Newspaper of The New York Herald, January 7, 1848, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated January 7, 1848 Page 2
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i\H,VV YORK. HEKAL1). <ert)i-wfkt Corner of Fnlton nn<J Rauait its. JAMKS GOROO M BENNETT, PltUeHISTDK. OAILT HEH~1LD?Every day. {.Sunday included ) Price 1 crnri pet c-py?t U pee ?mu?-aw Ike Untied S atci European subscribers. 114 pet annua, including the p iinre lO.'KKtK HER-iLO-Every Saturday-Price ?M ents per copy?ts j>er ann?a?in the Untied States European subscribers. by steamship. t5 per annua, inciter uint ?? pcetige _ . HKK.iLDF OR E UHO P E?Every Steam Packet Day --I'rict crnli pet copy ? *5 pet aim m. including naelege, or %l S5 rxrlintr# of postage Suhecriptiane ana adt rtistments nil he recetreJ *y Retire Hat if nan t, II rue t ~i % Pai .s ; ^ Z, ???<#. ' CtffHXiil, and J&hn bt'tter 5,inkftle* Henretta efrret. l-andnn PRESI tES'TI.IL HEH.1LD-Every Tueeday?One i) Uar fo' the Campaign JtUEEHTlSE UENPSat rtatona'le pricee; to be tortl-m t 'it n a plain, lexihlt m-ianrr. The proprietor net responsible for erron in Manuscript. PRINTING of nil *1 lull executed beautifully and triik dematck .1U orders a' the Publication Office. corner of Pulton and Nassau itrteto. .ILL LETVKHS by mail for sub icriptione, or toilA odoerHsemento to be poet paid, or the poet tge wilt be a# dueled ft "in the money remitted. VOLUNTjtHY CORRESPONDENCE, containing nop'riant newt. solicited ft em any yuat trr of the worId and -futeS ,eilt aiwityt be liberally paid for. ,V() NOTICE can be taken of anonymuua rommtemcelt 3"II lvlater"T te intended for interlinn must be authenticated b tke name and addreet of the writer ; not necessor >i publication, hut as a guaranty sf hit good faith. W an rt ttudrt take to returarijected communications JILL PrA\ MEN 1'S te be made in advance. a Ml SKM'.NTS THIS EVENING. PiVttK THEATKE?Stain Lent k Co.'a American Ciicui, in ihrir rtriou: priforronccet. bomte1y THEATr e, BowerT ?virhimi. i-La Chi ELLE-I HatLUTTI UMfH. ('U5TH ?MTiIVAI'RE Chttlmm ?t?e?t ? Hr. lik? eire Tri th-5|0oel Artiiti?yaneek dcrllkt? moving it lt i k li or battle! in mn co?&tmipeian Melodiei. I'lnrus. B'lWKHY AMPHlTHItATHK, Bower*.? Tlnatrift- mir ?JiTinprita Mimtreli?mi?i ri.laneobi i'rnroumimti UROID^AT OD? ON. Brotdwar ?Siaoiso?Vrntrii-oqviiM -Grecian eii.ri.iik??model Artiiti, " 'ECH ANICS' H ALL Broadway, near Bro nne?Chlull i minatrkli, tthurian Singing, Bi rlii<|i k Dancing, fcc. P kVOHAMA HALL, Broadwnv, near Honitm ? Ban V*?D ? PAItOR4M4 ff TH? Mlllllirrl. New York, Friday, Jiniury 7, 1848. Cungrou. Yrnrrday. Tii.* debate on the important question of furnishing more troops to recruit the artny in Mexico, involving as it does a continuance of the war in thai republic, was continued yesterday in the Senate, and begins to assume a most remarkable character, a great bitterness of feeling in the debaters, and a meeting of extremes anion? politicians and parties. Mr. Cadger, of North Carolina, made a few remarks f vorabl to the purpose of sending more troops to Mexico; but the principal speech, and the I most extraordinary feeling, came olf in the debate growiug out of the general question involved in Mr. Cass's motion for an increase of : the present army. On this question, Mr. Hale, of New Hampshire?one of the representatives of the abolitionists of New England?made a most bitter ard violent speech against a continuance j of the war?against the policy of giving any more assistance to the army?and expressing his ! willingness to furnish just as much aid us would bring our troops, by the nearest route, safe to their homes again. The principal argument adduced by Mr. Hale against the continuance ol :!i* war, is the allegation that the annexation of i ex is, l.Ke mat oi ivxexico, was engenucrec nvrely for th* extension of slavery. How singular ?n.l contradictory are the positions of eminent S-na'ors and Representatives on this most important question connected with Mexico ! Mr. Calhoun, a representative of South Carolina?the highest embodiment of the principle involved in the domestic institutions of the South?standing side by side with Mr. Hale, of New Hampshire, who is utterly and radically opposed to the same principle, in supporting the same measure?the immediate discontinuance of the war with Mexico?for precise')' opposite reasons and purposes! There is something extremely sublime, or broadly farcical, in thus b?holding two distinguished men, from opposite points of the country, representatives of different principles in social and political matters, engaged, and standing shoulder to shoulder, iu the same cause at Washington. How is this so 1 What is the meaning of it ! What is the solution of it 1 Can it be found in Euclid or Ron Quixote ! Is there any trace of it in Bacon or Gil Bla6 1 The interest in the debates in Washington is ! increasing every day, and every hour, but above ! all, the debates on the continuance and further prosecution of the war with Mexico, for in that it the germ of those principles that must, in due time, decide the destiny of this great nation. Alter Mr. Hale's extraordinary speech, the subject wre postponed to to-day, to be taken up j by Mr. Reverdy Johnson, of Maryland, also a ! whig Senator, but most likely in favor of a continuance of the war?a position maintained generally by Senators of both parties from the South and West. We may expect every day or two n r<MnarUnh\e sneecli from Mr. Webster. anotherfrom Mr. Clayton, another from Mr. Benton?all involving views and principles, and prospects of the futile, deeply interesting to every politician and every man in the country This debate is only the commencement of the fun?the farce or the tragedy, as it niBV turn out to be. It involves a continuance of the war in Mexico, and all its responsibilities and results, as well as that of the Presidency for the next four years. Thus has the Mexican war begun, and is now in mid career in the Senate. Full reports of the debates, either in the Senate or the House, may be expected the next morning after they are delivered in Washington, in the Herald, transmitted to us by electric telegraph, at vast and enormous expense. We incur this expense for the good of the community and the commercial regions of the country, because we believe that the whole course of trade, and business, and banking, and commerce, depends on the solution of the question now before the Senate. The p-os|>ectB are that the war will be continued, mat vast new loans will be required?loans amounting to eighty, ninety, or n hundred millions of dollars?for the next year, (according to the authority of some of the journals at Washington), which, together with the drain of specie to Kngland, will soon bring the banking institu uon* of this country into a state of absolute suspension, and probably final bankruptcy. Let all merchauts, bankers, financiers, traders, and every one, look out for sq :alls. There is no harm in taking care in time, and we warn them accordingly. ThH PJ?AINFIELD BANK AND TUB N*W JERSEY Receivers ?Messrs. Beach k Sons have, on scVf ral occasions, offered publicly to liquidate, in gold and silver, all the circulation ot the Plainfield Bank outstanding, provided the revivers, resident in the State of New Jersey, wi I deliver to them all the assets of that institution Tins ofLr has been repeated several tunes publicly, and apparently with perfect good faith Why will not the receivers accept it, or state a sufhcimt reason for th**ir refusal! According to our notions of honesty and integrity, v e cannot perceive any justice or good faith tn? -.ids th" public ?>n thi put of the receivers, if they ii<> not come up to the "Captain's office," * uiic*, and accept the ofl *r as it is presented to them. Wc have much more to say on thissuhert. . nd wc only wait to hear something from the iec.-ivi.-re While 011 tine point, we would it > enquire who r? itcerns the notes of the Cliamplain Bank, and of soine < ther banks of this State, in the city of New York? Furthermore, we would ask, what other banks in New Jersey ar" m a doubtful condition1 There i? a pood d"al of talk about the State Lank of Elizabeths towot but oiiii any, tUi 1 lie paper ot that in?ti* 1..nun is rsdsenied -win"* line ?n Wall street, The PmMcndkl BlMtton. Afier a great deal of ulkiog, of various movej meuts, of meetings hets and there, of indies| lions of every kind, there is every probability that the great canvass for the next Presidency is now about to commence, under different auspices, and in different shapes, to any that ever took i lace in this great republic. The indications are in favor of a popular, ind-pendent, intelligent, intellectual, philosophical, economical, and tinaucial canvass for the Presidency, and not a m-re political one, originating with secret and dishonest cliques of politicians. Let us explain. Only in two important eras in the history o( this republic, have the Presidential elections been S conducted on popular and independent principles i of action?viz : in the election of Gen. Washing ] ton, and in tliat ot Gen. Jackson. Tliose elections I ; stand boldly out as two prominent instances, | where the mind of every intelligent man was appealed to, independent ol caucuses, or conven- j j tions, or cliqutt, or coteries, of scoundrelly poli- I ' tirians. The other elections of our Presidents j I were generally brought about either by congres- j sional caucuses, mere cliqutt fomented in the ' I corruption of Washington, or coteries of dishonest politicians, nominated secretly from Wash! ington, and forming what are called national | conventions, representing the people, as it is called; but in fact, representing nobody but n few office seekers, who compose them. These nominations, springing from congressional caucuses, or national conventions, have hitherto monopolised the attention of the American people, and thrown chains over the free thoughts of | free men, sacred over the whole Union. We have only seen those two instances, already enumerated, in the elections of Generals Washington and Jackson, and they were called to the White House by the independence and impulses of a free people. We are happy in the present day, and we thank the Almighty Father ol Heaven and Earth, for permitting this happiness to exist in the present age of the world?we are happy in believing that in the present day, at this time, there is some prospect that the people of the United States have courage enough to throw off the i shackles of the politicians and office seekers, i either of the caucus or convention system, and ! take the matter of electing their own President into their own hands, and conduct it to a successful termination, without the intervention of those corrupt fellows who have led the people, for so many years, in so many ways. The first impulse tending to give the people a fret choice in the coming contest for the Presidency, was that in favor of Gen. Taylor, expressed during the last year, which has revived in various ways, and come to a head in New York, by the call for u great public meeting at the Tabernacle, on the twenty-sreond of next month, being the anniversary of the birth of Washington, and of the buttle of Butna Vista. Thosfcwhocill themselves whigs, and who are in favor of the defensive lint of policy in regard 10 Mexico, by adopting a new uouftdary line and abandoning that country, are called upon to support that great and excellent man, and by supporting him, to express their views on the policy which they think the country ought to pursue towards Mexico. Thus much on that point. Another view of the Mexican policy is, to acquire and retain military possession of the whole of that republic ; to make it pay every expense of the war, so as to save the revulsion expected by the banks, by a continuance of the war by*taxes and loans in this country. This policy is represented by the distinguished name of Worth, or that of Quitman, as some say?we don't carc which. The people entertaining those sentiments, being generally attached to the democratic party, and it being a democratic movement, are therefore called on, on the same day, to give an exhibition of their strength in favor of those principles and that policy towards Mexico. The two men representing those two opposite policies towards Mexico, are both great and distinguished citizens; they are patriots, for they have fought and bled for their country; and although General Taylor may have a little the advantage in point of position, as regards the first campaign in J Mexico, yet General Worth has shown, through the whole of the war, traits of most distinguished bravery, courage, capacity, and everv thing that can ennoble and adorn human nature. He is also believed to be favorable to the policy of occupying the whole of Mexico. It is, therefore, put to the American people now, and the campaign is beginning in this great metropolis, to be extended throughout the whole country, whether one or the other of these lines of policy shall be adopted. These distinguished men merely represent them. There will be no necessity for caucuses, or conventions, or any thing of the kind, to bring about an expression of the people who wish to give forth their sentiments in their selections for the Presi- I dency. The newspaper press is independent. j I x iic riccinc iriegrnpii rumuuui ilmcb lniei1 ligence instantaneously, from one end of the country to the other. In a Presidential canvass, we can accomplish as much in one day, : at the present time, as we could have done j in nine or twelve months, twenty-five years ago, , and as much as could have been done in | three years, forty years ago. We want no conventions, no congressional caucuses, no meet- j I inss of members of Corgress, no .State legislative nominations?nothing at all of the kind. Let ; members of Congress attend to their distinct duties, and let State legislators obey theirs. The i people, with an independent press?with the imj proveinents of the age, the electric telegraph, ! railroads, the power of locomotion, and the liber- j I ty of thought and action?can accomplish the ; whole of it, and determine who shall be the next j President. This is the way to elect our Presi- j dent, and this is the best and only way. Impeachment of Mr. Polk?The Hot -sk of Representatives.?We have already stated that | the House of Hepresentatives passed a resolu tion, eighty-five lo eighty-one,dacluring that the 1 resident coinmencd the Mexican war, both ; unnrrttsarihi and unconttilutionally The passage of such a resolution is not ' enough The House of Representatives must I follow up this declaration, and draw up a bill of impeachment against the President, and have : him regularly tried before the Senate, or be disi graced, ana representative body, before the whole world. II Mr. Polk, the President of the United Slates, commenced the war against Mexico, without any necessity, and contrary to the constitution, he ought to be impeached, tried, convicted. and punished, according to the constitution, for t ucli a grievous offence. The House of Representatives, in passing that resolution, the j other day, have affirmed this proposition; and we cull on them, in the face of heaven and I Crfrth, nnd according to all principles of sound morality, to go forward with the work, and i bring the President to justice, in the proper way. There is 110 alternative li-lt to the lower house ! of this thirtieth Congress, hut to proceed in this j course,or If dantn-d to eternal infamy, through all future time. Oro.noc o S?team Navigation.?-The Uronoco Strain Navigation Company lias been formed, and fully organi/.ed, under the charter granted by the State Legislature. The officers Imve i h' en elected, and arrangements already made to ( commence building three boats for ihe Oronoco, which ate to he completed with all possible def. piteh. mimjoh to koms,?It i.? mid thtuMr. McKeon, j the Hiktrici Attorney, ji to lie sent op thf mil* | j -ivh ?o hwimv w4n I The Two Great Mass Meetings on the Presidency, on Washington's Birthday ?These two important movements are making very rapid progress. Yesterday we despatched one of our agents, with subscription papers, for calling those mass meetings; one in tavor of General Taylor, at the Tabernacle, and ths other in favor ot General Worth, at Tammany Hall ; und they were placed in conspicuous positions in each of the following numed hotels :? Tammany Hall City Hotel A?tor House Lovrjoy's, do Franklin, do Clinton, do Ratbbun's Hotel Judion's, do Amertoan, do Globe, do Croton, do Tearl Street House The proprietors of these several hotels received those papers with great kindness and attention, and hung them up in their several offices and bar-rooms; and we have no doubt will endeavor to procure as many names as possible, previous to the great day of assembling. w. ..I?? ,1 ?? '? c aicu u^opaii/iicu an cig^ui iu Mit ii*vuaugv yesterday, during 'change hours, who left those papers there in the hands ot proper persons, and we have no doubt a full account will be received from there. These two movements, like the action of the negative and positive electricity, will produce health, purity, and elasticity in the political atmosphere. The opinions of every one will be properly expressed on the great question of the Mexican war; and after their ideas shall have been ascertained at the ballot boxes, every American voter will then return to the tent or the field, satisfied and content with whatever may be the result of this combined movement. Has the Catholic Church bkkn Useful!? We perceive that the Rev. Dr. Ryder, President of the College of the Holy Cross, in Worcester, Mass., is announced to deliver a lecture in St. Peter's Church, Barclay street, on Sunday evening next, and has selected as the subject of his lecture: " The Papal authority beneficial to society." There are but few men living more capable of handling religious subjects than Dr. Ryder, and we expect that the discourse on Sunday evening, will, like all his attempts, be characterised by eloquence, philosophy, and convincing powers : of argument. The subject which he has selected gives ample scope, and is, perhaps, one of the most interesting that he could dilate upon. There can be no question that the Roman Catholic Church, since the celebrated Council of Nice?the same which settled the Bible as it now exists, by rejecting such portions of the holy writings as were considered spurious, and retnining such as were considered authentic?has exercised a most beneficial influence on society, not only by its teachings, but by the exercise of the power and authority of the Pontiff, which, in the main, have been used judiciously, and by the encouragement it gave to learning of all kinds, the promotion of the fine arts, and the preservation of literature during the dark ages. After the Roman empire was overrun by the ruthless barbarians of the North, who were attracted to that favored portion of the world by the love of j plunder, the Catholic Church civilized and hu- 1 manized them, and fitted them afterwards to become the nations of civilized Europe, as they exist at this day. Of this view of the question, there can be no doubt; and we are sure that many will desire to hear the reverend lecturer on these points ; but, whether the papal authority is beneficial to society, as it now exists, is a question on which there may be a wide difference of opinion. Some may think that the world, as it is at present constituted, has outgrown the church, and that, instead of its being the party led and directed by the papal authority, the latter, in fact, is directed by the world. However, we are not going into an argument on the matter?we shall 1-ave it in the hands of Dr. Ryder. Attacks on tiie Electric Telegraph.?We hear of vagabonds and scoundrels, when inportant news is to be expected by telegraph, cutting and otherwise defucing the wires. There is another kind of attack on this extraordinary invention, which exhibits an equal amount of malignity, but less intelligence. We perceive that two of our contemporaries assert, in reference to the recent transmission of the Governor's Message over the wires from Albany, that numerous inaccuracies were committed, and give it as their opinion that the telegraph is not useful for the transmission of long documents. We beg leave entirely to differ from such a conclusion. If you give a good and fair copy of any written production, to any of th? operators on any of the old lines, they will transmit the matter with as much accuracy as one of the best short hand reporters cou The blunders committed in the Governor's Message grew out of an attempt by certain persons in Albany to condense it; but who were unable or incompetent for the task. The recent speech delivered by Mr. Calhoun in Washington, was reported for the Herald most admirably by the telegraph; but the operators had nothing to do but follow the plain and correct copy furnished by our admirable reporters in the Senate in Washington. The use of the electric telegraph is hardly yet known. It is going to produce as great an effect on intelligence, and on its transmission, as any discovery since the creation of the world has done. It will cause condensation in all communinaiinm nnrtirtilnrlv those connected with the I newspaper press; and thut is of great nnd invalu- | able use in the actual lengthening of human life. Cl'Rioitb Coinage.?Have you ever seen the curious coinage of three pieces in a dollar 1 Go to Jim Grant's, No. 1 Ann street, and he will show you a specimen of the new Taylor coinage, three pieces, very beautiful, in a dollar ? We saw them yesterday nt that famous place of resort, where we left subscription papers for the great mass meeting, to which every person should put his name, and get shaved afterwards. Naval.?I". S. frigate I'nited States, Com. Read, from the coast'of Africa via Cape Verd Islands, Madeira, and Csdiz, arrived at Gibraltar 1st ult, and remained 5th, to sail for Port Mahon in two or three days. U. 8. sloop of war Marion was in port at the same time, to sail for Marseilles in two or three days. Two Things Not Yet I?onk?The quadrature of the circle, or the building of a monument to Washington. _ Recite ror Killing Children Scddenlv ? Give them fish to eat, without carefully extraet<u. Illg .11, ENTKRrRisi.?The Neva York Herald. of the 5th, has ten column* of mutter, furnished lo that paper by telegraph, embracing Got. Young's mesasge. the markets from varloui quarters, legislative proceeding*, Mexican news, the steamer's news, and the Congressional proceedings of the 4th, including a long report of Mr Calhoun's anti-war speech. This is truly a wonderful achievement Who would have believed such a thing possible five years ago 1?Philadelphia Ptnmylvanian, Jan. 8. Nkw York Hkracd?This very enterprising pros* published yesterday ten columns of telegraphio matter, Including the Caledonia's news, the governor's message from Albany, and Mr Calhoun s speech In the lr St. Senate on Tuesday against ths prosecution of the war.?Breton Pott, Jan. 8. The Krw York Herald and Tribune, of yesterday, contain Governor Young's message and the ( aledoula's news by telegraph. The HtraU also has the speech of Mr Calhoun in tbe Senate, on Tueaday. as well as many Other things by telegraph ? Botton Whig, Jan. 8. I Riack Mam..?Bennett, of the iVeio York Herald, acknowledges the receipt of# 100, accompany ing which, is a puff of a portion of the Actor Place < ipera troupe. He says he shall appropriate the money to charitable purpoees. and publlshea the article with comments?Philadelphia Penneylrantan, Jan. U. Mall Yailmti. '1 bt Kaitern mail feiltd at Montgomsrj, Ail. !>??. j?, ? " Mobil*, |4, << Nortbwi 11 Vew Ur)M?#. It 87, ' *v#?t*ra " ffmVMii m, INTELLIGENCE BY TELEGRAPH. TIllRUKTIl UONOIUCW. FIRttr SESSION. THE CONTINUANCE 0V~THE WAR DEBATE IN THE SENATE. Speeches of Messrs. Badger, of N. C., and Hale, of N. It. % 4c. 4e. 4c. Senate. ( Washington, Jan. 6th, 1848. The Senate convened at the uaual hour. The galleries of the Chamber were crowded at an early hour. The Hon. Dixon H. Lewis, of Alabama, appeared at the bar, wai duly sworn, and took bia sf at. ruTinoM ion rr.ti c. Tatitiona being in order, several were presented by different gentlemen, among wbiob waa one by Mr. Conwin, of Obio. from the Sootety of Friends, of Spring

Harden, Pennsylvania, praying for the termination of the Mexican war, and for tbe assembling of a congress of all nations, for the purpose of perpetaating peace. Mr. C. moved that it be printed, wbioh was negatived A motion was then made to refer it to tbe appropriate committee, wbicb was carried. Mr. Allen presented a petltoin on tbe same subject, from Obio, wbioh took the same course as tbe above. THE EDITOni OF THE UNION. Mr. Mason offered a resolution for admitting the editors of tbe Union newspaper to tbe floor of th e Senateit lies over. mr. Dickinson's resolution. Mr Dickinson gave notioe that be should oall up bis resolution on Monday. washington monument. Mr. Miller announced a bill authorising tbe erection of a moDument to Washington in the publto grounds. mexican claims. Mr. Johnson, of Louisiana, offered a joint resolution providing for tbe payment of oertaln olaima against Maxioo. Read twloe. president's message. Mr. Bradsurt, from the printing committee, reported that a thousand copies of tbe President's message and the accompanying doeuments would be ready on tbe fifteenth instant, and would make thirteen hundred pages. additional furskrs Bills for the appointment of additional Pursers, and to extend the time for looatlng bounty land were considered and laid over. filling vacancies in the volunteer regiments. Mr. Badger, of North Carolina, from the Military Committee, roes and asked tbe attention of tbe Senate to a bill, tbe importance of which demanded speedy notion, to wit:?a bill providing for the filling of vaoancies in the volunteer regiments. It was neoessary to have the bill passed at the earliest day; because it was an important object to have as many reoruits as possible, safely landed in the interior of Mexico before the reourrenoe of tbe vomito on the coast The bill provides for the two dollar bounty to the reoruiting offloers, and twelve dollars to each of the recruits on bis enlisting. Mr. JcKrcasoN Davis, of Mississippi, moved that the first and second dragoons and tbe mounted riflemen, be included in the bill. This was agreed to, and the bill passed. tiif. tbi* regiments bill. On motion of Mr. Cass, the ten regiments bill was then taken up and read a third time. Tbe question being on the passage, Mr. Hale, of New Hampshire, was induoed by bis convictions of duty, to define his views upon this bill Althou.h he knew that there were few Senators who would concur with him, yet he owed it to his constituents, and to his position before the ooontry, not to let his vote go to the world without giving his reasons for it. lie would have been glad to have left this duty to older and abler hands. He would have been glad, in order to get all the possible light on this subjeot, which appeared so dark and unfathomable ; but he supposed tbe bill would pass through tbe forms of a law, and that it was only left to him to give his reasons and his votes against it. But no matter whether the lights of publio documents were to be had or not, his oourse was dec! ded upon. He should go against the bill?he was op. posed both to regulars and volunteers; and if there was any other description of troops, he should vote against them. He would oppose the appropriation of a single dollar to the foroe in the field, beyond the amount that was neeeseary to bring them home, by the very shortest and cheapest route. It was held to be patrietio to go for a war, when we get into it, right or wrong; and the President, at the last session, had offloially declared all those opposed to his war as gallty of treason. Queen Elisabeth doubted the understanding and wisdom of the members of parliament, and advised them not to meddle with ftate affaire. So had our President doubted the patriotism of Congress. Mr. Hale argued that this doc. trine of presidential assumption of right or wrong, and of absolute power, pending a war, was moat pernicious The policy upon this doctrine, however, appears to be, that if we are in the war, we must prosecute it, right or wrong. It is popular to keep it going on, and if James K. Polk oould get Into two wars at once, be would expect to be more popular than Generals Washington and J sckson together. War now was not regarded as the blackest of crimes, as it had been by the proudest wrl. tars; but it was regarded as a Pool of Bethesda, in which the most detestable political profligacy, of the blackest die, could wash itself, and be cleansed. As the blood of our fellow men does not belong to that school of mortis, or such being persevered, in not coming out right,another question is. what course does it become those who believe the oountry is Involved in a war which is unjust, are to pursue ? Some Senators, by sort of argument I cannot comprehend, think that, while the war la unjust, they are bound to rote men and money, throwing the reaponeibility upon the President. I cannot aee how this ia done. Such oppoeition ia just what ia wanted, if you fellow thia course, you will not And any articles in the government organ about faottous opposition. It ia just the sort of opposition they desire. They would rather have it than your support. They want nothing better than that you should vote the President all the money and men he wants, and then to oppose his policy. Nor do I agree with gentlemen who say that upon a bill to inoreaae the army is not a proper plaoe to inquire into the justice or constitutionality of the war. I hold that It is upon every bill to oarry out any act of the executive which ia illegal, as a proper oooaaion to object to Its further proceeding. I further believe, that the true cause of thia war Ilea deeper than has been alluded to by any gentleman who has preoeded me. / believe, ??r, that the came of thii war it for the exteneion of human ilavery, and any other cause t's, in my opinion, foieign from the truth. This fact, sir, is evident from the whole history of the oountry in relation to the annexation of Texas. Tiut, sir, the men who are at the htad of the government, openly and plainly avowed the object. They were, 1 will in subetanoe say, men of no higher principle than a set of politicians, which we have at the present day, who avow themselves Northern men with Southern principles. To show this, sir, I will ask that the docu ment which I hold ia my band, may'be read. [Here were letters of Duff Green of August Sid, ISift, read by the Secretary.] Here, sir, you wllljobserve that a scheme was on hand The writer of this letter says that it was a project to send some fanatical Abolitionists of the North to tamper with the institutions of the South. He saya that the establishment of a government forbidding slavery would be a most unhappy result. I thought, sir, when 1 read It Arst that the ward unhappy was a mistake of the printer, but I have read several copies and It la still unhappy What, air, la thin ? The eetabllahment of a free government forbidding elarery, li a faot filled with the moat unhappy reaulta. This, air, la the language of the American government. What language la thia' Itii fall of Import to Maaaachueetta and to New llampehire Waa it fur thia that the rurituna left alavery at home and Bought freedom here ? Waa It for the ereotlon ol alavery that they fled from country to country, fron Holland to America ' Waa it for thia that the May Howei aalled ? No, air, no auch purpoan. Thia, air, waa thi objeot of the annexation of Trxaa, and thia annexation the eauae of the war; it being done when Texaa wae a( i war with Mexioo. The Trealdent. in hia meaaage of the sthof May, aud in hia aeverai meetagea aince th<n. uara the worda "thia war waa commenced by the act ot Mexioo." It labia favorite phraae He baa informed Congreaaof it fourteen timea, always "thia war waa the | act of Mexico." Ithaabeoomn the only phraeo of the rrealdent. It haa become a part of hia religion; and he will llaten to nothing else. lint no auch thing. Sir, the aending of an armed force to the very ulmoat bounda of itaclaimed territory, waA the immediate cause of the war. And thia, air. la known to the I'/i i,l, ut. lie waa ai firm, air, and poa.tiva, in hia aaaertion that the whole ot Oregon ww ouri, Ha aald eo.ln bit Inaugural meaeage I heard him when ba dellwid hit inaugural, ilandlpg mid the drlpplpgt of lhal.itorm, reminding the peopia thai MtleW oregeowM ' itaar and am)t*a?tioaa< We." And how vary young a man he ?u, I heard him | tall tha people; and, air, 1 expected every moment to 1 hear him say, "you woulJ aoaroely expect one of my age to apeak In pnblio, on the atage " But, air, he did tl not ooma to that; although he waa loud in hla pro- tl teatationa of our title to Oregon up to 64 40, and ha maintained it moat atrenuouely. Kia frienda kept up the cry, and " down eaatone legislature went ao far t< aa to advoeate our title up to 64 49. Did be than, air, ai aend our army up to 64 40, to bold that line ? Did he 8 gend trtope there to maintain our title? No, air; be- K oanae he knew that would be a cause of war, and that a Great Britain would ocnaider it aa suoh. I now turn, elr, to the consideration of the papers and doouments b which bare been printed. 1 will read first the letters of the i'reeident to Ueneral Heirera, informing him that he had sent Mr. Slidell to Mexico. That letter, sir, is bi- j r fore us here. I will read it. [The letter was then read tl by Mr. H.] Lliten to the conclusion of it: "I pray God to bare you in his holy keeping. Your friend, Jas. K t] i'olk." What a pass! A pious l'resldent! fie prays for his enemies; he oommends him t* God and his holy i t keeping ; but for fear that God should not bear tho c prayer, he sends Gen'l. Taylor to the Rio.Grande, to keep j him from crossing it. You hare heard the honeyed ? words with which be addressed President Iierrera, while ' y fire months previously he had ordered Gen'l. Taylor to < r alvance to the Rio Grande. What hypocracy! Six, j r if 1 had this Mexioan war before twclre men, good and , true, the first witness I would call would be the President c of the United States; for no witness, having faith in his story, would repeat it over unnecessarily fourteen times* g This obstinacy, in asserting that " the war was by the t act of Mexloo," is strange, and, to my mind, shows that there must be some doubt of its truth at home; but the c President, in his message of the present year, calls upon t Congress to vote him men and money to aid him in carrying out a war, which he now says, Congress had ds- i olared to have been begun by "the aot of Mexico." 1 But 1 have been Informed that many Senators voted < against it under a protest. The news bad reached us of the critical position of Gen. Taylor, and we were In- | duoed to send him aid to extrioate him. The war was ! forgotten; all its oonsequenees were lost sight of; Con- | grese listened only to the calls of human sympathy, and they voted men and money for that purpose only. They c never meant, elr, that Mexloo should be oonquered. t The President in his message this year, tells us not that < his objeot is to oonquer a part of Mexico, but that he has no intention of prosecuting it to a complete conquest of that country. But we can put no faith In this assertion. He says his objeot is to " conquer a peaoe;" and in carrying out that conquest of a peace, he re- 1 quires, immediately, a part of the territory of that na- ' tion. He asks of us an inorease of the army, to aid him ^ in this; and the next year ha will tell us, that ycu voted him men and means to carry on the war, and will 1 ask you for what purpose. He will tell you that you gave him un army to go to Mexioo, not to stand with folded arms, and perform sentry duty; but you meant they should lay waste that conntry, burn her cities, ravish and despoil her towns and villages, j everywhere where I hat army treads, and to write his name in the bloo I of her slaughtered inhabitants. This ] Is what the President will say next year, when, perhaps> you will oall upon him for the peaoe. In our schools at i the east, we had a praotice of requiring that boys should < not only spell words, but that they also should give their definitions. The Hon. Senator from Kentuoky, (Mr* | Crittenden) a few days ago, said he preferred volunteers to regulars. I, sir, oppose both. I will vote against an ] increase of the aimy in any way. If there be any force j not included in thn term rftfftilftm or volunteer*, then I 1 will vote against that foroe. I will lend no aid to the farther prosecution of this war. I think I can see an object in view, in having regulars, instead of volunteers ; it is to make war upon the tea and ooffee pots of New England. The President wants a war tax upon tea and coffee; and if the Senator from Kentucky will only look a little further through his glassts, he will see it too. Sir, what will be the result of this war? No one can tell. The President goes fcr a peace ; but will he obtain it by means of tbls war? It appears to me sir, that perhaps the President wish*s to deal with Mexico, like Aberdeen did with him, in regard to the Oregon Territory. That is likely what he does want. The President, sir, is very brave when we have a weak and disabled foe ; but, sir, when we were in danger with a war with England, he was very meek. Unfortunately, be did not get the blessing which the holy word promises the meek, for the verse is, " blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the land." lie was meek, but he lost the land. The President, sir, did not, on that oocasion display bis patriotism and oourage which is now so violent. He blustered and bragged, but I think he had read of"That stormy joy which warriors feel, In fotmen worthy of their steel." Why, sir, on that oecasion, the President, after agitating the oountry by his declarations of title to the whole Of Oregon, backed out of |it when the hour came, and left the matter to the Senate; and, that too, after refusing a a offer of arbitration, upon the ground that to arbitrate admitted a donbt of our title. I refer to this subjeot, sir beoause it was a part of our democracy at tbe east. We had gone for 64 40; and. aa I have said, in the ardor of our patriotism, we had got over tbe line, and were ready to go for 64 49. But the letter of tbe President to Mr Packenham, informing him of the determination of the President to abide the resolution of the Senate, oame upon us like a thunderbolt. 1 listened, a few days ago, to the speech ot tbe Hon Senator from South Carolina (Mr. Calhoun.) with great pleasure, and, I hope, with profit, too. But, though no man estimates more highly than I do his wisdom and his ability as a statesman, I mutt lay I can ace nothing In his resolution!. 1 would like to see them passed, however, but I must confess, I can see neither virtue nor utility in them. They, in my judgment, amount to nothing. I thank the Senate for the patienoe with which they have listened to me. I rose to per' form my duty. It had been charged, that all who opposed the war were wanting in patriotism to their country. 1 rose to give expression to my views. This charge reminds me of the remark of a western man, who said, " I went against the last war, and it made me unpopular; now I would go for this war, and for all wars; yes, even for war, pestilence and famine." This, sir, Is the oase with some. Why should Senators, who are opposed to the war, lend their aid for it? Is it for popularity? I hope not, sir We are writing the history of our times. We are placing upon reoord the footsteps of our course, from time to eternity. Whither do they tend, and where will they lead us? Shall those who are to come after us?those who are to fill our plaoes?are they, I say. to find them pointing to liberty and happiness, or shall they find them but monuments of guilt, pointing lo the paths leading to pit falls and sin? These are questions which are full of meaning at the present day Ask the history of nations, who have been swallowed up in the vortex of ruin, whether they did not reap what they sowed? It seems to me that there is a high light ooming down npon us from the history of ages, and that the lesson it teaches and the truth it expresses, are contained in the word retribution. If we escape from the evils whioh have fallen upon all nations, which Rave been engaged in slavery and war, then we will be an exception, and it will be the first. I would ask those who are now wilting history, to turn bsckito the days when was sung the song of jubilee? when the first dawn of the advent of a Ood and a Sa, viour broke upon the gsss of man?and let them tell us ; whether any nation that sowed slavery and war ever reaped anything but ruin and shame. ' Shall we. eir, 9nd peace and proeperlty In following that course, wherein all other nations bare been ruined ? No, ?ir ; but they will find in the history of the pait. and it will b* seen at 'he far distant future, this great truth, that whatsoever the nation shall sow, the same shall thty reap. I again thank the Senate for their attention, and will not trespass further upon tholr time. But I have a i word to say in a matter personal to myself. I m%y be charged with fanaticism; I wish to show, that if ' ; it he so, I have authority for my course, democratic 1 I authority, in tbn State of New York. We Lava had two organs of the democratic party; and it was ques^ I tioned which played the best music. They were both | patriotic, and for sometime differed; but at length they ' ' were united. They had an annexation of the two ! papers. Krnm their paper I will read an extraot, which ' says, "That the democrats of the free States are the men most favorable to freedom, and to tbs abolition o j slavery. ' This, sir. is New York democracy, about I | twelve months old. I have now discharged an unplear sunt duty. I can assure the Senate that I have no dlspoaitlon to be here, in this body, as an Ishraasllte, with my hand against everybody, and everybody'a hand against me. i bave but simply expressed ray convictions; and if ' anything I have said basin the least been offensive to any Senator, I assure him, from tbe bottom of my heart, ( j that I Intended no such course. , I The ayes and nays w?re ordered on the passage of the i | bill, when j Mr .Jonrssnw, of Mary lend moved tbst the Senate adjourn, with a view to reply to Mr Hale, but. at the sugges| i Mon ct Mr. Cmi, withdrew it, for the purptec cf going into knevMutive swim; when, trtw ?hort ( j birtfi, th? h?mM *Mwm4 ? Mo?4?? ft y ~ ?Houir of XUpreaontatlTM. Wasuinoton, jan fl, 1MB ( The House oonveneJ at the appointed hour, and after ie transaction of nme unimportant business, resumed ?e consideration of the special order of the day, the southism mail assangement. On motion of Mr. Jokes, the House went Into Commit* ie of the Whole, Mr. Smith, of Indiana, In the chair< od took up the resolution for renewing the late outhern mail arrangement with the lliohmond and redericksburg company. This gavo rise to a warm and nimated debate. Mr. Jokes addressed the committee, and was followtd y Messrs. Murphy, Mead, and lirown, of Penn. Il audit ional voluntekhs. Before Mr Bhow.t had ooneluded, the oommittee ose to receive a message from the Senate, announcicg be passage of the bill to enoourage volunteering. On motion, the House again went into Committee o' 0 be Whole. Mr. Qpow* having concluded, on motion of Mr. Stanod, the committee rose and a resolution was adopted, losing the debate in oommittee, at half past two. The debate was renewed, in oommittee, by Mr. Goo* in, who spoke till the hour fixed for closing the debate; rhen the Chair decided that Mr. Goggin had, under the ules, a right to finish his hour, as he had reported the f solution. Mr. Thommon, of Mississippi, appealed from this de* is ion. M ssrs. Thompson, C. J. Ingereoll, Stanton, 8ima, Uog;ln, Botta, Stewart, of Michigan, and othera, discussed he question. On motion of Mr. Stewart, the oommlttee roae withmt deoidlog the appeal, and the chairman reported hat they had come to no oonoluaion on the resolution. The SrEiasii aaid be was in doubt whether or not it ras his duty to rule the report out of order, as the louse had determined that the debate in committee sloaed at half-past two. Some explanations were made by Mr. Cohb, of Oeorgia, n whloh the Speaker acqulesoed, when Mr. Stewart, of lllohigan, moved to reoonsider the rote dosing the detats. A discussion ensued between Messrs. Schenok, Smith, >f Indiana, Oentry, and others, on the proper oonstruodon of the rule, when, on motion of Mr. Cobb, of Georgia, the House adjourned. Kxe. utlve ? esalon Wa*hihotoj?, Jan. 6,1948. The Senate in Executive Session, this afternoon, oonirmed the re-nomlnatlon of Mr Helm,as Marshal of the Eastern Dlatriot of Penn., and of Arnold Plummer, ef :he Western District, in place of Mr. Howes, appointed Postmaster at New Orleans. They also confirmed a large lumber of army promotions LEOlSLAtVRE OF NEW YORK. Alba.tv, Jon 6, 1848. Senate. A bill was reported relative to State Engineer and Surveyor. It was referred to the Canal committee. Mr. Boekk presented a bill to authorise the oity of Brooklyn to raise money to pay oertain claims. Mr. Corn well brought inabiil to form man ufaoturing issoclatlons; also relative to fees and compensation of bounty Clerks. Mr. Rnncc laid on the table Mr. Clav'a Lexington re. solutions, and stated that he should call them up soon. In cxeoutlve session, the Governor nominated David H ?bel for Canal appraiser. Roderick White was confirmed as Notary Public, and Robert Geer as Superintendent of the Onondaga Salt Springs. Adjourned. Assembly. Committee on Eleotiona, Messrs. Raymond, Fruyn, Myers, and Buck. W. 8. Smith presented petitions to increase the number of harbor masters at New York, and to abolish oapital punishment. Mr. Cross presented a bill to appoint a Superintendent of Schools at Brooklyn. Mr. Meach presented a bill for the creation of additional Coroners for N ow York oity. Mr. Bowie called up a resolution relative to the war portion of the message. He endorsed it folly, and called on the House to adopt it forthwith, and teach oertain leaders their duty to the oountry. Mr. Bowks moved to refer to a committee the whole of the Governor's message, when it could be discussed. Carried. Adjourned. Girl Murdered near Albany, &c. Albany, Jen 5.1848. The body of a German girl, 17 years old, has been found under a bridge, near the Patroon's, this afternoon. She is supposed to have been enticed away by some boys, and then murdered. Deoeased was a poor girl, who had obtained a living by peddling apples There Is considerable ice in the river. The western mail Is too late to send on the news. From the South. FETEBiauRo, January 0,1848. The overland express has arrived, and brings New Orleans dates of the 31st. They, however, oontaln no Mexican news* Sympathy for Italy. Fhiladrlfhia, Jan. Otb, 1848. A large and enthnaiastlo meeting took place this even log, at the Chinese Museum, to sympathise with Fopa Plus IX, In his enlightened and phllanthropio endeavors to ameliorate the civil and political condition of Italy. John R. Kane, Esq , presided; and there were nominated for Vice Presidents a large number of our most Influential and intelligent cltisenr. Robert Tyler presented a series of resolutions, whioh were adopted unanimously, closing with a brilliant speech. Messrs. Stokes and others likewise addressed the as. eemblage, which at a seasonable hour adjourned. The Markets. New Orleans, Deo. 31,1H47.?Cotton?Sales of middling at 6J? a A?*. Sugar?There were sales of fair at 3X a 3?,. Molasses was sold at 17 a l7Xo Flour la dull. Freights?A ship was taken for Trieste to load with CJtton at one and a quarter. Excharge? There la abetter demand lor forelgu bills. Cincinnati, Jan, 6.?The money market continnea light, and business very dull. Flour?There was no change in prioes, and sales were moderate at $4 73. Wheat was dull at 95o a $1 for good Ohio. Corn?Salea Were made to a moderate extent, for good mixed and yellow, at 28 a 30. Oats were selling at 33o. Hogs? moderate sales were making at $2 60. Bacon?Sides were worth $3 76; newhimsand sboulders were dull. Whiskey was better, and sales of rectified were made at 19 a 20o. Freights were easier. We-Ather colder, and river falling slowly. Baltimore, Jan A ?Flour?The market wasdull, and sales were small of Howard street at $0. 600 bbls city mills sold at $6 12>{. Wheat?Silea of-6000 bushela were made, inoludlng Maryland reds, at ISOc, and whit do at 140a. Corn?Sale* of 10.000 bushels were made,Including Maryland white and mixed.at A&c, and yellow do at6Bo. Provisions?No change. Whiskey was inactive. Weather some colder. Ai dant, Jan. A, 1848 ?Flour and grain no change. Large sales of hogs at $6 26. Weather very cold Boston, January 0.?Flour?The market was some wnai nrm, ana naifs 01 ow/ narrpis were maae, illeluding Genesee, Oswego, with some small lot! o Southern, at $? 37>? a |d 30 Corn-Bales of 7,000 huabels were made. including Western mixed at 73o , and yellow do. 77e Oats-Bale* of 1,000 bushel* were madaat58o Rye?The market was lrsa firm, and sales of 80<t a 400 bushels, at Ode. Provision* were dull.? Frslghts.no ohange Shipping! Intelligence. New 0*leass, Dec 31?Arr ?hips Manchester. Bmi'h, and M >r*sret, Carr. Nf w York. Cld ship Hiehsid Alaop, do; hiig Charles, Philadelphia. ? L_ A Telegraphic Feat.?Gov. Young's message was telegraphed from Albany to tnia city, on Tuesday, on one wire, in about eight hours. The labor at Albany was wholly performed by .Mr. Johnson, an operator in the office at that end of the line. Mr. J. did not leave his chair lor seven hours. The message contained 12,000 words, o'r about 72,000 letters, requiring over 288,i?0(l manipulations, l-'rom such data, the conclusion is easily arrived at, that this was nil extraordinary manual performance. Chinch Thasslaswic sir.AMr.iis. ? After having looked over our k'renoh files, to tears tlie particular* oI the steamer Union, we only find that she met, on the 'i'th of November, with a terrible gut*, on the ehote* of Bfetagne, and ttftt she put baok to Cherbourg, on the 1st ult., at two o'clock in the afternoon, making only two decimeter* of water per hour. We Hnd, also, In our Pert* exchange*, a not ce I neartea ny .M '! nwwura f?u>i Iiwni, "U Ii.n 11.11 lilt, m follow*: 'Tereone hiring went good* by tbn eteauer I'nlon to Now York, are r"|U?it?d to inert at I he nflloe of the Krrnctl eteainere, 7 Rue d'Antln. at one o'olook, on the 14th. to hear h very intereetlng eommtinloatlon " We learn, aleo, by private eorreeponder.ee, that the lnlifortuno ot therteatner Union, line put the lam. tnuutl on the bed lunk of that line, aud, It le end pomtlridy. that the laet depatturn or thee* e'earu-r* wl'l lie that of the Mteannrt. on the U3d oi December. i'h? ecrela will then be auhnltted to thorough ropaire, after whloh, they will again return to their regular tripe, In May, 1811 it it laid, too, in puMio, that the company intend to ihrc.{?l*. if pvMlhl*. ill onatrant with the'iowomeat, a* th* < * >* are not Ht??U for reamfird ?er ri??.