Newspaper of The New York Herald, January 29, 1848, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated January 29, 1848 Page 2
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NEW YORK HERALD. lerth-wctt Comer of Falwa nod Runuo ite. JAJ3SS GORDON BENNETT, PROPRIETOR. Y HER..1I.D?Every day, (Sunday included.) ? cents 1 rr , opy?f: 1iper annum?in Ifce United dtatet. Eutop-an subscribers, per annum, to include the t>o? ags. KKKLV HEK-1LD?Every Saturday?Price r .ui r>v?12H per an-ium?in the United States ' 'u rope or, isriber'.tiv s'eamsbin. tb re-- nunum to inel l t : le rvnu - .1n edition will be published on the day Of the departure of each steamer, with intelligence from ,ill parti ef the .harm an continent to the lateil moment ttptions and adyerttsements received by Messrs. Delictum. It fe Kivienne, Paris: P. L. Simonds, !8 CornbiU, as-d John Hitler, bookseller, Henrietta street, rRBSIOEtrriJlL HERJlLU-Every Tuesday-One Dollar for the Campaign. Of EH TI8E MEtfTS (new every morning at reatenable puces; to be written in a plain, legible manner.? I'hJNTlNO of all kinds emecuted beautifully and with ~'i*a'.ck. All orders at the Publication Office, corner of Eulton and Nassau itreets. AJ.l. LETTERS by mail, for subscriptions, or with advertisements, to hr port paid, or the fort age will be deducted ft ,<m the money remitted. VOLUNTARY CORRESPONDENCE, containing important neirt, eolicited from any quarter of the worlden I if used, wilt always be liberally paid for. WO NOTICE can be taken of ononymovi communications ti'aatever n intended for insertion must be authenticate J by the name and oddress of the writer; not necessalily (or publication, but as a guaranty of hie good faith. ' e undertake to t eturn re/rctra communications ALL PA i hIENTS to be made in advance. AMUSEMENTS THIS DAY AND KVENlNtJ. PARK THEATRE.?Saudi, Lent HI C.n.'i Amnwi 'ircn*. in ilieir^rarioni feat*. Two performance*, at 2)^ P. M , and 7 P M. BOWERY THEATRE, Bowery ?Richard III?3rd aa<l 1th Act of til* Battle or Mksico?Oolden Farmer. CHATHAM THKATRE Chatham street.-PizARRo? West's WmiTi iitii?Hot-tap r?r an Outer?5th Act Nlyi Way to Pay Old Debts?Ventriloquism. OPERA HOUSE, Chambere street?Thiers' Model Artists. MECH ANICS' HALL, Broadway, near Broome street.? Christy ? Minstrels? Kthioiman Sinijino?Burlesque A'ANI-IHU, oic. i wo prn?rqiaucr?, ai 3 &uu B r. m. BFOHiW\y ODKON, Brondwnr?NECRO BALLAD AND COMIC SlNGINC?Vt NTRII.OQl'ISM, Ate. PANORAMA HALL, BrojHwav, re" Hetntne.?HAWv? n'? PcnomaMaob1 thk Miuiiiteri. TWO i>erfonimnce?, Rt 3 aud 7 P. M. K?w York, tiaCuiNlay, January !4U, 184R. flrj- Advertisements received for one insertion only. The News ?>v Telegraph. We received by the southern telegraphic line, last night, highly interesting intelligence from Yucatan, by un arrival at New Orleans from Havana. The Congress of Yucatan, on asssembling at Merida,on the 21st December, received a message from the Governor, giving a deplorable account of affairs on the Peninsvla. Arrangements had been entered into by the Governor with Zetina, a revolutionary chieftain, by which he was to join the Yucatan commissioners at Washington, probably with a view to urge the annexation of that country to the United States. Our telegraphic summary of the proceedings in the national and State legislatures yesterday, will be found interesting. The transactions in Congress comprised the introduction of a bill in the Senate, by Mr. Husk, of Texas, to authorize the Preident to increase the naval establishment of the United States ; and a resolution from Mr. Miller, of NewJersey, calling on the President for information as to whether any duties had been levied and collected on goods imported into Mexico by citizens of the United States, and if 8 >, wnai auinorny ne nan lor sucn procedure. Debate was continued on the ten regiment bill, Mr. Phelps concluding his speech Mr. Cass expressed a desire to have the debate on this bill terminated immediately. Mr. Downes, of Louisiana, obtained the floor for to-day In the House, a bill was introduced for the improvement of the Hudson river. Debate on the President's message, and other business, was got through with, which it is unnecessary here to recapitulate. A caucus of the whig members of Congress was held last night, at which it was determined to recommend a national convention for the nomination of candidates for President and Vice President. They did not, however, decide en the time for holding the convention. The legislative proceedings, market reports, marine intelligence, &ic. itc., under the proper head. ___ The Treaty of Peace with Mexico. We have further and special news of the treaty of peace with Mexico, and that which we have had,is now rapidly dissipating into thin air. That a treaty has been made by Mr. Trist, in spite of his recall, in conjunction with General Scott, in spite of his suspension, we have positive intelligence of. This treaty has not been yet received at Washington, but is expected by the next arrival from Vera Crux. The terms, however, are known in Washington, and they are disapproved by the Cabinet. We don't know positively what Mr. Polk thinks of il; but he may offer it to the Senate. It is supposed that General Scott and Mr. Trist have made the treaty on their own hook, without regard, or in opposition, to the Executive. It is 6lill doubted in some quarters whether there is a treaty, although all admit there is some basis, or form of proceeding, looking to a treaty between Mr. Trist and the rump of the Mexican government, if such a rump still exists. we cion t aouui it. w e nave no laith, however, that this treaty of peace, or any permanent arlangeinent, can be made with Mexico. We doubt tiie existence of any other kind of peace with Mexico thin that which now prevails. The American army hold* that country, and thus lar lias given it peace and quiet. Vet neither the United States nor the administration wish Bonexation for the present, or to make that measure openly their policy. Annexation or absorption, if it come at all, will come from the necessi'y of the cane?the necessity of n<.t finding a responsible government in Mexico with which to make a treaty, or a capability to preserve the peace of that country, or of complying with the conditions of any treaty that might be made with it. The relations of the United Slates with Mexico are in an anomalous and indescribable condition Nor is there any appearance that ihis condition oj things will be soon changed. They may remain in the same condition, not only this year, but the next, and the next after the next. If our government, by the recent policy put forth in the orders nt General Scott, is enabled to collect revenues ... ... iu rupitiiii mr arinv in tliat region, we do not believe that that country wil' e\#r be evacuated by the American troops In the meantime, the new treaty, when it arrives, and the court of enquiry on General Hi i it, will soon produce excitement enough. The oetra?Romeo ani> Juliet?A Failure. ? The opera el ' Romeo and Jnliet," jierfonned or the first time last evening, was nothing but a la ilure. 'J here are some beautiful pieces in it; but they were spoiled Madame Patti makes an elegant looking young man, performs tolerably well in the old style, hut her voice is a inere wreck?a ruin. lie sang fa|M and forced throughout. The others not much better. Indeed, the only artists that did their dmy werP Kapetti, (always on hand,) and some of the chorus. What a set of managers ! nh such artists a> Benedetti, Trnffi, and I'ico, inthe city, to pass oil upon the pnblic such a mr/angr o| incompetency ' Ma tor Bum?We understand that this gallant hero, who has been with old Rough and Beady thron gh all the battles, from i'alo Alto H ns Vista, arrived in tins city yesterday and "til probably remain here a lew days. 1 | Post Okkicr Affairs?Forkiqn and Domrstio. ?We give in our columns to-day, a very important paper. It is a report by Mr. Hobbie, Assistant Postmaster General, of au abortive negotiation attempted in Europe, in relation to the foreign mail service. This report may be called an able, eloquent, and powerful apology for the incapacity of the Postmaster General, and of the President's judgment, who appointed such a man to office. Even the great experience, the sound sense and unquestioned talents of Mr. Hobbie, appear to be under a cloud when he comss to serve under the direction of such a lump of incapacity as Cave Johnson, who is, with the President, a great man, it seems, in one of the little counties of Tennessee, but a miserable little man at the head of such an establishment as the Post Uftice Department of the United States. This report represents the British government, in this negotiation, under a most uniavorable point of view. There can be no doubt of the accuracy of this view. The obstinacy, stupidity, pride and impertinence of the management of the United States Post Office Department cannot be exceeded except it be by the same qualities, amplified by age and years, to be found in the greatest state of developement in the British l'ost Office Department. There are two nations?great commercial nations?two homogeneous races?anxious and willing to communicate, with rapidity and cheapness,their ideas in relation to basinessor other affairs; but instead ol being permitted to do so, they are prevented by the mutual pride, obstinacy, self-will, and incapacity of the heads of the British and United Slates Post Office Departments. If it were possible to do the deed, the whole British Post Office Department, head and shoulders, should be tumbled into the Thames, and the same thing should be done to the American Post Office Department, in the Potomac. If there is any common sense yet remaining among the English people, not pawned and pledged to the Jews, as we know there is among the American people, we trust that both of them will endeavor to agitate and bring the matter before their respective lngislatures, in order that they may counsel and direct each department to do its duty, and aid and assist two great communities of people in perfecting a mutual and cheap intercourse, for their mutual benefit. Really and truly, we begin to entertain the opinion that a Post Office Department is rather a burden nnd an intolerance, and that the whole business of transporting letters would be better in private hands than in such incompetent, impertinent, obstinate, miserable, inefficient hands as those of the British and American Post Office Departments. While on this subject, we find the following in a contemporary Foreign Maim.?A bill bas been presented In the Senate by Mr. Nile*,from the oommlttee on the Post Offloe, which is designed to regulate our intercourse with England. Mr. Nlles had the sagacity to see at the last session of Congrers. that those difficulties would arise, and efforts were made by him to obviate them, which failed of eucoess. He stated that our mall to Southampton and Bremen had enoonntered difficulties in England, from the illiberal and unjust polioy of the British government. All letters oooveyed in our mall, to be lelt at Southampton, not only for England, but for Franoe and other countries in the south of Europe, Intended ts be sent from Southampton to Havre in France, were subjected to a postage of twenty-four csnta This subjeots letters transmitted In the American mail to forty-eight cents postage, while those in the British mail pay but twentyfour The bill presented by Mr. Niles subjects letters brought In British or other foreign malls to twenty-four cents postage, to counteract the operation of the law, and provides for regulating the transmission of letters to and from the United States to all foreign countries. General Scott and his Brother Officers.? There is a great deal of sympathy existing in certain quarters in fivor of General Scott, in consequence of the court of enquiry ordered an him by the administration. Some of the journals are quite indignant, and call on the administration to give to Congress all the papers, and documents, and information, respecting tha difficulties between the commander-in-chief and hisgcnerals. We trust that this call will be made by Congress, and that quickly. When Senator Crittenden made a certain enquiry of General Cass, in the Senate, the latter should have refused to answer any enquiries,but have requested Mr. Crittenden to oiler a resolution, asking for all the information on the subject, and then have concurred in supporting it. This would have been the best method for Mr. Cass to have pursued. As ttie mattrr now stands, the public mind is in the dark. General Scott is in some troubleGeneral Worth is in some trouble?the administration is in trouble. There is blame somewhere; but no one can tell where or what it is. In the meantime, persons endeavor out of this difficulty and mystery to extract sufficient matter to make General Scott a candidate for the "next Presidency, and propose giving him a dinner?a ball?a polka?at the Astor House, on his arrival in this city. General Scott, in certain respects, would make a splendid President; but it is very evident, from his various letters and correspondence, that after the fighting is over, he is extremely jealous, and touchy to a fault. He wants that mastery over his own feelings which old Rough and Ready possesses. We want more light on the subject before we can tell what to think of it. From hints that have been thrown out in certain quarters, it is not only possible, but probable, that there is more behind the curtain, in the hands of the administration, than the public have any conception of. It is not for trifling cause that the administration, in the present state of the popular mind, and the present condition of our relations with Mexico, would order a court of enquiry on General Scott. We would not be surprised before long to hear of an explosion that will create more noise than the explosion caused by the "hasty plate of soup" letters. Indeed, it is very likely that the people of the United States will wake up soms fine morning, and see prepared for them another hasty plate of soup, perhaps more " hasty" and more "soupisti" than what they contracted for. Messrs. Polk, Marcy fit Co. are very cool, cunning men. They would not suspend Gen. Scott for a trifle. Let us wait and see it out. General Scott's position, character, services, patriotism, fcc., cannot be long covered up in mystery and darkness. Tnt- T.vi \A~..~ ... ~ ...? v t.1111.11 in THIS VITY--we mutt edmit there is great difficulty in concentrating thp Taylor forces in this city. There are four or five clique*, all willing to make Gen. Taylor the Presidential candidate; but each of | those clique? desires to be supreme and to dictate I to the others. The old native politicians, who have posses' sion of a Rough and Ready Central Club, us it | is called, have some sentiments rather hostile ' to the Wall street clique, which has called the ' great mass meeting on the twenty-second of February next. Accordingly, the organ of the Wall atreet clique* pitches into the natives, and denounces their projects and purposes, from right to left. The Wall street men have the most i money, but the least common sense or prudence. The other clique* have the most votes, counting rank and file; but are not willing to be ruled by the secret committee of twenty-five, in Wall street. We suspect that all this fuss and noise made about Geneial Taylor, by a number of individuals. clique*, and clubs, may be but sham?only a sort oPprepurntion. to bring out, at the proper time, another candidate?and probably that candidate may be General Scott. The parturitisn of the Taylor party in New York, seems to be attended with as much pain aa the birth of a uiaiiirnoth or an hermaphrodite. Their petty [ nuarrcn Th* Next News from Bnoland.?We are waiting with great impatience to receive the next news from England. At the last accounts, the position ot the Bank of England, and of commercial atfairs generally, was extremely interesting, as regards their connection with the progress of trade in this country. It is believed that the tide had turned?that no more specie would be drawn Irom foreign countries to London, and that the amount accumulated in the Bank of England would be used to stimulate and encourage trade. Ihe next news from England will either confirm or dissipate these expectations. Our own belief is, that some little revival may take place, in consequence of the change in the current of specie; but that there will be great languor and inactivity for some time, and thut every effort that may be made by the commercial people of England to revive prosperous times, will be more and more attended by occasional relapses and panics. England has a great population, a limited area of soil, aud newly made competitors in the markets of the world, not the least being the United States. She is in a bad way. The British Parliament has been degenerating for many years, and legislating only for West India negroes, London stockjobbers, and ambitious Jews, for the last fifteen years. Her ministry is influenced by the same interests. Her taxes are onerous; her debt equally so. In everything connected with trade, navigation, manufactures, steam, electricity, and all the improvements of the age, the United States can accomplish more, in less time, than England could ever do. We are young, full of blood, energetic, enterprising, and enthusiastic?she is old, loaded with debt, oppressed by stock-jobbers and Jews, led away by negro enthusiasts, and her very life-blood is pawned for centuries to come. We expect, by the next arrival, to hearof some little revival in trade and commerce, but nothing permanent, or any decided amelioration that can last any length of time. Ocean Steam Lines.?The Cambria sails today, from Jersey City, at 12 o'clock, for Halifax and Liverpool. The mails in this city close at ten o'clock-, bat the postmaster of Jersey City will receive letters up to a quarter of an hour before the sailing of the steamer. The Cambria is the first regular British steamer which has arrived here from Liverpool and sailed hence. Hereafter, we shall have one once a month at i this city, and once a month at Boston, making | turn uuivaiB, uuuuguuui 111c wliner eusOD, Ouf per fortnight. The British North American line may now be ! said to be the only successful line of ocean steamers yet organised. The English established a line, and sunk a great deal of money in it, between London and New York, of which the British Queen and the President were the principal boats. Another line was established between Bristol and New York, which, with the exception of the Great Western, also turned out a failure, like that of the London line. The French more recently attempted the same thing between Havre and New York, which has met with some diasters, and also turned out a similar failure. Even the American line between this city and Bremen, must be admitted now to be a failure; for the first vessel, the Washington, appears to be entirely unfit for steam navigation, although she may be very beautiful in other respects. We have had, therefore, two English, one French, and one American line of ocean steam' ers?all failures. None seem to have succeeded but the Liverpool line, composed of vessels built on the Clyde, with engines constructed in Glasgow. The Scotch line, as it may be distinctly called, is the only line that has succeeded permanently on the Atlantic. The blunders, and errors, and miscalculations of the English, French and American lines, would fill columns On the other hand, the prudence, caution, skil' and enterprise ot the Cunard line, stand out aloof, and must be admitted by all. But we do not despair yet, on this side of the ocean. Mr. Collins is now engaged in preparing aline of large steamers to run between New York and Liverpool, which, we believe, will be as cautiously constructed, and will be eventually as successful, as the Cunard line ; but it will be a year, at least, before any of his steamers will be traversing the ocean. In the mean time, the Cunard line will make, and will deserve to make, money. They have a glorious harvest before them. Movements of the Pacific Squadron.?We have seen private letters from California, dated at Monterey, October 9th. The U. S. vessels there at that date, were the flag ship Independence, bearing the broad pennant of Commodore W. B. Shubrick ; the Cyane, Preble, Warren, Southampton and Erie, likewise a large American merchant ship, a prize to the Portsmouth. PThe Independence, Cyane, and Southampton were to have sailed about the 15th, to join the Congress, Portsmouth, and Dale, which latter vessels had sailed a few days previous, on a cruise of observation on the coast of Sonora, or Western Mexico. This combined force will immediately commence offensive operations, and after taking Ma I zatlan, tiuymas, Acapulco, Pan nias, aim otlier porta, will establish and enforce a strict blockade of the whole coast. Accounts have been received, by the way of Vera Cruz, of the capture of Mazatlan and Guymas. The Preble was to have sailed the following day, the 10th, for Panama, with Midshipman Wilson as bearer of despatches, and he has reached New Orleans. Commander Hull would likewise go down in the Preblp, which, after landing her passengers at Panama, would await there the arrival of Commodore Ap Catesby Jones, who is now on his way across the iBthmus, to take command ol the Pacific squadron. The store ship J-Jrie was to sail for the United States about the 12th, with Lieut. J. Watson, commanding; Rutledge, 1st Lieutenant; Hayes, Master; Powell, Surgeon?transferred from the Warren, as are most all of the officers and crew. The Erie will bring home all the invalids of the squadron. The Lexington, store ship, was at La Paz, cooperating with the army in the transportation of troops, stores, &c. Commander Thomas O. Selfridge had succeeded Com. McKane in command of the Dale, and Capt. Lavallette had taken command of the c-ongress. From Brimuda.?We received files of the Bermuda Royal Gazette to the 18th inst., inclusive, last night, by the arrival of brig Lady of the Lake from that port. The papers however, ' contain nothing of importance. The R. M. 8. steamer Conway had arrived, hut she brought no tidings of the missing mail steamer Tay. The only remaining hope for her safety is, that alio j may have put into Fayal. Later from Havana?By the arrival of the brig T. Street, Capt. McConnell, we have papers from Havana to the 14th Inst. her da j of sailing The brig Halina and Orleans reached theie the same day The Hpanlsh smack Modesto arrived next day, all from this post The Dial in de In Marina denies that the steamer Congreseo had gone on a surveying oiulae along the eoast. with an officer of engineers on board, with a i view to adopting a plan of fortifications I There was quite a fire In Havana the night of the I'Jth inst It took place In the warehouse of Henorea Htvoe It Bustamente, whose lose Is estimated at $30,0<M> It communicated to the beautiful house of Count Santa Venla whose furniture, Ito , were injured to the extent of $'20 000, everybody turned out to stay the progress cf the flames, from the eaptain-general downwards. The orews of the Hpanish and French ships of war in the harbor gave their aid. The next day count Hanta Venia preset,ted the fire companies with $fll'0 to mark his sense 1 tf Ihvlr services. ????1 HI' Nnti from tlu Cap* of Oood Hop*.' We hate received by the bark Archelaua, a Boston, a file of the Cape Town Mail, published at Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope, from which we extract the particulars of an engagement between the English and the Kaffirs, a synopsis of which we published in yesterday's paper, under the telegraphic head. [From the Cape Town Mall. Nov. 13 J Despatches have been received from the Headquarters In Kaffirland, detailing a most successful and spirited attack by detachments under the command of Colonel Somerset upon Pato, and the Kaffirs who were led by him. It seems on Saturday laat, Col. Somerset having reason to believe that the enemy was in foroe at some distance in his front, immediately determined upon making a forced march with a view if possible of bringing him to an engagement. Pushing forward, therefore, with some strong detachments of light troops, chiefly Cape Corps and Capt. llogg's levy, Colonel Somerset succeeded by night march, completing a distanoe of 30 miles, in reaohing on Sunday the broken oountry on a stream oalled the Chechabe. Here having halted, Kaffirs were shortly after seen galloping up the adjacent high ground, exposing themselves to observation muoh more daringly thtn hail th* for ?nmA limn nravinmlv. Still it fu soarcely expected that the euemy contemplated making a serious stand, the prevalent opinion being that he was merely watcViDg the progress of the troops, anxious to see thorn move down the opposite declivity. At this time Col. Somerset, with a single orderly, having rode forward to some distance from the troops, found himself suddenly in front of a party of Kaffirs, whom he eluded by immediately falling baok. Before, however, he could rejoin the troops, a strong body of the enemy mounted, poured down upon him; bis orderly was shot from his horse, and he himself only escaped by making a dash through the savages, and trusting rather

to the mettle of his steed than to the ohanoes of a contest between a single individual and a score of infuriated ! foes. The Ksfflrs, after having narrowly observed the movements or the British force, then passed to the left, and ascended a height distant about a mile in front, where they took up a very strong position, evidently with a determination to dispute their farther progress. Colonel Somerset was not,however, diepostd to balk their anticipation of a fight, and hence, no sooner did he ascertain their position than he formed his men and put them in position for attack, waiting with a good deal of mpatisnce tor the arrival of Captain Hogg's levy, whioh was about a mile in the rear. Kvery arrangement having been made, the advance, under the immediate oommand of Colonel Somerset? the Cape Mounted Rifles being led, in the absence of Major Armstrong, by Captain O'Rlelly- wound slowly up the face of the hill, the Kaffirs being most advantageously sheltered under cover of some immense rooks. The troops kept steadily advancing, until within SO yards of the enemy, when orders being given, the bugle sounded the gallop, and the next minute the troeps had crested thn hill, dismounted, and were among the enemy. The Kaffirs at first opened a running fire, but being pushed vigorously, in twenty minutes they were driven from their position down the hill intotlie ravine below. Krom this also they were speedily dislodged, leaving behind them their arms, karosses, and several horses. They fled Into the adjacent valleys, which deeply interseot that section of country, and present the most favorable positions that could be desired by Kaffirs in carrying on their peculiar mode of warfare. Only seventeen of the enemy were found killed in this affair, but it Is affirmed that many more must have fallen, the Kaffirs oarrying off as many of their deid and wounded as possible, as was indicated by the numerous blood tracts whion were seen along the line of their retreat. ? The Kaffirs kept under shelter, their numbers oould not be estimated, but their main body is supposed to have been not less than 800 men, besides some detached parties posted so as to take advantage of any circumstances whloh might turn up In their favor The accounts reoelved by us do not state the casualties on our side, which,however, we have reason to believe are comparatively trifling. The Kaffirs for 20 minutes maintained a sharp fire, bat whioh seems, probably from the abruptness ef the aoolivity, to have been very ineffective. The weather is described as extremelv severe. heavy and continual rains; but our men were in good health-Colonel Somerset, with his usual seal and activity, being determined to push on, aDd carry out to the letter the instructions reoeived by him from the commander of the forces. It is affirmed that immense droves of cattle are sheltered in the broken country at ne great distanoefrom the scene of this enoounter; and it is supposed that it was to cover these that this attempt to arrest the maroh of the troops was determined on. [From the Graham's Town Journal, Ootober 23 ] Yei-terday the paramount Gaika Chief, Sandflla, reached Graham's Town, escorted by a party of the 7th Dragoon Guards and Cape Corps, under the command of Capt. Bisset. C M. R. This notorious chief was clad in a dirty blanket, and was aooompanied by twenty of his followers, in similar costume. On his reaching the quarters allotted him, a detached building within the military lines on the Drosty Ground, the Secretary to the Right Hon. the High Commissioner had an interview with him, for the purpose of explaining to him his true position, and the danger that would be incurred should he make the slightest attempt to escape or elude the vigilance of those in whose oustody he will be plaoed. Every reasonable attention is paid to the oemfort of this chief, but he is not allowed to move exoept under the eye of the military guard, though access is allowed on proper application to those anxious to see a man who has caused so much mischief to the colony, and who has brought such Irremediable ruin upon his own people. Sir llarry E. F. Young has retired from the Lieutenant-Governorship of Cape Town. Vrry Lath from Brazils.?We have received, by the fine,fast sailing ship Courier, Capt. Wolfe, files of the Rio de Janeiro Jornal do Comercio to the 20th December. The Jornal extracts largely from the New York Herald the particulars regarding the affair of the duties of 20 per cent imposed on the cargo of coffee in Brazilian bottoms, which arrived at Boston some months back, but which 20 per cent was remitted by the Secretary of the Treasury at Washington, in consequence of the treaties of 1828 with Brazil being still looked on as in force, although the period for which they were made had elapsed. The Brazilians are highly pleased with this arrangement, and look on it as a new open' ing for the employment of their vessels. A person of the name of Jacintho Jose Pereira, who arrived passenger at Rio on the 5th December, in the Hamburg brig Francisca, from Lis non,Drougui wun mm it nuin oer 01 counieriei notes of various denominations?$50's, 920's, Sf2's and Si's?and attempted, immediately on landing, to nut them in circulation, paying his passage with three counterfeit $50's. lie was immediately arrested, and placed in prison to await his trial. The homoepathic war still rages fiercely (on paper) in Rio, though we see nothing more suid about the case of Leitgas, who, a was said, was killed by homoepathic medicines. Carlota Joaquina da Silva Mattos, who was tried by jury, on a charge of murdering her brother-in-law, Jose da Silva Mattos, was acquitted, eleven of the jury finding her not guilty. The steamer l'araense arrived from the northern ports at Rio, on the 10th December. All the provinces there were perfectly tranquil. From Para, dates to the lOih November had 1 been received. The steamer Guapiassu was there, intended for service in the interior of the province. She would soon leave for the Upper Amazon. From Maranham the accounts were to the 18th November. The primary elections for deputies to the General Assembly occupied the attention of the whole province. The party of the league were in the majority. There had been an outbreak at the town of Vianna, induced, it was said, by the ezclutivtita party, in order to disturb the elections. A detachment of the sixth regiment of Catjadores had gone there, however, and quickly restored quiet. The Chief ot Police, Mauoel de Cerqueiru, had been suspended from office, lor not fulfilling his duties. From Cearn, papers of the 20th November had been received. The elections had concluded there in tavor of the government party. At Pernambuco and Bahia, nothing of interest had occurred. A long account of the taking of the city of Mexico is given, under the heud of loreign news, in the Joinal do Comerrio. No remarks are made about ic City intelligence. Tmk WxATHza?Yesterday was another of those delightful days with which we hare been favored during this month. The sun rose from a clear herison, and the wind blowing from the west, gently, gave us a day, for pleasantness, which could not be excelled. Towards evening a dark eloudroea from the western horizon, and the air became chilled, giving a pretty strong indication of snow. Arrivals.?The Hon. Ham Houston, of San Jacinto, and Major Ben MoCullocb. of the Texan Rangers. arrived In town last evening, and stop at the City Hotel. The Hon Henry S. Koote, and several others, were socillently left. a? Philadelphia They are ejpected here to-day, and are on au electioneering teur to Tammany Hall, at wnioh place the great war meeting is to be held to-night We advise the gallant MoCulloch to plek out a company of rangers from the huge-paws that will be atthe'meeting to-night, and take them to Mexico with him, juet to try them Fiar. ?A lire broke out about half peat aeven o'clock, on Thuraday evening, In the baecnient of houeo No 9 Lewie etreet, occupied by Jaoob L Kenn. an a whip factory It waa extinguished with very trifling damage The SiEAMiHir Cambbia,? We learn thatCaatl* Oarden will be open today, for the purpove of accomodating ail who wl?h to obtain a view of the departure of the eteamablp Cambria From the promenade of thia farorlte place, our oitizene oan nee that veaael from the ttm*ahe learoe htr dock uuti' elie reachea nearly Sandy Hodt. Niohom'Lkotcrx oif Abtrowomt.? In ooneequence of the crowded atale of our cnlumnn. our report of the lecture delivered by I'rofeaaor Mohol In Clinton Hall, laat evening, la unavoidably poetponed until to-morrow. Oar at Bai * or Rkal K?tate.?It will be aeen by onr advertiaiug column*, Ibet come forty od l Iota e^jacnnt to Madle< n Square, fronting on Madlaon Avenue. 31i'b, 30th r nd Slat atreeta. i etweenthe 4th and ,1th avenue* are offered for aalv by fileecker, at the Merchant*' Elrbangt I ueeday. Februarv lat. 1 hi* property la admirably altuated for gentlemen dealmtia of locating theme*l?e# permanently; or for a profitable luveatment It can je reached l>y both ornnlbuv end cere in a few mtnut<a Aa no injury can arlae troui looking at the property, wa ad viae our Irlenda to do ao, and than pur'HilHIIknHaawaawMaamamanaM TELEGRAPHIC INTELLIGENCE. Highly Interesting from Yucatan. Pktirsrurgh, Jan. 28, 1848. By the overland express we have New Orleans papers to the 22d inst., through which we learn that the brig Salvadora, with dates lrora Havana to the 16th inst , had arrived. There had been an arrival at Havana from Yucatan with dates to December 25th. Congress met on the 21st, at Merida, and received a mes. sage from the Governor giving a deplorable ac count of the state of ahairs on the peninsulaThe Governor had entered into arrangements with Zetinu, the chief of a recent revolutionary attempt, by which he was to receive eight hundred dollars and join the Yucatan commissioners at Washington. Stipulations had also been made with other officers, compromised with Zetina, and thus all civil dissensions had been quelled. Whig Caucus at Washington. Washington, Jan. 28, 1848. The whig caucus this evening determined to recommend aj national convention for the nomination of President and Vice President. No time or place yet designated. Sudden Death. Washington, Jan. 28,1848. Mr. Clement Corp, a distinguished lawyer of Georgetown, died suddenly this morning. Weather cloudy. Kxtenslon of the Telegraph. Peteksbuhg, Jan. 28, 1848. The Southern telegraph line is wonting from Charleston, S. C., to Raleigh, N. C. The line is to open through to Charleston next week. VHIHTIBTll CONOH.B1SS. FIRST SESSION. Senate. Waihinoton, January U9, 1848. increase or the natal, establishment. Mr. Ruix, on leave, introduoed a bill to authorise the President to inorease the naval sstabllshment of the United States. It is similar to the Texan Naval Bill of the last session. FCKCHAiE or THE MOrNT tebnon estate. Mr. Westcott presented a petition in favor of purchasing the Mount Vernon Estate, which was laid on the table to await its turn with other petitions for the same object. Mr. Pkarce, ot Maryland, was oppoiad to any bill authorising the purehaae. preservation or monuments Mr. Hanheoan's resolution relative to the preservation of monuments erected In the Congressional Burying Ground over the grave* of deceaaed Members of Congrees, was adopted, and a select committee of five ordered, to be appointed by the Chair. REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS AND WIDOW*. The House Bill, asking further provision of the surviving widows and soldiers of the revolution, was read a third time and passed. IMPORTS or MEXICO. Mr. Miller, of New Jersey, offered a resolution requesting the President to inform the Senate whether he had oansed duties to be laid and oolleoted on goods Imported by citizens of the United States into Mexioo; and, if so, under what law he lound authority for suoh procedure. The resolution was laid over. the hamilton papers. Mr. Pearce, from the Library Committee, reported a bill to authorize the purobase of the Hamilton papers. EZTBNSION or a PATENT RIOHT. The bill to extend the patent of Jethro Wood was taken up, amended and postponed. THE TEN REOIMENT BILL. The special order of the day, the ten regiment bill, was then alluded to by Gen. Cass, who said he was instructed by that side of the Senate Chamber, to say to the other side, that an important bill was to be disposed of, and that other important bills and subjects were to follow; and that he sincerely hoped that Senators hereafter to speak, would conclude their speeches as speedily as possible, and on the same day. He would be happy to hear them, and listen to their remarks with great pleasure, if time permitted; but he hoped that if the debate did not terminate to-morrow, It would do so early next week. Mr. Phelps, of Vermont, said he had felt great reluo. tanoe to speak, and the only apology he had to offer was that he considered the subject almost inexhaustible. Ho should confine himself to a few additional remarks, regarding the inadequacy of treasury notes to afford any substantial relief, and that issuing them, with the adoption of other similar expedients, would lead ultlmatelv to direct taxation. He always regarded the raising of revenue in Mexico as chimerioal. The enemy would succeed in starving our army. He considered the indemnity by territory, amounting to nothing; but that politloal jurisdiction over the Mexicans, who maintained only perpetual war, would be still worse. To hold the Mexioan States as so many provinces, would result in certain annexation, to which he was utterly opposed, and prooeeded to condemn it in the strongest terms. If, said he, thirty new States are to be added from that vast domain of oountry, it will be beyond our power to hold the Union together. He agreed with Mr. Johnson, that if military glory was Indemnity, we had had enough of that already. If military renown were I the objeot, it surely should have been satisfied ere this, by the wholesale bntohery, at whloh he revolted. After some further remarks, made in the same earnest strain Mr. rhelps said that the real object was developing itself, and that was, to conquer Mexloo, and whether permanently to hold it, he supposed must be left to future deoision. Mr. Cam said the ohJeet was to oonquer a peace. Mr. Puelm replied, that if it were only to oonquer a peaoe by conquering the oountry, the President sheuld have asked Congress and the people whether it was undertaken for conquest, before oommenoing it. Failing to do so was little short of treason. By punning the oonquest, by bis self-will, he said that the President, at this moment, was wielding absolute sovereignty, unauthorised, as it was astounding, and anomalous. Executive assumption of power, must be resisted. The President's levying contributions, was unconstitutional. This oountry had advanced with unprecedented rapidity. It had passed through national youth, and was rapidly passing through successive stages of maturity, and would soon reaeh old age and decay; but he hoped that the last would not soon be realised. But the present state of things tended to it; and to avoid which we must end this war. How ? By moderation and liberality, show Mexico that we are not dls pommo ueeiroy nar uauuiaiu;, ui iu uiiuaiumi w> confederacy of bar States. Do thia, and ha pradlctad that the war would aoon be terminated. When be hadconcludedand taken his seat, Mr. Douglass,of Illinois, signified bia dealre to apeak on the bill, whiob wai informally passed over; when the Senate went into Executiv* Session; and after a short time spent therein, the doors were opened, and they adjourned. House of Representatives. president's annual messaos. After the ordinary routine of business had been gone through with, the House went into a committee of the whole Union, in referenoe to the President's annual message. Several members rose immediately, to speak, when, on motion, the usual number of the President's annual messoge, and accompanying documents, were ordered to be printed. government armokt. Mr. McClelland, of Illinois, reported a bill to establish a government armory, at Port Massao, In Illinois' which was referred to the military oommittee. the private claim list, Mr Danikli moved a reconsideration of the vote of yesterday, by whloh the House adopted a resolution providing for the publication and preparation of an alphabetical list of private claims. The motion was laid on the table?ayes >0, nays ?7. private bills, lie. On motion of Mr. Rockwell, of Connecticut, the House went into Committee oi the whole, Mr. MoCletland In the ohair, and took up the private calendar. A number of private bills having been considered, were laid aside, to be reported to the House. Various communications wera received from the departments, which however, were of no great interest. a call ce the *' The oommlttne rose f<>r want" quotum. The roll was orded to be called, when absentees entered and answered to their names. A quorum being present bnsineps wae resumed, end several private bills were reported fr^ro the Committee of the Whole to the House. district courts or new tore. terms of oourts for the Distrlot Courts In the Northern Dlstrlot of New York. JURISDICTION or tni SUVHEMK court. On motion of Mr. J. R. Inubrsoll, the Senate bill supplementary to the set regulating the appellate Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court, was taken up and amend d by substituting a new bill from the Judiciary Committee Other amendments were presented by Mr. Thompson, of Iowa, and adopted. retort of the register of the treasury. Mr. Hall, of New York, offered a resolution authorising the correction of the report of the Register of the Treasury on Commerce and Navigation, by adding thereto the report of the Colleotor of Buffalo Creek, received too late for insertion. Adopted. a 1mfrovkment of the hudson river. Mr. Slinorrland gRve notloe of a bill for the improvement of the Hudson river, above and below Alhany. the president's message, Mr. Henley, of Indiana, moved that the House go int"> a Committee of the whole Union, on the President's mer? sage, in whioh he refused to oommunloate the correspondence between the Oovernment and Mr. Slidell, nuiuu use uio.^iccu LU. a personal explanation. A personal explanation was made by Mr. Cocke. In his remarks the other day, he said that he presumed hta colleague, Mr. Johnson, had obtained his information, in regard to the irregular habits of certain clerks of one of the departments, from personal observation. In making those remarks, he intended nothing dlsrespeotful. Mr. Johnson expressed himself satisfied. Adjourned. NEW YORK LEGISLATURE. Senate. Ai-rant, Jan. 'JO, 1848. oujections to the frintinu rii.l. Mr. Brovtnson reported adversely to the passage of the printing bill. The report concluded with a resolution that the Senate do not ooncur with the House in the passage of the bill. Mr. Coe moved to lay the bill and resolution on the table, whloh was lost by an unanimous vote. Mr. Tamblin moved to re-commit the bill to a committee of the whole; and this motion was also lost by a similar vote to the preceding one. The question was then taken up for an agreement on the resolution, which, in effsot, rejects the bill. Mr. Johnson spoke in favor of the resolution, and in support of the law of 1846. He thought tbe Senate understood the matter fully, and they ought to dispose of the bill at once. The vote was then taken, and the resolution agreed to?ayes 38, nays 3 ; viz : Messrs. Cook, Krost, and Treadwell. So the bill is killed. report of insfeotor or state prison. Mr. S. H. P. Hall offered aresolution that the Inspector of the State prison at Sing Sing, be oalled on for a report of the amount of the indebtedness of the prison on the 1st of January last, and what appropriation will be required for the present year. Tbe bill was read a third time and passed. state engineer and surveyor. The bill relating to the State Engineer and Surveyor was passed. aibu, BBvoriu meat unu priTuiu uiun. HiRllOR ia1pr0 VF. mfnt. The resolutions on the harbor improvement#, were taken up and discussed; after which, the Senate went Into executive eeaeion, and after a short time engaged therein, adjourned. Assembly. appointmext op surrogate clerk . Mr. Ratmons reported adversely to the bill for the appointment of a clerk for tho Surrogate of Suaeex county. brooklyn charter contention. A bill was passed amending the aot calling for a Charter Convention in Brooklyn. notices or bills to be offered. To amend an act in relation to jurors in New York. A general Railroad bill. To repeal the law prohibiting the manufacture of stone in the State prisen. Mr. Raymond reported favorably en the bill to amend the statutes, compelling declarations in suits relative to real property. indian lands. Mr. Johnson presented a resolution requesting the Comptroller to report the quantity of lands sold to the State by the Stookbridge and Mohegan Indians. Adopted. annual report of the deaf and dumb. The Annual Report of the Deaf and Dumb Institution was reoelved. hudson riter railroad bill. The Hudson River Railroad bill was taken up. Mr. Bowen renewed his amendment In relation to appeals to the Supreme Court. Loet. 04 to 8. The bill was then ordered to a third reading. trot sas company. The Troy Gas Company bill was taken up and further debated. It was argued that it was unconstitutional for the House to take the responsibility of passing this bill. Laid on the table again. imprisonment f*h debt. The bill to abolish imprisonment for debt, and to limit imprisonment for fines, vm further debated In oom mlttee. TROT AND eREKNBl'SH RAILROAD COMPANY. The bill to authoriae the Troy and Oreenbuah Railroad Company to increaae their oapital $60,040. was ordered to a third reading. saratoga AND washington railroad company. The bill authorising the Saratoga and Washington Railroad Company to increase their capital $000,060, was taken np in committee. Objeotion was made to the bill, on the ground, that the road eould carry freight without paying toll; and also, that the objeot ef the increase of capital was not stated in the bill. The committee reported progress on the bill, and it was sent to the Railroad Committee, for their deliberation on Its merits. Adjourned. Markets. New Orleans, Jan. 23,1848?Cotton Is lees animated then yesterday. Sugar?Fair is quoted at 8<^o to 4o. * Molasses-Quoted at 18>?o. Flour?Quiet and drooping. Freights?Cotton to Li per pool taken at 16-12 of a cent. Kxohange limited. Pittsburgh, Jan. 28?Flour?Sales of 100 bbls at $4 62)f. Wheat?The market Is firm at 90 ota for Ohio and Pennsylvania. Corn?There was no ohange to notiee ; old was held at firmer rates, while new remained nominal. Small esdea of prime New Orleans sugar were making to the trade at 0,\ cents. The riper oontlnned in good boating order. Baltimore, Jan. 28,1848.?Flour?Sales were made of 1,000 barrels Howard street, at $6 76, the market closing dull Wheat?We notice sales of 3 000 bushels, consisting of Maryland reds at 130c, and white do lS8o Corn - 2 000 bushels Mery'.and white and mixed, were sold at 62o, and yellow at 02o. Provisions?The market continued dull. Whiskey was quiet at 24 a 26c. Albany, January 2t ?There la a little better feeling in tbe flour market, and more doing, at previous quotations. The grain markets have undergone no ohange. All other markets the same. Boston, Jan 28,1843 ?Flour? Sales of 000 bbls. were made, consisting of Oswego, Mlohigan, (Joneses, and other western brands, at $0 3?>? a $6 60. Corn?The sales reached 4000 bushels, including western mixed, at 69c, and yellow at 70o. Oats-2000 bushe s were sold at ,'>3c. Coffee?The market Is firm, with sales of 2000 bags Rio at a 7o. Provisions-No ohange. Freights? Nothing offering. _ Shipping Intelligence. New Ori.kani, Jen 21?.vrr ?hi|n Mason. New York; Jee? sore, <)o; bilks tViriaw, dm Stamboul, Boston. Cld brig Washington, New York. Police Intelligence. Bcenei at the Watch fit turne.he fort Juitict Drinker.? At the return of the prisoners yesterday morning, before Jnstioe Drinker, trom the various wards, arrested the night previous, oflloer Hepklne, of the 3d ward, presented before the Juetloe, Jehn McGlnley, a young man of rathsr genteel appsaranoe. w iom the officer arrested the previous night at No 228 Washington street, on a charge of being drank, and while in that disgraceful situation, beat and abused hie wife Kllsa, who was also in court to substantiate the charge. Magis i rate - You see, John, what trouble and disgrace you ( ring upon yourself and family by giving way to liuuor. Now. here you are. Just brought from one of th? oelle, trembling all over from the effeots ot drink. Wipe ?If you please, Judge, I would like to let him off. as he promises to do better, asd not drink any more llii'iinr ,Maoht**t?? Now, you nee, John, the affection of your elf*. who hu auffvred from" your ill treatment, by being boat and abueed by yon ; and yet aha la willing to hag you off, whan you ought to ba punlahad aererely. by Imprlaonmant -for a man who get* drunk, and violently aaaaulta hla wlfa. la woraa than tba brute creation. However, aa your wlfa la willing to forgive you?and, by committing you to prlaon, it la not you that would auffar altogether, but your family? then, yon nan go ; and recollect that you owe thia antirely to the affection of your wife; but if you are brought here again, I ahall oertainly puutah you. JoHU-Toank you. your honor; I can aaaure you, you will never aee mn here again Keeefring Sml'n Clnadt ?A Herman by the name of Louia Uuttlipp, who kaopa a Jewelry atore, at No 03X Atlantic afreet. Brooklyn, waa arreated yeaterday. at Mr. Buahwick'a, allveramlth, in William atreet, endeavoring to aell a ailver fork and three apoena, the property of Mr Delmonico, No. 'J.t Broadway. The acouaed aaid he bought the property of aome maa who came to hla abop, hut don't know who he la Itappeara that Mr IMmoni! co haa loat, within the laat month or two. ailrar aponnn and ferka valued at *108, and thia la a part of auoh atolan | property Juatloe Drinker committed Uuttlipp to prifou