' . HBBHP8 NEW YORK HKKALD. lorth-veKt Corner of Raltnn and Rattan its. JAMES GORDO'V RENWETT, PRO PRIBTOK. DJ11LT HERALD?Kree*y day <?>snday ineMaS.\ flirt t cents pert copy <" V>pee ?niliw ?"* I" f**."" d-a'es European nMicriicri, til jur OTNMM. IMI1J?IH| /A? ?< ?>?*? _ . *KKKLY HERALD-Every Haturday-Prxct 6* e^nfa prr ronh?il 'IHi wi''*?tn the United States Furmnean tubsmbrrt. by steamship, S'> f>fr annum, includin* the postage _ ? M . HFKAl.P FOR KVROPE?Every Hi,am Parte! Day ? Price cenrtpcr eopv-tb Per annum inr/tidin/r no?f?er. or U K> erclusire of pottage Sub iceipti.mi and adperHtements will he received try Meter, Qalirnani. It r,ie rivtenne. Pan,; P i. jtmnnrfi II Cornhill, and John Stiller both''Per Henrietta street London I'H ET'iKXTTelL H ERALD ?Every Tuesday?Ont D"llar fo' the Cimpaitn A til' b HTISE M E NTS at r easonahle pricti; to be writtin no plain Utihie manner The proprietor not retpontihle far error, in m IxlUSCript. P It IVTIff ft of ml k>n<?< erernfed he antrbully and with detfitch. Jill order* a' the Publication Office, corner of Fulton a id Nassau xtrcts .If. I. LETTERS by mail for ruhicriptione. or with advertisements to h, poet paid, or the pott igt will he doducted frnm the mane]/ remitted mLDhrr.tt HV C<1H H RSPflNDENCE. containing important near,, xoticited from any uujxrter of the wori4~ and if need always h, liberally paid for cVO NO TIC E ran I, taken at anonymous communica(?<>n it intended for insertion must he ailmentstoted hy the -,anxe and address of the xprxter ; not nee es tartly foe puhlira'ion hut at a guaranty of his good faith. M'e c -r,n-t -xndeeinke to re'ur a rejected rommunicationtJlLL PAY MENTS to be male in advance,Mt*nr\tv.VTS THIS D\Y AND BVKNI^iJ. FaKK THV. \TR? *4*d? I ?"?r k i'o'i American C'rc"?.,n 'h?ir ?*nnn <?* ??two performance*?afternoon at o'clock, freniiif at * o'clock. ll'P>v f 'i I I n It 1 | ? nnntrr ?j?n niM 1 on CiiMii-lmrii BmnroiiooM, ch * TH ? M thr \ttl R Chuihuni ?fre*t ?I *dv or t.rp???r?n Vai r*ti*r '* Hit Tale?Oub Flao? j muii. or thi Obthas or Geneva. ?'!WITH, B'tWXRV AVPHITH" *TRK. Bow?nr ? ''<j'r?TRiA"? RmroiMtTH-ETHioHAS Minatbkli? Fai i tivu ?Pantomime. ki B'OID^VY ODvon, Broadway.?Siwgixc-Vkwtailoijcum? Model Abtuti. A VP'S' H *LL Bros^way. near Broome ? Chri*tt'? ^is?t?m.? ?tmr"ria? Riaoixn Bvblbkiik Darolan, he - two prrformanrea, a? Band I P. M. PANORAMA HALL, Broadway, natr Hnn?ton ?"asva*d'? Panorama or tri Mium<m River,at S and 7 P.M. TABFRVACL1" ? strrcbmabkiarhs Musical Comfaev* doacraT. at "X T M New York, Batnrilay, January #, 1SW. Important from Wuhlngton? Wo publish, in another co'umn ot this day's paper, a letter from one of our Washington cor respondents, containing information of a highly important and interesting character. This letter was transmitted by telegraph, and contains all the rumors afloat at Washington, up to nine o'clock last night, at which hour it was despatched to us. The most important fact contaiued in this despatch is that a letter has been received at Washington, conveying the intelligence that the British courier had passed through Jalapa, and that a treaty of peace had actually been concluded at the capital, between Mr. Triet and three commissioners on the part of Mexico, and that the opinion prevailed in Mexico, that in less than ciTtv ftnva the American nrmv WntilH he with. drawn from that country. That Mr. Trial has formally entered into a treaty, we think is improbable; lor it is well known that his powers as a commissioner were some time since withdrawn from him, and he himself recalled to Washington. It is probable, however, that the Mexican government has submitted the project of a treaty to the American government, and entrusted the same to Mr. Trist to convey to his government at Washington. The fact that the names of the Mexican commissioners are mentioned, and also that the report comes through the British courier, gives more weight to the intelligence than it would be entitled to if it came through a Mexican source, without such names being mentioned. While, however, this report is in circulation, the prospect of an increase of the regular army becomes strontrerand more probable. The bill of Gen. Cass to raise ten new regiments of troops, is likely, according to our despatch, to become a law. Its fate is watched with intense anxiety by the commercial and financial classes. We have already stated, that in the event of this bill passing, large additional loang will be required by the United States for their support, probably amounting to one hundred millions of dollars in the aggregate. It is the efl, ct which it will produce on the financial affairs of the country which entitles it to so much consideration nt the present time, and which must b? disastrous to the banking institutions, * n ?- """J ci.Aonlafit'O KlUlTlPflU ana an inni rngu^cu m ........ of fill kinds, and and moat probably in a general suspension and revulsion, more fatal in its consequences than any we have yet experienced. War is at all times a costly and expensive matter. Its sinews are gold and atlver; and to carry it on, of course requires a drain of the precious metals, to the amount required for sustainine the armv and paying for the victories we achieve. This drain, in the face of that now going on towards England, will cause a panic?the banks, if they curtail in time, may avert suspension for a time; but a continuance of th' war, at the estimated expenses, will ultimately produce a general revulsion. The information telegraphed to us, shows that the feeling in the Senate is averse to Mr. Calhoun's policy of abandoning the central portions of Mexico and retiring to a defensive line, and that that body is in favor of prosecuting the war in the manner indicated by the President in bis msfsape, and according to the known policy of the administration. We shall wait with anxiety, further intelligence from Washington. In the meantime, as the passage of the ten regiment bill may take place, it will be well for every person to make up his mind that a revulsion, such as we have predicted, will occur, and for them to prepare for the consequences.? Economy must be the order of the day, and prudence, care, md forethought, the cloud by day and the pillar of fire by night, of all who wish to escape the coming storm. But read the telegraphic correspondence. Unnic r*sa*y DsrEicE or Mr. Fi.aoc. ?Some ? f l-? <*? - fu.rci.it, >r, mnUinrt a VI ???v l?V?.orn|rv.B, ?' " great noise in defence of Mr Flagg, late Comptroller, apainst the imputation that he furnished the A'eto Ko?A Hera-Id with a copy of hit report, previous to his presenting it to the Legislature. This def-nce may be very liberal and very generous, but it is entirely unnecessary. We can acquit Mr. Flagg of any intention to furnish the report to the Herald, and we also acquit the printers ofthe report, a* Albany As toany disrespect towards the Legislature, in the publication of that report, wr don't think there is much necessity to make much Hpology forthtt. The Legislature of New York, if thev don't behave themseltes better than former ones hive done are not entitled to much respect, and we slial always treat that body just as they deserve In publishing that report, we exercised our own activity and intelligence, without invading th? rights of any one, or any body o! men. It is ro person's business how wegot that report, ami if the devil himself was the personagr who lurnishsd it to its, it is the devil's btisinesi to manage Ins own affairs. It is not the firai tun' that we have t,eaten the whole press ol New York, neither will it he the last. The Le g,stature of New York were made by the people, who are their masters and makers. We furnished the public w ith that valuable ;eport, before their s' rv.iuts of the Legislature reeeived it; and who hud a better right or title to receive it firstthe sovereign people of New York, or the r w-el) paid servants at Albany? " Haider da-it!" a* t General Taylor said, when ihe abolii,oo letter we* r- rd to hmt k> his uidt it ftmt Th? A|* of llratlM.The S?w Turk fltrmKl Luc WMk, On the firot of January, 1843, of the Christian ere, the new age of miraclea began?an age that will be more astonishing and wonderful than all the preceding ages of the world. We have had geological perioda, traditionary eras, historical agea, and now we have just ctmmenced, on the 1st of January, 1848, the electric, or miraculous age, of the history of this world, and the races on it, that will far outstrip that of Moses and the Prophets. Printing was the first invention, steam was the next discovery, and the third was that of the electric telegraph. They are now combined in one movement, and have presented, during the last week, one of the first symptoms of the new miraculous age, in the columns of the New York Herald. From the first of the present month to the seI venth, this journal contained the following state1 ment of work done by the telegraph :? I Telegraphic Work in tnb Naw York Herald, prom Jar 1 to Jan. 7, irclusiv*. finance 8pac'in Mailer. i? hence in milte. the Herald. | Congrweioual Reports, Washington 136 7 X coin mas Forei|u "Vewe, Boitou 310 1>2 " : Minn Rep.ite, New Orleans 3406 M " " Boston 330 \ M " M Cincinnati * 900 ?i " * " Albany 160 k " " " HaHnaore 300 " Shipping Intelligence, South V'O " " Bostjn 330 k " i L,en?iative i>cwi, AI banr no jn, " " Hariiibnrgh 200 H " ! Sotthern News, Petf?borg J86 ? " MiscalUneotu, ?? 2' 0 % " Total djitanee and nit'er, 6(02 1*)* " Total Dumber of word* by telegraph 1st weekot 1S4S... 4S.0ST Totnl telegraphic expeoie for ihe lit week of 1142... $','06 00 This is the amount of work done, and the expense exclusively borne by the Htrald. But in order to understand this better, we annex the following specimen of the mode in which the telegraph works :? Tclsuraphic Characters asp Translation. M r C r lb ? o a said hew as a n o 1 dm an he was a 1 most amon g stran g e r s and If he hadur god an y t h 1 n g thatw as str an geor peo u 11a rta ponth e Sen ateth ey m ustattrlb u tetothea s ooiation so f thirty fiv e yearsa g o Mr. Calhonn said he was an old man?he was almost among strangers ; and If he had ntged anything that wae strange or peculiar upon ths Senate, they most attribute to tbs associations of thirty-Ave years ago. The dots and dashes represent the letters of the English words written below them, which are read off by the operator, and taken down by the reporter, to be handed by him to the printer, and by him set up and printed, and circulated in the columns of thia journal every morning. It is difficult, however, to convey to the public any idea of the wonderful combination by i which these miracles are performed. Steam, J electricity and machinery, operated upon by Heaven-born intellect, produce the whole. The result is, that space and time are annihilated. By thiB wonderful process, the city of New York becomes the central point of the nation, and all the cities connected with it by telegraph, on the Atlantic sea board, become itsfaubourgs?its wards?communicating with them as rapidly and readily every hour, as Wall street does with Chambers street, or Astor Place does with the Park. In fact, time is not only beaten, but it is annihilated. We can send a message from New York to St. Louis at twelve o'clock at noon, and it will reach its destination on the banks of the ! Mississippi at ten minutes before twelve. The city of Washington, and Congress, are . now part of the mettopo'ia of New York, by j i means of the telegraph ; sad by our system of ] reporting and our machinery, we have accom- j plished the removal of the Capitol northward, even nearer than Hoboken is to New York. These wonders of the week?these miracles of seven days?in the beginning ot the year 18-18, are only the first rude efforts of genius and art, directed to elements that will revolu. tionise the whole world in less than fifty years Morse, the inventor of the telegraph; Hoe, the inventor of the new printing press; and those editors and conductors of public journals, who i understand and have enterprise to use those in , ventions and discoveries, and to combine them I with intellect all together, will henceforth create a change in the history of the human race that will make them be remembered thousands of years hence, as the Confuciuaes, or theMahoinets, or the Zoroasters, or the Moseses of the nineteenth century, in those matters which change the destiny of races, of nations, and of people. The expense of this is great ; but what of that? The American people love, adore, idolize, and i cheerfully patronise and pay lor enterprise, skill, I sagacity, talent, genius, in the greatest and subj limest efforts. They are just going to make General Taylor the President of the I'nited States. I They already support the Herald so liberally that its circulation is rapidly going to sixty thouland copiei ; and our net receipts, each year, are equal to nearly thirty Ihouiand dollari, after paying all expenses. We have no doubt of reaching, : yet, in a short time, a circulation of one hunj drtd thmitand per day, and a net incoma, over all expenses, of one hundred thouiand dollars a 1 year. John Jacob Astor is but a common man to what the world may yet see. Yet money is nothing?reputation every thing. The dollar is but dirt?the glory of the reputation everything. DnrBiav o* a Lakqe Scalx.?Thurlow Weed, I David Hale, Wm. C. Bryant, and a few other saints, say that it was by bribery that the Herald was enabled to anticipate them all in the publication of the Comptroller's Report. Very likely. We bribe printers, and reporters, and agents, 1 and correspondents at so much per week. We bribe news-boats and steam-boats by the month. 1 Even the electric telegraph cannot escape. During the present week we bribed the lightning from heaven, to the extent of five hundred dollar's worth, merely to give us the first report of the speech of Mr. Calhoun, the great Southern ' Senator, and that of Mr Hale, the great aboli' tioniat. All bribery and corruption We con' fees all?all?all. New Jersey Banks and Banking?What is the 1 cause that the highly honorable and respectable receivers of the Plainfield Bank maintain silence, i 1 and do not accept the offer made by Messrs. t I Beach, of this city 1 f We will call upon them day after day to give publicly their reasons tor not consenting to have 1 the outstanding bills redeemed, until they give public satisfaction. A great number of poor people have been robbed of their little means by these bills, and no one ought to tolerate any longer the silence of the receivers of the Plainfield Bank, in New Jersey. This silence apeaka moat unfavorably as to the morals of finance and banking in New Jersey, t'oiur forward, gentlemen, and show votir L'nastd* I / - Mb. Halb's Srncn ow m WaB.?We published, in yesterday's Htrald, the speech of Mr. Hale, of New Hampshire, in the Senate of the , United States, on the bill introduced by General ' Cass, to add ten regiments to the present military force of thd United States, for the purpose ] of prosecuting the war with Mexico. Mr Hale was unfortunate in the time he selected for tj , delivering his seutiments on the momentous question which is now causing so much excitement and agitation throughout the country. He spoke the day after Mr. Calhoun did, on the same subject, who made one of the most brilliant displays of eloquence, profound intelligence, sound argument and logic, which that distinguished orator ever delivered?and by far the best speech that has yet been made, in or out of Congress, since the annexation of Texas. The contrast between Mr. Calhoun's and Mr. Hale's speech, is very great, and cannet fail to strike the t! most superficial observer. The one is character lzed with honest conviction, argument, ane ^ grounds for every position taken; while, in ^ every line ol the other, you can read abolition, r fanaticism, and party spirit, running reckless and wild. It is a palpable evidence of the length to r which the spirit of party will lead a man, irre- ti spective of all consequences to himself or his p country. Can Mr. Hale suppose, for a moment, ? that his violent denunciations of Mr. Polk, the r President ot the United States?his stale and D ridiculous assertion that the war was commenced ** expressly for the extension of slavery?can have the remotest tendency to promote the abolition of the institution by means of which he has B reached a place in the Senate of the United h States 1 Can he flatter himself that his refusal j to sustain tha honor and dignity of his country u in the hour of her emergency, and in the day of o trouble, will release a single slave from bondage, P or hasten the abolition movement I It cannot. He will injure the cause he attempts to Bustain, J more than he will benefit it, by the course he has seen fit to adopt. The people are narrowly h watching the course of their representatives in ^ Congress; and hereafter, when we shall be in % the enjoyment of peace?when the passions of ? all parties shall have subsided?the cool and dis- q passionate historian will refer to the public actB t and votes of every man in the present Congress, h and comment on them as they deserve. Let Mr. Hale, and such other representatives as are in- 1 clined to follow his example, reflect on this? h for the year 1818 will be a reference year for a y quarter of a century to come. 0 ... 1 Lawyk*s and Libels.?We have frequently al- t luded to the annoyance occasioned by pettifog- ? ging lawyers, in bringing frivolous suits against t newspaper proprietors, merely for the sake of the s fees and other items of black mail ; and we pro- si posed a remedy to correct that annoyance. This remedy was to exclude the names of all lawyers engaged in such petty suits, from the reports pub- '' lished in the journals so annoyed. b This remedy we mean to pursue on our own p account, and we have, therefore, furnished, con- 0 fldentially and privately, all the reporters of this b journal, with a complete list of lawyers, and other li pettifoggers, their clients, their witnesses, and, also, all judges, who have decided wrongfully h in those suits of libel, in any mode or shape, and d who have exhibited malevolence or ill-will to- ll wards this establishment. Such men will ' neither be reported, nor mentioned, in the columns of this journal, either in law a reports, or in those of public meetings, if j they should speak as politic ans, or in r the legislative bodies of any kind; neither shall any advertisement, for no amount of money, be ever taken from any of those persons, or their aiders or abettors, and published iu our advertising columns, in any manner. Whenever anything is said in this journal, injurious to any individual in the way of business, tbers is every disposition to correct it, on a proper representation being made to the conductor. There is no desire on our part to libel, oc^ubuse, or do any injury, to any private person, or even to any of a public character, compatible with our * duty towards tha public, in any point of view ; ? but of all lawyers and pettifoggers, a private catalogue has been made out, of all concerned ^ in those annoyances, and it will be adhered to h by this journal. This is the best and most effectual remedy to s correct such annoyances perpetrated towards the t , press. If every newspaper conductor, through- * i out the country, would adopt the same plan, * without any other general action on the subject, i but merely from their own volition! the newsi paper conductors throughout the Union would 1 teach those pettifogging lawyers, clients, witnesses and judges, a new lesson in the mat- ( ter of proper conduct towards the independent ( , press. a The Free Banks or New York?We hope < and trust that some member of the Legislature * ; will offer a resolution calling for all the correspondence, communications, information, and documents, which may be in any of the public i offices in Albany, connected with the organiza; tion, progress, and explosion of every bank in , the State. There is no doubt, after reading the : Comptroller's able report,which we gave onTues; day, that a vast quantity of valuable information 1 on those swindling and dishonest institutions is now in the hands of some of the public officers 1 in Albany, that ought to be known to the whole i community. It is time that a stand should be j taken against the gross corruption and dishonesty ( which the free system of banking is beginning to develope in this State. It professes to be founded j on State stocks; but any basis but gold and silver 1 I for currency, is utterly futile and dishonest to 1 I the community at large. There in now in the United States, probably, a sum of one hundred millions of specie, and the whole of our banking j system ought to be reformed and brought down , to a specie paying system; and no bank ought to be allowed to exist in any out-of-the-way place, | oranywhere but in large cities, with bills of no ? smaller denomination than five dollars. Th? i multitude of banks now in existence, issuing one, 1 two and three dollar bills, only represent a mul- 1 titude of swindlers?a multitude of dishonest 1 men, a multitude of scoundrels?who deserve ' nothing less than the State prisons or penitea. tianes of the country. A great portion of the 1 working community are shaved, and shaved, and shaved, trnm the beginning of the year to the end of it?from the rising to the setting of the sun?by those rascally institutions in this and other States. The free hanke in this State, thus far, and those of recent establishment, are some of the worst in the lot. We trust, therefore, there will be a rigid and searching investigation made on this subject, in the present session of the Legislature More Courts Martial.?We understand that several Courts Martial will soon be ordered by the war department at Washington, upon some of the officers of the army in Mexico. We should not be surprised to see Generals Worth and Pillow, and Colonel Duncan, all ordered home, including Gsn. Scott, to take part in these sineular investigation*. These Courts Martial will be the most interesting investigations that sver took place in this country, because the evidence that will be given at them, will show us the internal history and secret movements of the American army, during that brilliant campaign , ? what led to their success, and their glory and brilliant deeds. We do not deprecate those j Courts Martial. As far as their results to individuals are concerned, they are of little conse fueuce, hut the investigations will bring to light j matter most interesting t# the public. We !?? , lie** in th?ui. Uisrtfvre I' INTELLIGENCE IT TELEGRAPH. IIGHLY IMPORTANT FROM WASHINGTON. tUMORED TREATY OF PEACE. Che Tea Regiment Bill la the Senate. THE PRE8 DENTIeL ELECTION. j opinions at tne capital, ke. he, ke. pedal Telegraphic Correapondenee. W*?himctow, Jan. 7, Evening. A letter le In town, dated at Jala pa, on the 10th Deember, etatlng that the Britlah courier had paeeed brough that plaoe on the day previous, the lftth, bear>g the intelllgenoe, that a treaty ej peace had been conluded at the city of Af'Xtce, between Mr. Triet and the texican Commit lionere, Con to, Cuevat and Jtlriitian; nd that the opinion prevailed in Mexico that the army tuld return home in eixty days. If Mr. Trlet baa made the treaty after receiving hie ecall, he will be oeneured by hie government. Sueh a reaty oan have no foroe, exoept aa a mere naked rojeot or proposition offered by the Mexioan governlent. It will be eo viewed by this government. The toall of Mr. Trlet wae moat peremptory. In hie last ote he aoknowledged ite receipt, and deelared hie inration of returning home, if the new treaty be baaed
pen the letter of hie former lnetruotione, it will acaroely e acceptable to thla government. The vote in the Senate on Mr. Crittenden's amendlent to the ten regiment bill, exhibits two whig votes i favor of the vigorous prosecution of the war. Mr ohnaon, of Maryland, is one of the two ; he is a Taylor big, and will give h a views on the Mexioan question n Monday. There la no donbt but that the bill will ass both houses. The Southern demoorats are determined to remain asslve in the next convention, and to accept any man be Northern demoorats will designate as their ohoioe, rovlded he be not a Wilmot Proviso man. Mr. Cass as defeated b is nomination in the North by bis reoent itter. He goes as f*r as the most ultra Southern man( nd yet the South is not altogether pleased with his antlmenta. There is every reason to believe that the uestion will Anally be settled by a compromise, as here are prinoiples on both sides which neither seotion i willing to abandon ; but whloh both will oonsent to ink fora time for expedienoy's sake. The South, with be exception of Mr. Calhoun's friends, will be oontent rith the line of the Missouri compromise. The North as already abandoned the extreme of the Wilmot Prolso, and says it will be oontent if the South will by ome means acknowledge that slavery does-not now exit in Mexloo, and oannot be introduced into Mexican erritory, exoept by act of Congress. The South doe* tot wish to admit Congress hu a right to legislate la he matter at all, but for sake of union, will be oontent to sttle by aet of Congress, some line North of whloh lavery shall not exist?both seotionsthus approximate nd there Is little doubt a compromise will be effected Should this be so, Mr. Buchanan will receive the nomlation. Pennsylvania will give her vote for him in eon ntlon, and will claim the next President. Mr. Dallas as no strength outside the olty and county of Phlladelhla. General Cass has killed himself by his letter, and onsequently the eontest will be between Messrs. Woodury and Buohanan, with the chanoee in favor of the itter. Mr. Clay's friends are endeavoring to turn his arrival i this city to his advantage. There has been for a few ays, a strong reaction in his favor ; and if he oouli be sduoed to modify the views contained in his Lexington peeoh, he would assuredly receive the nomination. ?en. Taylor's Mends are active, but there are oauaes at rork, whloh may withdraw him from the polltloal arena Itogether for a time, and thus leave a clear field for >lr. Clay. What these causes are, I will explain to-morow. N. Telegraphic Correspondence No* SI. Washi.xotox, Jan. 7?Night. We understand that a letter is in town from General Vortb, setting forth that he is Inclined to be democrat 10. 11 IB DeglUUlDg lierc lo uw uuuubdou wu?i>u? uo ui >en. Casa should b* the man. The military fame of lass la eolipaed by that of the Amerioan Maaaena In ilexioo, and by many It la thought nothing lesa than dolino del Rey oan carry the field againat the old brown oat of Buena Vista. A movement It la aaid will be made in the House next reek for the oreation of a fall mieaion to Reme, and that Uhop Hughes will nndonbtedly get the appointment. Mr. Clay will not be here till Monday. Peace offers are expected from Mexico, and the oonsmplated demand for more loans and treaanry notes la eld in abejanee aooordlngly. General Soott will be reoalled as a witness against Oelerala Worth and Pillow and Col. Dnnoan, who are to >y tried by Court Martial. The battle of Mollno del ley will be one of the charges againat General Worth le waited till day light before commencing the attack, t la aald In dlaobedl nee of ordera for a night assault lence the loaa of four hundred men. In the event of a recall of General 8cott, we suppose Jeneral Butler will take the supreme oommand. Mr. Webster made another star speech to day In the lupreme Court. The subjeot was the Warren Bridge Company versus the State of Vermont, (Maasaohuette?) Open bouse at the President's to-night. Democratic nembers going np to consult in a conversational way on he affairs of the nation THIRTIETH CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION. Waihuvoton, Jan. 7, 1N$. Senate. The Senate waa not in session to-day. House of Representatives. After the meeting of the House, the transaction of he usual routine of business was attended to. a* extra clerk. On motion of Mr. Viiro*, the Committee of Ways ind Means was authorized to employ a clerk at four lollara per day. riBLic rftiNTcvo. Mr. Conoee,from the Printing Committee, reported hat bo present motion or action was neoessary In reference to tba public printing. thi lOUTHEan mail COKTBACT. A vote was than taken on Mr. Stewart's motion of reitarday, to reconsider the rote oloslng the debate in Committee of the Whole on the resolution renewing As Southern mail arrangement. It was negatived. The Committee of tba Whole, Mr. Smith, af Indiana, n the Chair, resumed the consideration of the question >n yesterday's appeal from the decision of the ohair It ras discussed at great length by Messrs. Sims, follock Duer, Stanton, Cobb, of Oeorgia; Wick, Sohenok.Thomplon, of Mississippi; Truman Smith, Oreen, Stewart, Woodward, C. J. Ingersoll, Gentry and Rhett. The 2ba!r was sustained, 101 to 78. Mr. Ooooiw, having concluded bii hour, the House proceeded te vote on the amendments. Mr. Jowr.e' amendment, providing for indemnity by ;he Railroad Company to the Chesapeake Bay Company, ito , was adopted, 80 to 60. Mr. Mbad offered bis substitute for the original reeoition, whloh was rejected. BtTITIl imtDamaiHR were ouwqu bdu rrjvotva or ittkinwi. Mr. Oarv.e proposed to amend, by providing that tho proposed oontract shall not increase the expenditures Yom the funds of th? department. Adoptad, 88 to 03. Mr. Oonoin offered a substitute, directing the renewal >f the old oontraot at prices not less than those paid up to July last Rejected, <0 to 107. Mr. Rota will, of Connecticut, moved that tho committee rise and report, with a recommendation to recommit the subject to the rout Office Committee, with instructions to Inquire and report what legislation ot a general character is necessary in reference to the traniportation of the mall by railroad, steamboat, or other mode. On motion of Mr. McKar, the amendment was modi j led eo as to tnolude Inquiry as to the probable coot of ; creaking the arrangement with the Bay line Mr Rociwill's resolution as amended was then reected, 86 to 03. The oommittee rose and reported the o.iglnal resolution as amended by Messrs Jones and Green On motion of Mr. Stkvcns, the House then adourned From the ffoutli. IY.tlriburo, Jan. 7, 1848 I hs overland express this morning brought New Or:eMs papers of Jan lit, but the/ do net contain a per fete ( ewe I LEGISLATURE OF B1W TORJK. Aliikt, Ju. 7, IMS. Senate. ' The standing oommlttcee were announoed, vie OnFinanc*?John L. Lawrenoe, Allen Ayrault end Plett Adam*. On the Judicitry?Samuel J. Wilkin, John Fine and A. Hyde Cole. On the Canal*?Jerome Fuller, Saxton Smith and FrederiokS. Martin. On Railway*?William 1. Cornwall, William Samuel Johnaon and John Fine. On Rank*?Alien Ayraolt, John W. TambUn an 1 Da- I rid A. Bokee. On Stat* Priton*?Samuel H. P. Hall, John M. letta and David H. Little. On Manufacture*.?Thomaa ?. Clark, William M. Hawley and Alexander J. Coffin. the mexican wax. Mr S. H. P. Hali. moved to take up the resolution* relative.to the Mexiean war, the extenalon of slavery, boMr. Corn wall opposed their consideration at this time. Mr. Hall insisted that immediate notion was neoesaary. The times demanded that the 8tate of New York should make her voice heard on these important questions. The question being called, the Senate refused to consider them by a vote of 23 to 6. taxation. Mr. Little offered a resolution te refer the petition for the repeal of tha law equalizing taxation, to tne Flnanea Committee. Laid over. Mr Bokke's resolutiona relative to the Mexloan war wera retfrred to tha Commlttea of tha Whole on tha Governor'! meeaage. Mr. Wilkin moved a similar die position of Mr. Hall'a raaolntlon. Mr. Hall oppoacd. A aeoret eauaua be aaid had bean held, at whloh It waa agreed to aend tha reaolationa to a committee, for report thereon. Mr. Wilkin denied it, and preaied hia motion, whieh waa rejected. THK GOTEKNoa'i MESSAOE. The Senate than paaaad into Committee of the Whole on the Governor'a maaaage, pertlona of whloh were referred to appropriate oommitteee. Adjourned Assembly, miscellaneous. Mr. Brkwer preaented a petition from the Savlnga Bank of New York. Notice waa given of billa to protect emigranta, and to amend the Judlolary Aot of 1847, relative to appeala from the Superior Court, and Court of Common Pleaa of New York, and to aboliah imprisonment for debt. A resolution waa preaented, requiring the Clerk of New York to report the feea paid to Coroners, from 1842 to 1848. A b'll waa introduced by Mr. Phoenix to increase the number of Harbor Mastera in New York. Referred to a aeleot oommittee. Adjourned. Tremendous Kx plosion of 1000 Kegs of Gunpowder on Hoard a Steam-boat. St Louis, Jan. 7, 1848. The steam-boat Sea-bird, from New Orleans, bound for St. Louis, and loaded with 1000 kega of powder, took Are on Wednesday last, the flth inst., near Cape Girardeau. There was a tremendous explosion, which was heard forty milea around the oountry. The boat waa blown to atoms. The passengers narrowly esoaped before the explosion took plaoe. Railroad Accident. Albany, Jan. 7, 1848. A man was killed to-day in Troy, near the depot of the Troy and Greenbush Railroad. The oars run on the wrong track, the switch being misplaced. Ho was killed instantly. Pedcstrlaiilsm. Norfolk, Va., Jan. 6,1848, Gilderaleeve, the American runner, beat Steeprook. In the 10 mileraoe at Montgomery, Ala. Time, 1 hour, 4m nrt 91 AAA Mo IaaaI dawn of intirMt Election In Canada. Albant, Jan. 7, 1849. In Lower Canada, fire liberate and two torlea hare been elected to the new provincial parliament. In Upper Canada, two liberate, twelve torlee, and two doubtful. Tbeee are the reeulte, as far ae heard from. Norketi. New Orleans, Jan. 1.?Cotton?Sales of middling to good middling at 6X a 7. Sugar is in fair demand; fair qualities sold for 3X a 3*,. Sales of molasses were effected at 17.X Flour is quiet; sales of llliuois at $6 76. Freights?Vessels are taken for ootton to Liverpool at 7-16d Exoh?nges.?There is some demand for sterling for the next steamer. Cincinnati, Jan. 7.?Flour?The market was dull, and no sales were making worth reporting; both wheat and corn were dull, and prices inclined to droop; small sales old corn were making at 33o Provisions- lions Sales 0> 3000 head were made at $1 36 a $3 SO LardSales of 3000 paokages good new, were made at 6\. Hams?Sales were making at >4. There was no cbsnne in shoulders. Whiskey remained about the same. No material change in the river since yesterday. Baltimore, Jan. 7.?Flour?The market was dull. Sales of POO barrels Howard street were made at (8. Wheat?Sales of 8000 bushels were made, Including Maryland reds, at $1 30, and family white, at 81 40 Corn?Sales were made of 10,000 bushels, inoludirg white and mixed Maryland, at 66a, and yellow do , at 69o. Meal was inactive. The sales of provisions were oonflned to the retail trade. Whiskey was dull. Albany, Jan. 7.?Flour and grain are dull. Pork is more firm, but prices are no better Sales of ordinary jots at (5 a (8 60, and prime parcels at $6 S IX. Boston, January 7.?Flour?The market shewed no change. Sales of 4 a 600 bbls were made at 37X a $0 G3X, embracing Genesee, Southern and Western brands Corn?Sales of 3000 bushels were made, em bracing Wastsrn uiixxl at 7Jc, and yellow at 75o. Oat* ?Sale* of 1000 bu*h*l* were mad* at 63c. Rya?Sale* of 400 hush-la were made at $1. Provisions were inactive. Krclgh's?No change, while there appeared to be aomt more offering Pennsylvania Legislature. (Telegraphic Correspondence of I'hil. bulletin ] llaHKiiHt'Ri;, Jan 7, 184S. But little buainee* done in either branch to-day. In Senate, after the announcement of the death of the Hon. Jacob VVagen*ell?r, the usual tribute of reipact wai paid, and it then adjourned. In the House, a est of resolutions in support of the Mexican war were introduced and laid on the table. The Speaker announced the Standing Committee*. Various netltton* were presented among them, praying for authority to close the business of the Philadelphia Loan Company and for the recharter of the Delaware County Bank The doorkeeper nominated in democratic caucus was elected. The House adjourned upon the receipt of a message from the Senate announcing Mr. Wagenseller's death. Shipping Intelligence. New Orleans. Jan 1?Atr ship John C?r'*r. New York. Old ship Hobert Parker do; brig Lycoming, Baltimore. The City Government.?We understand that a number of politician*, of the cheap and nasty order, are'preparing to go to Albany?perhaps ome have gone?for the purpose of procuring an alteration in our cit charter, so as to throw th? charter election forward to tho same period when we hold the fall election?in November. It is a sort of whig movement. The prospects of thst party, under the policy of taking hold of the skirts of General Taylor, are brightening; and they think they could get the whole corporation into their hands, by holding the city election on the same day that the Presidential election will be held. Now, we doubt whether the mass of the people of this city, and particularly those who pay taxes,are favorable to blending those elections together. The motive in separating them was to give the people an opportunity to canvass singly for members of the corporation, and to enable them to elect men to office on tneir individual merits, as far as regards the city government, and not blend them into a mass, with the affairs of the country at large. Wc wnnt an nmended charter, but not in tliih shape or form. Monsieur Tonson Again.?Mr. Gallatin is bringing out another hrorhurt on the war with Mexico?the etl'ect of the war expenditures on the banks and the currency. On this point, Mr. G. may be more successful than on the diplomatic and moral part. During the last war, when Mr. Gallatin was Secretary of the Treasury, he saw the approaching crisis among the banks, and he immediately left his post. He will, probably, show and prove that the exieting war expenditures will cause a general suspension of the banks in a short time. No doubt of it. NawsrAPKR Enterprise.?The .\tw 1 ork Herald has a right to speak in the strongest terms of Its enterprise No paper In the country bas accomplish'd so much In effecting a revolution and establishing a lew sis In Journalising. ?s the fftrald The respectable (bah ' the word Is misused,) papera of New York whoopewaCrnsndeeErinet It,erenow obliged to follow at humble distance It its wake , yesterday contained ten columns of bl?hlr Important news received by Telegraph Ihianttai dUUut olt e. la the Atlantic aad We.tern ItaWS. the PI?t. die j tone* beta* 4M*r*U, ,'ee, f, ?i .. i '-A Fun Abvsktiumxnts Emr Da*.?The advertisements in the Herald are fresh every day. We receive none over a day's length, payable in advance. By this system, the reading of the advertising columns in the Herald is rendered as fresh, interesting and useful, to the inhabitants of New York, as the foreign news, or the telegraphic intelligence brought from all the country round. We have adopted this system, for the purpose of producing economy, and of lightening the burden and expense of advertising to the public. The advertising business in this city has been, heretofore, a system of waste, extravagance, folly and ubsurdity. Look at the immense blanket sheets, with their immense columns crammed full of old advertisements, some three, or six, ^ nay, even twelve months old No one reads i theni?no one ever looks at them. Paper, type, 1 ' and work, are thrown away. How different ara , i the advertisements ot the Herald, which ara I fresh, new and useful on the day when they appear, thus economising the time and money Af lk. .J...ll.t.. V....I..K la this telegraphic age, when thunder and lightning, or rather the lightning without the thunder, is brought down and harnessed to the prtss, like horses to a wagon, no other system than that which we have adopted is suitable to the age ; namely, causing advertisements to appear once for a day, and fresh every day, instead of inundating the public with trash a year or two old. The Senate and the Editor ok the Union.? There is some probability that our highly respected contemporary, Mr. Ritchie, of the Union, wiil be once more permitted on the lloor of the Senate, Mr. Mason having introduced a resolution for that purpose. We regret, however, that the resolution was not acted upon immediately; for, although we have been obliged, on j many occasions, to speak somewhat harshly of Mr. Ritchie, we have a filial regard for the old gentleman who presides over the government organ. Se him on the floor of the Senate, by all means, poor old soul. The Steamship NoRTHERNKR.from Charleston, arrived yesterday morning, having left on Monday afternoon. The Northerner was due on Thursday; but owing to an occurrence, an account of which Capt. Budd gives in tho following communication, the ship was detained nearly twenty-four hours. Her accounts are, never- ^ theless, one day later than received by mail 11 The Northerner had to put back, in oonssijuenoe of finding a slave secreted in one of the coal bunkers ? When off the Cepca of Virginia on her return, a pilot boat was spoken, the slave seat in charge of the clerk to Norfolk, and the steamer resumed her voyage. When off the mouth of the Delaware river, the weather being boisterous, with every appearance of a gale from the N. E., Capt. Budd thought it advisable to make a harbor at the breakwater. While there the steamer took In ' about twenty tons of ooal, and then departed at 8 o'olook in the evening. Capt Budd return* thanks to Capt Nones, of the IT 8 revenue schr. Nautilus, for the prompt manner in which he offered his scrvloes to the steamer." * Theatrical anil Musical. Pas* Theatse.?TJie performances at this house last evening were attended by a very large audienee; In fact, in half an hour after the commencement, almost every seat was filled. That delightful little pair of ponies, Damon and Pythias, are really gems In the way of horse-flesh. Pythias1 waltzing is capital, and the gravity of the little fellow's phiz, as he paws the air and keeps time to the musi >, is very amusing As for Damon and his ' eowtlllion." as V?lt?r U?fr.inw a.ll. It ha Dhows that he has an ear for music, though his sphere of action on hi* board is not quite large enough for him, it strikes us. Not the least surprising of these little animals' feats, Is their jnraping through a hoop both together. Sergeant and Madame Gardner are splendid equestrians; the perfect ease and grace with which they go through their acts, shows how muoh practice they ave devoted to their art. Sands and his children were, I as usual, excellent; in fact, the whole entertainment is an admirable one. We see that there is an afternoon performance to bs given to-day at this house. Bowr.av Theatre.?This place still continues to b? crowded nightly,-o witness the many attraoiions there presented. To night a rich bill is offered. The tragedy of "Richard III " together with the "Spectre Bridegroom," and "Crimson Crimes," cannot fail of success. ( Chatham Theatre ?The proprietor of this theatre has taken great pains to present a good bill for to-night. To-day being the anniversary ef the battle of New Orleans, the nautical drama of ' Our Flag," will be played, as will those of the "Lady of Lyons," and 'Theresa, the Orphan of Geneva " Dr Valentine will also appear iu his famous oarloaturae of Vankeelsm. CiRCi-s?Bo wtnv.AurHiTHEATRi.?Tryon is jogging along a? this house with quite good suooe'S He baa some excellent performers engaged, suoh as Miss J easeline-Smith, the comic singer?a band of Ethiopian minstrels?Lathorne, the cannon-ball man?Cole, the flexible phenomenon?and a couple of funny downs, Wells and Williams ; Madlgan. Sweet, lea , equestrians. After having been so much patronised during the season, he is determined to deter ve It to the last, and though the houses hate been a little thin lately, we have no doubt be will shortly have rousing ones Chsistv'i Mivstrels ? Last nicht tbshonse was filled to overflowing again It seems as If the floodgate of popularity has been torn off its bingsa in the ease of these minstrels, and the folks having got acouatomed to the fun. it cannot be put on again and shut down in any way whatever. They are now oensi tiding their 14th week Think of that. Maater Brookes. To-day, by way of an anchovy, they give an afternoon performanoe. Broadway Odrov ?That ventriloquist, Valentine, ie a singular genius. The most perfect venirilrquial illusions are produoed by him , indeed, one can soarceiy realise | thai be has not eonie one concealed who answers bim. I Such is not the oase. however, ws oan aseureunbelievers. I The model ar ista here are as popular as ever, and still willing to suffer in the cause of the fine arts, if oalied on ! on to do so. Thsv are a grand troupe. The Stevermaeeische Mviical Compart giro their fifth concert tlti* w>n'ng ?t the T*bern?cle. They have given great satialaution at their previous entertainments. Latatettc Bazaar.?Tbla to a delightful lounge? " there ie every varleiy of fancy article* to be found there, and betide* that, beautiful Cloraraas, meohanioal figure*, fco , are exhibited. Sable Biothfii.?A band of tinger* under thl* title are performing at Columbian Hall. They girt quite a full programme. Lvrre'b Muiical Illustrations op BMAxetEAaa, whioh era* intended to be given next Tuesday evening, at the Brooklyn Female Institute. 1* postponed until the following Thuriday The Brithh Protcctivi: Emiorant Society will give a grand ooccert and literary entertainment, on Friday evening next, at the Tabernacle Mr Lover, Mr. Loder, Mr Lynne, and many other eminent artiata will nppear The object of tho conceit 1* to ral?e fund* for the charitable committee of the aociety. Mieeiiiivpt Riter.?We ar* glad that Banvard la gatting ao muoh patronage at bia panorama It la well worth a walk of ten mile*, even to aee it. Tt.oae wha wish to go, however, need not put themaelve* to that trouble, for the atagea will act them down at the door. Madame Avouita.?Thl*dlatingul*hed deneeuie give a three performance* next week, at Newaik?Monday, Tne*day. and Wedneaday evening*. We pereelve that the beautiful ballet af Nathalie la announced tor Men day evening, when we promise the cltiaen* of Newark one of the vichaat treat* they hava received for aome time. Madame Augusta will be assisted by Miss Welia, Mons Frtderloks, Mr. Nerrmm and an axcellent corn* | de ballet. If the eltlsens of Newark think as wa do, re garaing id? ppi^nuia mivni. 01 rni? oikourai, moioiiiiKiK dan$*uie, there t? little doubt bat that tha theatre will be crowded on that right, to witness tho enwtt, elegant and truly graceful dance* of the eueen of ballet performer*. We are informed that Mr. Malone Raymond, whoee Irlih entertainment* were so popular In London and other part* of England. when we were there, and which we had the pleaeure of attending, purpoae* making a tour in the t'nltrd State*, and that h# will shortly arrive her*. The Rnatonlnn* are elated at their good fortune in having Slgoora Blsoaociantl to elng to them. The paper* are Oiled with her pral***. It I*aaid?"Theopinion e-eme to be general among all elaeee* of listener*, that Signer* Dleoaooianti 1* a most delightful elnger, and an actress of uncommon capabilities." Arrest ok a man susprctbd or being a partt to th* robbkry of Dr. [)*rlington.? Thig morning I ain Informed that the supposed robber of tha President of the West < hester Dank has been captured within ons mils of Tort Deposit Ths fellow who Is believed to be the robber, was treoed from Philadelphia to an old school house near Dr Broughton'* (arm, (about two milea from Port Deposit! now In the occupancy of a fellow by the name of MoDowell, a brother of the supposed robber A stranger nulled on Dr. Broughton. and after making inqulrla* In relation to tha reeldenae of McDowell, went then, and arrested thesurpsoted individual. In the mean tlma. th> re were no less than eight men stationed in the woods around the house, which, alter the arrest, was sesrehed, but no money found. The polioe ( fflnsrs. (for so they proved to be) I preeume have taken him to Philadelphia. Hals said to have been In tha penitentiary several times, arid doubtless is no novice.?Corrttfndtnct Delaware Relu'ilican, Jan. 4. The report of the warden of the Ohio penitentiary, states the number of convicts on the 1st of November, at 44a, of which number .TOO were white male*, and 7 white ! females. 4ti colored males, and 3 colorsd female* Of ih? i convicts. 9?7 o.in rsad and write, 61' oan i*ad print onlv, , ?7 have learned to road is prison, in cannot read latei iglWy. awT't oaaflot read at all.