Newspaper of The New York Herald, December 7, 1847, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated December 7, 1847 Page 2
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tVgt 4n?k, and J only about tl|kl ahoti were fired, with- ' r>?- . ff-ot aa the tnaln^ kul * ? la. At *l?ht Maota Ann* withdraw bla *upportlnf force to Ban Angtl to leeo Th? appnaing forwea. laft in tha Said, litt-elr (Iran. ?od Vkl>nnl*. In <v>n?e<j?enoe of tha h??rj rain th?l <-M durin< tha uicht. ordered a piipiet of two hundred hora? to retire whiob hail baan pouted In a ravine to nrxrxnt preo'selv what af'erward* occurred [Mora ?TbU refure to the night movement of tha Aui-rio >n troop*; wbioh wax mala along a ravine to tha , roar of Valanola'a camp by mean* of which a surprise j wm effected on the morning of tha -20th ] At tha braak of day, tha following morning. Smta Anna notified Valanela not to continue tha action, and ha sent tha auailiary brigade to tha oapital. he himaelf it-turning to San Antonio, leaving Valencia isolated, who oould not then retreat, aa he wai surrounded b7 the enemy, who had availed themselves of tha night to seleot their own positions aa they pleased Valencia, therefore, oontlnued in hla position, and met the euHiny in a flght, whlob did not laat over ten minute* at mint, as one of the enemy'* column* attacked him In the rear, and with Impunity took poaaeaaion of twentv-two piece* of artillery, whloh were pointin; toward* the prinoipal bo8} of the enemy In tha front [This aaaault luted seventeen minutes by tha w .tch ) This, together with the oondnot of Santa Anna, depres ami tn? emuuaiasm 01 our troops, ana they ware dispersed ; end Valencia, it la said. is gone t? the South with Alvarez, whoaa cavalry, it appears, war* unable to aot. owing to the natura of the ground, although It la aaid thU tha day previous tha oavalry mmde a charge upon the en*mv. As far aa I have been abla to aaoartaia, it appeara that tha troopa whioh attacked Valencia wera riot sup-rior to hia in numb?ra ; beeldee that, Valencia ] had artillery, and the choioa of a commanding poaitlon ; cousequently. during tha fight of the afternoon of tba IKth, the advantagea were on our aide, and tha enemy, we are aaaured loat over two thouaand man. and wa much less [The American loea, on the oontrary, waa Terr small, not even fifty men ] The reault* of thla alftlr depended entirely upon the operations of the euemy und?T oovur of the night, the natural careleeaneas of our genarala. and of the conduct of Santa Anna We are assured that some of Valencia'* officer* advised lilrn to nhang" hla poaition on che morning of the 4(Jtb, but Valencia, determined to carry out hia own plana, did not llaten to tbeir advice. giving the enemy time to surprise him by an attack upon hia rear. Kvery one agreea, that the reciprocal oonduct of Santa Aiju.'i and ValenoU oan only be explained by auppoeing t hat ceoh wanted to have the glory of a triumph ; and to revenge, each upon the other, the aenae of previoua grievances. I can alao assure you, that I heard Santa Anna give the order, after he heard of the defeat of Valencia, that he should be ihot, wherever be oould be found. 1 give you thia newt in time, that you may ad viae hie friends | j'l'he action, of whioh thelabove ia a brief account, althongh a partial one, and very costly to the enemy, owing to the number they loet, waa still a decisive one, as 1 nhall explain. Soon after Santa Anna returned to Churubusoo, he hsard the new* of the rout ef Valencia, and aa be thereby loat the only point whioh could proteot San Antonio, ho ordered that place to be abandoned ; but, without doubt, there waa not one among our general* who knew how to direct thia difficult operation?net even Sarta Anna bimaelf, whose head ia not inventive. [Not*?whan Valencia's camp waa forced, the passage to San Angel was open, and thus San Antonio waa turned by Its right] 1 had forgotten to tell you?and it ia necessary for you to know it?that Coapa waa the general bead-quartera of the Amsrloans ; that la to say, half a league from San Antonio, a place which the enemy oooupled with tranquillity, notwithstanding the fire of our heavy artillery. From Coapa, the enemy could easily perceive, without glasnes, our movements at San Antonio, and attaok us in our retreat. Well, then, after Santa Anna heard the news of the j rout of Valencia, he ordered the troops at San Antonio to retire and sustain (JHurubunoo ; and also ordered the brigade which hail left Sen Angel In the morning for Mexloo. to return and defend the bridge. [Note?There -wan here & regular let dr. pvnt, aocordlng to the beat priunlples of fortification.] The first part of the order wan exeoutad at 3au Antonio, noma of the puns there bviiig spiked and abandoned. This movemeut wan obkevvnd by the Americana, who had not, up to thl? moment. moved out of their position ; but when they observed our troops retire, and Bome confuiion in our camp, nnd understand our design, they ordered a column to p-ien by the way of the pedregal. and out off our retreat At the pedrlgal they mat some of the victorious troops from Valencia's camp, passing by Han Angel with the name object. Then, although many of our troop*. Including our best battalions of national guards, wishad to engtge in battle, there being znuoh enthusiasm amongst them, still the principal offloers in oharge of this retreat would not allow them to fire, but urged their retreat by a forced march, the enemy being on their left, without firing, which oiroumstaoee we eannot understand. as they oould have out up our troops, the Hidalgo and Vlotoria national guards. In this manner oar foroes arrived at Churubusoo, from which place their pursuers had to reseive the fire of our musket y, and of one or more oannons, which gave our retreating troops time to take breath, and lengthen the distance that separated them from the enemy, by checking the advance of the latter. It would be diffloult to make vou understand the disorder which characterised t his whole retreat. Only a faw of the oannon tak n from Sin Antonio were used at the bridge, aa the greater part ! arrived too late ; and while some of the retreating troops were going to wards Mexico, they were met by others, from the city.going out to their assistance. Wagons of ammuni t ion were going in opposite dlraotlons^ome of which broke down, obstructing the road ; people on foot and those on hovsebaak ware coming in collision, and many generals were giving contradictory orders, 4to Sto. bo. Whilst this was going on, the fight oommenoed at ( h IIrnKlllA/t nndAI1 iha Tmmxliafa a# B?i??a A nn> but as at this place there was no artillery, and no othar troop* but those of the national guards, Bravo 'a and Independence, the enemy easily cat them to pieoea, before tr<-?h troops arrived, not even gwcng ua aufflcient time to use the artillery brought from Stiff Antonio. Moreover, the fresh troops did not And ammunition in readiness, on account of which the Uth regiment of the line retired to M?xioalolngo. without having engaged in the light 1- iitally, my friend, the bridge of Churubusco wafl lost MlmoHC without resistance, and at a great aacrifloe. The bridge waa lost before the advance of the retreating troops arrived at the garita of Mexico. The passage at the garita was vary narrow, owing to the parapets, and made more difficult by a wagon which had been broken down in the road The bridge once lost, a party of Ame riean cavalry, email in number, drove before them a thousand of our horsemen, then drove before them the retreating infantry, and the confusion became general. I-nder these oiroumatanoes. the small sarrison at the garlta fired rather upon our own men than upon the enemy. This will give yon an idea of the disorder which reigned throughout this retreat. However, the enemy'* rnralry still advanced up to the very ditohes, and one offtoer, horse and all. jumped into our parapet ; another wan captured and made prisoner, while we saw two or three of their cavalry fall. Whilst our troops were running Into the olty, dispersing in ail directions, filled with terror, and crying that the enemy was coming in immediately after them, the enemy halted without the city, and everything Is to-day tranquil on both sides, probably owing to an armistice obtained by the English Minister, or rather a capitulation. abandoning the oity to the enemy, upon whlon the English Minister and our Minister of Foreign relations had a talk about one o'olook last night. Congress has been ordered to meet but it must fail. A gr^at many of tha members are absent. 1 have only recited what I know from ocular witnesses, separating the credible from the lncredibl*. 1 conclude from want of time, and because both pen and writer are used up. O od bye, my friend,?and I hope that God will not permit you to wltnsss as many misfortunes as your friend. Don J. P. R.:? [After detailing the events as usual, down to the intdrt of the fight at Churubusoo, the writer goes on to say:?J The cnvnlry was ordered to make a obargc, bat these rnwards refused to do it?nevertheless the action was wtll suitalned; but the Yankees advanced their right wing as far as the edge of the river, so that the river r-nly separated us from them?then our Infantry in front dispersed, and at their example the fortifications in front (on the road, I e., the tftt dt pan/.) were abandoned, afterwards the right, (i. e., Churubusoo.) when it rnw Itself alone?and then the retreat became a dispersion, the enemy following close upon the rear guard, veti to the very ditches of the garita (gate) At twenty yirds from the garita, there was an American officer kill-d, who was about to kill Santa Anna with his sword This is the history of the battles The morale of the army has been lost, and all enthusiasm extinguished; nevertheless, the enemy has lost about -3 000 men, while we still have 16,000; and If there was a head to these, we oould still conquer. The regiments of Victoria and Hidalgo have dissolved, so as not to fight An armistice is; in discussion, on the basis that the capital shall not be attacked, and that the Yankees will take nothing without paying for it?and they will encamp in the neighborhood. This armistice will serve to collect the dead, and arrange a peace The reflections which these events give rise to are so natural that 1 omit them. We shall soon see each other; for, if peaoe is made. I am going where you are, and no less if the army take Mexico, as I am resolved never to live in a place commanded by them. I will nevsr witness the degradation of the occupation of our capital by the enemy. My blood boils at witnessing so much oowardice? so much inaptitude and infamy ; and one must either die or Uy from this country, which Is stamped with the ?eal of Divine reprobation, an>' God seems to have written against us the words of the feast of Belshazxar Tears spring from the eyes, and despair seizes the soal. when It is Be-n that there 1* only among us a capacity for vice, and that everything is desecrated by a demoralized people. 1 recommend to you my family Give my love, 8te , be., I. U. [The following letter was written by a member of Congress.) Mkxico. Auff 21. 1847. To I. M. k J.?My dear friend?I have none or your enteemed letters to answer, but I take the pen to recite Home Umentable event*?not lamentable on account of the blood shed,which baa been but little, considering the number of combatants encaged, but beoause we hare not the shadow of honor left. The battle commenced about noon on the 10th, against Valencia's division, which lasted until 3 T. M . Ibe next day, there being nothing but a continual series of routs and a series of errors committed by our Cemirals and subordinate offlcers, who were filled with fear, terror, and cowardice, causing a oonfusion among the soldiery impossible to reduoe to order, Even women would have done better. The consequence of all this is, that all our mnltriel of war fell into the hands of the enemy .together with the participations, from Mrxlcaiclngo to San Angel, Including Han Antonio, Churubusco, Taixzacola, and In faot all the fortifications In the valley The dead, wounded, and dispersed were horrible to bo seen In the city, and an immensu cloud of officers rapidly traversing the streets, making it appear that they were occupied about something, in order to avoid meeting the enemy Nothing has been 1-ft for the salvation of the capital but an arinistloe obtained by tbe British minister, as tbe American army is at our very gates, and we have nothing left but the dirt that flies through our streets, to defend tbe capital?that Is to say, there is no morale left among us. You wlu se?, my dear friond, from my solemn predictions, that I have the sad vanity of alr.-aytt approaching tbe truth. However, I will la* aside this gloomy picture abandon it soil rely, and tags myself to tbt bosom of -it (4mUr, Utott (o mourn tb? wrori ?/ my loo ?abl> j tloos brotWa, whoai m at* to thank foe all oar '*fortunea I salute you for the last tin* with the a a* ot Mexican, bat Aall always ooatinu* to do M ai a muoh attached friend >. a. j. Mkiico, Aug. 31,1847. Dear * * ?I will tall yo? something I know, sad something I hare scan la thia aacursed Babylon. It U | aid thera ia a suapenaioa of arm*, with th? object of , hearing him proposition* made by Scott; but what la moat probable ia, that tha M extern army will abandoa the olty, taking all their train. that tb? en?my way oo- | oupy It. A member of Congreaa hu ju*t said to ma that there ia a oouiiniaaion actually altting on thia aubjact at tha lodga. Tha graataet conatarnatloo reign* in tha olty. Home aor.uaa Valanoia, (amongst other* the oharlatau F. Carbajal,) others, aud tha larger part, throw tha blama on Santa Anna. Tha troops are at the southern gate, but I perceive much oowardioe. The city la full of dlaperaed. drunken, rougish soldiers. Almost all the houses are shut, and in the ooffne bouaaa tha earns officer* are boasting a great deai whom wa saw run from the battlefield ground The end is. the capital ii lost. Hauta Aun? baa ordered out the oavalry by Oandalupe. the object of which you.know as wall as I. The battalion of Toluoa came last nUht trom the i'enon to ........ ,.n? nf the iratea of tha alt*. I know not whiob I Th* other fore*, that of General Norrigo, i? at San Krancixoo, and the guerilla of Mr. Rivera it in tba oitaI del Having been fou-jd in the rout yeeterdty from I Churubusoo, tba battalion* of Victoria and HidUgo I bare been dissolved, wbiia thOM of lnd<tpendtno? and Bravo who escaped with life, are prisoners. To all appearance this faroe will ba finished tomorrow. MANUEL N. O. Mexico, Aug. 31,1847. My d<*ar mother?In great haste 1 writa to you this latter, to that you may receive new* of your husband and ?on. V?(tard?y the division of Valencia and othar troop* from that place, were routed by the Yankees? and a* it may ba of interest to you (at Morel ia) I a lvine you that the troop* from that place hare not yet oome into action. All thoae from Morelia are in good health, anil although tba Yankee* have lost a good many?the devil ba witb them! ? nevertheless, thing* are in a bad Kate May God help u* happily out. Manuel 1* s'lli in Chapultepao. and it appear* that they do not intend to attaok that place, a* they extend from the Penon to tha San Antonio Abed Who know* what I* to oome of thl*? Pray to God to deliver us My daar motber.lt it impoMl ble to give an idea of the present state of Mexico. It i* in the most deplorable condition. Only mournful face* araaean. May the Supreme Being defend us. Do not believe all you hear, for many liaa are eiroulated Mother, God of Heavtn alone nan assist us in our trouble. Things are in a terrible state. His Divine Majesty has sent th< se devils to punish us for our sins. Th?a? are the fruits of our domestic quarrels, for only by this could these devils have so sooraed a nation, but it is very difficult for them to conquer us. 1 again reiterate my love and affection to (family people.) ^ J. M. O. [Krom a Young Lady ) Mexico, Aug. 31, 1847. My muoh-loved Unole ?Considering that you would be uneaay on our acoount, under present'olroumstanoes, 1 write to relieve your mind. Kverytnlng is lost, and I believe thare is no hop* left for us. Day Mfore yesterday Valeneia had a fight with tha enemy near Contreras, ml It >u aiinnoMd he was victorious : but the n*Xt morning be lust everything. Yesterday low national guard*, at San Antonla. bad a amall fight, and the battalion* of Hidalgo and Viotorla ran like oowards, as alao did the cavalry, and the 11th and 3d light Infantry. [The battalion! of Hidalgo and Viotorla, alio thoae of Independent and Jlrave, were called i'olkaa, and were compoaed of the more Independent citizens of Mexloo. The two first were ordered to retire from Ban Antonio, and did not engage in the tight. The two last were at Churubusoo and were taken prisoner!, those that were not killed. Thl! Is the Mexican account, in many letter!.] This U a strange fatality, and it seems that onr troops am good for nothing but to boast. I only heard them ory "there oome the Yankees," overcome with terror and running a whole league wi'hout stopping to take breath; from whioh faot I have no hope that resistance can be made at the garitas, as is intended. You will see what will happen if a defenoe is attempted; they will all run, and there their history will end. Ruperto Bared hims?lf, as he had the lnck to ran a war in company with the Victorias, and he is now safe with bis dear aunt and qoite tranquil it appears impossible that l i,000 men, under the command ot Hcott, sbould.have put to flight and entirely cowed 31,000 of our men. [The American Army waa less than 10,000, and there were not over 7,000 in the fight ] It confounds reaaon. It is opposite to reaaon and almost inoredible, but nevertheless true. Thii misfortune baa no remedy, and the affair must so en end, as we oan do nothing. | Do not believe the thousand ilea our troops may tell, and of which tbqy boaat. You know that even nere a thousand liei are told, ooming only from the distance of our next neighbor,?therefore how much more exaggerated they will be when travelling to you! Do net be afiiioted, but hold all you hear In quarantine. Reoommend yourself to God and trust in him, and be will take I Air* nf u? MARIA. P. 8. Dear Uncle, 1 refer you to my sister's letter for the new. 1 otn add nothing to It, but that we, the Mexicans are JUAN. [The blank U not filled In the original ] Mexico, Aug. 20th, 1847. * * 1 know not how to begin to write theee tew linee, giving you the destiny of this unfortunate city, the theatre of one of the most horrible of wan. Yesterday the enemy and the division of Valencia oune in contact among the hills of San Angel, and maintained on one and tne other side, a most horrible firing from 13 o'clock until night. This morning it was seen that Valencia had abandoned his position, and it is said tbey are priaonera,with the artillery. At 3 o'clock, P. M , we have had another well disputed action between Han Antonio and another little town called -'Los Arcos," [Churubusco ?] it waa likewise lost, the troops retiring in disorder to the gate of San Antonio Abad, where it is expected tbey will fight to-morrow and the day after, probably, at the palaoe. It Is a shame to have it said, that ten thousand men subjugated a city of two hundred thousand inhabitants, and an army of thirty thousand men that defended it It appears thnt there is neither tactics, nor genius, nor fortune among ua. God save us, for certainly his justice has decreed our ruin. M.S. August 20th. Anita:- I have entered the city ot Mexioo to wltneaa the ignomy of my country. Kear and consternation Esrvade the whole city. 1 do not fear the enemy, who ave suffered much, but 1 hare no confidenoe In our dispersed soldiers, who are all of them robbers, most ( them drnnk, and may break open the houses. To-morrow thta faroe must be concluded. To-morrow I go to TlaVinnantla fr\ InmAnt in i.hu Kninm r\f ma mmilw tVta 1 misfortune of being a Mexican, and having children born in this nation of oorruption and evil. M. O. [The following letter is well wrltt n, giving the usual cooant uf the defeat of Valenoia, and the successful attack at Churubusoo, and conclude* as follow* :] ? Mexico, August 21st. J. O?In fact, we have lost the greatest part of the flower of the army, and almost all of our artillery However, we have still from seven to eight thousand men, who are in charge of the garitas, (city entrances) which, if well protected, we could still gain a day of glory for our nation, routing the enemy, who have lost nearly half of their forces, and are now stationed within gun-shot of the garitas, at * * * and San Angel. All I oan say, in, that the events of the day are inconceivable, considering the immense number of troops w? have brought together, the instruction and discipline they have undergone, and the resouroes we have obtained with great labor. Our triumph appeared to be certain. [Seoond Extract ] Mr.xico, A gust 31. My Dear Jesusita ?It never passed my imagination, nor oould 1 have believed that I should to-day be obliged to give you news so opposite to our hopes, with regard to the resistance which the enemy would have to encounter. You will remember that on Wednesday last, the division* of San Luis was under command of Valenoia [ referrlug to the regular troops from San Luis Potosl ] He moved from Taoubaya, and eneamped on the hills of the Maidalena. I near the village of Contreras.l in ordrr to Impede the march of the enemy from San Auguatin, through the Tedregal, [1. e., broken volcanlo ground*, full of pointed stones, and great chasms nearly impaasable from tbeir own character,] to take possession of Hanta Fe and Tacubaya. In this manner it appeared that eveiy thing for defence was perfectly well arranged. But on Thursday afternoon, [the 19ta August] we heard an unexpected sound like that of cannon. 1 instantly went to the top of the house, and dlstlnotly saw a large volume of smoke towards the village of Ban Oetonimo, near San Angel. From the direction of the smbke, as I looked through a glass, I supposed that Valenoia was attacking the enemy with a neavy fire of artillery, not answered by the enemy, who retired at dusk, thereby leaving me to believe he had been repulsed. I therefore went to bed, indulging hopes : but the enemy was too astute to goto sleep. it is said that the enemy intended to pass by the way of Contreras, but 1 believed that their only objeot that afternoon (.the 10th] was to make a recounoivanoe of Valencia's oamp, as proved to be the case. During the night there was a heavy Ml of rain, which continued till morning. I woke up early on the twentieth, and thought 1 heard a distant sound, like that of thunder? I ascended to the roof of the house at a quarter past six, and saw a heavy smoke Immediately over the broken ground of San tieronimo It waa anaotlve lire of artillery, which lasted but a very short time, and 1 left the top of the house under the firm belief, that the enemy had tither been routed or repulsed, as the position which Valencia occupied was very advantageous But what was my astonishment when, at about ten o'clock, the news spread that Valenoia had been surprised by the enemys attacking him on all rides, and completely routing him! 1 would not at first bell-v* It, and I cannot describe my feelings when 1 found it to be the truth. 1 was everpowered by rage and desl peration. No erent has ever oaused me auch an lmpres I sion At about 11 o'clock an attack was made at (Jhurubufoo, the hacienda de Tlalpam and San Antonio. The firing lasted wntil 3 P.M., more ( r leas, and the re suit vif, that oar troops were dri?en and retired from : their positions, which positions had been occupied by the largest portion of the national guards, and in whom everybody had > 9n&d?d. Theoauw of the disaster ia at! tributed to Valencia, who, it la aaid, did not obey the I orders of Santa Anna, and attacked before the proper time. According to public opinion, danta Anna waa the ; only general who behared well, for he sustained the fire 1 of the onemy at San Antonio for two houra, and covered ! the retreat of the I'olka's (gentlemen soldiers), who, but for him, would have been destroyed, plunging the whole city In grief and mourning. Santa Anna was obliged to 1 retire to the olty, and the enemy occupied the positions. The battalions of Victoria and Hidalgo (the I'olkae) entered the olty without luaa, and that ol Independence was captured. To-day we have no news, but I suspect that the enemy la arranging his plans to take the olty, whtre we hare more forces than he imagines. J 8. Maiico, Aug. 'Jl, 1847. * * Heartsick, and tilled with indignation, I waa preparing to give you, by mail, news of the fatal rout our army had suffered, wlien we had the ratlatactlon to re ceiTe your furor, and in answer to which 1 will merely give you the most essential particulars, and true, leaving I for tiia tiri'rent,small matters Hint are of Utile moment. ; Uu toe taotug of tha IHth, Oanetal Valeuola mat j with the mimy, who, sot fuiaillojj the tmprudsat hopes (o/ cur thrtr rout*, M ou?b( to kw WM J eipected, by Mm Alid, to tk* hills of hiti Fa, to gala possession of Chapultepeo. Between this and lu Angel, and another oell?d Li Ma4iUo*, b*(u i wall disputed action, and If our army did not aoqulre a complete triumph, it oould not at any rat* be said, that they fought with a bad raauit. The pass tai fluroely disputed bv each of tha foroea, whioh retained their position at night, Valencia for the time checking tha advance of the enemy. But, as tha Americans are sharp and industrious, they took advantage of the darkness of the night, made more dark by heavy rains, and plaoed their troop*, without being suspected, no as to open a Are on the uoth, on both Valencia and San Antonio. At b A.M.. his batteries commenced an active and terrible Are on the points referred to, and General Valenola (It is said, disobeying I he orders of 8anta Anna) marched with his force against them, but was entirely routed. [The writer gives the rumors, as they reached the elty ? Gen V. was attacked in his oamp, and did not ad vanoej Gen. Santa Anna went to assist him, with all those who were at his oommandat hand. But the enemy had plaoed it so advantageously, that the oamp was surrounded by a circle of fire, so oonstant that our troops lost spirit, and accustomed by bad luok to run, they broke up in sunh disorder, that by 14 o'olook, the oamp was in the hands of the enemy, and the few troopa we had left, entered the capital at 3 o'olook P.M. with Gen Santa Anna, followed by the enemy, within gun shot of the fortifications, at the gate of San Antonio Abad? from whence they returned, when some shots war* fired from the fortifications. Trains of artillery, cannon, ammunition, all that belong to onr army, fell into the hands of the enemy, for the dispersion was horrid. Our loss in dead, wounded and dispersed, is reckoned at sis thousand men. The loss of the enemy is said to be greater, but yon know that this way of espreeslon among 11a U thu ffitnian Th? tnpnnnt I ht?s irlwsait ?am I ceived from Olaeta, who ni among the dispersed, and u an eye witness. can be railed upon. The enemy are now at tha gate* of the oltv, possessed of Churubusoo. Some of our troopa are at El Nino Perdido la Pledad, and the reat are in barracks, and sinoe 3 o'clock yesterday there haa been a profound lUenoe. I oannot tell why the enemy he* not entered the capital; nor why, if it ia atiil to be defended, that our troop* have retired to their barr iek?, from whieh they have not moved all day. Tha firing has entirely oeaaed The enemy are at the gates, and our troopa are in their barraoka; the one adranoea no further, tha other make* no movement for defence. It la not known that a cessation of hoatilltiea haa been agreed upon in thia state of thing* we are all atupi&ed. You hear nothing in the atreeta but the question, what haa happened? A!1 throw the fault on Santa Anna. 'Ti* aald he throw* the fault on Valencia, accusing him of dliobedienoe of order*. * * The only new* we have at present is, that it appear* that we intend to defend the oapltal, and that we expect every moment that the enemy will begin to bombard it. If thia should happen, you oan figure to yourself how much would be suffered by this beautiful oity and its Inhabitants; and, in the end, we shaU have to suffer the humiliation of witnessing the entranoe of our conqueror*, for I do not peroieve the *malle*t hopes of a triumph. We have no artillery?we have no troops? we have nothing. Our army ran at the first. We suffered yesterday a complete defeat, and still talk about making resis'aoce! I do not disapprove of it, for it is nrcesaary to defend tha oapital at Its last entrenohm ants, beoause the national deoorum requires it; but 1 repeat that it is useless. This is ths situation at present of the Mexicans, I had better say of those that unhappily are Mexicans. It is not difficult to see tha future; a nation of eight millions of souls domineered over by twenty thousand vandal*! If at any tim we have deserved compassion among nations, ws now merit opprobrium. I am a Mexican, and if God does not deprive me of life, I shall have to outlive thia humiliation, and witness to-morrow, perhaps, to-morrow Itself?the destruction of one half of the capital, and the occupation by our oonquerors; and not to be permitted to fight for its defence for fear of another Ignominy. This is a most desperate situation. It is three years thu 11th of the present month, since I entered public life, and I have *uffered all that you are aware o?, but I did not know what It was to luffer till now Who oan doubt that this is a chastisement from Heaven r it if rare mat the Host la exhibited, but in the fight ot the 19tb, and until 9 o'clock at night, the Divine Host ?u shown in the ohuroh of Mezioo The temple* were full of Mexican*, praying to Oed for a triumph of our arms. The day follMrlng, from 7 A.M. to 9 P M., It ?u entirely a different spectacle; the streets were full of soldiers, bathed in blood, who were continually rending the air with their cries and lamentations, mingled with words of iosolenoe for their bad fortune, as they crawled to their doors or the hospitals Carts might be seen, with litters, carrying the severely wounded, who eouM not travel on foot, and from their beds of anguish was heard the most heart-rending complaints, whioh were mingled with the shriek* of women, who, like demented people, straggled about the streets without any particular object, lamenting the fate of their friends, of whose fate they were ignorant. The ohuroh steeples and most elevated points were crowded by numbers of people, who still remained In their positions after witnessing the issue of the oombat. their countenances the plotures of consternation. During tie oombat some were immoveably transfixed, others were violently startled by cannon; soldiers were seen running without muskets, and Polkas (national guards) wrapped in their blankets, their beads covered with tlouohed hats. What gave the last sad oolorlng to this pioture was, the retiring of the soldiers to their barracks in the evening, about one-eighth of their original number, some without cartridge boxes, some without arms, and all bedaubed with mud from head to foot. The night before, prayers were ottered up in behair of eaoh soldier in particular, and for the nation in general; but, the following day we witnessed the oatastrophe. How painful to say this! What human power oan oppose suoh a plague? f When I saw the divinity exposed the previous night, I oonoei ved hopes, beoause 1 saw we looked to help more powerful than any resource of the ienemy. I have seen the result, and this lorces me to believe that it Is nothing less than the ohastlsement of Heaven, and this is my reason for saying, as I have said, that all resistance is useless, although 1 Judge itneoessary tor the deoorum of the nation. "The description which I have attempted to give,though norrowful in the extreme for a Mexloan, is nevertheless exaot; and I have Riven it against my will, for 1 would uave wished to aavo you pain, bnt you requested the exaot truth, and I will continue to advise you of what may happen. To-day all is tranquil; I hope in Ood that thia calm may not be followed by a storm. JUAN O. Mkxico, Aug 21, 1847. ? * * * * I likewise send you a diary of the events from the 19th to thia date, by which you will seethe pitiable situation in whioh we are placed, if not by bad faith, at least by the most visible incapacity. SantaAnna la now the object of publio execration. The general opinion is, that his enemy, Valenola, is the cause of the death of ao many who died by the aide of that general, up?n whom Santa Anna throwa the blame of all, and has even said that wherever he finds him he will have him shot. Those that were in the camp complain that nothing was done but by order of Santa Anna; that he would not allow the least deliberation, from whioh It resulted that Bravo would not offer even advioe, and gave no orders In the matter, a* the disorder became frightful. Unhappy country! unhappy onrselves! if. in the end, we have to reoeive in this oapital our vanquishers. One idea gives me consolation?aicording to what I have been told, there are only six thousand Yankees left, and although we yet have more than twelve thousand, 1 will be content to lose another battle, If we have one, a* we shall lose, for our soldiers will run; but two thousand mors Yankees will be killed, only four thousand will remain, and with these order cannot be kept in Mexico ? We are in tbe last struggles of the drowned. What a shame. MIGUEL M. [Diary of the War ] Angust 10, at 9 A.M., a dense cloud of smoke was seen in the hacienda of San Antonio, caused by the fire of our artillery, direoted against a column of the enemy who were coming against them The enemy retreated, and took the route by San Angel. Valencia is situated with his division on the hills of Contrera [I.e. the route by San Angel] and at about 1 o'olock, P M , he commenced firing his artillery, and continued witheat oeaslng until half-past 6. sometimes so rapidly that we counted eight shots per minute, although more commonly only four or five. At 8 P M. some unfavorable rumors came to tbe oity; It was said the enemy had taken six pieces of artillery from Valenola,a matter impossible to believe,beoause from tbe roof of the house, we could see that, far from retreating, our troops had charged upon the enemy, who was situated in a lower position, and to appearance, in a hollow, and was not at first to be seen, and the position was only known by the smoke of his firing. 20th. Between 6 and a quarter after, AM., the firing commenced in the same place as yesterday, the artillery slowly, but the musketry sharply, very sharply. It was heard peifeotly well in the tuain plaza, and sounded like the rattle of a drum. At 10 A.M., we received the news that General Valenola's brigade, which had sustained Itself the previous day, had been flanked and attaoked in front and on both sides, after first cutting off his retreat, and of consequence he was completely routed and rfiflnemefi ?xnent two hundred and fifty prisoners, who remained In the hands of the enemy, nod twenty three pieoea of cannon. [Nole?There were over a thouiai.d prisoners ] At II o'oloek the diapersed began to arrive, all covered with mud, tome with their uniforms and muaketa, others without them, and from that time till about 1, P.M.,the wounded oontlnued to arrive, some in litter*, asking mercy of heaven, and others >u foot, with their corpse-like conntenaaoes still dropping blood As soon aa Santa Anna received notloe of th< defeat of Valencia (whom, it Is said, he might have aided to advantage, but did not, because he said he bad net ordered Valencia to engage in light) he ordered the camp at K*o Antonio to be raised, and began the retreat on Mexico Here the disorder began; the soldiers in aoins oorpa were altogether without chie'a, and only employed tb"m>e,vn lu taking away the cannon from the bacterid*. The enemy, who wa* observing all of our movement* from tha haolenda of Coapan, detached a oolumn of about three thousand m?n oa our left wing, with the object of flunking u?, and afterward* besieging Han Antonio, but we pushed the movement of our troops, in spite of the confusion. so that the enemy only gained his object In a very small degTee, intercepting a small portion of our troops, and capturing two pieoea of apiked cannon that were left in the haoienda, where, in a very few momenia after the battalions of Hidalgo and Vlotorla had left It, there were heard the musketry of the enemy, not at the column that bad been detaobed, but of another bodj that came directly down the road, and noon took tb? plane. Hollowing the retreat of our troops, we nine to the bridge, where Santa Anna was found fortifying himself with activity, and where we were united with the brigade of Terez, and we beard the tiring at C'hurubusco, which point was defended by the battalioos of Independence and Bravo, who gave up very soon, and probably are prisoners. The enemy advanced against the bridge, where the firing was maintained about an hour; but. in the end we lost, with a great sacrifice of men and an Immense quantity of ammunition there and at Chnru busoo. Kri m this till hall past vi, the battalions of Hidalgo and Victoria arrived, sunburnt, tired and hungry, their feet all blistered and In desperation, as they had brought in their guns as they had oarrtnd th?m out [All Meaicao account* agree tint tli e?- two Imtuliom did aot lire a shot J They had bad an opportunity, not only to annoy the enemy, but to repulse him, but they never received an order to fire at all. Our troops were at night at the gates of La Vlga, Candalarta and Nino Perdldo. Home have gone to I'hapultrpeo, other* to their barranki. The enemy T?malu?d li. potMMlon of the hftoWndai rorlftll*. BftAtMlt*. Mid other towcg Of Hie n*ighh,-|?, beodi It to Mid that oar low la killed, woaaded ud prisoners, 1* about four thousand m<-n The lot* cf the my to said to be At* thou?nd Boa. Wo will mo the Uath la timo. [Note.?Tho Amerloan looo m, altogether, little over oo? thouMnd men ] Auo 21st ?Thto too day of the moot oomploto ooafuslon; friends are looked for some are found, rano >ro not; of coarM affliction aad tears ftro universal. It to said there toft < irmtotloo for forty-eight hours, for tho purpose of burying tho dead and collecting tho wounded; and there is loino talk ftbout propositions of poaM Souie battalions h*ve retired from the gates to their quarters, and although I understand nothing, 1 understand this le's. The fault to generally laid upon Santa Anna; ftll ftro incensed, mad against him, even his moot ftdmittod friends I believe the devils will take everything, and now I hare not a doubt the Yankees will enter the olty, although It to sold they have only six thousand men. Doinos and Results on Thukdit and Friday, 19th and 'JOth All). On Thursdoy, Gsn. Valenoift, to impede tho progress of the rnemy. took position with his division, on the hills of the haoiondft Alsado [ftltoa Magdalena, Contreras, ho. ] where be fought until dusk Valenoift had twenty or twenty-live pieces of ftrtillery, and the Amerioftos four mountain pieoes. Gen. Santa Amu went to the aid of Valencia between four and half- put four la the afternoon. with four or Ave thousand man, but ha advised Valencia to avoid a fight; but ha, thinking hia poaltlon advantageous. and wishing to anoountar tha American*, dlsregtrded tha advice. During tha combat, which commenced at about two o'clock in tba afternoen, the fores under the command of Valencia were separated from those brought down by Santa Anna for hia relief; but tbey had mean* of oommunioation still open, and Valencia aaked assistance of Sauta Anna, In order to relict a new attaok from the enemy. Oen. Santa Anna retired with his division to San Angel (four or five miles), quite satisfied, as he expressed himself, that he had saved the republio, for whioh he was oheered by the troops, wbo remained at San Angel; but he, not finding a convenient bad at San Angel, continued on, and slept at Churubusco. On Friday morning, quite early, a new attaok was made on Valencia, whose oamp was carried by the bayonet, and he lost his artillery, and his division wai either killed, taken prisoners, or dispersed; but Valenoia, of oourse. saved himself Santa Anna left Han Angel so late in the morning, to return to Valencia, that ha heard of Valencia's defeat on his way tbere to bim. Kvery one agrees that Valencia committed a great fault In not obeying the orders of tha oommander-ln chief; but Santa Anna should have united all his disposable foroe to assist Valencia, in order to destroy tba common enemy. Varioui reflections occur upon the oonduot of Santa Anna, who has given orders that Valencia shall be shot wherever he may be found. It (a amlA a. avoid a fight with the enemy, that he thought his position advantageous, and as a Mexloan and a soldier he oould not obey the orders of a traitor and a coward, Ice. fcc. About noon, a division of the enemy approaohed, whioh, it is supposed, was under the order of Soott himself, to attack Sao Antonio. Santa Anna ordered the few piece# of heavy ordnanoe he had there to be spikt d, and retired with the light pieces to Churubusoo, when a bloody engagement took place, and It la said th*t the Americans lost a great many men. Santa Anna directed the defence of that point with the brigade of Perec (the 1st, 3d, and 4th light infantry, and the Uth of the line), the battalions of National Guards, Independence and Bravo, the piquet of St. Patrick, and various other oorps. The piquet of St. Patrick It is (aid, wu almost totally destroyed [This piquet, so oallsd, was composed of deserters from the Amerloan army, and about eighty of them were taken prisoners, and are now under trial for their lives.] It is not known where the battalions of Independence and Bravo are. The light Infantry and the 11th regiment kept up at the oommenoement a heavy fire, but on the approaoh of the enemy within pistol shot, they fled. Nothing Is known of Peres. At about a o'clock in the afternoon, tSanta Anna entered this place with a large body of cavalry, and with nearly all tne brigade of Perez. the battalions of National Guards, Hidalgo and Vlotoria, which never burnt a single oartrldge; and various other oorps. Santa Anna went to the palace, and the troops to their quarters. The result of the aotlona ot this day has been the loss of 46 pieces ot artillery; ol the dead, wounded, prisoners and dispersed, we have no oertaln information. An army of twenty thousand men, and more than fifty pleoes ot artillery (I speak of thoaa that were used), has been routed by another of nine or ten thousand, without artillery, and wltheut knowing the ground, and while we had the advantage of selecting our positions. It is then clear that our army does not deserve the name of soldiers, and It were better that It did not exist. The inoapaoity of onr generals Is astonishing, but even more so their cowardice, and that o< the greater part of the soldiers, although they are very brave in the commission of brutalities. It is said, among other things, that an unfortunate Amerloan offloer on horsebaok approaohed too close to one of the batteries against his will, his horse having ran away; when within pistol shot he was woundtd In the foot, and fell, orylng out that he surrendered; but this did not avail him; he was murdered, without being able to oppose resistance * If we oompare the deedi of our soldiers with their boasting and fanfaronades, as they are dtily published even in the government journals, one Is ashamed, and the few Mexloans who are abroad will hide their faoes. Well, then, we now have the valiant General-in-Chief, President of the llepubllo, ?cc. Sic. &o , again in the palace, and a great many troops in their quarters. We will see what be intend! to do with the remainder of the army, without moral*, without honor or valor, but yet with a great many ignorant general*, offloers, and leaders, oorrupt, and oowards on the field of battle; but great talkers and boasters, only fit to dress for show In their gaudy uniforms. Mkxico, Aug. 21,1847. My never-forgotten and beloved Catita Yesterday there was a great fighl with the Yankees, which cost a heavy loss to those accursed enemies; nevertheless, the division of Valencia was routed. T?-day who knows what will happen? In order that you may not be alarmed, I take adrantage of these moments to write by to-day's mail, that you may not miss a letter and grieve over It. The Ureat Being must hate us. One of my feet has been hurt, and for that reason I have remained In my quarters; but you need not fear, as it is not of importance, my anole being only strained, as my horse fell with me. In consequence of the blow which the greater part of Valencia's division has suffered, it la thought that trouble is ooming, but I think the Mexicans are still in good resolution Although the Yankees will enter Mexico, It does not follow that they will be'the conquerors el the Mexican nation. Through the misfortune, we will be obliged to abandon the oapital, ahd these bad men will remain masters of the territory they tread, and the whole nation will rise in a mass and destroy them. Catita, Uod permits things to go to a certain point, in order to undeoeive us, but he afterwards sends oonsola tion to the afllioted. This eternal and inoomprehensi blt> Being will protect ua, and lend ?us comfort. I only beg you will sot afflct yourself, and pray Him to favoi me and preserve m? Salute ail my relatives and friend* and yon and my ohlldren receive the love 1 alwayi havi for yeu. C. P.8. Say to Senora Pelra that Andrew escaped in cafe ty. and that the troop to whloh Kranoiioo belonged did not fight, and also to pray to God for them and for me also the troops of Morella did not go Into aotlon, and a< far they are all well, and God will favor ua Do not afflict yourself, Cat it*; God protects the J oat and will bring ui through in aiifely. Private? [This was writen on a aeparate slip ] Catlta?1 will do everything not to expoae myself t< danger, and, if permitted, 1 will try to find means to g< to La Pledad or C Be prepared to aend for youi unole. Do not show this little pteoe of paper to any one Destroy It, and keen this to youraelf alone. But If yoi wish to see me, 1 will aena lor you from the place t< which 1 may go. Be prepared, and I will write to yoi under the name of G. P. or under that of my god-mothei Da. A1. for so 1 proposed to you. [The following letter ahowa the confldenoe of tlx Mexicans before the light:J AH.11( 0, August l!Uh,)?l7. * * * J udging from the enthusiasm and poii tlons of our troop*, and oar good fortlfloation*, we hop* for a complete triumph for the Mexicans, as the enemy'i force is much interior to ours in numbers. [From a Member of Congress.] Mexico, August 31, 1847. I.oved Friend :?The 19th and 20th of August, haY< been to Mexico days of mourning and ignominy, as wi have lost a great many valiant Mexicans, and our ira mense army has been routed by a handful of adven turers. We are all ohoklng with grief at such a oatas trophe, and we fear the sad oonsequenoes of the triumpl of the enemy, The enemy has not yet entered the olty but they are at our very gates, awaiting the answer o oar government, who has already entered into negotla tions for peaoe. What will follow this negotiation, Got knows ! What does the United States want, who knows Congress cannot assemble, nor will it assemble; therefore 1 shall go to you in a f*w days, as I am anxious tc see you and my family. Work lor your oountry. Do not cess your Ubor. Do what you can to proteot the public institution*, the arts, sclenoes, industry and agriculture. L. B. Micxico, Aug. 20, 1847. To E., (a Member of Congress ) Much Respected and Esteemed Friend To day, after the complete rout of tbe brilliant northern division, under tbe command of Valencia, who was posted in the tower of San Geronimo, (Contreras,) 1 hastened to the oity to see what I should do with my house. During (h? day I heard of the death of Guadalupe I'edrigan. The battalions of Viotoria and Hidalgo abandoned San Antonio without entering into the light, but those ol Independence and Bravo sustained themselves well at Churubusco, until they were abandoned. The enemy is now at the Hacienda Tortalis. The division under Rangel was formed this morulng in the riaza, and ordered to march and take possesion of a place called L? Viga Gen. Torn-l, with runny stall officers, have gon? to the same pluce. Gen. Sunt* Anna just passed here with Gen. Lombardini. The troops have been ordered to their quarters, but have Idt the cannons at the Raritaa, prepaied to meet an attack in the morning * " * The invader* will certainly enter the oity on Monday [ Another letter ot the '21st August says :j ? The brilliant and selected divlalou under Gen. Vaienola, who ocoupied an advantageous position on thi mm uvtr onu au^ci, unm tun iwburj ui ltibkumvu*. um sklrinUh with Rome of Hoott's troops, who attempts to lorce their way to Tacubaya on Thursday laat. Tbi fire iu sustained well on our part until dark, wlthonl losing an Inch of ground. But on Friday morning th? Amrrloans, who were ke?n, attacked Valencia In th( front and on both flanks, foroed their way Into bis tamp routing him completely, and remained "in possession o hla artillery and all his munition* of war. I oauaotan count for this result, and 1 do not give you any furthei faots, for I prefer to ignore them. ? ? ? ' The battalions of Viotoria and llidalg< abandoned St. Antonio, and were not in the light. Tb?>] arrived in the city without loss, only suffering from fa tlgue. (Jen*. Salaa, 1'edrlgan and Krontera are prisoners bant* Anna sustained a heavy Are in hla retreat causing the enemy great Injury, but theiaby protectee the retreat of the troops. It is also said thai Urn Rln con Is prisoner. * * We have yet a respectable body of troops ii Mexioo, but (Jen. Scott haa allowed an armlstloe, in orde to aliow Congresi to meet and oonslder the subjeot o peasa. There I* no telling what will happen to-morrow M*xico, Aug. 91,184V. I.. R.?My !>?ar I'ooIim?My heart U oppressed wit] grl^f, and 1 can <lr? you but a yery aUgbt nutoh of th I'll!! WU M?i?r Mill*, IMh MWttl'. unfortunate raralta of tha battle* ef tb? 10th and 30th, hi and of tha misfortunes of oar Mtxlsu nation. ? (Jen. Vaienoia waa pushed near tbe factory of Magda tl lana, where ho waa attaokad by 10.000 American* on the ol 10th, who endeavored to foroa their passage that way I against 4000 Mexioans, and had not Uen. Peru came to the assistance of Valencia, taking position on his ai left flank, tha same results would have occurred that day which happened tba morning following The enemy, sj yesterday morning, by a decided and bold attempt, took al possession of Valenoia'a camp near Magdalen*, com- tl pletaly routing bim and taking possession ot the greatest fl Cart of bis artillery. But you must bear in mind that ad the troops, whioh oaine to hi* assistance the daT tl previous beea tbere, the reault would have been different, ai Magdalena, onoe m possession of tbe Americans, they Immediately prooeeded and attacked our main body of nnoouquerabie Mexicans, who were In their fortinca- n tlons, and only listened to the musketry of tbe enemy, ri as they had no artillery with tbem. We only waited for ri two discharges of their musketry, and our troops were jj put to flight In terrible confusion, and It la remarkable _ what a state of fear exteudad throughout our entire J, army. This olroumatanoa.' enabled the Amerioana to ri take poasesslon of our fortifications with the greatest a ease, and more so as tha National Guards, (Polka's,) D whose name is so renowned, behaved with an ignominy H lamentable to relate. | jj [Of the reported armistice, the writer ssys\ It 1* lupposed that It will be favortblo to peace. buf. you fl must be well aware, that should It b? effected, of wblob 1 have no doubt, It will be a disgrace to the Mexican people. J?. C. g Mcxice. August 31st, 1M7. ti 8*norita Do*. M. de J. M ? p My Desr Young Lady Yesterday I arrived at home fl without accident, having escaped the daggers of the b fight bv privilege, or because the Yankees took pity on o us, for, on leaving our camp, suoh was the disorder and e oonfusion, that if ^b? enemy hadattacked us with whips. II not a single one i>f m ?o lij huve been lelt. The gene- s> rale gave order*, ?n l tbe camp women screamed, the ? mules would not pu'l, the eo'.d'ers did not wish to rt- V treat without flghu >g. and General Bravo, our oom- b mander, would not nil it, and at last we escaped, sav- * lng some part of our muuiUons, but losing much, F which oould not be rewovnd The Yankees under- ? took to out flank us, but meeting with the dlvl- ? sion, they commenced a fire We stood on the n defenoe, and they oertalnly through pity took the n other road, all the time acootupanjlog us on tbe left, t! Hardly had we raached the bridge at Churubusoo, t! when the artillery fire was commenced at that plaoe. ii General Santa Anna arrived there s t the moment we tl passed, and he ordered suoh of the artillery as was oon- t venlent, should b? turned upon the enemy, and that b we should continue [to retreat.'] On the way we met 8 the division of General Peres, whioh afterwards engaged o the enemy, kud while the action continued we reached p the city. We found Mexico in the greatest consterns- * tlon, perhaps more for our sakes than for the events of n the morning, for 1 saw that our pressnce produoed the o greatest Joy, and we were even oheered when It was i seen that we had not met with any loss. Ii It eeems impossible that in the apace of six hours, eight thousand men should have been destroyed, or t which not the eighth part were killed. But our troops soaroely saw a movement of the enemy before thry fled, t and that without the possibility of stopping them The n battalions of Bravo and Independenoe were attacked in b the convent of Churubusoo, and taken prisoners, and it is thought that OorostUa Is of the number. n To-day, about live thousand of the dispersed have d been collected, and we have now about twelve thousand men in arms. An armittioe, &o , (Sco . bo. d Auouit 21,1817. . 0 Old Man : ?Although I am a regidor, (a oivil offlcer,) till 1 resolved to go to the fight, as I could no longer remain in the olty taking o&re if disorderly women and drunkards. 1 determined o the fve ef my unfortunatu country ; consequ'ady, on Tuo'duy Usf. I received an order from the M .aVsr of War und Government directing mu to Join Official Al.orta as his aid-decamp ; and on Wedn??de> morning 1 went to the Prnoo, resolved to endura wtl the prorations of a campaign, and to see in what I ooulO * r?e my oountry. The enemy presented liimsai .>n Thursday morning before us, in order to allow th?ir Mi*ia,.r? to make a reoonnoltsanoe of our position, but Le d.d not like the ' pa'ato, and on Sunday night S^nta Auua heard that the enemy had certainly taken the route towards TWlpam i Han Augustln ) On Monday morning, at 9 o'clock, we commenced our mareh towards the same plaee, (by the city) and on Tuesday, alter an examination of the place, we saw we could not make resistance there, and it was resolved that we should take up our position at San Antonio. That same afternoon the Yankees arrived at San Angustin at 2 P. M. We proceeded with the greatest aotivity to make preparations for resistance, and ordered the heaviest pieces of ordnanoe to be brought from Penon to San Antonio, and we proteoted our right flank as much as possible, tear ing that the enemy might take advantage of us in that quarter. We made ditohes and redoubts, and Oeneral Peres' brigade composed of, 4000 Infantry and 700 horse, of the hussars, who were at Jalapa, was ordered to go around towards Coyoacan (near San Angel) The 6th brigade, composed of Victoria, Independence, Hidalgo, t and Bravo's were oraerea to maron tocnurubusio ; tnis ? brigade ?h composed of 3,000 men, and generally called Polkas. On Wednesday the Yankees presented themselves at the haoienda of Coapa, about a fourth of a league from San Antonio. Ttiere must have been seven or eight hundred men, and we fired several shots at them with our twenty-four pound pleoe, and some shells, with a good result. In the meantime, I took a nap at general headquarters, abont half a league this side of dan Antonio, where Bravo oommaaded. Dsy before yesterday, (Thursday) we oontinued firing cannon on the enemy, and at about 1 o'clock we observed that Valenoia, who was posted t Magdalena to impede the enemy that way, commenoed firing cannon. The fire was heavy, when an aid of Valencia's arrived saying that he was being surrounded; and we sent an aid to Purex, and another to Mexioo, to Lombardlna, (Minister of War) in order that he might tell Rangel to march 1 with his 2,000 men, together with Tero's brigade, to the support of Valenoia. At about half past 3 o'clock in the afternoon we found ourselves in front of the enemy, who were taking a position on the left ttank of Valencia, when the enemy, on seeing 5,000 men who came to reinforce Valenoia, commenced covering themselves in the bushes, and behind the church of San Ueronimo However, the enemy's foroes in front of Valenoia mmt'jioed to fire upon him, and he, Valenoia, returned their fire with twenty-one pieces of cannon A little before dusk we received three light pieoes we had sent for, and we fired six times with good result. I had preposed not to ask where we were going, and wbat was my astonish- ^ meni WU?o, KV uigut, ww were uruereu to rouro vo o?u j 1 Angel, two and a half leagues distant from Valencia's 1 oamp. \V? there met Kangel's division, and ours, 1 together with his, amounted to 12,000 mrn. Weil, old gentleman, instead of marohlng early the 1 next morning to the beautiful position we left on the 19th, we did not start till after 6 o'olock, merely, as it were, to see the destruction of Valenoia, and we had not arrived at the position of the previous day, when ; we met two flying soldiers, at about 7 o'clock, who < brought the fatal news of the oompietu rout of Valencia > Then Don Antonio (Santa Anna) gave orders for our return to Mexico, as it was to be made another Troy Rangel's brigade was ordered to take pasession of the , ' citadel, and Santa Anna gave Peres and Uravo orders to . i retire from San Antonio; as San Angel being taken, , * we were cut off by the enemy, and you can imagine j 1 the confusion and the destruction of tne mora t of our 1 armywhloh ensued In moviDg our artillery and am munition we wer<* put '.omuoh inoonvenienoe and delay, for, as It had r?l?wj Mi* night previous, the wheels > stuak in the mud,auii the mules, fatigued, could not < } haul them. The r>*uii ?a* that when the Yankees r observed our movi m ot, <ud saw us withdraw our < pieces from the embrt z >rr? ?t si n Antonio, he Jet ached j 1 two oolumns, one by tlie i'ui.egul (rough voloanlo 5 ground) and the other down the ni?ln road, and const- < 1 rmanflv tftnfer tta.n Antnnifi. unit niOAf. of Alv&rpr'H t r troops, brought from the S.<rh, vera uirniu prisoners. Whilst this was goiug on at San Antonio, the same troops whioh had ruut?<l Valenoia, were > detached in two columns, one . t which attaoked Churubusco, where, after a small res! Unco, the companies .of Independence and Bravo were taken prisoners, as also other companies that ware out off In 1 tbeir retreat The other oolumn ctme down tbe 1 main road, and attaoked tbe bridge by the fame name.* where our own wagons (returning from San Antonio and fast lu he mud) served them as trenches; and after an attack of infantry alone they took our position whiob i appeared Impregnable,f putting us shamefully to flight, i and had tbe enemy been any other, they would have . gone directly into Mexico, for our cursed soldiers, . fiightened to deatb, were bellowlag through the streets, . " here com'S the Yankees " Hnally, Santa Anna rrI solved to defend the city at tae first line, and if our , soldiers would not run, we had a sufficient number left f to defend this unfortunate city. But now they speak of oapitulation, or I know not I what. The result is tbatthe Yankees oan maroh dlrect> ly Into Mexico at any hour they please, owing to the . oowardice and of our genrrels-in-chirf Barsadra, i Mora Yillamll and Aranjois started at day-break this i morning with orders fro a Pachcco to ask Scott for 30 i hours armistice, in order tc bury tbe d*ad and oollect 1 the wounded. Santa Anna became very angry and said, this cursed Paoheco had made a fool of bimselfaud compromised me?whioh remark, having oome to the ears of I'aoheoo. he resigned. Som;; say It was a pre-concerted affair 1 will now give yo'i, my o!<i man, my opinion of all this:?Valencia wish initio biro but had not t? 1? i r? .al f ? A % , n * Infill destroy him, and, bj not se' <I!ig hi n ri;nf<^r?m*nte , day before yesterday ie t?s Iom he n- tion K ep this 1 to jfOurMlf. Valencia *<c-?t>,?d po itlre urdtr.i not to ' engage in light, but. no wi. i.fter.Jiiirf thoie order*, and | the order to spike hi* ar il lory ai-tt ie'lr?i f n<.o?sHary, he remained, and replied tliat he considered himself strong enough to beat ti ? m-cmj, r.tid i-hat his army . from the north, (it was from Hin i.an> I'ctosl) could not be OTercorae, mucn less would it ntreat before the enemy. From all I h?ve said you will judge the future J destinyof our unhappy oountry. Juan. Mtxiro, August 21st, 1847. i Mt Diar F.: * As I Wrote to you, you will see that on Wednesday 1 went to the palace, and on that dame day we arrived at Churubusco. and on Tbursdey we went to the i at Hacienda St. Antonio. Yesterday we were ordered out 4 o'clock la toe morning, and remained formed In the i i Hacienda, which waa full of mud from the continued | 1 rain during the night, till about 11 e'elook, when we I marched, eipeoting to attack the enemy, for we w?r* i . told we were surrounded, but by a miracle of Ood, i t Jorrin saved the whole battalim; for, had we left five i minutes later, our retreat wou'd hate been out off, as I t happened to other corps following in our rear. Our I battalion, (that ot Vlotorla?) and that of Hidalgo, were I t the only ones to which no accident happened, although I . some shots were tired at us. r All Is lost The enemy Is in Churubusco and Kin i Antra o At a little after 3,we reaobed Mexico, very [i much fatigued, as we came in haste. They sent us to i j thegarito of the Nino Terdido, where we oooupled the . breastwork until ft o'clock, about which time there was i. united a respectable number of the dispersed soldiers, i ;, who came pouring in on every side. At durk we were 1 marched to our barracks, and thence dismissed to our . homes, and from that time till coir, hslfpart ft, P M., we know nothing of what hss happened, (I. e , of the i negotiations. r Mtxtco, August 21st, 1947. f My Dk.au * * *: It ia now 4 o'clock in the afternoon, and an armistice [ * The AmciiMn foree \vu ?ent forward in 'tires columns, 1 ?ml siuokrU ilia enemy's work* in t|ji front and on both : > fluiki. T|?e ???<mil work ii sallrU Hie TfU \i 1 t His wrttar is ia gain accurals, but tilt li?<i two j lt|MMttOllM UkUlU 01 ftl??!M. J ' <1 tabeen eoneludfd b tweefl tbi govar?in?nt ?nd th? nerny Ibr forty-?lght boon, and I will avail njiwf if ?e diligence in th\t time to Join you' Tweoty-flve :her? h?r? applied, for seat*. buttbe diligence ll full H very anxious to gut a nnat aa " It I* not true that Bravo U either dead or a prisoner, I I bare, to-day, ?e?n him in the city Our dead bavebesn but few, but we hare been mo?t mint-fully routed I auppoee yon hare bear! in my iarmlng atoriea, but oalm yonrtelf, a* there U no furler danger, bat we hare been lout by means of a haijd 1 rf adventurers of the worst kiod. The battalion of Vlotoria baa not fought. They ear hey will fight, but will only obey the ordera of their Col i their generals ran away Mkxico, Aug JOth. 1847. All la loet,nll. My preaentimenta never have deceived le?and when I have been deoelved It la when I have sasoned with those who reaaon, and last night It waa saaonable to oonflde, and I endeavored to confide, to beeve and to persuade myaelf, although the inatinot of reaentiment would arise and say Just what haa ocurred You will already have heard or It when you tcelve this, but perhaps you would wish me to repeat It, itbough at this moment a sort of delirium baa taken DMessionof my faouities. and, la truth, I do not know bat to ear to you; but what 1 oan, I will aay, be it what , may. Yesterday morning Santa Anna ordered 'alenola not to fight. Valencia answered that ba would iht, aa bia own and the honor of the nation required It and he did fight with exemplary courage until 7 o'olook i the evening, at whiob time the filing oeaaed, when anta Anna, benaase It rained, determined to Uka his roopa to San Angel, leaving Valencia at bla advaneed ost At daylight this morning Valenola waa outanked by the < nemy, in the dlreotlen of tba inaooesalle place, the Pedregal. (This la underscored In tbe intinb.. -~l 1. Am \ h .. ...... .. ...... D1UIIII) HW WW ntirely surrounded and on all aide*, they fought Ilk* nun 8anta Anna coolly observed tbia, and did not end to our general any assistance, fearing the laurela rbiob, against bla orders, Valencia w*s gathering; but ralencia waa overpowered and succumbed, yet like a rare man. At about 7 o'clock thia morning, afterward*, re were defeated at San Antonio and Churubuwo.? rom these point* therepimtnta of Hidalgo and Viotorla 'ere ordered to retire. Tbat of Independence, whioh raa isolated, waa cut off by the enemy some of lta brave >en were killed, as happened to tbat valuable young tan M. De Castro, and other* were made prisoner*. In be midat cf the universal desperation whioh reign* In he capital, beeause our numerous army has been beaten q detail by a handful of foreigners, (although brave.) as here have bee n corps of our* whioh did not fight, owing o tbe want of disposition by the general-ln-chief, who a* made us suffer <h? torment* of hell, we have seen anta Anna at dusk, enter the palace, and a multitude f OAvaliy and infantry, without auspeoting until the resent moment what It aignifled; some believing that it raa owing to the rain, and In order to spend a pleasant ight like that of yesterday; other* thinking tbat a apitulation bad been agreed upon; but the greater part tot knowing what opinion to form. 1 shall put thia Btter into the mall 8to . and will write again. * * * Every thing la complete oonfu*ion,and sometime moat >a*a before I oan judge of eventa. * * * ? I do not know what I have written. 1 am oruahed by he horrible realisation of my preaentimenta, whioh have lever deoelved me, and owing to whioh 1 have never een able to have any enthualaam or faith in thia war? nd for whioh reaaoa I have not been able to peranade ay self to take a part in the war, though I have ardently iesired it. I bad forgotten to aay that Santa Anna haa given or i*3* o 'vst aivuvia wi u? nuub, wueu iits um iu? urmpBioifv f all In hi* favor, and Santa Ann* bears all the odium, rhloh wag net equalled by that of the 0th of Deoember. rbU is sufficient. Rejiember me to, lie. ho. Your Mend, (Anonymous) [Notk.?The name writer writes the next day, the 31st. ,nd corrects the report in regard to De Castro, and idds:?] The battalions of Hidalgo and Viotorla would have ought had they not been ordered to retire by Santa Inna, aod in spite of the order many of them did tight n the defenoes (works.) * * * By this mail you are called to CongreM, ordered to ouvene by : anta Anna, who has listened to the eommistoners from the United States, on the suhleet of peace, n virtue of the constitutional powers which he has. Vbeu Santa Anna returned to the capital this aftertoon, at 4 o'clock, he said that it was In virtue of an xmletlce of thirty hours, to gather his wounded; but he truth Is, he has already made a peace with Soott, for o the Interpreter said to a friend of mine, and your riend N. Infers from the detpatch ot Santa Anna to Congress. 1 nevertheless sond you the letter I wrote 'esterday. Soott has very muoh praised the valor of the Mezloaaa, nd he told A. that he had the best Intentions towards is. Come, then, and assist in oelebratlng the funeral f our oountry. A revolution may yet take plaee In lfcvor if Valenoia, oaused by the peaoe. The publio mind is xoeedlngly exoited, and for this reason It, perhaps, rould not be prudent for you to bring your fhmlly. Mexico, August 31,1847. * * * As soon as the Americana had united be other side of Penon, they took the road by Chaleo to >mu augunbiu a inifnui. uub lud UlUBb U1IHCU1| to pifll wU he atony ground, there being no wagon road through t, and It was deolared to be Impaasable. But, each man if eight or ten thousand Americans, who had to pass hat way, .took a bag of dirt on his shoulders, so that on be way, with eight or ten thousand bag* of dtrt, they rent on making the road, so that they all passed, with>ut detention, to Tlalpam to tuke Tuoabaya, by the way >f the hills of Ban Angel. The Mexican forces that were n the Penon a am a and fortified themselves In 8an Antolio and Churubusoo, below San Angel, while about even or eight thousand veterans of cavalry and In fanry, with thirty pieces of cannon, under Valencia, took tost beyond San Angel. Gen. Santa Anna was In the toint below with the National Guard, so that, by this ilan, we had the Amerieans in San Augustin, the Medians forming their lines between them and the eity. Jut now for the fight. On Thursday, the 19th, the \mericans marohed with the intention to paat above Jan Angel. Gen. Valencia marohed to encounter them, ind sustained thu aotion from 4, P. M., till night closed n. The tiring was severe; It could be clearly seen froas .lie roof of the house. At night the Amerieans marobid up a ravine or hollow that divided the two oamps, urround?d the Mexloans, and finUhed with them from 1 till 7, A. M , on the 40th. There were some Amerllan In a little haeienda beyond San Antonio, who had teen shot at the evening before by Mexicans, but tbey remained very quiet, not answering the shots, but when Valenoia was defeated they attaoied the points below, rhere Santa Anna commanded In person, and in a few tours all was lost. Tbe troops yesterday dispersed, with the exoeptlon of ;h? battalions of Independenoe and Bravo'a, whloh were mt off by the Amrrioans. It is said that many were tilled, some escaped, and the rest are prisoners. This la that has happened up to yesterday. T?-day, what roops remain have gone to the gates of San Antonio fcbad and Nino Perdiao, and aooording to the general >pinlon we shall alt, in a few days, be Yankees IGN. N. [Another LetUr? Kxtraot ] August, JOth. To-day, at 7, A. M., the Amerloans took all of our artill?rv. and onr irmv ?u mo rnutud that ?. Lirely dispersed. The fate of Oe . Valenola ia unknown. Santa Anna ha* been compelled to retire upon Mexloo, ixaving lost all, 1 alluding his honor. The Yankees hare made many prisoprrs and taken many oannon. B?Z. Mexico, August 31, 1817. uom'q gkpo.hal Don Jo?k hk uoahtk : W never forgotten Sir aid Commander: ?On the 19th ind 20th the division of Valencia fought and wu defeated. aa were also some other,troops from this plaoe. 1'heae events have .placed things in a terrible state. I sannot say with certainty to what are we to attribute these misfortunes, aa there la a great diversity of opinion i>n the subject. One thing ia certain, that from these reverses our affairs are in a most lamentable state, and it will be very dlffloult t* re-establish them and bring them to the condition in wbloh they were on the 19th. The tnemj has lost a great number of men, but our's have loet oourage. There are many chiefk, offloera and men in the power of the enemy, and many wounded. Until the present time, now I, r. M., the firing has not been recommenced. The eneny is in many positions of the second line, and our army has retreated to the first lino. It is very difficult to form a judgment of the result ot these misfortunes, the more so as so many of our Qffloers are so badly spoken of. The enemy has demanJed the surrender of the capital. It is said that Uen. Mora and others have gone as oonferees. One thing is certain, that our troope have retired to their quarters, ind that the lines have been disserted. From this state ?f things the capital is In a terrible state. It is said that Oen. Paredes is here, and that he and Oen. Valensia are searched for by Oen. Hanta Anna, who has ordered Valenoia to be shot. In fact, you oannot Imagine in what a lamentable oondition we are. 1 hare 110 time to be more particular, and I beg you will have ihe goodness to present my compliments to Donna O. and Donna 0., and the rest of the family, as also to my friends 8 , K , and C ; and you, my beloved commander, oan dispose of the affections of your subject and faithful servant, who, wishing yon all happiness, kisses your hand J. M O. [ The following letter is from a Minister of the Government to a iniliojaraJ Meiico, Hug. 21, 1847. Sen. Don O. M and T ? Mr dear friend - In my last I gave you an idea or the itate and positiou of our army. Yesterday, at daylight, our right (referring to Valenoia) wis completely surrounded and routed; and afterwards the positions on the left (Churubusco, Portalis, Sto ) were attacked, to which succeeded a disorderly rutreat of our troops, which led the victorious enemy to within one league of the city, where he paused, not to be wanting in a prudence becoming a wise general, although he might have entered to the very Palace itself. Vou may Imagine the oonsternation and disorder prevailing In tho capital at this time. To-d*y Don Ig .Vloro left the city with the abject of proposing a cessation of hostilities, under the pretext ot collecting the wounded au i n < zcbsuie of Srisoners. although we hare but verjr few ot the itter When ne arrived at the camp of the enemy he was hanled a letter which the Ameri nan general bad already prepared, proposing an irmlstioe with a view to enter upon negotiations for peace, whioh naturally wan aoeepted, and to morrow it will be arranged by Moro and Quljano, who are the commissioners. But the enemy declared his purposs of oosupying the town* in ths immediate vicinity ot the oap. ital, In order to obtain quarters and subsistence for hla troop* Thi? la the position of affairs to-day. What la Lo follow you oan Imagine, for we hare no alternative but to enter Into arrangements or leave the capital at the mercy of the oonquerorf. Present my compliments to the Senores C'a, and trusting that you and your family i-njoy the beat health, plrane to receive the affections of your attentive servant and friend, who kisses your hand I. K. Mkiico, Aug 21, 1847. Sr Don J. M.C. ?My Dear Teacher At laat, yesterday, we were entirely routed niter three battles, Con treras, S?n Antonio and C burubusjo, and our troops ware dispersed alter a hi rrible slaughter, and I be ena my arrived In triumph us far as the hacienda of the For tails, where they passed the night. The spastftcle in thli city yaatepay wai horrible ; nil was tears, confusion and bluarnssa. and it waa pitiable to sea the wounded and dispersed coming in, In the afternoon. It ia aald that Itravo, Perdigan, Zereoero, Perez, (lagoso and other*, hava bean killed. At the present moment, 10 o'clock, thsrs ar? auras troops going out, and, according to fct>psarauue*. u?q. Hints Vtini? ii r*iolvt:d to atUok lh? snsmr. with the ml??ralil? remain* of tha arwv, anil ?u tbougn (km ar* ruiwra of tHliWi I Urtfti ti it*

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