clrlaco Vasqucz, which remained as a oorps of reserve in Matehunla. and of observation upon Tula; as also a brigade of cavalry, under (?cn Don Jose I'rrea. The latter was Intended to pass Tula, and move through Tai inaulipas to the neighborhood of Monterey, so as to call the enemy's attention to that quarter. Tho point of concentration for tho hrigadus ought necessarily to be near this place, so that in the region through which they had to move, manv tro'ipa might not be at once thrown together. I therefore fixed on tho hacienda of Kncarnacion for that point, it being, as I calculated, the last stage l>ut nno of my march. I thcro held a review of the army, which had already lost a thousand men by sickness and desertion. The former vu caused by the scantiness and bad <|uality of food, and atili more ol water, which wa* brackish aa well aa rearen. aa alao by anow-atorma and the exposure of the troopa. who had always to bo In bivouac and without fuel. These anowatorma obliged mo to suspend the march two days, till the weather became more settled ; for the cold had already caused the death of several men and horses, and I felt bound by every means to diminish the losses wo were Incurring. These hardships will account for the number of desertions which occurred up to our arrival at Knrarnaolou. and which afterwards even increased. It must also be remembered, that almost the whole army had been recently formed, aud. as is well known, of mcu taken by violence from their homee. We had advices that the cnomy wore fortified In the hacienda of Agua Nueva. with 0,000 men and SO pieces, resolved to defend the defiles known oy tho names of the passes of Carnero and Agua Nueva The Americans did not know the precise point on which our inarch was directed ; for, though they exchanged some shots with our advene* iu Kncaruarion. and had frequent small skirmishes with us in tho above passes, they supposed our troops to be scouting parties of the first brigade of cavalry, under Don Jose V Mlnon. whom I had advanced as far as the hacienda of Potosl These were the impressions when I made my dispositions It was iny intention to place my forces between the oueiny and Maltillo. so as to oblige him to fight under the disadvantage of having his communication cut off, or. If he would not leave his works, to enable me to besiege Itlui in Agua Nueva This plan might be carried out in three different ways. One was by marehlng '10 leagues bv the direct road, another by moving to the right by la Hedionda. so as to occupy Ruena Vista ; and the third, by moving to the left by la I'utita de Hunts Klena. so as to occupy the hacienda of la Banqueria. and thereafter the read to Haltillo The two last movements were at this time impracticable, for they would either of them require three or four days march, while ws were without provisions, forage or water I therefore resolved to ope ?bc I'j lljc unrvl rtn??. Iirrra llir IBIHons. ttlkll. Slier passing the iMt defile, make a diversion by the loft, and occupy the rencho of Kucantada. with the view of obtaining water, none of whirb waa to be had far more than 18 league*. All this ?* farored by the enemy'* Ignorance of our march j bnt nilafortunc still followed us A de erter from the regiment of (urueeros, a native of Saltillo, named Francisco Valdee, passed over from hncarnacinn to the enemy, and gave him Information of the movement. The execrable treason of this Infamous wretch frustrated the beat combinations On the 'list, at noon, I ordered the march to commence. the four light battalions, under Gen. Don Pedro Ampudia. forming, the vanguard. I had not hesitated to allow that General, and other officer* who had been court-mai'tialed for tha affair of Monterey, to participate in these operations, not only because I did not consider them culpable, but also on account of the seal they manifested. This brigade was followed by one of artillery, of sixteen pounders, with the regiments of engineers and their train, and those by tho park of the regiment of hussar*. Then came the first division, commanded bv Gen Don Manuel Lnmbardlni. with four twelve pounasrs and the park The second division, under Gen. Don Francisco Pacheco, followed next, with four eight pounders and their park; after those tho whole of tli? cavalry, under Don Julian Juvera; and then the remainder of tha general park and baggage, the rear being covered by a brigade of cavalry under Gen Don Manuel Andrade. In this order of march the troops were ordered to make the first fourteen leagues, between Knrenada and a plain called De la Gnerra, which Is In front of the first dc iile, railed the Pass of the piuones; and to pass the night on that plain in the same order of column The troops having eaten their ration*, ordsr wa? given for carrying water, as none could be met with till tb* day [ERA following, after having overcome tha enemy at Agua Nueva, threu league* beyond the afore*aid pa**. I, with my stuff und tlie regiment of engineer*, occupied th* front, a little behind the light troop*. On arriving at the plain. Do la Ouurra. 1 oontinued the march in order to pit** the defile uf i'inoue*, which wa* accoinpllahed; und I ordered the light brigade to take a position ill the i'lua of Curnero, where it had a skirmish with an advance of the enemy. Under these diapoaition* we paaaod the night. At dawn on thed'M. the army continued it* march, with the idea of currying by force of una* the pa?* of Agua Nuova. which I supposed would be defended by the enemy : but I found to my surprise that it wa* aban- | doned. I then concluded that the American force* had retired to tlielr fortification* in the hacienda, to concentrate their defence under cover of the entrenchment*, which I had heard tliev hud there thrown up. Under this idea I contiuued the march, hi order to turn by the right to the ranolio of K.ncantada. which, a* I hare before mentioned. i? on the Sultillo road, being between that city and Agua Nueva, and four or live league* from each. Till that time no oue hnd appeared to give uie information, nor did any ouo after, except n ecrvant from Airuu. N'liuva. who told me that the micmv had been i evacuating bis positUm since the liny previous, and faff- ' iug buck towards SuitiUo ; and that on tliut sumo morning tile buciuiidu liad been wholly abandoned, by the 1 retreat of a small detachment which escorted u large '. 'inutility of munitions By this movement my first plans ! and dispositions, founded on au expected resistance, were rendered abortive ; but I still did not despair of a successful result, for I had iu anticipation directed tieii Minon, with his cuvalry brigade, 1300 strong, to occupy, on the morning of the '2'Jd, the hacienda of Bueua Vista, distant three short leagues from Snltlllo. This force might arrest the enemy's march, or. at least, make a diversion that would give time for the aruiy to rotnc up. I therefore continued my march, without losing more time than would allow the soldiers to drink water on the road. The light brigade came within sight of the enemy's rear guard, and I ordered them to charge in conjunction with the hussar regiment. I had reason to believe the enemy were making a precipitate retreat, us they left several articles on the road, such as carts, forge implements, extra wheels, and other things, which we gathered i while marching. In consequenco or the different reports I received, 1 ordered the cavalry to advsnne ; I thought we would be able to reach their rear-guard, and placed myself at the head of those troops. On arriving at a place cnllod Angostura. 1 found the main body of the enemy awaiting ine In position. The road from the pass of Plnones to Saltillo runs between two chains of mountains, which form that pass and those of C&rncro and Agua Nuova. The ridges open beyond that hacienda and approach each other again at. Angostura. where the rood turns to the right. At this place there is a succession of ridges, which run out toward tho lino of our route, and at right angles with it, and between them are ravines which form the drains of the mountains on the right. They are inoro or less passable, but nil very difficult. The enemys position was in front and in rear of the road, his right and front being covered by ravines that were impassable, even for infantry, and a battery of four pieoes being planted on the highest point. Ilis battalions were formed on the heights with two other batteries, one of which was in a low part of the road, between two hills; and, to my view, their forces appeared to be about 8,000 men, with twenty pieces; but the prisoners taken from them report twenty six pieces, and upwards of 8,000 combatants. 1 reconnoitred the position and iltuation of the enemy. ' ! and ordered the Director of Kngineers, Ocn. Don Ignaclo do Mora y V illamil, to do the same. After ascertain j ing the force" of the invader, it wax aeceuury either to ] await the infantry, to take position, or to light, ax might ; covin moat adviiuble. At thia interval. I observed that j the enemy had neglected to occupy a height on hie left | llank; and, without lotting a momeut, 1 ordered General Vinpudia'i light brigade to take possession of. aud hold | it ut every coet. Ax the brigade* came up. I formed them in two linea on a rixing ground that fronted the enemy, there being another eminence between our two positions: the tlrat divixion of infantry wax under the command of General l.oinbardini. and the xecond under the command of Geueral Pachuco. I directed that Gen. Moru y Villamil, in conjunction with the Coinmundiug General of Artillery, Don Antonio Corona, should find u position for a battery of 10-poundcre. to be xuxtalned by the regiment of engineerx. Two other bultcrlea. of Id aud H-poundurs, were located by mo. The cavalry, commanded by Geueral Juvcra. were placed on the right of our rear, and on our left dank. The regiment of husaara wax also pox ted in the rear, and on tue tlank aforexaid wax a height which 1 ordered the battulion of I.con to occupy. The general park wax lu the rear, covered by the brigade of Ocnurul Andrade. and between thix park and the linea of battle I took my owu position The making of these depositions, ux may lie supposed. ?vwU,..v? '""f1 uV viraii 1??,1tiom after a inarch of more than twenty league*. It waa therefore not an hour for combat, and the army lay on It* arm*. The enemy, however, *o noon a* he perceived that we had occupied the height that flanked hi* left and our right, dispatched two battalion* to dislodgo ui, which led to a warm engagement, that lasted all the aflernoou and till after dark, when ho waa repulsed with a loss of four hundred men, according to the report of the prisoners. Our's wasjmuch less, a* we had the advantage of the ground. At dawn on the *i3d I mounted my horse ; the enemy had not chaugud his previous dispositions, and was ready to receive us. I observed but one difference, which was that on his right, and at some distance from his position, lie had formed two bodies of infantry, with a battery of four pieces, as if with the Intent of threatening our left flank ; but I at once believed this to bu a mere demonstration, for he would never have left In his rear the difficult ground which gave strength to that position. being the web of impassable ravines before referred to. I, therefore, gave no attention to this dl^>o1 sition of his forces, and resolved to move mine by the right. With this Intention, I advanced the division* of (Inn. Loinbardini and (ien. f'achono in that direction. I ordered (ien. Don Manuel .Micheltorena to plant the battery of eight pounders on our right flank, so as to rake obliquely the enemy's line, and to remain with the staff, of which he was chief, and await my orders. I directed that Oen. Ampudia, with the light brigade, should charge by our left flank on the enemy's right, and that Oen. Mora y Villamil should form a column of attack composed of the regiment of engineers, the I'ith battalion, the fijo dc Mexico, and the companies of f'uebla and Tampico, commanded by Col. Don Santiago Blanco. At the same time, I directed Gen. Corona, commanding the artillery, to place the battery of twelve pounders in a more commanding position, while tho 3d division reraaided in reserve, under Brevet Gen. Don Jose Marls Ortega. So soon as the enemy perceived our movements ho commenced the action at all points, attacked our tramps with intrepidity, and maintained the ronflict with great vigor Our men received them with proper energy, driving back and following up tho assailants. At tbis time my horse was disabled by a grape shot, and it was Maine time before I could mount auother. As the enoay had yielded ground. I ordered the cavalry to advunrn aud charge, whlrh wasdone with vigor Suitable ardors had been pent to the Generals of Division and brigade, among the real to Gen Don. Angel Guzman ; but theugh the officers and troops acted with great resolution, it was 1 impossible to overcome the difficulties of the ground ; ' and, after a struggle which did them honor, they wenobliged to fall back to their positions After various al' tarnations the same occurred with the infantry The battle, which commenced at seven in the morning was prolonged for many hours, our loss every moment accumulating Many officers and soldiers had already been killed, and a number of commanders and distinguished officers wounded, among whom were Oen. Lombardlnl, Lieut. Colonels Ilrlto. Oalb-so, and others. Among the slain were Lieut. Colonels Asonos, Rerra, and other meritorious officers, whose loss the country will ever lament. The eneiny maintained hiu ground with the utmost obstinacy, insomuch that some of our troope faltered in their attacks, and many of the raw recruits dispersed This, however, ought to exalt the merit of those whose intrepidity was never paralyzed, and may also be cited to show how hotly contested was the action Things were In this situation when I concluded to make the final effort. With this view I ordered that a battery of twenty-four pounders should lie mounted : that the column of attack then posted on our left Dank, where It hail 110 object of operation, should be transferred to our right, and there be joined by the remains of the lith Regiment, the Battalion of Leon and the reserves, all under the command of Drevet (Jon. Don Krancisro Perei. i executed tills in person, and aflerwsrds sent for (Jen Moral y Villamil, and made him nnjuaintedwlth my final dispositions I hail already directed Gens Perez and I'ncheoo. each with his command, to lie prepared for an extreme struggle, and had ordered I lie battery of eight pounders to advance and take the enemy's line In flank. The charge was made with daring valor and was resisted with animated vigor, with a fire so heavy and rapid as to cause admiration, but the Americans could not sustain thamselvts they were driven back and overcome, with the loss of three pieces of cannon and as many stands of colors I sent two of the latter to the government with niy last despstch ; the other, which I then omitted to notice, will be presented to the Honorable Congress of the State of San Luis Potoel, as a testimonial of the army's gratitude for the patriotic services they had rendered, and tlicfcfeiierous sacrifices they had made for Its benefit. We, moreover, raptured a travelling forge, and some suialli r articles which I will not enumerate Our cavalry, which so bravely executed the order to charge, reached the enemy 's rearmost positions; but. owing to the nature of tin-ground atul the fatigue of the men and horses. I did not think It prudent to attempt to dislodge thrin from those The battle closed at six In the evening, our trrtboe being then formed on the ground which the Ainerlcnn* had occupied. Our last effort would have been decisive If Oen Mliiou had done Ills part by attacking the enemy in the rear , but he omitted to do it. und I am under the painful necessity of subjecting his conduct to a court martini that he may explain it An ai tion thus contested necessarily Involved considerable loss Ours in killed and wounded amounted to more than fifteen hundred men. ami that of the snciny was much greater, for wc had time to take a view of the great number of their dead The plans of these two actions, and of the route from Agua Niisva to Hnltlllo. and the reports of the Generals of Division and Brigade, which I send with this to your Excellency, will give the supreme government an idea of such details as 1 have not dwelt on without making this report more diffuse; but this will still serve to attest the bravery of our troops and the glory acquired by the nation during these days of action. In the order of the day, I cxprcsaed, aa in duty hound, my satisfaction with the conduct or the officers, commanders of corps, and generals, and gave thein thanks for It In the name of the republic. I could wish to announce In this report, the names of numerous commandlug officers, thst. their memory may be engraved on the gratitude of the nation, not only for their resolute and honorable deportment in lioth action*, but for i he constancy with which they have overcome no many privations sufferings and fatigues, and given therein an example. LB Price Two Cents. both of civic end military worth Anxious to do this justice, I adopt. unity own. the authorship of those eulogies which the general* of brigade and division bar* bestowed on their subordinates. 1 would, moreover, place la view of the government the merit manifested by thu Director General of Knglnocrs. Don Ignaeio Mora y VlllamU. who fulfilled to my entire aatiafact ion. all the duties. I aaaignud to him. for which I conaldor him worthy of the hlgbuat praiae. and of auch remuneration aa the eupreme government may be pleated to award to hit dlstiugulahcd tervicca. Gun. Ampudia. to whom. (Voui the favorable opinion which I had of hiin. 1 entrusted the command of the four light battaliona. acquitted himtelf with gallantry Gen. Lombardini. who commanded the first division of infantry, conducted himself with valor, and was wounded. Gcu. Pacheoo. commanding the seeond divisiou of infantry, came up to my orders and hit duties and fought to my satisfaction. Gen. Juvera ooinported himself honorably, and had hit horte killed under him. llruvet Gen. Torrejon received a contusion, and Gen. Guzman displayed the gallantry for which he was already distinguished, and waa wounded. IIrevet Gen. Mlchultorena. as head of the staff, duly performed all that belonged to his station ; and J alto confided to his special charge the battery of tl-pounders. which was that most in advaucu Gen. Peres acted as might bs expected from his accustomed gallantry, and for this I entrusted to his command the troops I have before mentioned, with which ho contributed to disorder the line of the enemy at 6 in the evening, i would also oomraend Gen. Ortega, who commanded the third division of foot, and performed hia duties to my satisfaction, as also Brevet Gen I'raga. and Gens I'arrodi I'ortilla, Vasquss, Jauregili, Terres and Sanchez It Is entirely due to the Commanding General of artillery. Don Antonio Corona, that I should commend him for rnrryiug out my dispositions, as might bo expected from him, and for laboring assiduously at San Luis, in the heaviest duties of his branch of service ; and it is a pleasing duty for me to laud the merit acquired by Col. Baneucli, aud Col. Brito, who was wntindud ; Col Aldrede. of the hussars, wtin ts In? satis. fm'tinn. evinced hi* usual bravery ; Col H. Blanco. whe commanded a column of attack on tb* left, and acted well, aud Col. M. Blanro?both of the last being of tba engineer*?a* nl*o Col. Obando, of the flying artillery, anil Col. Ouray I line follow* a long list of colonel*, lieutentant colonel*, captain* and subordinate*, who are all commended, and the particular service of some mentioned On* ia named Antonio Lopes de Aantana. late a custom-house officer nt Tamplro, who acted a* a volunteer aid to hi* namesake, the General In Chief! The report of the killed ana wounded, whteh I also send, will show what ha* been our loss I should bo lacking In justice, and not express my own feeling*, were 1 not most earnestly to request that attention be paid, as I* by law provided, to the cases of tha widow*, orphans, and such of the wounded as may bo permanently disabled. The formidable position which the enemy oeeupiad, was all that savsd him ; the viotory would otherwise have been decisive, notwithstanding his obstinate resistance Still this triumph will have fltvorable results to the national cauHo, as It will show to every one what can tKt accomplished when all heart* are united, and with one aim The army has done more than could be rxpeeted under the laws of nature. It had just been formed, and as yot had not acquired discipline or military habits ; yet in marching to the combat, It overcame alfflaullle* "which mighthave subdued tlie stoutest heart. After a march of twenty league*, sixteon of them without water, aud without other food than a single ration, whlah was dealt out at Kncarnacion. it endured the fatigue of oombut for two days, aud finally triumphed. With all this. Its physical powers were exhausted. My knowledge of this, and the duty I felt of attending to such a number of wouuded. const rallied me. utter remaining a few hours ou the Held of battlo. to fall back upon Agua Nueva. for tlie relief and refreshment of the troop*. from the impression wo had made ou the enemy, he did not appear before us for three days. The bearer of a (lag of truce, however, arrived with a proposition from Ocn. Taylor for an exchange of prisoners, and for our sending for tha wounded who huu remained on tb* fiald. ile also expressed to me the desire which the Ainertsan* felt for the re-establishment of peace. I replied. In or wwi lusi no lin^ub mmj tuv anuiv iu uim {[eiivm, mat WW sustained the most sacred of causes?the defence of eur territory, uud the preservation of our nutionulity und rights; that we were not tile aggrcfcsors. und that oar government had never offended that ot lh? U nited Slate*. Iobeerved thai we could say nothing of peace while tho *1inei~icant were on thio tide of the Bravo, or qccupied any part of the Mexican territory, or blockaded our parte; and that we were resolved to perish or vindicate our rights ; that fortune might not bu always favorable to the enemy. and their experience of the 3'Jd and ISd should couviuce them that it could change. I added,that the Americans waged against us a war at vandalism, whose excesses outraged those sentiments of humanity which ouo civilized nation ought to evinee towards another; and that if he would go outside of the apartment, h? would still see smoking, which was the (act. the dwellings of Agua Nueva, recently a flourishing, though a small settlement; that the same vestiges of desolation marked the route of his retreat; and that tf be would go a little further on. to Catena, be would hear the moans of the widows and orphans of innocent victims who had been sacrificed without necessity. With respect to the wounded, whom I ?u invited to send for, 1 replied that there could he none save those who had boen too maeh hurt to arise from Uie Held, or tjzose most In the advance. who had remained in the raviuee; and that aa I had not means for their eonveyanee, the enemy might take them to Saltiilo, under the protection of tho laws of nations. As for the prisoners which he offered to exchange, I told him i did not know who they could be, unless it were some of our dispersed troops, or some r?,n, O,..,n? nfth. t... J fc ?J ? - >* /?, ?<* * ? uiuincd asleep when *c moved in answer to th* courtesy th* enemy h General had shown with respect to our wounded, 1 consented, in the name of th* nation, to release ull the prisoner* we had?thot* taken bath In th* battle and at hncarnaoion. At the same timo 1 allowed the hearer of th* flag, who wan a superior olBeer, of prepossessing appearance and manner*, to take th* bandage* from hi* eye*, and informed him that, it was for him personally. that th* honor of thl* concession was meant I did It also that lie might,.*!'* our ramp and our troop* A* I have aaid in th* preceding paragraph, w* remained in th* hacienda three day*; but the only (apply w* could obtain wa* ninety Peeves, and lima* were consumed on thu 25th. The harsas were nl?o wlthont forage, and. notwithstanding all the effort* or provisions that I ould make, many of the wounded had been bat one* attended to. andeome not at all. Krom th* rigor of th* climate, the badness aud scantiness of the sustenance, the entire w ant of bread, and the bad quality of the water used In our former bivouacs, a bowel complaint had broken out In th* army, and rendered Ineffective at least one half of it. I knew that a retrogad* movement to our former positions had become inevitable; but though every thing around me proclaimed this necessity, my feelings revolted agaiust it, Holely because I foresaw that from ignorance, malice or presumptinu, the countermarch would be condemned, and that tho** who did not witness our situation would imagine the possibility of the army's continuing its operation* Hi* days l>efore. when th* troop* had not suffered ?o much, nor fought for two successive days, nor been eiuliarrossed with siek and wounded, but were still sound in morale and In health, I had not deemed It prudent to augment th* labors and difficulties of th* army hy moving to th* right or to tho left; how then would it have been possible to go on operating after all that subsequently occurred Unt let detractors say what they will, the army, as well as myself. will always answer by an appeal to our eonduet. our wishes, and the notorious Impossibility of carrying them ?ui rxoiwunsianuing my connexion, i wisneu to hear tho opinion of the Generals and some of the commanders of corps, and to ascertain If tiny could point out any resource which had not occurred to mc; without disclosing my own Idea* on the subject Iflistened to thetr'a, and they all unanimously, and each one, by hla opinion, separately expressed, ahowed and demonstrated in rarlouh waya. that howerer (food their will to remain, tho countermarch of tho army had become Indiapenaable, but that thio nvcoaalty waa not forced upon ua by tho enemy It woe not till I had heard their oplnioua that I announced my own accordant resolution, and the proceed in gx of the council being drawn up, I had the honor of remitting them to tour Kxcelleucy on the 'lath On the Irtth, nftcr I had ordered (Jen Minon to follow tlie moTemcut. the nrior commenced ite retroat with the rlcw of occupying tlic tfrat peopled localities, where resources might be obtained, such as Vanega*. t'atoree, JL1 ( adral. and Matahuala. its also Tula ; but I doubt If In those places proper attention can be clem to tha alak mid wound' 'I <t the lo*?ce we have mutaioed In thoa* laboriou* movement* be remedied. J he nation, for which a trtninpn baa hern gained at the co*t of ro many aufferlng*. will learn that. If w? war* ahle to conquer in tha mhlat of ih> many mtiaraaamrnta. there will Im' do ilouht a* to our float "iireeiw inthe'tmg glc we contain. Ifevrry eplrit hfit rallle* to the ona aacrwd object of common defense A mora determined number of men will not, a* many Imagine, nttfle* for tha proa*, eutlouofwar: it ia lndiapeuaable that they be armed equipped. dlcclpllnrd. Ha t habituated and that a wywtenuitiieil mlpport for anoh an orgauiaad fnree be prurtdrd We unlet hear in inlud that we hara to rombat In a re glnn deficient of all raaoiiree*. and that everything for aiilwlateuoe ha* to lm curried along with tha military the good will of a few will not nuflice. bat tha eo-opera lion of all I* needed ; and If we da not rn?t aeide MlfUh Intercati. a id petty pncatnti* we cau elpeet nothing bnt (Irouter The army and myeelf who Imve led It. hare tha ratiafaetlon of knowing that we have demonstrated thin truth V our f'.ieelleney will lie pleaded to report V' hU Klrellency. tha View I'rraldent of tha Hc|rublle, and to Proliant to hiui uiy aanuruai-e of reapect. (hid and Liberty ' Manelio do Hen Salvador. Kebrnary J?th, IHl* (Signed) ANTONIO LOPKZ l)kl HANTA ANNA To Hi* KieeUency, the Minuter of War and Marin* W Ml IN M1CXICO. [Kroin the Wanhlngton I'nion. April It ] The runditlon of Muleo would bo auftetent to bring a reasonable nation to tholr ?ensc*. Tba reront and remarkable blow* which they hare received, ought to convince Hanta Anna aud all hi* eonntrytnen that they are unable to withstand the dieelpllne, the *kJII, and thr elilealry of our troop*. The fortune of war ha* gone de cldedly ivgatual thein within the'lant thr-?a weak* Their government i* unable to aupply the mr^ana. Their troops nave not the general* or the tilrelpl'.oe to enahl# them to profit by the reanty retnurrc* whjch they poaae * The victory of llnena Vlnta rtirnlcbee an awful l**mn to thein An army of jO.tXI^j men, mmpriftng the he*t iliaelplincd, veteran regular* ,.f \icaieo. have I icon de feated hy an Ameriean army of from 3.000 to t.OOO effect Ivea ; and the dl?a?trnn* Mow ha* overwhelmed them In bnttle. and nenrlj ill* <lp*tcd the remainder on their flight Hnnla >.Ana ha* attempted to wften the pTtnrw of hi* Iok-c* nit well a* he could, hy the Crtltlou* bi.l.eltna which ho Ua* pubiuhed Hut let u* *ee what nr. ount the he*', authentic private advice* give of hi* calamine* The 'ollowtng la a letter r*?*iv*d by the I'eyuuatei-Uen

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