Newspaper of The New York Herald, September 18, 1847, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated September 18, 1847 Page 2
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NEW YORK HERALD. N.'K \ orl-, *.<lnr>l?yt ?r|iieiiibcr 1#, IMT. THS W2BKLT HERALD. 3I?]) of Ihf A |ipruutli s to the City of Mexico. Thf If-, kly HrrulH. to be ready at nine o'clock thin mornm^ will b? a mora than usually interesting number It will con uin the particular* af the two brilliant buitl-s fought, and victories who, by our troops at Cliurubua co Hud Contrcraa, near the walls of the city of M? lico; all the news by the Krench steamer Union, iurluiliug letter* from our numerous European oor respondents; two iatereatlng letter* from Mr. Bennett; an nccouut ot the doings at the Agricultural Fair at Saratoga. beside* mucih interesting miscellaneous matter. The illustration* for this number will be a map of the approaches to the Tity of Mexloo, showing the route of the American army, a picture of the Park fountain, and a cut of the steamship Washington. It is not often that the pausing events of the week place It In our power to offer a j'iper of so interesting and varied a character. The Newt ami the Killed slid Woand*d. We puSlisU in to-day's |>d|?er a complete list of tlie liilled, wounded nod missing in the two last battles in Mexico, u< far as lizard from. Tlie Slate Agricultural Fair. Our ruu.iers will find in this day's paper, a full , ?.rt ?r file doiuvs at the <;reat Agricultural Fair at Saratoga, on the fourteenth, fifteenth, und Bixfcnth inst , and of the speech of the Hon. John A Dix, previous to reading the ad?1 rrtti rt-d for the occasion by the Hon. Silas Wright, previuu ? to liia decease, together with a list of the premiums Hlortt New* from Kurupe. T!>e Britannia is now in her fourteenth day. She will bring some very important intelligence t!i t commercial community. It will be one week Inter from England, and one or two days laier from France. M3. B 2 .N.N BIT'S LETT BUS FROM EUROPE. London, August 26, 1847. The Failures In Kurope. The revulsion in the corn trade not only continues with unabated ferocity, but the desolating princip'c is beginning to reach other branches of business, more indirectly connected with the importation of grain. Failures are announced everyday, either in London or in some other commercial city. But the most startling ol allare three that have been announced and commented upon during the present week. 1st. A 1 art;- house for ?150,000, whose senior partner, W. N. liobinson, is the Governor of the Bank of England. 2d. Another firm for ?100,000, in which the Consul lor Belgium, Mr. Castelmain, i-connected; and, 3d, a lady of high rank of the We-t End, the Marchioness of Aylesbury, largely involved in stock operations. In addition to this, there is a number of smaller failures in Ire'.a'iH, and others on the continent. Probably the aggregate amount of these failures, from the begiuning of the pressure, about three weeks ago, rmy reach five or aix million? sterling, or equal ?25,000,000 to $30,000,000. Where all this is to end, no one can clearly d t, iur iiic iiiunriary system 01 i^ugiunu is 101t :ring to its foundation. The old conservatives, and many of the radicals, are agitating warmly ' for a complete paper currency, and the banishment of gold and silver entirely from their internal circulation. The Btate of the times and of men's minds are very favorable for an entire revolution in the financial system of England. The character of the new l'arliament is very uncertain, and may be made favorable to any system. During the present pressurs, and in the midst t/f'tlie crumbling ruins of commerce, the Bank of Engl tod, under its present system, receives nothing byt denunciation and hostility. The management of the Bank is rendered entirely ibsrrvient to the large moneyed interests, it is generally believed that the failures vrhich have ta ten pUce will produce terrible work in New York, nnd other commercial cities of the Union, far beyond that of 1839-40. By the next British steamer from Liverpool, to sail on the 4th Septi mher, (in this vessel 1 shall return) the quantity of returned exchange will be greater than ever, it is supposed, by the moneyed interest here, that this movement will restore the equilibi iuiii of the exchanges, and perhaps bring back some of their specie to Europe ; but I doubt this r> suit, unless th?re should be many orders for English goods in the course of execution or payment. The pressure and ruin, now taking place, came very near to a head in April last, when the gold and silver were at its lowest point in the Bank. It was dfliyed, at that period, through some secret influence in the Bank, and in order to let cert.tin interests out of the category. But now the ruin is permitted to goon, and it will not stop till its whole fury has been spent. The railronds and the government loans have, t'nd will continue to receive, all the aid of the B*nk and the large capitalists, exclusive to the foreign trade in corn, or sugar, or any other staple. Accordingly, corn is continually falling, and none can tell when it will stop. The crops, everywhere in Europe, ar# most splendid?a full average, if not more. In May last, corn was as high as 100s. to 110s. per quarter, now it is 60s. to tt5s ; nearly one-half decline. Many believe, in addition, that, before next January, corn will be as low as 30 shillings. At all events, the terrible fall in the prices of corn, which is now breaking up the corn merchants everywhere, will, before next spring, break up half the firiners in England, and produce a revulsion in >he landed interest that may lead to adissolution of the present Parliament, and the return of a conservative, or paper money, government. Commercial, financial, and political affairs, are in a very excitable condition in England, and all over luurope. It should lie the policy of the government, banks, merchants, and people of the United States, to take care of themselves, and to ward oir the blows that are aimed at their progress by the falling ruins of Europe. A fresh war i# now expected with China. The last accounts are very bad. Commotions, if not war, are maturing on the continent. The full crops and fine seasons only cause reactions in society and government. Very Kate from California. We have be?n favored with the perusal of a private letter from an offlnnr of the navy, dated at Monterey, in Ca.ifnrnia, the lKih July last, being nearly two month* la't-r than the dales brought by On. Kearny. This letter rame down through Mexioo to Vera Crux, id thence to the United States. The U S ship Warren and the store-ship Erie, were at Monterey, and were the only vessels of war In that port The Independence had left Monterey a few days before for Pan Francisco to meet Commodore Diddle, wio waa there with the Columbus, Congress and Dale Tlie r.olumljU" wae to sail on the 31 it, for the United R at?i. Com. Shubrirk having relieved Com Biddle in command of the rquadron. i'i,m hu.l Uff fur th? United States bv tho overland rout ft The f S uhlp Portsmouth w?< engaged in blockading tli* port of Mm rat i an. The I'r*ble wm at Aoapulco, and the < yane fc-id *one to th? Sandwich Inland*, and wan Spect-d i.ark by the lit September The officer* and en ? of thi* Warren will probably return bom* In the Erie fir the 1'firtnmnuth L ule or nothini: had been Kccompll*bed by the xquad ron under t he >iumand of Com Biddle, who bad not been near lb* A?i>t of war nor attempted the capture of iinpo t* t | a >? on the cua*t. which could have b'" n neiljr taken, bu' had iremeined with ntcst of bia *<ju < iron at Monterev or Hi?u francineo. ^ The polio jr be w?? panning ?m a myatery to all. and it v*i bopeil thut < <>m Hbuhrlck whn had juat tak>-n o.iniiua id would puraue a more actlYe courae. and allow it ireHaiit little navy in the I'aclflc to win It* (bare of ? ei Midshipman Woodworth, the young gentleman .< if blv went to toe reacue of the perianing Mora, ia oo loftrd tLe V 4. ahlp Wurrtta, and il in food ThMtrtMd ui MhM. Pake Tnmi.-Mi ColUa* 1? etUl at the Park, and li aa great a f*ToriU u ever. Ha appeared l?at evening Jo two pi?eM; flrat aa Pierce O'ilara, In Bernard'a oomedy ef the " lrlih Attorney," and af.erwarda m Paddy | Murphy, In the aztravagauia of the " Happy Man." We I ha?e *o often upoken of the merits of Mr. Colllna's per- | ! forinaooea. that what la trne of hia excellent comical ^ i abllltlei. would be but a mere repetition To night he I* to appear aa Paudren ORnfferty, In the comic drama | of - Born to Good Luck." and a* Morgan Rattler In the oomeditta of " How to Pay the Rent " fimu TMiirii -This elegant theatre wUl be again opened on Monday eyenlt'g next. During the raocm It hai been completely remodelled, radecorated and refurnUbed, in fact restored to mora than all lta pria ' tine elegance. New proacenlum boxea have been add- I ad, a magnidcent new drop curtain, exhibiting paaaagea I In aome of the lata glorloua vlotorlea In Mexico. Tha j | walla and wood work hate all b?en painted in oil, tha ! I lobblea laid with aplendld oil cloth, naw and elegant I glaaa chandellera have been hung; in fact, Mr. Jaokaon j ' haaapared no expenae to make thia houae what he always haa succeeded in doing, Tlx: tha moat elegant theatre in I tha Union. The immenae audience* that hare nightly crowded it during previoua aeaaona hare ahown what a hold it haa upon the people, and we oan aaaure the pub- j lio that the coming (eaaon will be aa aplendid a one aa 1 any that haa pralaed. Mr. Jackson la not oontent with thuaaplendidly embellishing hia houaa. He haa aeiected j UUIUJ/MIJ Hi BUIUII KUU AVirOBBVI 1U ffWJT W?J WUIkUJT to suatain ltc appearance, and the dram* will here bo | rendered In a way fitting the present day. Ha bu en- : gaged artists of eatabliibed talent, fitted to support all the various branohaa; and with Mr. W. Marshall to do the leading charaotera, ha haa also aaaurad tha services of those old favoritea, Mesara. C. W. Clarke, J. C. Dunn, Bellamy, and many other familiar faces; Maadamea Jordan, Sutherland, Bell, Phillips and others. The performanoea on Monday evening will oonalat of tha tragedy of "Brutus," and the grand hlatorloal drama of u Hofer. the Tell of the Tyrol." An Immense house will doubtless be In attendance. Chatham Theatric.?This evening la aet apart for the benefit of that favorite of the public, Mlsa Clark*, who, with Mr. Waleott, will appear in the drama of "Don Ciesar deBaian,"and the farce of "An Objeot of Interest," the whole to conolude with the farce of "State Seoreta " The many friends of this amiable young aotreu will doubtless be on hand to-night. Caitle Gardkh.?There were upwarda of Ibur theu* sand persons present on the occasion of the benefit of Tedesco last evening, and the Hispano-Italian artists were received with the warmest applause. It was literally a jubilee, for they never aang better during their engagement. The binfficiaire,Tedoaco, waa in the moat perfect voice, and three of her arias were encored with a kind of freniy. The onera of" Hernani" is in deed a magnificent piece of music, and should Verdi, its composer, have written but this partition, it would alone have created him a great maestro. The oelebrated finale of the third aot was rendered by the artists and the chorusses with auoh a perfect mumble, that the audience demanded its repetition. The la?t act was also beautiful. The whole concluded with the witty and charming song of i Tedesco, "La Colasa," to which she gave all the etprxt and cachet, which is the peculiarity of that piece, Tne fair cantatrioe was then called before the curtain, and presented with a very fine bouquet The company i of M. Villarlno will leave to-pay for Boston, where they ; are to play an engagement at the Melodeon. There is | no hope for us to hear again this year these artists in New Yoik. We are sorry to part with them, but wish ! them every success in our neighbor city. May they re- j turn, and reoeive a hearty welcome from Ms next season. rikLMo't Ohkra House.?This small theatre in Cham- i bers street, was again filled last evening with a brilliant j company. The Ravels displayed their best tricks, and 1 were animated with all that vivacity and Frenoh fun ! which ii so celebrated throughout the world. In the witty Knglish farce called u Hunting a Turtle," Tom Placlde and John Sefton ke t the house In a roar of laughter by their oomioal eccentricities. Mr. Massetti'f per formance of " Jocko," was also excellent, and Gabriel llavel was as good as ever in the part of the servant Pipo, which he plays with an unrivalled betiir. The danee of Madame Leon Javelli and Mr. Henry Walls, was executed with an admirable entrain. The whole eonoluded with the "Magic Trumpet, or the Invisible Harlequin," played by Gabriel Havel, who was received with unbounded applause. The audlenoe separated with the determination to rendexvous at Palmo's on Monday evening next, when the Ravels will reappear with an entire new bUl. Grand Concert or the French Benevolent Society.?This annual featlval, which Is to take place on ; Monday next, September 20th, will be decidedly a grand j affair, for its programme is rioh and varied. Mr. Henri Hrrx has kindly volunteered his services, and will play j several of his elegant and unrivalled compositions ; among which we find " La Pariiienne, Variation! it Bravoure," for the pianoforte, with accompaniment of a [ powerful chorus, as performed by him at the Hotel de Ville, in Paris, at a concert given in aid of the sufferers of the revolution of July, 1830 Several other talented artists have also volunteered their services, and we find in the list Signor Benedetti. the tenore of Sanquirico's company, and M. Dubreuil, the barytone of the New j Orleans theatre, whose deep voice was so muoh admired | at the ooncutt that be gave witn Mtamuo j 0117, two or three months ago. Madame Pioo, M. Geneves* and M Ktlenne are alio mentioned In the bill We must not forgot Here W. Buttenhaussen, first solo player of the Court Theatre of Cas?el, Germany, a pupil of the maeitro Spohr, whose skill Is said to be very remarkable. The plaoe chosen for the ooncert is the Apollo Rooms, but, on aooount cf the large sale of tiokets, we understand that the affair will, perhaps, take place at the Tabernacle. This last hall Is oertalnly preferable. No doubt that, with such a obaritable purpose In view, and with such a great bill as that offered to the publio, the dilittanti of New York will crowd the Apollo Rooms, and, Indeed, even the Tabernacle. The Obfhans' Benefit at the Paine* Street Asylum.?This affair, In aid of such an admirable chrrity, will eome off on Monday evening next, at Castle Oarden. Our orowded oolumns forbid our aaying all we would on the subjeot. We shall, however, return to the subject again. Bowert amrhitiieatbe Cibcus.?There Is an extra performance given here this afternoon, at 3 P. M,, which is especially convenient for families whose Utile ones wish to enjoy the sight without being exposed to the night air. There will also be the nsual evening p?r formanoe. Both of these entertainments will comprise all the good things Mr. Tryon so well knows how to serve up. Anecdote or Oasrifl Ravel.?Last night a delighted crowded auditory, at Palmo's, encored Gabriel's great part in the " Three Faced Frenchman." of making his sister disappear through a table about sii Inches thick. He regretted he oould not eomply with the pablic'swish, having but one sister, who had already disappeared. The audlenoe were greatly amused at this ruit to avoid a repetitien. Yankee Hill and Dr. Valentine?Last Nioht.? These unsurpassed comlo characters give their last entertainment this evening at Mechanics' Hall. The room has been crowded every evening with fashionable and delighted audlenoes. Look out for seats to-night. Oothic Hall, Brooklyn.?Wlnther's grand exhibition of Chemical Dioramas continues open. There will be an exhibition, this afternoon, at 3 o'clock. Madame Anna Bishop arrived In town yesterday from Boston. Previous to her commencement at the theatre, she will give a concert at the Tabernacle. Her suroess in Boston has been great. Herr Alexander is performing, with great success, at Saratoga. Mangy is abeut to start from Philadelphia for Cincinnati and Louisville. M'lle Augusta has completed her second engagement at Buffalo. Wallack, Webb, and Mrs. C. R. Thorne, are still playing at the Boston theatre. Booth and Mr. and Mrs. Crisp are at the Howard Athensnum, Boston. This Is the last week of the engagement of Dumbleton's celebrated Ethiopian serenaders at the Boeton Melodeoa, By reference to the list of arrivals, which may be found in Its appropriate column, it will be seeu that a large accession has been made to the list of histrionic and sou sical talent to be employed In this country during the coming season. Intelligence from Honduras.?We have reoeived the Honduras Otierrer of the 1-ith and 91st ult. from which we glean that the Guatemala Oaten* publisher iwu pu|irruio uuoicw, ?u wuw h> m hbhr'jvi iu?l hv lllf end of August the principal receiver's office will receive the document* to be liquidated m a current debt, and those which should not arrive at that date, will be paid with those ofa former date ef 1H39 Guatemala, Antigua, and Amatialan were in a highly flourishing condition at lest accounts. The constitutional Congress of CosU Rira was installed ou the first of May last. Steam ship Philadelphia, hence, was going into Cherbourg, France, on the 1st instant. The Crew of tile Navannah, Nrw Yosb, Sept. 17th, 1847. The U. 8. ship Savannah arrived tbe 8th Sept. 1H47, from the coast of < allfornia, after along cruise of four years in the Pacific ocean, during which time we have been lighting for our country, which we hate been proud to do, and now that we find ourselves on shore, we wish to be thought of, and our case* taken into consideration It is now the 17th of the month, and we see no prospects of being paid off, and being allowed to return to the embrace of our frW'mls Therefore, we respectfully, if the government will not, desire that the Oitliens ?f our country will not ti.rget our lon^ orulse end hardships, and, if poAsible, exp^iiif our return to our families and friends. SWANNAI18. Recognition ok Vice Consul^.?-The President of the I nitud States lias recnguixed Uuiihertne de I Krelta* Henrique* Korges, as vice-ouusul of Portugal for 1 Wwrren, and the other ports in the State of Khode I Idand The President has likewise reoogulsed Manoel do* j Santos, as Ticn-Roiwul of Portugal fur Norfolk and other | pert* in the st*U ?>f Virginia, ejioept AleiaadrU. THE GREAT AGRICULTURAL FAIR AT SARATOGA. THE ADDRES8 OF TUB HON. SILAS WRIGHT. Speech of the Bon. John A. Dlx, Qrc. fyc. FIRST DAT. Babatooa Springs, Sept. 14. 1847 I arrived here at one o'clock, mail avail myself of the fint opportunity of Informing jour readers bow matter* and thing* are going on her*. As might be expected, the town it all ezoltement. At vary corner are seen horses, cattle, ploughs, sheep, thrashing-machines. he., and the usual number of Itinerant raior strop Tenders, pedlars, and ginger-pop shops. Immediately outside of the Mr grounds there are a number of tents, containing curious things of every name and kind, the mo?t conspicuous of which is one in which for the paltry sum of six and a quarter oents, " a real lira female Anaoonda, with her numerous progeny" may be seen. Close to this last mentioned tent is " General Tom Thumb's own house,'' a spacious edifice, lar^e enough to hold all the Thumbs in the universe. Small an the General is, ha has a mighty great spirit, of which we hav ample evidence in his independent oourse towards the authorities of this aame town, and in his erection of this temporary residence lor himself and suite. 1 was rather disappointed on entering the enclosure of the fair, to find that not a tenth part of the aniiuaU and implement* that had been entered for exhibition had yet arrived; neither are the decorations of the temples or buildings,to contain the horticultural and agricultural production* of our country friends, completed. The buildings, to be sur?, are ereoted, but tho display thus far la far from being M complete ? s It will be to-morrow and the next day. In fact the fair has not yet commenced, although this was to have been the first diy of the exhibition. The list of premiums Is muoh larger than any heretofore offered by the Assooiation; and Ihe competition, it Is expeoted, will Le very spirited. Indeed, it is evident, from the preparation* that have h?en made, and the list of entries, that this will be one of the most encouraging exhibitions ever held by the Association. The annual address, prepared, as jour readers already know, by the late Silas Wright, will be read the day after to-morrow, in the larrfe tent, by the Hon. John A Uii. liarr Alexander, bivori, and Hers, are here. He r has hired the old Episcopal chapel as a place for exhibiting bis necromantic powers; and Sivori and Hers will give a concert at the United States. SECOND DAY. Saiiatfmja, Sept 15, 1847. Is consequence of the mail from this place closing within an hour aud a half after I arrived yesterday, 1 had necessarilf to make my despatch much shorter than 1 Intended. Having more time to-day. I shall be a little more partlouiar in giving your readers a description of the fair grounds?outside and in, and tneu take them through the several buildings erected for the exhibition of agricultural implements ; implements appertaining to and products of, the dairy; productions of the garden and the field; and then take them round the enclosure, and direct their attention to the specimens of sheep, horses, cows, bulls, calves, poultry, &o., he., that are entered for exhibition and competition. And first as to the outside. On ascending the hill, at the bottom of which Is tha Congress Spring, and beyond which is the fair ground; visiters are saluted with every kind of base and rascally music. The sounds of cracked fiddles, drums, and baujos, each played upon by a man who " plays" wbatland how he chooses, aisail your ears; ?nd if there be a moment's interruption, you are assailed by a fellow in front of a wooden shed, with a greasy cap on his head, and a white apron before him, who bawls at you that he has " warm meals and hot oyster soup" ready lor all customers. Passing thi* follow, aud wishing him and his warm meals some uistunce from Saratoga, you meet a tent .with a larg>- uoubing of? as the letters underneath inform you -it real live crocodile, to eet> which, you have ooW ui expend one shilling. " Here's to be seen a real lire orocodile gentleman. The ouly one of its sine that ever eached this part ?f the world." Bang, baug bang, fr'im the old drum Inside. Further on is another tent, with three alligators from the Mississippi and one from tbe Nile Still further, and a mammoth Buffalo weighing eight thousand pounds, morn or less, oan be seen for one shilling more. And in a tent which looks as if it was made in tbe year of the deluge, are to be seen two Brahmin bullocks, a Chinese Juuk, and some Guinea pigs We'll take a turn towards the entrance to the fair, and let us get out of the current a little and we shall not only avoid the danger of being run down, but likewise esoapo the importunities of those dirty looking fellows to ' step in gentlemen, step in gentlemen. ' " Warm meals and hot oyster soup ready at all times!"; In avoiding these, however, we have got in the midst of a crowd oollected round the immortal razor-strop man. who is amusing his hearers with anecdotes of the miracles his strops have accomplished, eaoh of course, concluding with the memorable words " a few more left gentlemen, twenty-five cents apleoe." Now let us enter the fair ground, but first attach your bit of ribbon that Col. Johnson banded tc you, to your button, and let us take a survey of the ? h< i- trom whore we stand. Immediately in front, you see Kloral Hall dedicated to the exhibition of the productions ?f Flora; but that obliging gjddcs* has b?en kind enough to permit bar sisters Pomona and Ceres to ooou^iy a portion of it, for the exhibition of their produc tlons. What rent they pay, deponent knoweth not. but no doubt it is reasonable. The other buildings which you see are the agricultural implement department?the < ladies' department, and the dairy department; and that large tent is where the annual address, written by the late Hon. Silas Wright, will be delivered to-morrow by A n;. Tk. ulv.i Hulls i.h...n tin fco., ara la pem aamx the fence; and 'that crowd which yon see is at the place where the horses tire on exhibition. Let ua now tako a walk round. Let us go into the agricultural department, and let us flee what our farmers have been doing the year put. You are puzzled, 110 doubt, sbout which to look at first; well, never mlod, you have plenty of time What U this T This is an tmgle wheel plow, with a share which turns a furrow six inches deep and eleven wide with a siugle team. Here is one of the nuoie kind with a wheel,* coulter.and a draft rod. made by Huggies, Nourse & Mason, for performing extra deep ploughiog Here is another plow made expressly for reclaimiug meadows, which by means of a craue clevis, enables the animals to tread on the unbroken ground. A capital thing, and the inventor Unserves the lasting gratitude of every " off " horse and ox in the land. Now let us take a look at these small plows. Here is one that will make a wide furrow in sandy soil; here one for clayey soil; here one tor p owing corn; and here are others too numerous to mention Look at that side hill plow, with the changeable mould board, which euables the farmer to plow horizontally on Hlii? hills Merits a sub-soil plow?here some self-sharpening adjusUbie steel-poiutrd plows?here a left-uand.plow,with a coulter and wheel here a sod plow?here a patent centre draft ] plow?but you have seen enough of plawa, let us look at the Orddes harrow? very good?douotlesM. it will do the < work well. That large narrow is called the Scotch har- I row. Here is a corn cultivator of an improved kind ' Her* is a hand cultivator. That large machine is a Held roller, which every farmer should have. Those east I iron scrapers wh'.ch you see, are excellent things for ex I oavatlng and making roads in the country. Here are i some flue hoai. That triple hook is a root and bush I puuer, very uciiui in siumpy lanu; nucn your came to < It, and the root must cooir. Here arc transplanting trowels, garden rakes, and weedwrs; hem a need planter which furrows the ground, plants the need, and covers I it In, all at onoe?a very good labor saving machine. Here's a corn nlunter, and another seed planter of nno- 1 ther patent. Here you see a dozen varieties of fnuning mills, horizontal, and other ones, liere is a thrashing and wlunowing machine; put in the sheaf* at one end. and fill your bags with the grain at the other Here you have every variety of vegetable cutters; each is good tor cutting straw, corn stalks. 5tc , for the use of your iniloh cows. Let us look at those oorn shelters and crushers; exoellent implements they are. Here is a lactoinetre, which would be of grett service in New York, to test the weakness of the chalk and water sold by our conscientious milkmen under the name of milk. Grindstones hung in every shape are before you, but they are dull-looking affairs?so we'll take a look at these patent horse rakes One ?f these maohines. with a man to direct it and a horse to draw it, will do as much work as twenty men These are excellent scythes?feel the edge?how sharp! (lay forks and manure, forks in any quantity, are lu the corner there They look good and stroug. What U< you think of that patent churn, and this one, aud that one?all excellent There's one of Molts agricultural furnace*?and here is a large bell from Mennelly's foundry, is Troy. What's this' a cheese press, tremendous power, lever principle?very good. I'hese are hand) wneeioarrows, aboveis ana ox yokes, oIiriuk auil hoop* pruning saws and chisels, pruning linlvea. and threshing machines, portable or rii mill* Here's a sausage machine an large a* a twenty-lour pounder nun. wliicii is loaded and dis^liarged tn almost the same manner an a gun, but with a different kind of ammunition Instead of po?der and ball, they are charged with |>orlc cut into small pieces, and spicsa Here is a patent mowing machine? mill gearing?and what in this'an a;pie paring machine yea. trly, an sppie paiiug* machine stick your applo, large or small. on that tb iitrlilo* a dinner fork, and after oun reToluiiou of t.i* fork your apple in pared ; crack, and one apple 1* pared? craok. another Kxcelient contrivance. 00'good bye to the apple-paring bees. Ob, this age ol pi ress will leave us noue of our old fashioned couuUy e joyuiente That machine should be broken, or the owner br.oed not to exhibit it any mora. Here are trunk*, saddles and harueM, sleighs, wagona, hand-churni und carriages ? We are at the end. Shall we go through again You're tired Very well; we Lave man enough of ttieee things, let us go into the ladies' hall. But hold -that gentleman approaching seem* desirous of speaking to one of un. Listen to him. "Are you one of the com mittee on sijuashes. air?" " Squashes, sir? No, sir!"? " Ah, I thought you were '' ' No, air; I am a reporter " ' Oh, beg pardon; but can you tell me where I can find the chairman of that coinmitteeP' " Don't know the chairman of the couimlttae on squashes, air!" This, sir. is the Ladles' Hall; let ua enter. Holloa! ? what's hero at the very entrance.' A lot of cradles, by Jove, and seme baby jumpers. Oood commencement ? Here is some neat earthenware; hut l.^ok -what beautiful work Is that' Ottoman covers, wiiked by fairy lingers How beautiful. Wish I could sue the young lady, tor she. too, must be beautiful, or she c uid not perform such beautiful work Here we have it lot of fau^y soap, and tho ladies are smelling it Here I; st-ie more worsted work. Look at that picture u K, .e<ij? at the Well, in ueodle work. iteautilui! Wh?t <:, ifttaiit labor it must have been. The iady that * i that in the girl for my money There's another. and .ioth? r I'.ve ry one admiring them, and no wondtir. 1 lie next thing it an Immense patch work quilt, and substantial an 1 elegant It li. .Vark how symmetrically the ten thou- | sand dice ?r< cut, aud the beautiful ntllcb-s What I sidendld OftrtieU tbo?? in fioutof tu *r*. Home manulimn, sir, ?u Of ItoMi. Wlw ?t IMUUtOt MMtUfMK I tart m wall u my other eountry' lorn* nlee Are screen* Me on th? other side; let ni Lave a look at them. Very nioo indeed Hera we hare any quantity of needle work quilts, of different pattern* and material*. What a beautiful pair of lamb's wool aock* thla la? There is a name on them; what ia It' "Kuitted bj Mr*. Ksther Root, of Saratoga, 87 y< ars old " 1'oor old aoul. Hero is a specimen of domestlo silk manufacture It engages the attention of the ladies very much. What more lit ting for them than to raise silk worms, and teud them as only women can do, or will do There ere some very flue daguerreotypes yonder; but as they hare no bustuei-H in the ladi'ft' department, we shall uot look at them Let. us uow stt-p Into Flore's Temple andfeevll that U to be sei'U in it. It is nut quite tlnishud. the icau at the door say* Well, we'll take walk over the ground* aud look at the pigs, poultry horses, ito. Those redcolored bull* tied to the fence are of the Devonshire breed, which is the beet for beef and milk that we have That i* a fine animal. I'll take a sketch of him, and aeud it to New Vork with the sketch of the fair ground* that I Diade this morning, for publication In the Herald Those bull calves are very tine. Would yeu believe it possible that that small cow la the mother of that large calf that is sacking her ? It'* a fact, however. What! these yearlings ? Impossible. Yea. sir, those are yearlings; two years old next spring. Well, I would not have thought it. Are they not magnificent animals for their age ? Let us take a look at these *]lotted animals. They appear to be very fine. Vus, they are fine. These, sir, are specimen* of the Durham short horn*. See what short horn* lh?t large fellow has got. How restive he is ! A beautiful animal truly ; by whom is he owned ? Can't tell ; it won't do to mention name* utile--* you mention all that have animals here, and that is impossible, but we ahall get the name* of the successful competitors, and that will answer every purpose. These are the sheep pen*. Here we have sample* of foreign, imported, ami native *took Those inow-white fellow* are of the Southdown breed ; see their face*, with black spots? characteristic of the breed. Those are Saxon, tbose merino*, those Saxony merinos aud grades. What very line wool they have ! here are some specimens of Ayreshires; there is a fine Oxfordthire buck ; her* 1* a lot of the Uakewell breed, a cross between the native and the foreign? oalled, I believe, after Mr. Uakewell. But look what tremendous animals are those a little ahead of u*. Kat cattle?what a magnificent pair of oxen to benure. The owner say* they weigh two thousand five hundred pounds each, and there i* no doubt of It. There is another pair of a different oolor, but not iiit.M ><i UrirM Th*t i/Mntlfmni now lnnkitw at thwm in * fcx-President Van Burtm ; how particularly be looks at . their proportions, and how eagerly he enquired of th? \ man in charge their age, the place where they were | raised, and the name of the owner ; he's a judge of cat- | tie, evidently. There is Ex- President Tyler and his lady, j examining the poultry , let us go and see thein too.? Here is a wagon full or white fowl, very fine. Is It possible that the?e fowl iu the small orib are only three months old ? Fact, sir ; the owner says so, and he ought to know. They are oertainly very One What fine birds those i'oland hens are Very. But look at that crib of Xusoovy ducks, and those game gocks. see the fours, and look at that fallow's eye?gam* to the death. Those \ chiokens from Saratoga are very good. Sorry there is not a better display of fowls. In the horse line we have "Top Gallant, jun

" Young Dread." ' Black Hawk," the Morgan horse, , aud several rackers, pacers, breeding mares, colts and foals How Impatient that lino loosing silky fellow is ! I an't rest a moment Ile'll probably take the premium We shall nee to-night, for then the reports ot the various committees will be made out. and the premiums kuown. Let us take a walk to town, and sea how many visiters will arrive in the truln. In the meantime, Pomona's tent will be ready for exhibition, and we shall drop in when we come back, first informing the readers of the Hr.ruId that the number of stranger* estimated to be at present in aud around Saratoga is ten thousand. Arriving in the town, we were exactly in time to see five trains come In, each Ave or six ears long, and 1 never In my lite sawso many human beings packed so closely together before. The insides were literally orammed, aud ou the roofs they were nearly as muoh so. This is the first time that I have seon passengers travel on roofs of railroad oars. At the lowest calculation, fifteen hundred persons came by this arrival; and where thuy and the great number that was here yesterday, are to be boarded and lodged passes my fr. - ..II I... J 1 are tilled to their utmost capacity. Indeed, the United State* Hotel " sleeps out 1 some four or five hundred of those who eat at its tables Beside* there will be one or two more trains this afternoon, which are new on their way. ltlslu?ky that the medicinal springs are never failing, for siuce they first bubbled, there has not been so great a demand on them. Six m?n and six boys are constantly and laboriously employed in raising the water lor the thirsty multitude, aud the manner in whioh the oountry folks swallow it, tumbler after tumbler, to the imminent danger of collapsing, would delight the hearts of the teetotallers. One, two, three?another? another?another?yet another?oh, shame?and ne more glass, when the thirsty soul U finally satisfied.? Kgad.this is a great drinking place. ilerz and Slvori. the lion pianist and the lion fiddler, gave a magnificent musical entertainment at the United States last evening. Their execution, I neiii hardly say was super-exoellent, but 1 suppose they never gave a concert at which there was less applause It believe 1t is not polite in fashionable life, to clap hands in applause. The audience numbered about one thousand, among whom 1 recognised the marked countenance of his excellency John Tyler, and the bewitching features of his beautiful lady. Yesterday we had a race within a short distance of the town, between some good and well known nags; and to-day we had another; but I cannot give an account of them, in oonsequence of my time beiug so much occupied with the agricultural lair and cattle show. We have several distinguished men here Besides John Tyler and Kx President Van Buren. both of whom 1 hkVH klrftndv m?<n?lnn?*rl I thi? Hon Hunrv L Kllft worth. J. I*. Jieekman, Gen Clark, Theodore Hedgwiok. John Keyts Paige, J. It. Livingston, John Jt. Liiscal*. and though luxe, not least (although hn may be in weight, but not in importance). IIis Kxoelleney General Thomas Thumb, fifteen year* old mid fifteen pounds weight. N. B ?The General in not includedamoug thn nrtioicH exhibiting at the fair. Ha in exhibiting himself The Legislature of the State too, are here, and any uumuer of pickpockets from all parte of the Union. They relieved one of the visiter*, last evening, of Ills pocket book, containing one hundred and lifty dollars. In addition toother amusements there will bn a grand Agricultural Ball this evening at the United State* Hotel, at which the elite ol the sooioty here, and the choice portion of the visiters will be prevent. We shitll now retu.u to the fair, the road to which is a moving nuss of human beings,and take a glance at Floral Hall, which is now open. What a beautiful eight. It has been tilted up by the ladies of Saratoga?and have they not done it beautifully? It was by their delicate lingers that all these evergreens were entwined in the , beautiful manner you e?e. Do you see that elegant t Gothic temple covered with oedar wreathes? That too is their work. It is a beautiful place. It puts one in | uiind of those beautiful sylvan scenes which we read su much about, but never see but once in our lives. What a gorgeous colleotlon of fruits, flowers and vegetables! Let us cemmencti with the substantial things.? Here are some beautiful seedling potatoes?seedling, < because raised fiorn the Beed?here are tOMtM as Urge as ten pound oanDon balls?here are pumpkins as large as "all out doors," as a farmer at my elbow expresses it. The exhibition of flowers is the choicest and most extensive that ever took place in this uuuunj. luniTB in nu rmi v. . . ?, pholoxes, verbenas, German asteis, p*nsies. green-houfe plants, native and ioreigu. in the voluble department I f?? Homo very flneoulery, cauliflowers, broccoli, turnips, carrots. beets, parsnips, onions, egg plants, beam of dif 1 ferent kiuds, parsley, corn, and potatoes. The collection 3f fruits is superb, and makes the mouth water. There are several kinds ol' apples, pears and peaches, plums, nectarines and apricots, quinces, grapes, water melon*, musk melons and cranberries. Tnii competition among ihu flower exhibitors Is very close and the judges will tind it a difficult matter to an ive at a decision. The ilsplay is gorgeous And enchanting. The dairy U' itment is sadly deficient In show. There are o .1 a dozen specimen* of cheese and butter. Th' however, excellent. Through in" ' rss of (Jul. Johnson, chairman of the hxecutive Uce. to whom, on the part of the press, 1 desire to return sincere tbaaks, for his urbanity and attention to reporters,! learn the following number of entries for competition:? Articles of a miscellaneous kind, including domes tics, plans of farming buildings, window shades, saddles, tic 461 Cattle aud stock 4HI Farming implements 4->9 THIRD DAY. Saratoga SrniNuS, Sept. 16, 1847. As early as six o'clock this morning, Cougress Spring was besieged by a crowd of thirsty countrymen, each of whom considered that the medicinal virtues 01 the water were suited to his particular ailment; and thos* who ha4 no ailment, thought it advisable to driuk a gallon or two. to make their health still belter 1 looked at them 1.. for Home thirt v minutes, aud could scarce ly believe it possible tliat human beings cwuld contain s.j much fluid an they poured iuto their months At first J thought th?y *fr? a parcel of <. isanthropes who bad become nick of the world, and were committing suicide by drinking themselves to death On watching theiu a little while, however. It was manifest that they were bent more on living than on dleing. 'i here wan a rare assemblage of men and parties in the large parlor ot the United .states Hotel last evening ? There were present, (lov. Young and John Tyler, .Martin Van iluren, and Kred Taluiadge Whigs and demo crats of the Legislature?up renters and down reuters ? f-ig sutlers and butt enders?huge-paws and conservatives?progressives and barn-buruers with a pretty large sprinkling of old hunkers It was an Impromptu miscellaneous gathering of the representative s of all the discordant sections, fractious fag-ends; tail-ends, and fragments of all the political parties that ever inflicted thi.couotry At one oorn-r was se?u Martin Vau llureu. till) a Knot around hlin discussing the Sub-Treasury i n>i being introduced toliundreds ot persous from hrre, iher#, and every where -John Tyler dbc issiig the one man power.alias the veto, witna raw boned countryman; (iovernor V oung talking of internal improvements ana tne i nlargement of the Erie Canal tin iteach with a small collection of men, ladies, and boys arouad them After a while the crowd became Intolerable, and thes. distinguished men were compelled to absent themselves to their private apartments. This Is the last day of the fair, and the show-men are determined to make the most of it. They brat their drums harder than ever; and In a louder voice than ever, implore yon to pay the contemptible sum of one shilling to see their wonderful curiosities. The warm-meal-andhot-oyster soup-men, too, are more noisy than ever; and eaeh as he views his stock of raw material, wonders if he will get rid of it before nigh'?and calculates if he do, that he will make something handsome out of the fair, when his gains are all told, acd the last ' warm-meal'' and bowl of ' hot oyster soup" sold 80 we go. The | lowing match took plsre this morning on a field about a quarter of a mile from the lair ground, in the presence of some th .usaud* of people who seemed to take a lively Interest in the result There were teu nom petitora. earn of whom perform-d h ( l> st The ground was not well calculated to display good workmanship, it tacked the turf end ?e ncHy esseon-l 10 good plotting, but it. was the best tlmt could be obUln> d in the neighborhood The ootnmittee bad previously selected a piece of ground admirably adapted to the purpose, but the heavy rains of Sunday last rendered it unfit. It was a very pretty spectacle. Tim trial of plowi took place yesterday. In a field a short distance from the Mr ground. A great number ware piembWhI ft* eihJMUra, but oily tM 1 tb?a *w? bait* MJto the teat of the dynanometer. The plew known U ,he Peekakill Plow, uutdt bj Minor, liorton l Co., took j the premium of $10 ' On attaohing tbe dynanometrr to the Initruinent known , ui the Delaware plow, tba dratt lorward waa 70 lba.; do. >aokward tto ; with a farrow alice it by l'J incbea, it 1 narked 330 lba on the dyuauometer Tba aaiue plow. ?ilh a alice of ? by IS. marked 700 lba.; with a furrow , ilice of H by 14. it rnaiked 600 lb* Minor a PoUiihkeepaU Plow marked, with a furrow lire < f 6byl J. s.MMba Itw aurtaoa draft was CO lba 'trwarji, and o" baokwarda, with a furrow allcu 8 by 14. IA0 lb*. j Af half pant eleven o'clock the meinbora of the Lcgiauture. aud other disiiuguixhud pereoua, preceded Uy a ndttary company from Troy, with no excellent b>ud, ' 1 eft the Tillage and proceeded to the fair ground. to h"ur ead the addrtan prepared by the Hon Silaa Wri|{ht for he ocoaaion At twelve o'clock prectaely, the Hon. Johu ' V. Dix. waa introduced to thone present, aud after a i >rlef prayer, waa delivered by a clergyman prevent, he ipoka aa iollowa: Sl'EKCH or THE HON. JOHN A. DIX. klr. Prcaident and Oentlemen of the Society :? I have coma here at your requeat to perform a melan- ; iholy duty ; to read to you and thil uaaambiy the an- I mal addreaa prepared for tha ocoaaion by Silaa Wright, n the order of your proceeding! it was to have been deivered by hlmaelf. The providence of God ha* over uied your arrangement. The velce which^waa to have >een heard by the thouaanda aaaembled here, lit silenced orever. He who waa to bave atood before yon where I tow atand, and to have borne a prominent part in your iroceedinga, haagoue down in the fullneaa of health and trength to the tomb. The large apace which Mr ?Vright tilled in the public eye, bia great talent* and the noral elevation of hia character, render thla bereavement k national oalamity. The general gloom which the inalligence of hia death oarrled with it, atteata the proound reapeot in whloh he waa held by hia oountrymen, iud the atrong impreaaion which hia character aud aer'iocs bad wrought on the publio mind. Tbe admonition* contained in theae audden dlapenaalona of Providence ia the mora folemn, wh n thoae wbo ire connpicaouR for their intellect and their virtue, are sailed from tbe field of their labor while they are yet reah and vigorous, and when tbe path they tread aeew* >ut an avenue to higher dixtinction It is thia that the tareer of Mr. Wright haa been terminated while hia 'acultiea were in full vigor, and while much of the high promise of bia life wan yet to be 1'altllled. till death is the more impressive at tun time and Id ibis place, from the peculiar circumstance! by which be Iran connected with these proceeding*. 1 bo intulleoLuil labor at wbioh tie bad been eugaged, at tbo invitation of thin society, was performed. The addreee which lie was to have delivered was oompleted during the very last hours of his lifo. Thus the accomplishment of the task be had undertaken for the society, and the termination of his earthly oareer, were coincident with each other. I am not here, Mr. President and Gentlemen, to pronounce an eulogy on the character or publio services of Mr. Wright, but to perform the more humble part of reading to you the address whlob is before me. the last labor of bis life, an4 whloh seems to come as a legacy to the society, to bis friends, and to his countrymen At the same time, 1 have thought that it might not bo inappropriate or unsatisfactory to refer briefly to Borne of the circumstances attending bis death. It is well known that Mr. Wright, for the last twenty years, has held without interruption, various publio trusts requiring Incessant mental labor, and leading to an habitually sedentary life. In the intervals of bis services iu the (Senate of the United States, from 183J to 184j, a portion of his time was devoted to tbe cultivation of his garden, and a lew acres of land, by his own band. While Governor of the State, he pure based an additional quantity of land; and when relieved from the duties of the executive office, he applied himself with great dillgenoe and zeal to the improvement of it. His labor was not merely that of superintendence, but he was himself a principal laborer in all his agricultural operations He had an able-bodied hard working man, and went with him into the Held, plowing, mowing, and harvesting, performing himself a full share of labor; and, after tbe fatigues of the day, retiring to his study, and passing his evening* in reading, and in correspondence. To those excessive exertions of body and mind, and to tbe too rapid transition from a life of comparative bodily inactivity to one of severe manual labor, is doubtless to be traced the sudden attack which terminated his existence. I need not dwell upon details whioh have been so widely circulated, and are now so generally known. Suffice it to say, that on the morning after he had revised tbe address whloh 1 am about to read, and after having made a few corrections, truving it word for word at it 15, and probably precisely what it would have been if he hadiivedto deliver it himself, he was seiied with a severe pain in the heart at the village post-office, walked calmly to bin house with a few l'rieuils, and In two hours he had breathed hia last. Such, gentlemen, were the last hours of SilaH Wright. The same oalmness whioh distinguished him throughout all the obange^of bit life, aocompauled bim at its clese. Krom the first moment of his attack be appeared to understand its fatal character, and he submitted to it without a struggle or a murmur. In him perished one of the finest models of a citizen and a statesman the country contained. He may bo said, indeed, to have been an impersonation of tbe true charaoter and temper of her institutions. The tradltious and legends ot early ages, before their eras of legitimate history, are marked by the lives and aotions of distinguished personages, invented with the ruling characteristics ot tbe countries of which they were intended to be tbe types. Tbe spirit of the polltioal system is thus illustrated by the invisible exausple. Mr. Wright might hive been deemed, without any coloring of the imagination, as an exemplitication of the genius of our's?of what it is and what It ought to be?of its simplicity, its purity and its strength. I'lain and unostentatious in hi* manners; serene amid all the agitations of life ; unambitious of wealth or of honors; singularly aourteous and klud in his intercourse with others; equally dignified, whether dealing with the most complex questions of public policy lu the 8?nale chamber, or when tilling with itoiuan simplicity lus own tit-Ids, be -.recalled to inlud.tnose *1 examples of disinterested patriotism and virtue which gare lustre to the times in whieii tbey sxisted, and which have come down to u* oouseorated 10 the meaory of ages. The close ot bis life was in har atony with its whole course It. was appropriate, that Lhe last labor of bis bands should have been performed ivi'h the lastruments of husbandry, and that the last effort of bis mind should have been given to tbe oause if agriculturu?a pursuit to which tbe great mass of his countrymen are devoted, and on which the purity of tbe jody politic, and thu durability of our social system preeminently depend With these few remarks, which I could not forbear to mako, and tor which 1 trust the ocjanion will furnish my apology, 1 proceed to read the Address. These remark* warn received with profound interes , mdcrcateda powerful sensation among the assembled thousands. Mr Uix than rend the following address, prepared by the lion. riilas Wright ADl)?KS8 OF TUK I.ATE SILAS WRIOHT. Afr. P-tsidr.nt and Uenllrmen of th* Shin icultural Stcirty:?Had it been my purpose to entertain jou with an eulogium upon the gn at intercut confided to your lire, the agriculture of the Slate, I should nud myself forestalled ny the ex libition whu'h ?urruDil< us. and which i.a* pronounced that eulogy to tbe eye, much more forcibly, impressively, eloquently, than 1 ceuld command languuge to pronounce it to tne ear of this assembly. Had l mistakenly proposed to address to you a discourse upon agricultural production, tbis exhibition would have driven me from my purpose, by the conviction that I am a backward and scarcely initiated scholar, standing in the presence of masters, vttLb the least instructed and experienced of whom, tf ifflkld be my duty to change places. The agriculture of our State, far as it yet is from matusfty and perfection, bas already become an art, a Hcleuce. a profession, in whioh he who would instruct, must be first himself instructed far beyond the advancement of him who now addresses you. The pervading ooaracter of this great and vital interest, however, it* iatimate connection with the wants, comforts, and interests of every man in every employ ment and calling of life; and its controlling relations to the commeroe, manufactures, substantial independence, snd general health and prosperity of our whole people, present abuudant subjects for contemplation upon occasions like this, without attempting to explore the depths, or to define the principles of a science so profound, and, to the uninitiated, so Uiflicult as is that ot agriculture. Agricultural production is the sub-stratum of the whole superstructure; the great element which spreads the#ail and impels the car of commerce, and moves the hand* and turns the machinery of manufacture. The earth is the common mother of all, in whatever employment engaged, and the fruits gather, d l'r> in its are alike the indispensable nutriment and -upport of all. The productions ol Kb surface and the. treasures of its mines are the material upon which the lab< r ol tlje agriculturist, the merchant, and the manufacturer, are alike bestowed, and are the prise for which all alike toil The active stimulus which urges all forward, excites miiimLrv awakens ingenuity and brings out invention. it the prospect or the hope of a market for the productions of their labor The farmer produci s to hell, tbe merchant purchases to roll; and the manufacturer fa brlcutes to Mil. aelf-con?uuipliou of their respective goods, although an Indispensable necessity of life, in a mere incident in the inlnd impelled to acquisition. To gain that which is not produced or acquiied, by the tale of that which Is possessed, in the great struggle of laboring man. Agricultural production in the flrst in order, th. sLroogent in necessity, and tbe high?et in usefulness. in this whole system ot acquisition The othsr branche* Httiud upon it, are sustained by it, and without it could uot exist Null it ban been aimost unlloruily, us I lie whole history of our ?tale and country will show, th r most neglected Apprenticeship. education, a sp.cme course of systematic instruction. h*ve been, tuue ont of mind, considered an ih'iispensaide pte-requislte to ? oredltahln ?r sucoeselul engagement in commercial Oi mechanical pursuits; while to know huw to wield tb< ate. to holu t lie plow, ?nd to swing thn ?cytfie hts b< ui. deemed sutlloieut to entitle the posnestor <>f thai knowledge to the first place an 1 the highest wage* in agrtcultuibl employment A simple principle of production and of trade, always practically applied to manufactures and commerce, that thn best and cheapest article will command the market, and prove the most prolltab e to the producer and the seller, because most bmelicial to tbe buyer and oonsum er, is but beginning to reoelve It* application to agriculture The merchant, who from a more extensive acquaintance with ills occupation, a more attenlire observation of the markets, better adapted means, and a more oareful application of sound judgment, untiring energy and prudent industry. ran buy the best and sell the cheapest, has always been seen to be the earliest and surest to accomplish the great objeot of his class, an la dependence for himself tte the mechanic, who from a more thorough Instruction in tbe principles and handicraft of his trade, or a more Intense application of mind and judgment with labor, can Improve the articles he fahrioates, or the machinery and modes ot their msiiufaoture, and can thus produce thn best and sell th cheapest, has always btieu s. en to reach the SAtnn an vain a** over his competitors, with equal readiness i <d certainly; and that tu>se results H' old follow Iliatiieaos and efforts. has been COnSidertd natural and tin avoidable. Still the agriculturist has been content to follow in tin beaten track, to purMle the course Ills lathers have evei pursued, and to depend upon th-earth, tne seasons, goou lortune, and providence, lor a crop, Indulging the hope that high privet tuiy oouipensate for diminished cju*u: |tv or Inlsrlcr quality. It has to?ro?l* oocuuad to hliu luat tb? study oi Um prUulpiM of uit pro&Miua bad mythiog to do with hi* raeoMM aa ft firmer or that irhftt tia had demanded from hi* xoUnhuuld bw consider?d io connection with what be Is to do fir thorn ;??d what he is about to auk them to ^orforta Ha ha* almost jverloofcad the vital fact, that bU lands. like hi* patient tiauu, require fed to cnable'thnu to | vrforui well, ?nd especially ba* he ueglacted to eons d*T that th -re 1* * like connection betwei n the qu witity and quality of Lhe food th*y aretortcoivo aud the service to be reHiirui ft ui ill-Hi H>aJy, almust always, to the rxtent uf their ability, to mak* advanos f r the puriihajt? of Oi?r>' land-, how f?w of our farmers. in the ci.iup ?ri-ou ftre willing to malm th? necfhenry outlays tor the prifltable improvi-m>'?t of the laud thi-y bav" .' ThraM and kiudr?d suhjitcls, are b -ginning to oeaupy lhe niluds of our farmers. aud the de'ic t!i?*y owe to thin society for ill efforts to awaken thxir atteuuon to these important facta, and tu supply n? ful and praurtl inforuiatii n in regard to them ix gradually receiving a juat a:.pre ;iatlon. as the it?eemb a, e which sur undr us, an 1 th? exhibitions upon th.s ground most gratil'yingly prove Many of our agriculturist* are now vlgnrously commanning the study of thair soils, the adaptation of their measures to the soil and the crop, the nature* of the |il?nt.i> tlj.'y i ultirate, the food they require and the best method* of administering that food to produce health and vigor and fruit; and they are becoming convinced that to underetand now to plaw and now and reap, I* not the whole education of a farmer ; but that it i* quite a* important to know what land is prepared for the plow, and what ?e*d It will bring to barvett worthy of the labor* of tbe sickle. Experience i* steadily proving that by a due attention to these considerations. a bettor artlole, doubled In quantity, may be producad from the sania acre of grouud, with a small proportionate increase of ill,or and expence, and that the iariaer who pursuee thai impraved system of agriculture, can like tha mvrohaut i^H and mtx-haniu referred to, enter the market with a better production, at a cheaper price, thau his 1?m euterpritiug oompetltor. ThU change in the agriculture of our State and oountry, opaus to the mind r< lections of tne most cheering character. It carried out to Its legitimate results. it H promise* a competition among our termers, uotto obtain the highest prioes tor .Inferior productions. but to produe* the luoit, the best, and the cheapest of the in-ce? arid* of human lite. It promises agricultural prosperlty, with cheap and good broad, furnished iu abundauev to all who will eat within the rule prescribed to fallen man In the sacred volume of the divine law Steady resolution aud persevering energy, are requisite to carry forward these improvement! to that decree of perfection dictated alike by interest and by duty; and the stimulus of a steady and remunerating market will rouse that resolution and nerve that energy. Without thin encouragement In prospect, few will persevere in making improvements which require cl?s* and constant mental application as well as nnvrt physical labor. Agrioulture will never be healthfully or profitably proseouted by him whose controlling objeot is his own consumption. The hope of gain is the motive power to hu. man industry, and is as necessary to the former as to the merchant or manufacturer. All who labor are equally stimulated by the prospect of a market which is to remunerate them for their toil, and without this hope either mental activity, nor physical energy will charaotense their exertlous. True it Is that the farmers of aur country, as a cI&hh, calculate less closely the profits of their labor and capital, than men engnged in most other pursuits, and are oontent with lewsr rates of gain. The most of them own their farms, their stocks and farming implements, unencumbered by debt Their business gives but an annual return. 1 hey live fragally, labor patiently and faithfully .and at the close of the year. It* expends are paid from its proceeds, the balance remaining being aooounted the profits of the year. Although a moderate sum, it produces contentment, without a computation of the rate per cent upon the capital invested, or the wages it will pay to the proprietor and the members of his family, l'he result is an advanoe in| the great object of human labor, and. if not rapid, it is Ktife and certain It is a surplus beyond the expenses of living, to be added to the estate, and may be repeated in uaoh revolving year. If. however, this surplus is left upon the hands of th* fanner, in his own products, for which there Is no market, his energies are paralysed, his spirits sink, and he scarcely feels that the year has added to his gain*, lie sees little encouragement in toiling on, to cultivate beyond his wants, productions wkloh will not sell; and the chauces are, that his farm is neglected, his husbandry becomes bad, and his gains iu fact cease. To oontinue a progressive state of improvement in agriculture, then, and to give energy aad prosperity to this great and vital branch of humun industry, a healthful aud stable market becomes indispensable, and no object should more carefully occupy the attention ef the formers of the United States. Deeply impressed with tne 'conviction of thin truth, benevolent minds have cherished the idea that a domestic market, to be influenced ouly by our own national policy, would be so far preferable, in stability and oertalnty, to the open market of the oommeraial world, as to have persuaded themselves that a suffl lent market for our agricultural produots is thus attaiaable. It is not designed to discuss the seandness of the theory, where it can be reduced to praotioe; but only to inquire whether the state ot this oountry the ceadition of its vociety, and the tendency and inclination of its population, as to their industrial pursuits, are such, at tke present time, or can be expected to be such for gsnerations yet to coine, as to render it possible to cootume within the country the surplus of the productions of our agriculture. The theory of un exclusively domestic market for this great domestic interest, is oertainly a very beautiful one, ns a theory, aud can scarcely foil to sulke Ike mind favorably upou a first imprepsien. Still, examination has produced differences of opinion between .4. I. r.lli...nA. .n.l ?? Wa influences upon ilia happiness and prosperity of a country ?nd its population. A uy examination ef this question would lead to a discussion properly considered political, if not partisan, aud all such discussions it is my settled purpose to avoid, aa inappropriate to tile place and tbe occasion. pp^ these bright and brighteaing prospect* to tbe almoin boundless agricultural tield of our coantry, with ite varied and salubrious climate, its fresh and nnbroken sol'.e, it1- cheap lands aud fee simple titles, aud who o?a h<<pa. if he would, to turn the inclin?tK>ns or our people fr m this fair field of labor and of pleasure? llere. the toil which secures a curtain independence is, ?we*ten?d by tbe constantly varying exhibitions of nature in her nioxt lovely forms, ana obeered by the most benignant manifestations of tbn wonderful power aud goodness of nature's Ood. Caltivated by the reeolut* hands and tB'ightHnud minds of freemeu, owners of tbe soil properly educated as farmers, under a wise and.lust admini( trillion of a system of liberal public instruction, should aud will lie, aud aided by the re*carcties ;? -"mct aud ch? i>i4try,?ho oaD|caleuiat? the extent of the harvests to be g*th>r?d from this vast field of wisely direottw human industry ? The present surplus of breadstuT* of thU country, could not have bi-ea presented in a more (lietiuot and iiitvrnstnig aspect than during tli^ present y ir A (amine in Kurope, as wide-spread as it u*s been devastating and terrible. has m<tde its aeianndr upon Auieriean supplies, not siinpiy to the extent 01 the ability uf the suffering te purchase food, but in saper-eddcd appeals I.. A ti. ?.? nl' II.. ,1 ? 1,1,,.. ....i " ?? - slarviug. Kvery omII upoo our markets has beau fully mct.mi l th?t h?art of Kurope baa been till-J with wnia &11J grateful responses to the beuevoienoe of our country, aud of our cuuutrym<*n, and yet llic ?rjnu-? of commerce are Ailed with the productions of Aia*ri?aa agrlsulture Surely the consumption of this eountry is uow equal to it* agricultural production. Ifsuohls our Hiirpius in the pr?s<n limited extent and iuiperl'eot condition of our agriculture, cau we hope that an exclusive domestic maiaetis possible, to lurnish a deuiaud for its mature ahandance ' lu this view of tbls greataud growing interest. can wes*? a hunt to the period, when the United Stat* swill present, loth* commercial markets of tbs world, large surplu??M of all the varieties of breadstuff*, of beef, pork, butter, cheese, cotton, tobacoo and rice, beyond the consumption o( our own country ? And who, with tha experience 01 the Ust few years before him, can deubt that the tune Is now at hand when the two great staples of wool and hemp will be added to the list of ezportatlons ? These considerations, and others of a kindred character, which time will not peimit me to detail, seem to me, with unfeigned deference, to prove that the agrioulturs of the Vnited States, for an indefinite period yet to corns, must continue to yield annual supplies of our principal staple*, far beyond any possible demand of the domestic market, and must therefore remain, as It now is, and haa ever been, an exporting interest. Aj such, it must have a direct concern in the foreign trade and commerce of the country, aud in all the regulations of eur own and of foreign governments which affect either, equal to its interest in a stable and adequate market. if this conolusion be sound, then oar farmers most surrender the idea of a dmuvstio market to furalsh tbe ilainand. and measure the value of their productions, and must prepare themat-lvcs to meet the competition of the commercial world, in the markets of the ooiumeruial world, in the sale of tbe fruits of their labor. The marts of commerce tsust be their market, and the demand and supuly which meet in those aiarts. mast govern their pric-n T?f demand tor hoae cMiiMiuiptton an an flement ill that market, mutt directly ami deeply interest them and ihould be carefully eaillrtM and encouraged while alt the other elemnuta acting with it, and constituting together the demand of the market, ahoutd tie studied with i|ual care, and, *o far a* may be in their power, and consistent with other and paraiuouat dalles, yli >uld be cherished with equal earn. Dors auy one believe, that fur gen rations yet to 0 me the agricultural operation* of the (nlted Statea are to be oircumscribed within narrower oompara1 mite than th-< (>rt??nt ; or that the agricultural productions ?f the country are to bear a lend ratio to our population and cotia.imptlan than they new dot 1 cuunet ftuppi.a* that, any who ka* *iven bin attention to tke consideration* wbica have he < luggested duds h mselt able to adopt either of th*-e opinions On the eon'rtry, I think a fair examination mutt, sailaty evi rv mind that our agricultural eiirpius, f ir an indefinite (u'uri period rnuil iucre?*.- tunrh in ire rapiiily ibau our p '| ?l?ti "i and drniaod for dofi-Ktlc c uiiiimpUon Thli I beile would bo true without the i ffort* of association* funti a* thtr to Improve our agriculture The o mdiilon Of the c untry and the inclination aud preferenoe of ur population for agricultural pursuits. won id ren ler ihlere*ult unavoidable, and If this be so, when the impetus g ven to agrlculturkl proluctlou <iy toe luipiovementa f the day the lnd.vldaal iiid associated effort* oonetantly making to puah forwaul the?e Improvements with an accelerated movemi nt ?the idifi of educated mind turned to acienttflc reaearoheii lu aid of agricultural laUir?the dawnii.g of ? (yitematlc ?ud univeriwil agricultural education - and id* Immense bodies of cheap, tad fresh. Mid furtlle lands, wnlcta luvite the application of an Improved agri. culture, are added to the account, who on measure the xtent or duration of our agricultural nurplui, or doubt the soundness of the oonrlusion. that the export trada must exeroieo a great Influuuce upon the market for the agricultural production ot the country for a lung series of y.-ar* to come ? Huoh In the conclusion to which my mind la forced, from nn i luminal Ion <if thie suhj ct, in Its d inieatiO m(m ct eiui) ly; but there in t<no:her now pruMuted of th t Hegnitude and engrossing intorest ,iiiid <1 unandlng alik* t ID th< oil'r?n *ud thu slad t-Biaii nf U>l* r-'pilbi o the ii OCT en-nflii rou-wlimt no All ?illatoiie? uhd< r?>u t in-- we referring to lb- thai gen HUd pr< of < in i be policy of the pnnoip-tl couiint'toiel r^iiouaut hi world, touching tlmir trade In fhi productions O! agriculture. By a single Step, wbicb *i botlnng l? ? commercial revolution. Ureal britaiu practically made the change a* to her trade, and Nubsequrnt even1* hare clothed with the appearance f almost. ?up. r-huiaan S**?<Uy. the WUtlom wlilch tbui prepared that oountrr to meet the vUltallou ol'laiulnc, which baa so soon follow* 4, wlUwut lb* *44ittoMi evU i?f tftunpUaf 4?wn U?<

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