Newspaper of The New York Herald, 4 Şubat 1848, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated 4 Şubat 1848 Page 1
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1 ' . J. . . " th; Wboi* No S000. COMMERCIAL MOVEMENTS IN BUROFB AND 1VIXIOA. OPINIONS OP TUE NEW YORK HERALD. Comments of the London Press* THK GllKAT MOSB VEO POWERS. Opinions on Secretary Walker's Famous Report. [Prom ths London Standard, Ju 5. 1848 | Two or three jiui ago Mr Charlea Buller, an able tu.'mh/r of the party now in power and one of Ita prtnolp*l ofllmal r?pr?eent?tivee, justly denoonoad '?thamoa*y power" as th? r?al author of all the danger* antroalamftlea by which the oountry has auffered lor many yeare .Mr B libr a speeob. containing ibia denaaoietloa, waa 0 ieotth? m eloqaent In our time, and oannot be forgotten. though, aa it lg to be lamented. the learned genUeuan's colleagues seem iJtogjtkRtrkMI Mrifktef Its teaching Mr Bailer's warning against Mm taaatfcbVe aridity and prevailing iafluanoe of "UN M* p?H?" f*, botfKvxr, defective ia this, that WdfiimBaga flur enough Mr B oiler apefca.of M tfc* rant, tha cruel tyrant, oCteU{iMj(tawiMliMkllth 1 UK all tha wwM itgMhsitairias; mi lj >m wewithout Inqalrywllibe dtsfSaSL betteve When we upea'i la this ?*y wa voold an be understood aa rehearsing ft trita common piaoa upon the aaivsreal cthority of wealth. No.'we (peak of somsthlng definite and tangible ; of ft power whioh though, parhape, oonsMtuNd of ? f?w persons, la nevertheless organised, united. and Insulated ; and ia ita organised, united, and in* uiated oharaoter, Invested with all the attributes of ft re?|, and h most oppressive tyranny. It woald not be d!(Roalt to name the oona(ltuent members of this great money ty rant, for the names of theea constituent nomtxn are known to all Kuaope, and as we see as well known In the new world. We ftUude to the eziatenoe of the power, not for the purpose of exposing individuals, but la order to put tha people on their guard against its tyrannioal arts. Freemen we are not, If we live at the meroy of masters who, for their own profit, may deprive us of the means of earning oar bread, in order to enrloh themselves by the way. though giving absolutely and for ever our meaos of subsistence to strangers. Freemen we are not. If we live subject to those who most wish for, and even promote nfttionftl calamities, beoause they make a double profit upon them, enrlohlng themselves bv making the pressure of famine more severe, and again enI richin* themselves by rendering to us more expensive \ all the remedies for famine, and all the constquenoes of ' these remedies. Such is, howeVer, the nature nnd the disposition of the tyranny Under whioh we live?ft tyranny which, after having made us too weak for war, would, nevertheless, involve as la war to-morrow if by i doing so It could make oae quarter per oeat profit upon t what it oslli Its operations. The members of the money power are of no ooantry; they are neither Frenchmen, Knglishmen, Germans, Italians, Spaniards, or Americans As the Quarterly says of one eminent branoh of thorn, " tbey are none of all these, they are Jews.'* "An ant." says L.ord Bsoon," Is a shrewd tbiog for Itself: bat I it Is 111 for tbo commonwealth and snob an ant Is the membs;- of the "money power," according to Air. t Chv'es Buller. 'the United States, of the matchless prosperity of which we yesterday gavs proof, in oar remarks upon the report of the Secretary to the Treasury, have prospered i; hitherto beoause hitherto they have escaped the Influ I enoe or the money power; and already we see by the following extraot from a private letter, that the usurer hastens to seise upon more than a tali third of all the profits realised by his country : ? " I wish some of the free trade leaden were hera, and | they woald be satisfied that this oontinent doea not con& tain one. nerson in trade, who is not of oninlon that i England, If she adheres to her present ijiUm,moat alnk binder it. When the flrat report of fallurea reached this, the mercantile body ware ooagmtulatlng eaoh other on their escape; bntaabeeqaent information haa changed their tune, whilst it ia evident, from the great variety of money bilia being diaaonnted at 3 per cent per month, that heavy ioaaea hare reeulted, but which the injured parties ar? trying to oonoeai." Doubtless the profile of the Biitiah trade laat year hare been so great to Ajaerioa?though to America they hare not been half as great aa to "the money power" of Enrope? tbat many oitiiena of the Slate* hare adventured beyond their ability; but the miaohanoea of thoae who run the risk of ? new trade are rery opposite in tbe prospect they h. Id out to diaaeters In an old eatablished oommeioe, and tbe New York speculators will easilr right themselvts; they are sure to do so, if they follow the advie* of tboir acute countryman of the New York Herald We hare copied at lengih the loading article at the la* test copy of the Herald wittoh haa reached Europe, < <hr mn 11 pciftct txyotuian of tkt working of "fA? money /lower" ikm we have teen?an impoiition the more pmluot>le at oning from m witness vp to tko pre tent fiats *?biased by imrr'tt. Tbe editor bf the New York Herald tells tiic i tu.y of the money power plainly, and aa he telle it with no other purpose tban to warn his fallow oltiaena against submitting to it, hie account ia sutjrot to no eiupicion of exaggeration. We for our part tkould not icrujile hi tltdvrie every tine that he hat written. The article to which we refer will be found in our third page [From the New York Herald, Deo 10, 1847 J Another Orkat Movement in sreculatiow?Aoo.-rding to tbe last aocounta from Europe, there seems to be every reajon to believe that a new and freeh speculative inoremxnt, in the general artioles of oommerce Hud eoneumption, has been derised by the great capital lets of London and elsewhere, and that the whole commercial world, both in Europe and Ametice, will be more cr leu under the influence of their agents, daring the next ill, nine, or twelre months. The action of the Brltinb government and the Bank of England,and thssudden effect wbioh the influence of the Bank haa produced on tbe money market, form one of those periods of quiet nud oulm which generally closes a time of exoitemeat, with as ranch certainty as It precedes another end a new excitement The monetary crisis in London, and throughout England, seems to bare stopped in mid cereer by the influence of the London bankers and go vernment, end th.? Pink of England; yet this influence was memly a matter of imagination, without any particular action of any kind. Tbe bank was authorised to inake ffeeh issnea of its paper, oontrary to its obarter, o order to sustain tbe credit of the country; but affairs ;rviually improved, even without the application of the physic. We ere, therefore, in the midst of that lull, or aim, which ioilows after, or preoedes.those movements NaM b? th? greU capitalists and speoalators, for the rurpone of filling their own pookets and cheating the ;ert ot the world. Let n? explain. . The Rothschilds, the Barings, and other extensive h3nn<s and bankers In London, control *h* commercial world, throngh the action of the Bank vT Krgland. tbe foreign exchanges, the bullion vnrket of the world, and ail by their vast capitals nnJ power over the rarioua governments ; and by their combined movements on the money market, iiriiiinnted in London, and carried into effeot by t.'teir agents throughout the world, they raise the prices of the great aiticlen of consumption, such as cotton, corn, or tob*coo, as well as coin. They vary those movements backwards and forwards, upwards and downwards, just to euit their purposes, and to make money out of their cpetatlons. When Voltaire lived in bis famous oV te.ou, i???r < Geneva, he wrote to a friend that he oouM sp?ouUtc in the French funds, and make money on th*m just as ea-y on the shore* of tbe Lake of Geneva aa on the B >irs? r,f Paris. He explained: b? had a frfend in the iUnk of Frnnoe, who gave him intelligence when they -4er* contracting or expanding tbe peper system, and, according ns tb?y were doing one or the other, Voltaire isiil hs* h .ittfht. fir anld itnnki tnd ftlvtvi. m? th? And of In frw montoe, he cleared a profit, one way or tbe other -]><mo principles and movements, in oontrolllrg the money market, through the agency of the piper money jrltn, tiarn been extended In the present day by th> great 1 inker* in London, to embrace all the great artl nt commerce, and not stock* alone. Evan famine nod pentiu ne.e, and the miseries of the human race, are in*-uly looked upon as elements In the*? monetary oa!cuiatloos. by th? great financier* and bankers In Lon<1 >u and I'arif. who are also gr<-ai gentlemen; but who, la-other ages of the world, would hare been loaked npon a? I'r^at roonndrel* and great oh eats, and would, aceordia.;ly, have b?en hnng by the neck till dead us give a few fact* on the sutjnot. In the year 1?4> the potato rot began to oreate its ravage* In Ireland and other portion* of Kurope. It wm, however, ooty u ir.'ial In that year. During a part of that sumn;.?r. the ilritUh government, under Sir Robert Peel'? i' Ion, *ent directions to lta agents in Ireland, to collect a 1 tile Information po**lbls relative to tbe oh'&'lusss of the potato crop. This Information was oollect>-d privately, and was secretely transmitted to Lond in. At the proper time, the dsfiolency was ascertained, end this important fact was oommunlcated confidentially to the bouse of Barings In London, who enjoyed the confidence of Sir Robert reel. In tbe fall of 184.1, (inM-Hcd of the knowledge of the esaot shortness of the crop, and that there would be a great demand for breadstuffs, the Barings despetohed tbelr agents to this country secretly ; t .ey purchased ll'ge quantities of produce at low prices ; and the very vessels that transported such produce to Ireland and England had reached th?lr porta of destination Just after tbe fact of the scarcity known In England, or to tbe commercial world of y. trqpo. A* * >on aa It began to be agitated in the newsVtpet* that thare waa a great deficiency in the potito ( top in Ireland, prioee of all kinds of breadstuff* of course rose, and the Barings, and a few others In tbe ronfilence of tbe government, who had entered early into the market, made vast sums of money by their operations. Tlils was the first movement of the London capitalists m.d speculators. The year after, via , In I94H, and in Hi - middle ot the summer of that year, some doubt was enter'alned whether the same disease affaoted the potato Six*ln. By this time, however, Sir Robert Peel was oust.e-1 I'rem power,and Lord John Russell, the leader of the whig*, bfomie Prime Minister. Now, tbe favorites of tbe ? bigs amoi:g tbe cbl?f linkers.capitalists, and speculator* in London, are tbe Rothaohilds, and those connected v. it h tbat eminent Jewish house. Tbe government ifcretly eolleot. d tbe seme Information as Sir Robert Feel had done the year previously, relative to the potato i rop tu it eland and otber pirls cf Greet Britain, and communicated the earns Information to the RothsebUds I 1 those sooaeeted with Uiess. aad thsy followed Um I U system that the Barings had done the yeas beds**, * ** - - - ?. E NE" NE1 * and transmitted order* and information to all their ft agents in Amerioa andjthe Mat of Europe, for the pur- pi ohfese cf grain. Many of the sproulatora and totter tog A houses, wishing to help themselves, entered Into tbo ci same movements. We all remember the extraordinary A commercial excitement in 1846 7, oreated by those * moTFmeote growing oat of the fellure of the potato crop w in Ireland and Belgium, and even in Franoe, and other T part* of Europe. ti It was also well known In Paris that tbe Frenoh govern- w ment beosme the confidential adviser of the branch of h the house of Rothsehlld in Paris, in the same way as Sir n Robert Peel and the British government had of the Da- ti rlngn In London and their branohes. But In order to keep down the prioes of grain to the proper period of o the season, the Frenoh Minister of Commeroe actually ( underrated and falsified the oonditlon of the orops in b Franoe,for the purpose of giving facility and room for the p Rotbsonllds and their agents to make their vast specula- tl tlons. From the oorrnpt character of tt>* Frenoh ml- h nlsters, it is probable that they were oonneoted them * selves w)th the movements, and those very grain spson- o lations, b Those extraordinary oommerolal movements went on I In the winter of 1840 and the spring of 1847. A vast b number of rotten htfnees hi Load*n entered Into those o umiliHnm with thm ham a# Milldns iama mm,i ? t&us to enable themselves to b? suataTnsd afittle while t longer. The greet bankta* aad commercial bosses in t LondongeaerallyliveiatEeatffcteapensivestyle; thsy b burninobnM ftth to* aoblllty ia raumud 8 are Involved In the same ?o<e of living which bas been eetby the territorial lord* ofFsgland, it tbe wsst-end of i London. o TIM British ministry. however, sot only made the t RettwhlWi.Ml their Meads the depositaries of Uiom 1 ssosats asiftil te their speculation*, bat thsy also made o pewte speeches ta the Htut of Common*, rot the par- f peeeef insreesinf the pries* of breadstuff*, and dels;log t a reaction la the market. Every one caa remember the j eevaral speaohes sonde by Lord John Rossell when he as- a egfesated the fcilare of the potato aod other crops In s Ireland and Eaglind, putting the estimate of deficiency at 16 millions of ponads sterling. This tended to ad- ( anee priaea of grain and breadstuff^, in the epring and summer of 1847, still higher, until the favorable moment was seised by the Rothsohilds and others to throw vast quantities of grain into ths market, and get rid of it at t any prices they oould, enriching themselves, and leaving o tbe losses to be heme by thoee not la the secret. But t this was not all. A loan of eight millions was asked for 1 Stba ministers, to enable them to feed the Irish people ; t 1s loan was taksn by the Barings and the Rothsohilds; c aad It is a singular (hot, that most of the money of this i loan probably want into ths coffers of those men who i were importers, purchaser*, and speculators in the very j breadstuff* and grain that were imported by this money t When certain of those articles of general want bad c reached the highest point, by the vrry efforts of these i men In London who got up the movement, they then c turned their attention to make money by the difference i in the foreign exchanges, and by managing the imports i of bullion into England, ia the same way aad on the j same principle that they had managed the imports of t grain and floor. For many months past, If we may use I ths same language to express similar ideas, the prices of t gold and silver bars been rising throughout the commer- t olal world, as a oonasqasnt reaction to the fall of prices a In other articles of merchandise. The great oapitalists j aad bankers in London, who oontrol the oommerolal t world through their agents, and the< BVnk of England, i have been making just a* much money by tbe advance c in the price of bullion or exchanges, as thsy formerly did c In the advanoe In the prioes of grain. 1 When the revulsion in Kegland had gone far snougb f ?when the panic began to reach some or their own per- i senal Mends and adherents- thsy thought it time to step it, by calling into aetioa the agency of the Bank of England, of the government, and of some other powers, as we see by tbe last aooounts from that quarter. The Bank of England is nothing more than a mere bullion and paper shop, with paper for England and bullion for thereat of the oommerolal world; and entirely la the hands of Rothsohilds and the London bankers who kesp their balanoss there. Those bankers operate to the extent of six or seven thousand millions of dollars par year, ia the settlsment of balanoes in London alone. There are abont IS or SO of those great bankers formsd Into particular ollquss. one headed by the Barings, and the ether by the Rothsohilds. It Is of no oooeequenoe which party is in power in England, for the monetary aadfeMumereial affairs of the kingdom, and of tbe commercial world, are managed on the same principles?on tbe rite and fall of every artiole of oommsroe? on the same principle of using famine, pestilence, and all the other misfortunes of human life, u mere elements in commercial calculations, bjr ever j party, whig or tory. At the present time, the whig* or* in power, and the Rothschilds are their principal financial advisers ? Rothschild himself furnished the funds requisite for the London election, estimated at ?26,000, which resulted in the election of Lord John Russell and himself. They are now operating in London for another great movement on the distresses of the human reoe. Prices of produce, cotton and oorn, are low; and gold and silver are high, relatively. We have not the slightest doubt that the London (peculators have made and perfected arrangements, and aant their agents to every part of the world, far the purpose of purchasing, and with the intention of gradually increasing prioes, through the Bank of England and the exchanges,for the next six or nine moths, when, at the proper time, thej will make vast profits, break down the markets, and produce another revulsion in the commercial world, and pursue the rame method at a future day. It would ba well, therefore, nnder this aspect of the influences which govern the oommeroial world In tagland and Ameiica, for American merchants and American farmers to make their calculations on those data and facta, whloh they oan read and understand as well as we oan. It is highly probable that the prioes of grain and breadstuff! may not be so high as thiy were lest year ; but that they will gradually rise, seems certain, l'he varied general infltonoee which oause a rise in these artioles, will alao create a comparative rise in cotton and similar articles ; yet it is dangerous to trust to the spaoula'lve interests in London which oontrol ths oommeroial world; _gnd the safest policy for Amerioa to pursue is to sell at present prices, but to sell always for oash, and to take oara that wa do not dip too deep, nor follow too olosely in the wake of the English speculators or their agents. Tha speculators of London, united with the politicians and statesmen of that oountry, and also thos? of France, act on such principles, and have dbne so for avaral years, as will, on* of these days, oreate a teirllrfe revulsion -a revulsion that will, In its turn, create a popular revolution of a much more ex'raorllnary character than the Frenoh revolution In the last century. All the governments of Europe are connected together with the great capitalists of Europe London, Paris, Vienna, Berlin, Naples, are more or less united together by the same Interests, the *ame mind*, and by the *>me monetary principles. Tha Rothschilds, alone, have their agent* and house* in every large city in Europe, includ- f log Frankfort, tha very oity in Germany from whloh the f whole race of Rothschilds originated The Rothaohlld o of Frankfort is tha oldest; but the moat influential are those of London and Pari* They all profesa to be Hebrews?strict Jews ; but they care as much for their religion as they do for that of Hlndostan. Their ambition is of a different character. They consider themselves the flaanolal govsrnors of all Europe, and of the commercial world, and live in a style that oan only be equalled by royalty, and not iow-prioed or old olo' royalty, at that The construction of railroads in Europe, the establishment of steam lines, tha wonderiul power of looomotion, and that of the eleotxis telegraph, will give to them and other vast capitalists a power ov?r the ooturn eroe of Europe that will be still more remarkable than anything we hive yet seen. Yet the foundation of all their flnanolai wealth is baseless and rotten. Franoe, England, and all the other governments of Europe, are oovered with debt; their population Is increasing, and when the proper period of time oomes that popular feeling will be stronger than the monetary interest, the whole flnanolai and oommeroial fabrics will ba an ntter ruin It will be a Frenoh revolution on an extansive socle ; but it will ba preceded by a commercial and flnanolai revulsion greater than any we have ever seen. The existing prinolpls* of nation among the capitalist* of London, Parte, and tha reat of Europe, are precisely of the *am* character and the same selfishness which led to the old Franch revolution, and they will lead to a similar stats of things, one of these days, throughout the European civilised world D In tha meantime, it will ba wise for Amerioa to sell her J, prcduoa at the present prioes, for oash, as fast as tbay c take it. t [ h roc* the Standard, Jan. 4th, 1843 J a Oar observation* on the meu of ofllsUl matter recelv- t ed from the United Slatee by the lMt mail, were confined t to the remarkable tone of the Preaident'a Menage, re- o Harding the proceeding* cf the American (Jorernment t in refereaoe to other nation* and the law* of nation*. <J We did not enter Into the atatameata retarding the I vaat increase of the power,revenue,resource*, commerce, and agrioalture of tb? United State*, aa di?olo*ed in d that meteage, and In the *tiU more Important report of a the Secretary of the Trearary, which aooompanies It. t We take up the latter a* more Toil and explicit upon e those important passages adverted to in the President'* u Me***ge, and a* moat daaarving the actions and inline- o diata attention of tha country. b Mr Walker, tha Secretary, ia a great free trader, in c hi* way; bnt hi* free trade -like free trade of the gene- B rality of hla miachlevoua achooi?la all one-elded, and la h in ahort that ne other nation ehould lay any dntlea or I restrictions whatever upon the production* rf the r United Statee, when Introdnoed into their respeotive h oountriea, while the United State* ehould have the fall u right and tha liberty of laying on auoh dntlea upon the it prodaotiona of every other oountry, when introduced b into three States, aa ahall, according to the oonnuming p power of their population, raite aa much revenue aa m will defray all their ordinary, and aoma portion of their ft extraordinary expenditure, without having racourae to ? any other mode of taxation. Thla ia, in abort, Mr. a Walker'a systsaa ot free trad*, and thla, he aaaette, ia a a most advantageous system to the States (who oan doubt tl It?), bat being so, it fa not dHieult to discover that each It a ayatem, from the differs** poeltlon of other oountrice, h would be most disadvantageous to them o Before proceeding to point out soma errors In the See- *< rstary's boast that hi* free trad* reduced duties has a Incrsased the revenue, wa must advert to his vary ia- v port ant statistics connected with the general oomuieree ii and production* of the United State* of America. They f are of great and deolslve oonsequenee, and wsll meriting t the praise and exaltation which the Secretary baetows b upon them But they do not, when fairly atated, bear o out either hia oplolona of the universal advantages of b free trade In the world, and still Iss* the boasts and the h prophecies of the free trade school on this side of the 2 Atlantio regarding that astern. Tbey prove, In moet tl important and vital points. In oar humbie opinion, Juat a tha reverie To dleeect tneae atatla lo*, and the rea- ft aonlng founded upon them, we mn*t have recourse to ti aoma ftguree taken from theae ollclal American re tarn a. r e a e I |iH?i II W tfO IV YORK, FRIDAY MOR] icbid as to enter. lie pr<j>beoies the most ex'eesivs rnaperity, end power, and greatness to his country .nd in thin, ahouli the State* oouiinue as one power, h? 1 an scarcely prophecy wrong or be luo ttnguiM Kfery .mertcan has just cause to bo proud of bit country. aui i good oltlsnns, every one in it mu?t always look f..r- J ard with feelings of pride to h<.r tflury and prosperity i 'hey peroelve the oourse to secure tbia- mwely, to i ike oaro of themselves before any others?a course i hioh we once followed and pros' er?d, but which we r are unfortunately lately abandoned, and for which j attonal error and orirao we are paying, and must pay, t tie fearful penalty. 1 Mr Walker t"lls us tbat the value of the productions i f these States wa\ in 18-10, fu'ly 3,00#(WO 000 dollars, l ?626.000 000^ and dtirirx last ytstr it has certnlnly > een increased more than 1 j p?r cent, tbui brifigiog the t roduotions of the United States to. equal, very nearly, 1 be prodnotioos of tbo United Kingdom; and he shows ( ow utterly iasiguitlo.iat their wholu foreign trade is, t rhen compared to this, and tbe>r interns! trade and t onaumplion Mr. Walker also- tells us, and l*Hs. we 1 ?lieve, truly, thut the present export of spools from the 1 Foited States to this oouatry, is not to psy halaicex due < y these States, but to purchwo what le wanted; beausa no bill drawn on Kogland can now be relied oo or < onsldernd safe. He extols greatly the warehousing sys- < sm established lately In America, wbioh. he says, tended I 0 make this country ao rich aud so powerful, and which, i >e states, will have the same fffsot ?h ti gards the Uo*t?d t Itates; and he concludes) by pro'iiettog th> t. uuler It i nd the increasing proa polity of the country, New V'ork rill, ere long, beoome the commercial einporin:u, not oly of the United Stat**, but ef the rforld ' The ime," iiya hi', " la approaching. wh?n p bill ufion Ne w fork will bring a higher premium than a bill upan buy ther city, and when the tribute of miiltouh of dollar*, aid by us to other nations upon exchange, ahall be paid >ythem to us, and flow Into our great commercial ?iu?riun" Great Britain ami har free-trade advia ns t* pursuing the certain ooutbo to accomplish the otytot rhloh Mr. Walker pointa out. mmmrnmm Iplnluiia In En|laiid on tUe next Pionlilentlal Uievtlon. [From the London Times, Jan. 8 ] The political condltlou of the United 8Uie? is at tills lino so extraordinary, the perturbation caused by the lonsequenoes of tho annexation of Texas to prodigious, ha extent and duration of this Mexican war ?o inealouable, and, at the same time, tha balance of parties in he political assemblies of the Union so equal, that we lannot direot the attention of onr readers tu a mora eulcus. perplexing and instruotivj spuctacla. The tima b probably for ever past, when certain political philoso>hers of a highly lmogiaative school, wern wont to point .0 the republican and democratic institutions of Amorila, as tha great standard of modern government to which ill nations war* thought to be approximating. Tha anlie at Spates of Europe could ill adopt tha peculiarities ot 1 new community, pined in tha most favorable cirournitanaee the world has ever witnessed for such an experlnent; the caases which promised It suaef si were euenilally American; those which have sinoe opened tha 'andora's box of war, and let loose all the evils of rtmbiion, military aggression, financial extravagance, and nalonal arroganoe on the country and its neighbors, ore. ilas! ooinmon to all mankind. These aberrations of the lOllcy of the United States are, therefore, even more ineresting than the once healthy da v^lepament of their stltutions; and to reduce the matter from one of apeolation to practical neoessi'y, it niiy bi addad that ither nations will find they have sooner or later to deii n Amarioa with all those political exoesseB whioh the 1 endenoe and good faith of the older powers have happl- 1 y banished far the last thirty years from Europe. It would not be easy to tlid another instance in node* history of a war resting on so slender and unoer,ain a cause, that even the principal authorities of the lountry by whioh It is carried 0.m, tire directly at vari mce as to the faot relied on to justify it; and at the lame time of so vast, indefinite, aud devouring a charao;er, that even tha men who began it, aud are oarrying it >n, do not attempt to assign any limit* to its duration or ts objects. Yet this misshapen tumor, thrown out by he luxurianoe and riot ot a young and daring people, ilready diverts from their proper lunations the resources >f the lUifl. *?d threatens. eventually. to imnalr it* >rlnoipal organs. As might; be supposed in a fc?? county, these results of Mr. Folk's deliberate policy have tailed forth the most energetic attacks of the opposition ; ind a violent contest has begun ou the aubjeot of tbe vlexioan war between the whig*, led by the most eirtiutul i ta tee men and orators of th3 Union, and tbe lemoorats, lonfldent in the possession of rover and the propensities >f an excited populaoe. Mr Webeter, Mr. Clay, and still nore recently Mr. Albert Gallatin, have, in rpeaches and >amphleta of mors than trunsatlantlo prolixity and rshemenee, assailed the whole policy cf tha war, aud dclonuced the manifest resolution of tbe President to purine It to extremities We should despair of convtjiDg ;o the English public a oorreut notion of the t ^m> rr and acguage in which there discussions are carried on in the Jnited States; not, indeed, by the eminent men we hare ust named, but by the writers whom, for want of a beter term, we must o?ll our ovrn <ront?mportti?fi. But tbe Mlowiag sptcimer.s will speak for themselves. 7'be Vationai Inltll gencer, a leading whig paper, printed in Washington, addresses to Mr. Polk the following curious apostrophe: ? 'Why, the very savage of the courtyard, in other toes?that most brutal of mankind, the vbttl!y of the lailiwiok, who ehewed np an ear or a nose, or saooped at with thumb a prostrate ad versary's ey, was humane, ras generous, In comparison with this ; for he, when he aught. never fought tbe weak, but rather bis matoh ; ior, when bis ilval champion luy gasping and helplers lader him, game to the Ust, and r.tady to die soonsr than tter the oiaven word 'enough,' would he have ever honght of proceeding to mutilate tbe vanquished, by ray of forolog him to confess himselt contoured, ana hen, moreover, have helped himself to wnatev^r be :ould find in the maimed man's pockets No, even in lis hardened heart there would bs a manly pity, because here was oourage ; it he did not at unee raiss up his inemy with respnot, he, ut leait, would nut b?glu ' to itrlke at his vital parts and well for him, too, that he rould not, for the very crowd of a court greet), coarse as t thon was, was yet undebauched cf every right sentlnent by party politics, and wfluld not have Fiiffsrecl in he bully what it now endures in the Preeident. So nuoh for the mercies and compunctions of him who >;oposes, for the lucre of five miserable millions of inlemnities. which be himself acknowledges Mexico could lot raise the means of paying, to butcher or enslave a rhole empire of republics " ******* To these assertions, tUo principal or^an of tbe Atierlian cabinet replins in the s.\m? imroic vein. "And does the Intclligmccr thin![ to rally a putty in his oountry upon a platform of srn'.iment and opinion ueh as is pjat lo-th in this atrocious pnrngrsph? We ell them, ln*ail soberness, that they will just ts soon tsrsuade the people to Bustaln n party rallying iu d-ence of the treason of Bimedict Arnold ! Tats Amcrlian people?proud and patriotic as they nre?will crush .od grind to powder, ui between the upper and the neher millstones, the politioal ilf-f of any party leader who hall ask them to oonfers, by tlielr votss, that this ju.?t Mexican war?their war, which they havH volunteered o fight, whieh they have fougbtsogloriously, and which hey are resolved to tight out till its great ends of ?eace and justlce are obtained?is only the demnnisc rork of savaga bullies and gougers and pickpockets, rhom th?y have set iu high pUoes in thi executive cailoet, and In the hslls of t.orgrsss to govern them, and inder whose lead they hw* elected to go forth to Biiena fista, and Churutuvjo, and the National Palace of ilexlco? ***** * From these accounts it may be inferred that the Amcioan rtatesm-sn most eminent for an enlightened ense of the duties snd interests of their country, and , or an adherence to tbe nrluciules of the America a con titntion, are herein pitted ?<''iinst the Kz?cutiri> Uo'ernment, the impetuosity of the democrats, and the old audacity of Mr. Polk. Wo are told, lnd(>e I, tb?t Id ;ocgress parties are ho evenly baUr.crd, that the deallon of the nn.tlon still trembles on th? b?am, and we beleva that more then a l>*r* majority of reflocting Ameicans are adeers* to th* eontmuanoe of lh<* war. But ranting that some such equality lioes prevail, it Is but he piecuraor ot a drfeat of tho moderate party. To are a nation from passtor&to impulse and r:w>h concluions, ejpsolaliy when the B*oin?ntum of ihn ICxrcutlve iowtr in drivlDg the oar along the same declivity. much aor* is required than a mere < quality rf votes The exItement or military success etid the intnmperince of a < lational triumph, .>10 iuoio than a Milt tor tho retrainta of prudencc, right and cvon. Nor has tln-re i-ea a people in ton world eo prone to this speoies oi empea'.uoua ngitati n r>n the Americans. since llso U?aoi of Athana fluctuant! in th? agora VVhatboole it, h*n, to speak of peace ? These pr< tr?ta\inn? only roller the enormity <>f th j wsr mote evident to icucidbd ; ts consequences they will never avert. W* go further, and w? venture to assert that even if a leolded majority ofCovgrees were to cuudeuin this war, .nd r*?ommend the conclusion of peace on any term.*, bey have not the me?ns of carrying nu >h a resolution Into ffect Kor It la evident that the s?.'lo effectual rowans of terllnatlngsueha war la toremoveIrom power tho man who ommenoed it, and who now p?r>lsrg in It That wonld >* the inevitable fat* of a minister In any oonstUutio jal ountry, with an adverse majority on such a question. Int Mr. Tolk'a term of ctlloe cannot be abridged; he iold8 the wholi engine of state in hin gruep until March, 349; and to compel him, as the servant or the State, to legotiate a peace on term* to which he has expressed lis decided personal opposition, would bo a ridiculous ndertaklug. Hence the real solution of the difficulty es in thenext Presidential election. and for that pitched attie both whlgs and d-iuecrats are preparing all their owers. It is said that th* gret.t democratic convention rill assemble at Cincinnati in the course of the summer it th* nomination of the popular oandidate; whilst the 'higs will once more muster their forces in New Kn^lund nd probably In New York We suspect Mr. 'l'oik Mmsif has by no means relinquished all hopes < f rs-MeoIon: bat th* most conspicuous candidates wl/i dcubt ss be taken troro the stelT cf the Mexican truly. It append, ourionsly enough, that tho l?a<tlrg military (floors who bave flgurol In this campaign are themelves whlgs; and we bare frequently hid occasion to pplaud the moderation of their conduct, as ountr?sted rlth tho extravagant violence of the Cabinet of Weshngton Probably an old soldier Ilka General Scott, pei-otly acquainted with thn real nature of ih* war and he real valu* of thes* territorial acquisitions, would be *tt*r abl* than any other man to r, store the bletsings f peace to the country he ha* just c inquired, and to ting back th* policy of th* United States within tli* ounda of peac* ana reason. That is thn most proilslng aspeot in which we can now view IM quo*- ( ion* whloh agitate th* Amsrloan pnople. liy some team or other th* passions Mr. Pclk hae exolUd

Mr hi* own purposes must bs quelled, or they wiilembroU be nation In o?aa*l*e* wars; and in the present statu of , ten'* Bind* th* government ol a caoi-headed soldier I* , ?o?* lUely than any ot&w nmedy to cure this maligna frrw.whUfr hw yrt naay awib* to tag* b*f*i* } O |T T1 JLw m JLJ NING, FEBRUARY 4, 184 Inltrutlng from Ireland. Co?k, (Ireland,) Dm. 30, 1847. Votti from Mroad, by Join H Shfhurne, Jtulk?r ?/ ' The Tonritl'i Guide in Europeire. tl In oomlng from Dnbtin, I took the railway irt? Tip- p icr?ry oouuty, so noted for the murdera, houaebreakiog 1 inJ continued robberies, and itood upon the apot u fbern a mnrder waa committed the day before my . irrivnl The whole county ia in a atate of oomplnte 1 evolution. and the adjacent coantiaa are beglnaleg to ofn In the unholy league agalnat tha wealthy land- ? lolders, mftny of whom have offered high prrmluma to *' >ave their Uvea insured, rather than leave their splendid 0 'faldouoea to the mrroy of the midnight inoendlary. I ran informed by Judge P. of the Insolvent Court, with irhom I passed an urenlnif, that It waa not altogether ;he failure of tha potato crop that oauaed tha praeent jroraillog distress, for that the turnip orop waa very treat, an much ao, that the artlole waa then ealllsg at ;he low prise of twelve abilllnga a ton, and thla food, nixed with oorn meal, waa more cheap aad nutritive ;han the boiled pototo : and from what I saw in paaatng through the oountry of the turnip orop, I waa oonviaoea >f the truth of the remark from Judge P. It appeara for a few yeara paat, that tha Camera aad >thera have been In tae habit of borrow lag a null sums >f money of small broKera aad aharara, to dO which, they were required to h*e many eadorfCM M the nate, t ,,n1?a #aa a faar nAiinfla ItKma aa<lMaajaM ka ^aiaHita 0 hem, as Is termecThere, freely wrote their him, not thinking ever to be jailed upon to meet the obligation As these noieaf.?ll due, they w?re renewed from time to ; m? at au exorbitant and ruinous interest, and this state >f things continued until the (allure of the potato orop ; tlie principals on the notes, who won mora Unants at rill, had no meaus wherewith to pay, and then suits -.gaiiint the endorsers oommenoed, who, to sara their little personal property from the sheriff, would mortgage part }f their property to hare a renewal of the bond until a potato orop, iou whloh they relied) should be housed Tor market Again the orope failed, and a general swoop t?y the sheriff oommenoed this fall Tbo debtors, to save themselves, disposed of nil their lire stock and other moveables, and their rents falling due at the same timo, and not having the means to meot them, tho landholders oommenoed to oust them from their miaerable abodes, and henoe the marauding system aa at this moment exists. The Judge stated, that he had released, the day previous, one hundred and sixty by the insolvent aot out of three hundred who had made application, and presumed eaoh debtor owed some tea to twenty persons, who wero unable to lose the amount; and they, in turn, to save themselves, would soon apply on the very same account, and thus go on; and as a last resource, take to the highway, with a determination and rashness to muko the property holder support them In some counties there is r.n averaze of ten able-bodied men to t h 1s cro of ground, so populous have they become, and not ?10 in cash tn the whole oounty among them. Therefore,If times were goo J,uot more than three of these men oould be employed to advantage on an aore. This Is the wretohed state In whloh half Ireland is now plunged, whloh causes dismay throughout the island; for men to starve, and see their wives and ohildren starve, when tho rioh landholders' granaries are full,and their numerous flooks and herds In the field, within sight of their mud oabin, thoy wlil not; but war to the knife when in suoh a desperate Situation. * All kinds of provisions and breadstaffs are plenty in the market, and not maoh in demand at present. The merohants are continuing to reoeive large consignments of Indian corn, wheat, 8to , from the Danube and Blaok Sea, at a less prloe thau from the United States; bat tales are quite dull, and the merohants in Cork at this time are doing next to nothing in the provision and oorn line, and money soaroe; but the constant arrival of specie from the United States eanses mueh pleasing sensation, and oonfldenoe remains unshaken while the preoious metal flows into the oonntry from the land of Canaan. The Earl of Mountoathei arrived here last Monday from London with his family, by tho steamer, and stopped at the Imperial Hotel, In whloh I have a room. Ho ?m extremely oommnnieattve, and |?i? me moon information m regards Ireland, In return for Information 1 gave him relative to the United States. The Earl haa no dlfflontty with his tenants, nor will ha allow Ida orer- , seer to oppress them at this time. His beantifal residence is oalled Mono Park, sixteen miles from Cork, and is in sight trom the main road. He saya America is now the pole star on whioh not onlj half of Ireland is fail ng with longing eyes, hat he believes half tha world alio. "A great, very great country indeed, and a mighty people," continued bis lordahip, with a smile, and then asked if I thought the Union wonld last, aa wo continued to adranoe south. I replied that so long as lightning by . telegraph, and steam continued, link after link could be added to the chain without eaualng a break, and the addition probably would continue until the obatn embraced the whcl'j American continent. While at Dublin, 1 made a pilgrimage t9 the oemetery j where the remains of O'ConntlT He entombed in state. His body is encased in three oofflna, and his faoe is viel- i ble through a glass made for the purpose. With him 1 died ihx influence of the O'ConrieU family In I rely d, 1 and with him the rent money took to itself wings amid I tho curses of thousands of poor, destitute women, who were promised to have it all returned with fourfold in- 1 tereft at his death. The rent money and repeel were | humbug upon humbog, and many is the laugh hare among the knowing ones of the watchful Amerioans be- J lug so deluded and taken in while these humbugs were < t *;e order of the day. Tha mantle of the lfcther baa not, ( in this instanoe, fallen on tha son In regard to la 11 a en oe < among the ignorant. * Cork is now more a city of oommeroa and buainsss t than Dublin. The furka of the titer I/ae, runnlag through tho city, and its wide quays, orowdsd with the * arrival of steamers and foreign shipping, make the ? beautiful city have the appearanoa of muoh bustle and ' business; and the beggars are not one-third so nnmer- 1 ou! ai thsy are at Dublin. The cots of Cork la not sur- I p?-sed in E urope for lie magnitude and convenience for ? shipping, iu whioh all the navies of the warld, I should 1 euppus*, could be safely anchored, and room to spare. > i'he emigration from here tha oomlng spring to the United 8tat?s. will bs immense; all wha intend going I ace making arrangements in disposing of what they poa- < sesf, and contracts have been made to lessen tha passage < munoy The ory is, " To the United States?to New ' Ycrk," and a msjorlty are females, who have bean sent lor by their ftisnds; therefore you may look out in ths 1 spring and summer for an inundation from the Emerald < irIt. I enclose you a few columns taken from tha Cork Constitution of yesterday, proving in a measure my state- 1 ment of the causa of the great distress now sweeping < this island?Insolvency and the worst of means to meet 1 engagements, &s. among the farmers and tenants. Tem- ' peranoe, notwithstanding the pressure and starvation, (jul. vlii U^b t?.? k'iTUUOV hvoiuiij U u I wo uuvictwhIII uviubo. i'ne day sft?r my arrival at Cork, I had the Donor of a c?ll from Father Mathew, the great apostle of temperance, and walked with him to bis residence, where I j passed a pleasant htuc; be showed me hi* books of re- t gi?try of th? names of those who had received the ( j>ied?r, which amounts to lire millions seven hundred Kiid lirrt thouH tnd three hundred and ninety-four, to | Christmas day, and many ware waitirg to add their a DumtB. The lower room of bis bouse is overflowing j fiotn day to day, and many round the doors day and i nil Mt to gain admittance or their turn. The reverend i father informed me ho should le?ve Ireland for tbe United States oarly iu the spring, in the packet ship |, (New World?) Captain Knight, and band At New [ York; s?ya he count* eaoh day ae it pastes, whieh will Uku him to the land of liberty, the land of milk and f honey, where in person he can thank the people for f their great charitable donations to Ireland. The father invited me to dinner the following day, where I met the I.otii Mayor and corporation of tbe city of Cork, with a I I w of the clergy, and hnd a most sumptuous dinner, A aa<l drank America and Ireland in a bumper of pure if>i lag water. F?lhtr Mathew is forty-flre ye.irs of age, and In figure and face the most splendid specimen of LioJ's work I ever bsheH; well may he be termed one oi ? nature's noblemen ; he is a gentleman of the old school, roil of ant ojote, and is, it seems, adored by all classes ; \ his charity has no bounds and 1 am oonfldent be will be ) received in America as her guest, while he sojourns in that land of promise, not for his religion, but for the great ottuse In which he is engaged for the good of a whole people, and in doing so expended a small fortune. J Translation of a Royal Order, OhTAIKEO st thi uloht Ho*. lord CowLlY, from the svnumk 1'ohtc, i.i fivor or this Sultan's PsotsstANT Bi;B.JrcTl. 'To Hit Excellency Ike Paiha, the Superintendent of the City T'txet: " Whereas, the Christian subjects of the Ottoman [}overiiment, professing Protesantlsm, have experienced jiflleulty and embarrassment. from not being hitherto nndxr a separate and special Jurisdletion, and from the iXitrtaroh snd heads of (he seots whloh they have left oat orally not bting able to superintend their affairs, tod ' Whereas. it is in contravention to the supreme will sf His Imporlsl Majrstj, our Gracious Lord and Benefaotor, (may Uod increase htm In years and power !) animated as he is with feelings ot deep interest and dent ncy towArds all olssses of his subjects, that any of them should be subjected to grievance; and " Whereas, the aforesaid (Trotestanu) In conformity slth the creed professed by them, do form a separate jororounity, " It is His Supreme Majesty's will atfd command, that tor the sole purpose ot facilitating their affairs, and of lecurlog the welfare of the said Protestants, the adminatrstioa thereof should be henoeforward oonflded to rcur Kxcellency, together with the allotment of the isxes to which they are subjected bj law; that you do c?*p a separate register of their births and deaths la he Department of the Cemptrol, aooordlng to the ays* em observe^ with regard to the Latin nag as; that yon to i.?sue passports and permits of marriage; and that any >erson of established obaraoter and good ooaduet, -hoff-n by them to Appear as their sgent at the Porte for lie transection and settlement of their current affairs, >s duly appointed for that purpose. " Snob are the Imperial commands, which you are to )bey to the letter; < "but although paispoit* and the allotment of taxes ire placed under speeial regulations whloh cannot be inl lnged, you will be oareful that in pursuenoe of bis VI ej sty 's desire,no assessments or taxes be exacted Iron the Protestants for permits of marriage and for registrations?that every necessary assistance and facility be i(Tjrd*d them for their current affairs?that no Interference whatever be permitted in their temporal or spiilu il coroernson the part of the patriarch, monks or priests of other saotc, rat that they be ensMsd to exerilsstbe profession of their eroed Insecurity; and that they he not molested one lota, either in that rsspeot or in any otlisr way whatever " Signed, RK8GH1D, (Grand Vlsler ) Canadian Warriors.?We understand that imong the heroes of the Mexican war, may be (numerated two from Quebec ; the oac fell oa the Held ( battle, the ether was saxlfleed as a deserter, whether " os?y or not we hare act heca Mm<.-4?sl?e Jl?r. ? iMry, JVn. Iit. i [ERA 8. General Scott anil the Administration. The following extract from a Washington lettr, published in an evening paper of yesterday, robably contains about as correct a view of the ifficultied in the army,[aa any that have yet been lublished:? Seriously, erery one in disposed to award to Usnsral oott all the merit for military ability, whlob hU op?ra ion* before Mezloo 10 eminently entitle him; bat, in ommon with other mortal!, the general baa hU errors nd inflrmitiee, and much aa be should be ee teemed for la high professional qualities, he ehanld not, any more baa others, expect immunity from his tealte. Severn nd puhlio oensuro in general order, ot an offlner before i n army, espsotally ot an oflloar of high rank, Is seldom iflictad, exoept under the sentenoe of a oourt martial, r In ooaaaqoenoe of delinquencies, too notorious and rail known to adarit of dispute. In the military aervloa f alt oouatriea, a cmmn In g?n*ral orders in preaaaoe f an amy, la aaaaldarad a grave military DunUUment, ad a disgrace; while, an tba contrary, an aoknow >d?inM* of merit and gall?ntry ta general or iara, la a?mmad aa ona of tba higheat of oompllmenta Tbara rare oartaln oOaaoea atalnit discipline committed by sate oaa ooaaaotad with oar amy la Mexico, wblcn ffaaaai General Soott otioaa to attribute to t-o of tha aaaral offloera who were than eervlag under him; and rttbout makiag an Inquiry. and laaa than all, wit hout raltlag foe tba opinion of any oouct on tba eubjeot,b?, n tha moat aummary manaar poaaibla, prooeeda to uaiab aad disgrace his suspected generals before his rmy, aad la the praaaaoa of a defeated foa. Punishsent drat, aad trial afterward*, are tarma often oaed aa leeoriptive or martial law; aadaaob proved to be literally he oaa? la oae of tba laataaoaa alluded to abore. The uolehmeat of oae of the offloera waa In fact equivalent co ila trial; for ao aooner waa tba diagraoe of a publlo oen*rt loll toted, tbaa tba puniabed general waa openly and aafnanlmoualy exonerated, net only from all partlolpaIon In, but from all knowledge of tba offence imputed to dm. Tbe act for wblob tba general had been pualahad, i raa publicly avowed by another: and aa ha had ueea tbua ellered from tba offanoe,it oertalnly waa not extraordiaay that ha aboold alao expect to be relieved from the oeaara. Thla waa no more than even-handed justice; and aa he commander of the force* denied all reparation of thla tlad, it oaaaot be deemed Improper or diareapeotful oa he part of tba aubordlaata aad injured general, if he weka redraaa at tbe haada of * eoamoa superior. Thla a preolaeiy tba altnatloa of affalra between Gen. Scott raa Gen. Wrrth, at tha present time. After Gen. Worth had been harshly reprimanded in general orders, ind therefore disgraced, Col Duncan avowed tho off.imie Far whloh the general bad been punished, for which kvowal Col. Danoaa was iastaatly arrea'ed by Scott ? Subsequently, Worth applied to Scott for a mitigation >f tba oensure whloh he had reoeived in general orders ; bis waa denied. Worth than draw up a narrative of the acta of tha oaae, and appealed to the President for reI rasa; this, aa he waa bound to do, ha requeeted Soott o forward for blm, and for doing this Gen. Worth waa i masted. it was thla arreat from whiob ha waa relieved ty the Prealdent; and it 1a oa theaaallegatioaa of Worth, ogetber with thoaa tranamltted by Gen. Pillow, of a imilar Import, that Saott is now oalled before a oourt of oqulry, of whloh hia friend Gan. Towsoa la President : ".I- ?- - 1. V kl. f tHU II iu bAlio UC AS UBIOUIjr VI ItU^VUDtvwNj ??vw?v?, a nust oonfesa 1 unable to see It Aa to bis being releved from his oommaad by Q?n. Butler, every one tnows that thla la a neoessary consequence, lasldent to hla being ordered before a military oonrt. Unler anoh olroumstanoes no offlosr oould retain hia oommaad ; and it devolves upon Oen. Butler, simply beuauae he happsna to be the senior offloer present?a month ago, by the lame role, it would have devolved upm Oen. Patterson. 1 have dwelt longer upon theae faota than I should otherwise have done, because I think there ia a atrong disposition abroad to pervert them, and use them to the prejudioe of the administration, if pariitans wjll state the whole oase, and state it truly, they ere entitled to all they oan make oat of it. [From the New Orleans Delta, Jan. 36 ] We have been politely favored with a manuscript oopy of the following general order of the Secretary of War, I sailed by direction of the President. It explains Itself. The command of the annv in Mexloo will neoessarily devolve on Oen. Butler, of Kentucky, he being the offloer next in rank to Oen. Soott, whose prcsenoe will be required at the Court of Inquiry. Wis Department, Adj. Osneral's Offlse, ? Washington. Jan. IS, IMS. j Oenebal Order No i The following order, reoelved from the Secretary of War. is published for the information and guldanee of the offloers oonoerned:? War Department, Jan. 13,1949. By direction of the President of the United States, a Court of inquiry, to oonsist of Brevet Brig Oeu. N. rowson, Paymaster General; Brig. Oen. Calxb Cashing, and Coi. E. O. W. Butler, 3d Dragoons, members, will assemble in Mexico to inquire and examine Into the rharges and allsgations preferred by Msj Oen Wlnfleld Scott against MaJ. Oen. Oldeon J. Pillow, and Brevet Lieut. Col. James Duncan, Captain of the 2d Regiment of Artillery, and the charges or matters of oomplaint preasnted by way of appeal by Brevet Msj. Oen. W. J. Worth, Colonel of the 8th Regiment of Infantry, against M?j. Osn. Wlnfleld Soott; and also, into any matters wnaeoted with the same, aa well as sueh other transactions as may be submitted to the consideration of the tenrt j and after investigating the same, the oourt will *pori the foots in each oase, together with the opinion hereon, for the information of the President. The oourt will oonvene on the lath day of Kebrnary text, or as aoon thereafter aa practicable, in the Castle f Perote, in Mexloo, where it will oontlnue to hold its Ittlnga, unless ths exigencies of ths publlo servloe may equire theplaoe to be changed. In whteh oase the court s anthorizad to adjeurn from plaoe to place, as eiroumitanoes may render neoeeeary, In order that no embarassment to the servloe may be oooasioaed by lta sestioas. Should any of the members named in the order be prevented from attending, the oeurt will proceed to, and :ontinue the buiiness before It, provided tho number of nembers present be within ths limitation proscribed by aw. 1st Lisut. Richard P Hammond, 3d Artillery, is appointed to act as Judge Advooat > and Recorder of the iourt. In oase the Judge Advocate and Reoorder should be ) re vented from attending, or nnabls to dlsoharge the luties, tn? court u autnorisea to appoint wait ocner >erseo, or devolve the duties of recorder upon the junior nember. W. L. MARC Y, Seoretarr of War. By order. (Signed) R. Jo*s?, Adj. Gen. Wkst Point Acadrmy.?The catalogue of the graduates from the West Point Academy shows its following olasslfloatlons, whloh have been made by me carious in each matters:? The graduates are not grouped together Into claises, is is usual in our college triennials; there Is no enumeration. nor index?not even a distinct list of the present acuity of instruction?consequently, what I hare gathirod from it has been the result of an actual count and aborioos anslyrlf. The graduates are apportioned among the different States as follows: ? V. (On* States?Me. 38; N'.H. 17; Vt. 63; Mass. 101; R I. 10; Conn 43 <297 middle States?N. V 340; N.J. 30; Pa. 133; Del. 10. 434 lonthern States?Md. 70; Va. 141; N C. 43; S. C. 48; Oeo. 30; Miss. 8; La 10; Ala. 13; Florida 4; Ark 3 333 Hstiiot ?f Columbia 49 Veetern States?Ohio OA; Ind. 3?; III. IS; Mloh. 9; Mo. 15; Ken. 08; Tenn.37; Iowa .' 333 Whole No graduates 1307 .eft the service, 474; declined promotion, 4; not promoted. 1 479 )eoeaeed wbils In service 199 C llled or died of wounds In service, In war of 1813, 7: in Florida war, 10; in Seminole war, 1; in Mexican war, 41 80-257?730 lemainlng in servloe, June, 1847 631 (Vounded In Mexican war, in regular servloe... .40 Of the 479 who left the servloe, there havs deceased...; 60 The following were volunteers In Mexioan war;?W. 5. Aisquith, Adj Md. Vols ; J. E Braokett,Capt. N. Y. /ols.; M . Clark, MsJ. Mo. Vols.; H. Clay. Jr.,Lt. Col (ea. Vols.; S. K. Curtis, Col. Ohio Vols.; Jefferson Da'1?, Col Miss Vols.; I. A Karly, M?j . Va. Vols.; C.H 'ry, Maj Ksn. Vols.; I.F. Hamtrack, Col. Va. Vols.: W. il Irvin,Col. Ohio Vols.; A. 8. J oh nf ton. Aid L. Vols.; tVm.R. MoKee, Col. Ken Vols; A. M. Mitchell. Col. )hlo Vols : H Marshall, Col Ken Vols ; H M. Nsglee, Japt N. Y. Vols : T. B. Randolph, Lt. Col. Va Vols ; . Rogers, Lt. Col. K*n. Vols; O. 8. Rousseau, Capt. .la.Vols.; L. DeRussy.Col La. Vols.; T.T. Worthlngon, Adj Ohio Vols ; H Oakum, Capt. Texas Vol ; W. I. Burnett, Col. N. Y. Vols. And the Allowing hold or hava bald public offices, irofessorahips and various stations in private life Unled States Senator, 1, Jefferson Davis; Representatives o Congress, 4; Foreign Minister, 1, A. J. Donelson; Ooernor. I; Judges, 0; Clergymen, 13, including Bishop 'oik, TennLawyers, 91. of these lvers J. Austin, Boson; Physio, 0; Presidents of Colleges. 3; Profe.wor* of Alleges, 37; Teaohers, 14. of thess N. Tiiltnghast, Nor. c., Brldgewater, Mass.; Prasbytarlan Missionary to 'hlna, 1, M 8. Colbert son; Kditors, 7; Cashiers, 3; Civil ^oglneers, 09; Merchants, 21; Farmers and Planters, 18; lallroad Superintendents, 3; Manufacturers, 4; Arohlects, 3.- Cur of tKt Botton TravtiUr. Shntknck for Manslaughter ? Eb*n Leahers, and liis sons, Eben Leathers, Jr., and llchard Leathers, of Barrington, were tried last week in )ov?r, New Hampsire, for the murder of Stephen Fro* naa, in June last, by knocking him in the head, In a uerrel. They were found guilty of manalaaghter, and rare senteneed?the father, to three days solitary and in years imprisonment In the State Prison, and the tbsr two. to three days solitary and twsnty years conInemect In the State Prison. The prisoners received belt sentence with the indifference whioh they had nanifested through tha trial. The old man Is batween Ixty and seventy years of age, and the sons from thirty o forty. They belong to the well known "Leathers rlbe.'* whieh has been settled in Barrington for the last mndred years, and are said to be the descendants of a ypsey family, which came over frcm England with ome of the early settlers of Portsmouth, as their sarants or retainers At almost every session of the Now lampshlie Legislature, more or less or thsm petition for n alteration of their names This Is looked upon as a reat offence by those of the tribe who take prida in heir dasoent. Stephen Freeman, the vlotlm in this Ight, was one who bad thus abandoned the nans of hit Illustrious sires"? and from tfcie oausa in part pro*ably torn tha SUKitaees wbleb resulted la kls death -Teest I I.. ..Mil III ...J,? LD._ The War, ?e. FROM rill! RIO ?iRAND*. [From the New Orleans Mercury, Jan. 23 ] Th? eteainjhlp Fanny, ('apt. Soott, airlred tbk aMta\oa from the Draioa, which *he l-ft on the iOth 8k* bring* m passenger*, Mra Capt. chaee. Mr. Md Mr?. L*?iaa, C!ol. Henry Whiting, Lieut. Beaufort, LUnt. Blaok, Capt. Merrick, Mr. Mwn, and Mr Robinson. md 40 on Ueok. We hare the Matamoraa Flat of the 1Mb, hilt if. nnnttliiN no na?i nf (mnnrtanna Rm?? la iaaoribed m iiaviug much improved id appearance and strength, In the last two or three months. luring which j Umt Lieut. Totten, of tha 'id Artillery, who ts in command thorn, baa kept tha prisoners of bia command, tnd II thoaa of tba lotb Ruglment, em ploy ad at work on it. A Una of flrat class steamboats to run regularly between tba Brazos and Csmargo. li.s bran established. Tha arrangement Is atatad to be a permanent on*. By an arrival at the lirasoa. tha editor of the Flat bad news from Vara Cruz to tha 3d inat. We refer to it. aa giving soma confirmation to tba reports hare in reference to tUa proa pasta of peace. The Flag aay a? A hrief note from Capt. Morton, Aetlog Quartermaster at Vera Crus, addressed to Major Kastiand, Quarlermaster at the Brasos, under date of Jau. 3d, say* ? " An sxpras* arrived bars from Msxloo last evening; and a bearer of daepatefaas starts for Washington tomorrow. It la said that paaoa terms bare beau agrwsd upon The British copsul Mi a manage to me on tho 1,1 atattng that a eovftw bad been sent to him from Mexico, informing him (lut peace was oartmin " Th? foMowtng extracts ure t*ken from a latter, whioh the Fl.ig pubiishea, ranaived in Matamoraa from a gtntlemsn in Vara ?'ruj! dated the ad inat : ? Capt. Kerr, of the 3d dragoona, arrived here last night, six days from the city of Mexico lie aaya lien Scott * told bim he had nearly concluded a p?a?? with Maxioo, and our troops would all be off from hare by the let of April. I do not think ro, because, In the iirst place, <>au. Soott ia not authorized to make peaoe, und there is nobody to make peace with just now, that I know of. Capt Kerr fell in with Torrrjon, on his way down Irom Maxioo; he was escorting some Kogliah property and had a pass from (Jen Soott. He said he was done fighting the Americans, and would now turn his whole attention to putting down the robbers Tha oowardly thief, be never dared fight the Americans sinoe Thornton was taken by him above Matamoras The alcaldes' oourts of Vera Crus, are abolished, and Gen. Twiggs has mad a new rep.u'itions with regard to Mexican thieves; they are tried t>y our military court and whipped in tha pabllo "quare. Tha rascals ory murder and call on all tho saints, but the saints won't interfere, and the lash is pnt on wall. Twiggs says that he intends to make the p?o. pie of tfoii town so honest, that a person may leave bis coat or his hat in the piss* all nigbt, and find it there In the morning. A difficult job, I take it. [From tha N. O. Picayune. Deo 38 ] The f jllowing i'.ems are from the Flan of the 13th instant ' By a gentleman recently from Monterey we are lni formed tbat a train of eighty-six paek mules, belonging to Dr. Wilkinson and a Mexican, following In the rear of a government train, were attacked on the 3&d ult. near Cerralvo, by about forty Mexicans, and all tha mules driven off Msj. Norville, of the 16th Infantry, commanding the government train, on being informed of the attaok, halted his command, and taking soma half dostn American citisens who volunteered to ao* company him, returned In pursuit of the robber*. Thar were soon overtaken, and after a slight skirmish, in whioh one M*xioan was klll*d and two other* sovsreiy wounded, tha paok mules were all reooverad. Tba party of American oitlsens who assisted Major Norville In tbo recapture, are named as Means. Tanner, Lundy, D. McDonald, J. MoDonald, Miller, and John Tanner, a boy about twelve years of ag*." A gentleman re**ntly from Saltillo brings ns the painful Intelligence that Capt. O. K. Lewis, of tha Texas cavalry, commanding a company on ranging service in tbe neighborhood of Parras, In a lata fight with the Cnmanoh* Indians, was so severely wounded that his life la despaired of. We lincerelj trait that bla situation mty not be 10 critioal m represented by oar Informant. A ' greet mui educational meeting" was held in Matamoras on the 9th inat.,the proceedings of which we find reported at length In the Flag. The objeot of the meeting wee deolared to be to establish a general syttem of pduoation, beginning with Matamorae and extending it into the oountry as feet aa praeMeable. Mexican oitiaena took a prominent part In the meeting, Amerioan officer* assisting. Commtteee were appointed to oarry oat the views of the meeting, and great good is anticipated from the ausplolous commencement of the good work. A theatrical company to now performing in Matamorae. A line of boatn?the Laurel, Frankland and Warren? has been eatablisbed to ply regularly between the Brazos and Camargo. It will be a great convenience to shipper*. california. The Washington Union hes been favored with the following extraot of a letter from Monterey, capital of California, October 10,1847:-" This oountry continues quiet. We apprehend do more outbreaks here. The mars of the people have made up their minds to bide the general issue. In the meantime the tide of immigration is constantly pouring in. Thsse immigrants will settle the destiny of California, without regard to any conditions or treaty stipulations. Were the United States to attempt to put California back into the arms of Mexioo. she would not star pat thers; she woald rebound to her present position, and oar flag woald fly again where it now does; so that, very little solicitude is felt hero about any dlplomatlo arrangements. The Americans begin to feel that they hare their destiny in their own hands." fob thk skat op war. The United States steamship New Orleans. Captain Aald, left New Orleans on the -JSth ult, for Vera Crnz, with the following passengers Col. Fauntleroy; H. W. Fowler; Col. Blsooe; Capt. Connolly; Capt. Barnard, topographical engineer; Mej Mooney and olerks; Mrs. Daniels and cblld: H. Hiestaod, Mrs. Mary Mitchell; MissC. Mitchell; Sergt Browley and wife; Col. Jackson, b?arer of despatches; R. Morris; L. M. Davidson; John Shannon: Mrs. Eaton; Isaac Curran; Joseph Walker; r'harles Fagot, quartermaster's department; E M Robertson; Dr. H. C. Flood; Mrs. Nelugaa; Laden Kscher. army intelligence. We learn from the Fort Smith Herald, that Major Maolfn. paymaster, U 8 A., left that place on the 6th last, with an escort ef dragoons, for Fort Gibson, to pay the troops off at that post. *aval intelligence. The U. 8. ihip Plymouth went into commission at the Brooklyn nary yard on Saturday last at II A. M , and will sail for the East Indies Tie Rio, when Mr. Davis, our commissioner to China, who goes out passenger, is ready to ombark. The brig Dolphin, whieh has just been undergoing extensive repairs, will sail in about ten days for the noast of Africa. The sloop of war Saratoga has been ordered from the Gulf of Mexico to the Brooklyn navy yard for new standing rigging. She Is hourly expected. Vkasei.s at Brooklyn N*?t Yard?North Carolina, 74 Frigates?Savannah and Maoedonlan. Sloops of *ar?Ply mouth and Vinoennes. Brigs-Dolphin and Washington. Steamers?Fulton, Legare and James K. Polk. Sohoonsr Jacob Faithful U S sloop Dftoatar, commander Edmund Byrne, went to set from Boston on the 9d Inst, bound for tha coast of Africa The following is a list of her officers: ? Commander, Edmnnd Byrne; lieutenants, Wu? H.Bali, E C. Bowers, N. Collins; purser, J. Geo Harris; past assistant surgeon. Wo S. Bishop; anting master, Beverly Randolph; uotiug midshipmen, W. Totten, S. A Buell, Robert Bryant, W. S Lovell, J. D. Rainey, ? Wells ; knftt awnin A Ifrarl 1! In wart w aallmalra* Inaanh f. Tlrad ford; carpenter, Daniel Jonen; acting gunner. J. M. Ballard; ormroand?r'? dark, John C'nrry; p?rn?r'g clerk Jos. T. Gwaltney; surgeon's steward, M L. Tele. PiiiLAnsLPHtA, Feb. 2,1848. Samuel Cowperthwaite, the lad of eighteen, charged with the killing of Roger Kelly, by hooting him on the 5th of November last, In Southwark, during a fight between two rival gan^s of rowdies, was arraigned this morning for the high crime of murder. The young fellow presents such a youthful and respectable appearance, and his countenance so entirely devoid >>f any of the evil passions of a murderer, that it seems almost impossible to think him guilty ot the deed. The absence of a principal witness in the case, induced the Attorney General to postpone the trial until the next tetmof the court. The trial of Joseph Webb, Julia Ashmore, and Catherine; Webb, tor the murder of John Giles, by pushing b im down stairs, at a house in Maryland street, was commenced this morning. T&e parties are all colored persons, and the case excites very little interest. To-morrow the sale of the Saturday Couritr establishment is to take place at the Exchange, and speculation is busy as to what will be the result. The known intention of McMukin to start a new Couritr if defeated in his purpose of getting the original paper, at a mere tithe of its real value, it is supposed, will deter the association of gentlemen who were before willing and ready to give JfrHO.OOO for it, from becoming it* purchasers. Thr surviving partner appears likely to succeed in his efforts, but it will remain for our courts to decide whether he is not responsible for the loss that will fall upon the widow and the orphan. r . Your agents, the Messrs. Zeiber &. Co., have associatea withtheni James B. Chandler, Esq., and extended their business by opening a new store at No. Ill Chesnut street, above Fourth.? The bustle of their other location deters the lair sex from visitiug their establishment, but iu future they will be able to accoinnic d ite all eorts of customers. Whispers of peace, or some other caute, has uiven mi uncommon buoyancy tn the stock market to-day. Government stock* and treasury notes have been sold at p*r and even above. Inthnsk Modesty.?A lew days since our attention was drawn to a tact dot generally noticed, tnd Illustrative of the modesty (?) of onr neighbor* of tas United via. thai no aanoucsMteiit ot birth! etet appear* In their rapers. Ws here tested the assertion by a reference to the Journals *t onr oomsa.nJ eud tad "tenths aaJ merrl****" onlr reeorded How sb> nrt this Mm ?sUeasy.? Qutk*al*r*mv, Smn. M, / , | Jg nan a