Newspaper of The New York Herald, February 15, 1848, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated February 15, 1848 Page 1
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TH Wbola Ho. 5011. VIELO NOT K S. CONCLUSION OK THE STATISTICS, OBSERVATIONS, AND THOUGHTS on this CIVIL CONDITION OP MEXICO. * BY COLONEL ALBERT C. RAMSEY, C. S. ARMY. ' Oire me ficU before your common i nie."' Dt Franklin. THE JUDICIARY. The civil law being introduced into Mexico soon after the conquest by Cortes, its forms are still retained, unimproved by time, as in other countries. Not possessing the masculine vigor oi the common law of England with the trial by jury, it is more suitable for administering ana enforcing equity in commercial transactions, than preserving the personal rights or protecting ihe lives and liberty of a free people. The trial by jury is the only safeguard a freeman can have against oppression from government, on the one hand, or the invasion ofhis rights of person by individuals on the other. Under the civil law the judges are not only the exponents of the laws, but also possess the powers of a jury over the facts. In the most enlightened republic ana administered by the most incorruptible of judges it would still be dangerous to liberty, being suitable only lor a monarchy or despotism. In thus permitting the judges to blend the law and the tacts iu a cause before them, and to decide upon both, a wide field is given tor oppression and corruption. Their power becomes uncontroled, while their proceedings are shrouded from observation and public criticism. Amidst the forms, the law aad the facts, enough can always be found to screen the guilty or punish the innocent. All is, within the breasts of the judges, as absolute as the inquisition, and us terrible as any despot might desire. The barons of Eugland knew this when they extorted the charter at Runyinede, and preserved their rights and ; liberties under the old common law, to the utter exclusion of the codes and pandects adopted on the continent. They were unwilling to place themselves under the forms and laws created by the despotic emperors of Rome, where civil liberty did not exist. and where all rights were at the merey of venal courtiers and a servile judi. ciary. This was the code introduced into Mexico from old Spain, and was one admirably adapted to the hands of the viceroys who came over to govern and grow rich, but not to administer justice. They appointed the judges at pleasure, and could control them at will. A viceroy could make law and facts bend to his word or wishes in the courts, and the judiciary became thc^ pliant tools of hiB power. After the revolution, the judicial tenure was changed to that for life, making it, very properly, independent of the executive and its patronage; but the courts remained in their forms the same; the radical evil was not cured; still existing, to taint the ermine with corruption, as formerly it was sullied by official influence. If judges could no longer become powerful under a monarchy, they could become rich under a republic; and they did not fail to listen to the whisperings of avarice. The tone of society was low; venality was common, and in the judiciary, especially in its inferior tribunals, that bans to justice, honesty, and the moral sense, was soon infused. This institution of government, so useful to the cause ot public liberty and the happiness and nroHneritv of citizens when nure. and so dancer ous, demoralising and destructive to social order or private success when impure, here became rotten to the very core. A republic can no more exist without an honest administration of law, than without an executive or legislative department. When the judicial ceases to perioral its proper functions, the co-ordinate institutions become paralizcd or seized with an unnatural vigor, alike dangerous Irom imbecility or energy. The whole frame of the body politic undergoes a change; the result is disorder, and the government?what it is in Mexico?worse than despotism A few honest men, such as Pena y Pena, the chief justice, may be found with unsullied reputations and legal fame that would do honor to the bench in any country. But the Supreme Court . is so far removed irom the current and multifarious business of the inferior courts, and with only an appellate jurisdiction that a resort to it can seldom be had for redress as the dilatory forms, the expensive fees, and. restricting laws are sure to interpose obstacles in most cases. The causes instituted in which a debt is claimed, or damages, for some wrong indicted, are so dilatory in their proceedings as to almost amount to a denial of justice; and if to this be added partiality in the judges, towards one of the suiters, founded on friendship or a bribe, the whole affair becomes a fraud on the public. The effeot of this is to cause the innooent client to pause before trailing his claim to suoh unsafe hands, and to rely more on the integrity of those to whom he gives credit than upon the laws to enforce payment. To this extent a check is given to commercial transactions, and is one of the many causes now existing to 'prevent an increase of trade and exchanges. This, in any well constituted society would be considered an evil of the first magnitude, but here it isof mi cor Importance wh> n compared with others to which commeroe is subjected ; and while it continues to lower the institution of the judiciary, it assists to raise personal integrity and honest dealing into what capital is elsewhere. The judiciary is more pernicious in other affbirs. It is *n obstacle in the way ot a proper observance of the laws in the collection of revenues by government, au injury to the local manufacturers in its decisions on contraband trade, and the consequent vicious principles deeseminated among the' people in regard to fraude on the custom-house. The effect of high tariffs has been to Induce the evasion of duties by the smuggling of foreign goods, the ohances of succeae overbalancing the risks of detection, aud the well known-tact that when the goods attempted thus illegally to be introduced are seized by officers of government, relianoe can be plaoed on the courts being intiuenoed to prevent their confiscation. The popular belief that the judgee can be, for a certain consideration, inclined to favor the daring violations of the laws, and to soreen the offender and his goods, is not withont a solid foundation. The faot seems to be established, and has f>und its way Into official remark, and animadversion. Thus in the " AfemotiV' (annual report) cf the Minister of Finance to Congress in 1840, he remarks ' Unless the laws be properly applied, the excesses ot the passions cannot be restrained, nor can the abuses Kuuiii?gui^ni.ic(i wiura nrn nnuuiincu, iu wuo ucirnuu* m^nt of the sacred interests! f tho treasury, be sorrected. 'The meaos of the govt nment ere not sufficient to restrain the tremendous evil which destroy* public nioralityj end attacks the beeie of the social edifice. The jud>iM authority has a direct influence upon the welfsrs of the nation, when it proceed* honestly, award iug ooodicn punishment to delinquents, end thereby r re renting the effort* and endeavor* of tho speculator in league with the tmployi', faithless to the government und the nation bet the judge* prooeed with impartiality, let the law he applied with leverity, and only so will he arrested the progress rf a oanoer, which, under the shield of impunity of erimes, Is already eating Into the very entrails ?f sooiety."* In the criminal jurisdiction of ths court* nothing hatter oan be hoped f.)r, and something worse will be found The writ of habcat corpui I* unknown, nor l? there any other resembling it, reoognlsed In their code ni laws Liberty cannot exist without this important writ, by which any person having another In custody, is compelled to produce him bsfore a judge, to have, on demand made, the legality and Justice of his imprisonment enquired into, and if improperly held in custody to liberal* htm t he want of this beneficial power in the judiciary was very apparent oa the arrival of General Scott at Tuebla. There were discovered more than three hundred unfortunate prisoners incarcerated, whose names only, in half the oases, appeared on the jail calendar, without any charge noted as the cause of their detention. They had heea imprisoned on the simple order of some prefeot, alcalde, or officer of polioe, on an imaginary crime, whloh. when understood, was an offence offered to the dignity or political opinions of an oflloial excellency. The arrest and tmpiisonment were not all: for trial did not follow soon after to relieve them. Some had been imprisoned for years, without once being confronted with the accusers, and they would hare remained there, had not our arrival opened the doors to many who were without a charge preferred or a proesoutor appearing. It Is this feature in the institutions of Mexico whloh has so effectually crushed the free expression of opinion, and engendered that treachery and falsehood so frequently met with. Kvery man is at the merey of his neighbor, who may at any moment prefer a true or false accusation tgaiust him, and have him imprisoned, possibly for an indefinite period. IT he be without influence, nothing but hope remains for his liberation And his wife, sister, or daughter is compelled, as is common, to seek tho 'ffl 'ial personage, wnose word is law, to melt him into mercy wlib their sorrow and tears. A portion Of each official day is set aside for tho hoaring of this strange kind of legal importunities from these relative* of the prisoners, n is not always without effect, nor 1* it at the same time always with just toe. The prantlee Is straDge, the prlnolpie is bad, end the government Is culpable, where suoh discretion must be tolerated It is a common remark that no one will be punished who has money. Hiches oover a multitude of sins, If properlv expended, in Mexico ; and they are generally lortuooiutng whenever the emergenoy requires. It is many years since a murder has been punished,where the aooused was a man of wealth Col Vanes was the only exception, and there the circumstances surrounding It drew au unusual attention to the crime. H# was executed on the garote, and bis osse is yet talked of. General I E NE NI Thompson, In hi* " Recollection* of Mexico," thu* brie ly sketches the story "The Swiss consul resided In the street of St. Cosm About twelve or one o'olook in the dsytime, n carrlaj drove up to his door, and three men got out, one in tt drees of a priest; they were admitted by the porter, an the door olosed, when they immediately seised and gagg' him, went into the house, and robbed and murdered tt consul. The only olue for the discovery of the murders was a metal button with a small pleoe of blue cloth a taohed to it, whloh was found clenched in the fingers the murdered man, and which he had torn from thecoi of one of the robbers. Suspicion at last rested upon soldier, who was seen with mors money than be con1 account for. His quarters were searched, and the 001 from which the button had been torn was found ther He was convicted, but he relied with the utmost conl uejuun upuu ^nruuu. ?n tyuiuuci i nuro, iua irtvii alde-dt-oamp of President Santa Anna, waa his acoon plica. He waa brought oat to be executed, and had a< tually taken hia aeat on the fatal bench, with the oolli placed around hta neck, and the crank about to be tun ed, when he said?'1 Hold ! 1 will disclose who are my a eomplloes - Colonel Vanea ia the chief!'' The exeoi tion waa auapended, and on aearohing the houae of Vane a correspondence in oipher waa diaooyered,whioh fully e tablished hia guilt in this and other robberiea. Vanea wi the paramour of a woman in Mexioo very nearly reli ted to one wheae word waa law, and whose lniluenc orer her relative waa known to be very great, and upo that relianoe waa plaoed for a pardon at least ; be ahe waa not dlapoaed to truat to that, and let her 1ot< Buffer the disgrace of conviction; ahe went to the judp with whom the cipher had lxen deposited, which fu nished the evidenoe of the guilt of Vanea, and offere him a large bribe to give it up. He waa an honeat mat and an upright judge; he sternly refused the bribe, an (irmly resisted the menaoea of this powerful woman. I a day or two he died suddenly, as all supposed, of poiaoi A successor waa appointed ot principles less etern, wh aocepted the bribe, and promised to destroy the pap"i but when, in coofesaion to hia prieat,he disclosed his coi rupt conduot, the worthy man prevailed upon him if h had not destroyed the paper net to do so, audhe did no Vanea, in the meantime, waa informed that this evident would not be prodnoed against him, and that the proseci tion would reat entirely upon the testimony of hia a< complice. Upon the trial, with the habitual air of oon mand of an officer, and the habitual fear and submissio of the common soldier, Vanea browbeat and oonfused h acouaer to suoh a degree that he felt secure of an acqui tal. At this moment the fatal paper was prodnoed, an be waa oondemned and exeouted. His not leas guilt paramour still realdes In the olty of Mexioo." The forma ot procedure in criminal cases is, 1 bellevi somewhat like the following. After the accusation, tb defendant and prosecutor with the witnesses appear b fore a judge, who is present to oonduot the proceeding and a notary to reoord the evidence. The testimony reduosd to writing, and being certified by the judge an notary, is transmitted to another oourt, oonsisting three judges, who are to determine upon the guilt or ii nooenoe of the accused. Here the cause is argued t the lawyers to the oourt, from the evidenoe as taks down by the notary, and sentence or acquittal follow aa the judges may direot. Time and opportunity are not wanting during tb progress of these proceedings, to enable tne accused t arrange matters with the adverse witnesses or notar: nor ia the inclination averse in most oases on their pan If a witness cannot be prevailed upon to remain absen or to testify aa desired, the notary must be approaohe cautiously, as notaries are " all honorable men " Wit! him an arrangement can generally be made, so that tb testimony will be taken down in a manner " warranto not to kill." Sometimes through neglect or misoalculi tion, both witness and notary do their duty, and the coi reot statement reaches the higher oourt, where the mat ter becomes serious, and requires attention. These j udgee are but m*n, and aa such are to I treated. Negotiations with them are not as diflonlt i " oonquering a peace." but they must be oonduotedin mode equally diplomatic. The party most interested kept in the baok ground, while eome brother, relatloi er convenient friend, sends a valuable present 1 one of the learned Thebans, with a dellcac and apparent propriety truly oommendable, wbic eoures the favorable ear of him accepting, have heard that diamonds, and other valuables c that character, are oommon, but in instanoes whet it is supposed the old disoiple of Justinian wish" like another Solomon, to have his hours of solitude r freshed by the solace of a young girl, one is sent with th same beneficial results. This last commodity, of cours* I do not, myself, believe passes as an artiole of barte yet such was my information. The lawyers are reputed to be the most learned bod in Mexico, assuming for the most part the professorshi] in the oolleges and other institutions of learning. The are gentlemen of liberal ideas, as well as of liberal eduoi tion, whioh In the distracted condition of the oountr; teaches them to appreciate in many Instanoes, the vali our institutions would be to Mexico. Some of them hav been arrested and others threatened for their too fn expressions of opinion in our favor ; but lawyers wi talk la every country, and in that government they oai not easily be silenoed. While thus entertaining these favorable opinions i their learning and independence, 1 should admire th? as a bright spot on that moral horiaon under the tropin but corruption, I fear, from what 1 have heard, that tra ofthoierpeat " ii over them all " Their drese in tt gown and bat, reeemblee the prieets, and they might ei ally be mistaken for members of that fraternity. It i possible that sometimes we have not treated them their profession and sentiments would warrant at on bands, under the impression that they belonged to ths ancient and honorable body of good fellows, the friars < at. Benedict or St. Kranoisoo. Sometimes, too, ihei friers have been made answerable for the sins of tb learned gentlemen, under the same misoonceptlon of tt clerical garb. Poor fellows! the praotioe of the law is not profitab in these unhappy times; and egenoies from the ehuro professorships and even situations as factors in commeri must bs accepted,to afford them a deeent support. Whi would be thought of our LLD dealing in segars, or professor in a university ? Having seen both the tobai co and liquor, these facte are not unknown to me. If 1 might here be permitted to pause,in order to oor eider one question wbich often arose in my mind, it whether Mexioo could be accounted a oiviilsed oountr] It is not heathen, it i| not barbarous; yet some of the or terta, whioh are estimated in making up the characti of modern civilisation, are there wanting, such as d< Quite government, uniform laws and some personal lil erty. England, under the reign of Henry the 6th, wi not reputed to be out of the pale of polished nation bsing christian ; and in Mexico the resemblance t that period in history is in some respeets striking. There still romaln in the 19th century, the ueurpi tions of government, the imprisonment of persons i will by publio officers, the power and wealth in tb Romish olergy, the bribery of the judges, the paU' and prison undsr the same roof, the clerkly dress of th lawyers, the notices on the ohurch doors, and the brigi psnons on the spear heads of lanoes, floating over a and bidding defiance to all, who do not strengthen an make their houses, not In a legal fiotion, but, In fao iheir castles. The illegal contributions demanded, th forced loans extorted, the contempt for trade and tb oommon people, the restrictions on commerce, the m< nopolles granted, and fortunes made by favorites, a contribute to form the parallel. If England bad her maritime facilities on three side so has Mexioo; if one has mines, so has the other; one has her produots, so has ths other; and If one ha her oommeroial population to respect, so has the othei and yet England never had euoh wide spreadin ooeans on her shores, such mineral wealth lu he territory, nor such abundance in the variety < staples as the extensive soils of Mexioo can product \ lew years now work changes greater than lormerl that cf centuries, and the time may soon eome when new problem will be solved, when the roek of true civ lib -rty in a populous country is liret touohed, and to ol serve a perpetual stream of human improvement an happiness gush forth. In our oouutry liberty was fin planted in the wilderness, to blossom like the rose, i the arts and commerce grew slowly around it; but thei these elements of sooial amelioration already exist in deep sleep, like the vitality of tbe burled oorn of csnti ries, in the pyramids, awaiting only the light and frc air of our institutions to arouse them into instant greal ness. TIIK FINANCES OF MEXICO. In Attempting to give a satisfactory account r the financial affairs of Mexico, I undertake task which has never yet been successfully ac complished, by either native statesmen or foreig bankers; and which must, therelore, be tmpC) lecily described by me. Mefore our invasion r lb., r......I.I... ,1. nBti^nul ......I. plorable condition; its treasury wu bankrupt and there seemed to be no hope of retrieving loi mer solvency and prosperity. Many causes wet in active operation to produce this result?an< tor the purpose of comprehending its rssourcei revenues, expenditures and liabilities, and th means by which credit can be restored?some c these causes must be briefly explained. The absence of integrity in the administrt lion of the i ublic institutions of this govcrnmen is the primary cause of the moral and politic! degradation of the republic; nor is the executiv department free from the vice of corruption, s contaminating and so prevalent in all. In tit church, in the judiciary, ijnd in the various lac lions composing the legislature, I have ende? vored to exhibit the pernicious principles pre vailing, and the want of patriotism and commo honesty, so essentinl among all classes of cit; ns. Kvery administration has successive! been derelict in its duty to the public, in permi ting, countenancing,and, in tact, participating i peculation and frauds; which would foreve have blasted the character of a minister in an other country. This laxity in public moralii has never had a superior or equal to !S,uiia Anni whose oroverbial avarice and rapacity are nei thcr denied nor palliated by even hia own part sans. Those who have administered the. atlaii of the republic, have generally followed in th footstepi of such an illustrious predecessor; an the wholesale plundering of the treasury by ft vorites, is enough of ltaell to account for th nation being bankrupt. It was often that a small aum was in the trea sury, as the demands upon it were lar greater tha the receipts; and at times it has been represent? as wholly destitute of funds to liquidate the cm rent drafts From this circumstance, the credi tore of the govaramept were paid or not paid i the ?ptitaof tha miauterj and proferentem war W YO :w YORK, TUESDAY MO] if- given as he might incline. As the creditor in all cases was anxious lor his money, influence was brought to bear upon the minister, and this [ was often ot' a pecuniary value. The creditor. ld desirous of having his debt liquidated, would (<1 offer a sum as a bribe, and the minister would it accept $11)00 for himself, in consideration of his rs agreeing to pay out $10,000 to an honest claiint ant. If there was no cash on hand, a draft of would be given on a custom house, on the tobac8t co company, or on some other source of reveld nue. These drafts were subject to a further discount from brokers, before the cash could be ree alieed; and thus the honest man, trusting to puba lie faith, was cheated sometimes out of half the te amount of his claim. The ell'ect was, that all ?- contractors with government had to calculate the risk of protracted payment or depreciated J* funds, and raise accordingly in their demands ? B! Hence the government was never supplied at the j. current rates in the market, but at double prices, s, The recipients of executive favor were never i- few in number, nor limited in their wishes. To " them contracts and jobs were given at sums so *- enormous as to astonish us, if not startle our be18 lief. The contract for building the mole at Vera ? P.M17 Mr u a AnA nf f kia nliofonfoe " k i n li to oa'i/1 ?/\ |? "l*o VUV VI "IIO V/llttl UVkV-l y *? llivil ID oaiu IU Jr have been constructed ut a profit of a million and >e a half of dollars. The tobacco monopoly was r- anotherrich reward givento a company offriends, d by whoin a much larger sum was annually real? iscd. Smaller favors of the same kind were d thankfully received as opportunities were daily ? presented. 10 The number of employes (elcrks) in the custom r; houses, was much greater than the public service r- required, but the executive had to retain the ie force in tlies; establishments at a fifth of the ' amount collected. In the custom house of Mexi' eo there were 180 employes ; in PuebU80, and in ? Vera Cruz 130. General Scott has very wisely j" closed the two former; and in the latter, lour q clerks are now found sufficient, with the collects tor. t- Another piece of favoritism, and of injury to d the public, was exhibited in the terms on which 7 loans were negotiated with those whom they wished to gratify. Don Lorenzo Zavala, in his work on the revolutions of Mexico, gives the 3. following examples of loans negotiated, and S| with whom, viz.:? Is Loan of $400,005, of the 18th of June, 1829. d Doll's. rs. grs. Doll's, rs grs. >f 336,247 3 3 paid in old governments cred' its, at 86 per cent 199,960 1 11 >J 125,002 1 11 do. tobaooo credits, at par... .126,002 1 11 n 75,042 4 2 do. cash 76,042 4 2 436,292 1 4 400,006 0 0 8 The first item of $236,247 3rs. 3grs., being 0 in old oredits, before the Independence, a ft sort of continental monej oould be bought ' at 6 per oent, and would oost the oon traotor only 11,762 36 100 d The tobaooo oredits were worth about 60 h per oent in the market, and would oost... 62 601 2-7 18 To which being added the oash 76,043 4 2 d ' Makes an expenditure to the oontraotor of f- only 149,306 0 0 And for which he is entitled to reoeive in oash $4*0,006. 18 Another loan was contracted on July 2$, 1828. M 76,096 3 9 paid iu old oredits at 80 percent 60,077 0 7 * 30,014 7 11 do. tobaooo credit at par... . 30,014 7 11 " 35,000 0 0 do. cash 35,000 0 0 t0 $140,111 2 8 $136,092 0 6 '7 The old credits were worth 6 per oent, "? equal to $3,70480-10* J The tobaooo oredits at 60 cents,would oost.. 16,007 4 0 >f And the cash paid was 36,000 0 0 re 8< It cost the oontraotor only the sum of... ,$53,711 4 0 *' For which he was to receive $126,092 Ors. 6grs. '* In the Memoria of Finance for 1834, is desoribed the loan of $6,646,076 7rs. 4grs, contracted by the govern' ment in the flsoal year ending in 1831. The loan was as follows : ? j0 Cash reoeived $2,963,356 6 6 In privileged paper, vis: bills of com' missaries, military divisions, protested " drafts on the custom houses, salaries of members of Congress, &c , current e pensions, tee., 3,123 660 4 1 )e On old credits, before the independence. 3 469,058 6 9 j! $8,646,076 7 4 " The government reoeived the premium on exohange, of which amounted to $36,937 3 reals 4 grains, making tn m all $8,609,048 3 0, whioh was repaid to the lendere In ; bills upon the maritime enstom houses, the mint, and 11 the onetom house of Mexico. The government had to ie allow a premium of exehange of $176,343 1 6 upon the i- $2,953,366 6 6, reegfved In oeeh, amounting to about is two per oent on the whole nominal sum loaned. As gout vernment paper was worth about 10 per sent of its value, Iff vuu^vuu vi buuu paprt auu uivuiko nan ymuuwmo III it the market for $600,000 ? )f There >u another loan of two millions of dollars made te in 1040, in the name of the English house of Montgomele ry, Niooll St Co , as follows : ? m Cash, $020,000 In goyeinsnent paper 1,080,000 le ? b, $2,000,000 3* This paper cost the lenders about 15 per cent, and af" ter selling out to Mexican capitalists, tbsy realised for * themselves the neat little sum of $400,000. The ruinous rates at whioh temporary loans have been oontracted, and sometimes by legislative enact'* inent regulating the interest, would soon render any ' country Insolvent, if they did not indloate of themselves ' a close approximation to it, in the depreciation of pub>" lio credit. Frevious to 1830, loans were oontracted by >r paying a monthly premium for money of 3, 4 and 6 per ' cent, and with great difficulty procured at these prices ' VI angino, in his report for that year, seems to make it * a matter of boast that he "could prooure money at 2X > per cent, and even 1 per c nt per month " 0 The contraband trade also is another evil which materially affects the financial prosperity. This violation ' of the revenue laws respecting the importation of foreign it goods, has been the subject of constant animadversion ' on the part of the government, for more than twenty :e years. Every annua) memuiia (treasury report) has called the attention .of Congress, to this bane' to legitl>t mate oommeroe and to the revenues, and pointed out the U best modes for its suppression : but it is so completely d interwoven with the manners and customs of the peot, pie, as to be oarried on as systematically as any other >e business however legitimate. >* In reading these memoriae, one will he astonished at > the wisdom and knowledge of the science sf political 11 economy displayed by statesmen, on revenue laws, while ours at hone were yet only beginning to understand the s, true principles of commercial exchanges. But one will if be more astonished at the stupidity of Congress, in unid formly neglecting to adopt any of the views and sugges'i tlons, proposed and enforoed with so much ability. 8 The tariff system of Mexico, has never been establish' - ed on the principles by which it would be producflv of the most revenue to the government. At first It was _ protective in its poltoy, with a scale of duties averaging ' about 40 per oent on foreign goods; whioh was after I wards changed into one prohibitory In its character, on " the avowed principle of enoouraglng demestio menu' factures, with duties ranging 160 to 200 per . oent ou the prices, and these on articles most generally In common use. If the contraband trade, t" therefore, could sustain Iteelf under the protective du" ties of 40 per cent, it surely oould flourish most vigorously under the prohibitory of 200. Tbe result was, as might hav? been expected, tbe revenue diminished while the importe Increased : the goods smuggled were equal in value to those entered in the oustom house, and consequently not one half of the legal dues was collected .< These faots, with the consequences, were constantly adverted to in official reports without efTect. and the contraband trade aontinued, to the great detriment of legitimate commerce. The people enooursged smugh gling in the very face of positive laws : tho judicial trlr bunals, ae I have explained, were Influenced in its favor, if and, last of all, the custom-house offioers themselves >? participated in tts profits. Mr. tVyllle states, that In 1 certain custom houses, the practice, was " on the * arrival of every cargo, the merchant and the employetogether, made out a full calculation of tbe whole du_ tl?s leviable thereon, the total amount of which was di' d vlded into three equal proportions, of which, the first', tbe merchant had to pay to the employ i and his coadjue tors ; the second to the plundered state, or ' Fatria if and the third he kept to himself." The corruption above developed In the collection and . administration of the publlo revenues, must oonvlnos , any one, that causes do exist whioh wonld forever keep 1 the government poor, if not bankrupt. But these are 11 not all tbe evila exlsflog in this branch of the exeoutive * department ; for a carelessness prevails in tbe mode of o registering aooounts In tbe treasury, which is almost as e injurious to ths public interests as the corruption. ,. Ths grsat errsr In their system'of keeping books, Is in ' not presenting somewhere a final accountability in some one of the offices. Tbey are opened with all the parade n ante. but they do not balanoe, nor i* there any clue by which the akeln of intricacy can be unravelled, or the y labyrinth of figure* satlafactorlly explored It I* impoeI elbl# to aeoertain, from a careful examination of the n document*, or from any other reoorde, the amount of r ceeh In any one year reoeived, nor the amount actually ? expended. y The cuetom ha* been to treat fund* ae being in the " treneury, that are anticipated but not received, and to f' make payment* by draft* on particular dutie* not yet f" oollected. The eonee<|uence ha* been that entrte* are l- made upon the book*, of what the minieter* o*lt "?lr:b tual," on both eldee, without the aotual caeh charged a* e received, or dieburaed, ever being In hand. Not untred quently the** draft* are protected, and are preaented in the (tatemente of the next year, whloh, If paid caata to the wind* all oorreotneea In the annual report of eipenae* and receipt* of that year. It la thua that the mlnlater explain* the reeelpte in the flacal year ending in is.ltl, being swollen to $JO,47d A09. n lie remark! 'Krom what i* ahown above, I* deduced the d extreme nceeeaity which exist* of rendering all account* uniform, and of arranging oo opletely the department of i aaeount*. foa up to the preaent day It only pretest* a ., abac# ef eoafntloa embairaeeing the moat aaiehd eel** rriiffl? 1 1 RE E EtNING, FEBRUARY 15, 1 ought to direet the delicate operations of a minister of finance. ' In the same way the receipts for the fisoal year 1038 and '39, being $d7,ftls,A77, are accounted for by another minister then in office, in July, 1840,as follows If the progrese or augmentation indicated in the national revenues were real and true, we might cherish the hope of soon arriving at the period of seeing all the disbursements of the treasury covered ; but, unfortunately, It is necessary to know that we are still distant from that epoch or national happiness. While treating of this Important part Of the " memoria" of the department under my oharge, I would wish not to be under the necessity of repeating what the ministers who have preceded me haTe represented; which is, that the revenue put down in the general account of receipts, is not the real and effective product of the revenues of the treasurv ; nor are the items of expenditure, which appear in the general account under that head, all actual ex penses of the republic." To add to the onnfusion of theee accounts, the distinct heads hare not been kept separate for many years. Thus, for the year 183d, the department of justioe and ecolesiastical affairs is merged in that for the minister of the interior ; and in the same manner, after the year 1833, the two departments of war and marine are jumbled up together. Who can therefore wonder that the government ol Mexico is bankrupt? With oorruption in the executive and in the judioiary?with a band of peculating favorites?a host of monopolizing oontraotors, and an army of custom house employes?with a systematic contraband trade by smugglers, and equally systematic swindling by publio officers?with depreciated and protested drafts?with ruinous dtsooun's on loans?with cash charged that has never been collected?with disbursements credited that have never been made, a ud accounts mixed up, with a carelessness that would not be tolerated iu those kept with a slate aud pencil. The principal revenues for the general government of Mexico are derived from the duties on foreign goods at the maritime custom houses?the aaavala or interior duties, the mines, certain rents, and the direct taxes, in order togive a general idea of the amount of revenues derived from the maritime oustnm houses I will endeavor to present the receipts lor each year as oorreotly as they can be obtained from the statements aooompanyIng the "Memorlas" of the Ministers of Finance, and from them copied aud adopted by various persons as authentic: ? lleVKNl.'K9 DKniVICl) FROM IM'TIKS ON KoHKION UoOP.1 at tiik Maritime Custom Houses. Total Salariet Net gross and yearly Heceiptt. Exfienir.1. Productt. First I months of 1835, $4,593,545 0 $ 12 1.175 4 $1,473,031 6 Ten moiulis previous to June 33,1821 6.571,491 7 157,108 5 6 414,381 2 From Juue 30, 1826, to June 30.1827 8,049.398 6 221,198 2 7,829,544 3 From Juue 30, 1827, to Juue 30, 1028 5,912,126 1 220 099 4 5 695 975 1 " 1828 to 1829 .. 6,681,156 4 186,867 4 6.497.288 7 " 1819 " 1830 .. 4 9 86.57 4 4 179 156 2 4,817,018 2 " 1830 " 1831'.. 8.483,C05 4 193,923 4 8,290,763 1 " 1831 " 1832 .. 7,550.253 3 214,615 5 7,338,295 4 " 1833 " 1811.. 7.538,525 3 10 ? ? " 1833 " 1814 ., 9.051,788 6 295,391 6 8,789.193 5 " 1831 " 1835 .. 8 900.000 ? ? " 1835 " 1836 .. 6,199 871 1 364,812 5 5,135 979 6 " 1836 " 1837 .. 4,737 767 6 360,188 1 4,377.674 5 From 1st July, 1817 to3lttDec. 1838. II mos. 4,258,411 0 18 From 31st Dee., 1838, to 31st Dse. 1839, 12 mos. 6.415,038 0 6 " 1839 " 1840, " 6 726.698 2 6 " 1818 " 1841, ' 6,726.638 2 6 From 31st Dec, 1843, to 31st Dec. 1811... $6,646 418 2 21 381,360 3 2 6,262 057 7 19 It Is worthy of remark that the revenues were steadily Increasing up to the year 1627, when a tariff was established on the prohibitory system,to the utter exclusion of many artieles of importation, such as coane oottons and yarn through the custom house. The three subsequent years, therefore, exhibit a falling off wbioh was rightly attributed in the memoria of 1830 to the extravagant lnorease of the rate of duties. There was some modification of the tariff in 1830, at the urgent solicitation of the manufacturers, who discovered that, like the Roman virgin, they might be crushed under the load of favors heaped upon them. In faet, the contraband was undermining legitimate business, and nothing saved them but participation in Its profits, and vending the foreign articles as their own manufacture. There was no mmerla published for the fiscal year 183'J and '33, but it was understood these revenues amounted to $7,638,525 3 rs. 10gs., "or thereabouts" Mr. Wyllie is my authority, whose information Is generally more accurate than his disposition to gratify his correspondents, by imparting it at the expense to himself of the friendship of Santa Anna and some others, who would suffer by a full statement of the oondition of Mexico. The next year ending in 1834, was one of still larger receipts, but it evinces one of more willingness on the part of the people to purchase, if the duties do not prohibit it, than the actual amount of cash received in the treasury. It was a year of "virtual" payments, in nnnaannanAn fif fha nrrnof nnavitUw e\f mnwarnmanfr /leaffe put into circulation the year previously, during the domestic disturbances of the republic, where revolutions are more oommon than earthquakes. To this cause also can be attributed the absenon of the tables of receipts from the maritime oustom bouses, in the mrmtria for the rear 18.14 and 1836,* a revolution took place and drafts were plenty. The merchants purofaased foreign importations liberally, but paid the duties la depreciated governmental paper. The stock of good*, however, was too large for present demand, and remained undisposed of until the next year, when \he supply from abroad asked for was not so great, nor the government paper so abundant with whioh to pay the duties. The flroal year ending la 1636 shows a falling off in the revenues of three millions. But this was not all; goods were oheap in the market, and the sovereign panaoea, further protection, was again called for, and further protection again given. The diminution of the receipts for the year ending in 1837 exhibits the result of this unwise legislation. The tables containing the custom bouse returns for the subsequent years were not published, but the estimated receipts given above may be relied on. The tariff of 194d ? I mean the Mexican tariff of that year?worked wonders in again deranging the revenues, the commerce of the country, and the profits of manufacturing I regret that I could not find any series of oomplete tables pre. pared since it is in operation. Had it not been for the ' virtual" payments made in the custom house, the receipts would not exhibit a large margin. The revolutions have made paper plenty, and with that almost all the duties have been paid. The sfTeot of the tariff ot 19 Id has been to Injure trade, without benefitting their hot-bed manufactories. The unbleached muslins sold in the United States at 5 cents per yard cannot be procured there under 1ft cents, and calicoes worth 10 cents cost 70 In Mexioo. All valuable articles of less bulk, and which are more tempting for the contraband trsde, oan be purchased at mucn cheaper rates. Silks, satins, cashmere shawls, and the like, can be had at as fair prices as in our own markets. The vasdilating policy of the government in regard to the tariff system. Is one cause among many for the estrangement of the merchants towards their country, and a corresponding admiration and preference for the United States A? attempt has been mude by some .o estimate the probable receipts in the treasury for the future, by taking the average receipts for the past. 1'hat like causes will produce like results, is an undisputed axiom; but it would be unsafe to use It in antioipatiog amounts in Mexican finances. A constantly vibrating system of tariffs, and equally constant alternations of peace and. war, with an inflation and depression of current funds fer the payment of dntirs. and added to all, a blockade of the porte by the Krenoh during one of the years, must surely produce an unnatural state of affairs In the maritime custom house revenues, which are not to be hoped for in the future. It has been calculated that the gross revenues for eleven years ending in U.17, would give a yearly average of $6,619 906, and estimates have been made on tabular statements, to provj that the legitimate amount should be nearly as muoh more if contraband trale were suppressed. Don Antonio Uaray states in his mnnnria of H34, that the maritime duties "maybe pronounced to be not one half ol what they ought legally to produce." Sierra y Rosso, la a note ad led to the m'mnria for 183ft, asserts, that at least one.third i f the goods in value Imported Is contraband, and Don Mora, in 1836, already noticed, estimates that, of the foreign goods, two-thirds have been entered without paying duties. These are all good authorities; but the misfortune is, they widely differ, and that too on tabular statements, which even ministers admit are fallacious. It Is not ?7?injr, iiiuinnci, i>v ?.ri? wucbuoi vumiuuo iu iuc respeotlvs years Id which they wrot?*, or to a series of years prior. If they intend the former, the revenues might be computed toy lei 1 upwards of eighteen millions; If the latter, somewhere about twelve millions. But on tha whole, considering the inaccuracy of revenues received from the caah and ' virtual'' entries, the enormous annual variation in the amounts, and the uncertainty as to the extent of the contraband trade, it will be admitted that an eitimate of Mexican maritime revenue! must be very far from mathematical certainty i have Riven the subject a careful attention; and taking all that I have read, seen and heard into consideration, I am inclined to belirve that, UDder our jurisdiction and revenue lawe, now in force in Metioo, that tne maritime duties may be safely computed at thirteen millions of dollars annually. Don Antonio t ?aray aaeeris that the custom housea, "if properly organised on a prudent oalonlatton, may produoe more than the government (Mexican) requires, taking? Verat'rusat ... .$s 000 000 Tampion and Matamoras ! COO,000 Alvarado, Campeche, fee 1 000 000 The custom-houses on the Tacl&c i imhi oiwi $10 000,000 It teems impossible,lor many reasons, to obtain any dala upon whioh to calculate the value of the imports and exports or Mexico. Time would be misspent in giving insulated statements which cool J only show how little Is known The exports from Vera Crua have been priarl pally gold and silver, jalap, aniseed, sugar, Indigo, cochineal, vanilla, and aartapariUa ; from Tamploo. gold and silver, tarsaparilla, indigo, mutes, goatskins, hides, and dye-drugs ; from Matamoras, wool, some cotton, horns and hides ; and from Tobacco, dye drugs and ooooa, besides soma tobaooo. toffee, cochineal, hides, pepper, vanilla and sarsaparilia. The next source of revenue has heretofore been found in the alctivala. an interior or consumptive duty imposed even on the foreign goods whioh have been nntersd and paid the duties imposed at the maritime custom house. This consumption duty is about Ift per cent on the amount first paid at the port of entry, and is c<d Doted at the custom-houses in ths inland States. If the goods hav e once been opened in one State, and the 14 per cent duty paid, it does not exempt them In the event of their removal to snother from paying over again the r.learala charges. Krea trade seems to be so odious to Mexicans, that it does not exist even between the different States of the republic. Oeaerel heott, in general crdero Jfo S?6, Dee. * Ml- WrlUs usctto thsl iheie wee ao jntntrx* fei this yaai, ni be u MisMMn. There m one sy Den llwwr [ERA 1848. 15, 1847, hu very wisely pat id ?nd to this absurdity, b; directing that" the levying of duties on the transit o animals, goods, or commodities, whether of foreign or dn mestlo growth,(torn one State of this republio to anothei or on entering or leering the gate of any city within th republic, will,from and after the beginning of the ensuln year be prohibited as far as the United States forces ma hare the power to enforce the prohibition." This orde will greatly facilitate the operations of trade, and gir unirersal satisfaction to the merchants. The alcaval was not of mush importance to the general gorernmeni except in the city of Mexloo, but was retained alou with many other ridiculous oustoms derired from ol Spain. The products of the gold and silrer mines afford a ralu able revenue to government, and are the objects a much solicitude. An erroneous impression prevails ii Mexico that the agricultural staples of the country oai never rival in value the richness of the precious metali They are the fruitful source of speculation.and the fruit ful source also of individual disaster. Mining is ther an uncertain business, sometimes leading to sueoess, bu more frequently tempting on to ruin. Fortunes hav been made surpassing in extent our ideas of individus wealth, and the same fortunes sometimes have been los in the delusive search for new mines of the golden ore. The causes whioh have principally retarded the rapii increase of the gold and silver mities, are to be found ii the bad government and equally oppressive and injur! ous laws, the unsettled oonultion of the country, witl the insecurity as well as absence of capital, and, abov all, the high price of quicksilver. The remarks whioh have heretofore made on the insecurity of life, libert; and property, ure peculiarly applicable to the minin districts, where law aud order are very essential to en oourage large investments, and for ample returns. Th uncertainty and expense of explorations and expert ments, aro enough oi risks in such business ; but adde to these, th? unequal taxed on the metals, the danger < robbery when extracted from the ore*, and the abseuc of all legal redreea or military protection, one would ima glne that the temptation should be great to justify an investment of capital. The prefects, or other military commanders, sent t preserve order, and watch over the transit, of the metali are often seoretly engaged in ( hindering the trains upo the roads, and sometimes they materially assist in throe ing confusion into the mines, and bringing ruin on th on pi, by sweeping the laborers iuto the army t serve as " herolo volunteers." This was the case whe Santa Anna marched through the mining district < San Luis I'otosl to give battle to our armyatBuen Vista. The laborers were forced into the ranks agalni their wishes, and thus inoreased the strength of tb army,with a celerity wholly new, and no less astoniehin to us. The annual yield of the mines is regulated, for th moet part, by the price demanded forquioksilver. AVhei this article, bo essential in extracting the pure meta from the dross of the ore, was purohased at (167 thi quintal of 100 pounds Spanish, during the years prior t< ItiOO, the mines were not of muoh value. In 1740 thi quintal was reduced in prloeto $82, and subsequently, ii 177-2, it further declined to $41. From this last men tioned date to 1600 was the period of the greatest suooeei to b? followed to the year 1610 of the highest prosperity After the revolution the value of the mineral produot began to deoline, as the price of quicksilver inoreased being obtained from Spain. The wars ot the Peninsul interfered with working the mines of Almaden, an oontribnted, among other oauses, to enhanoe the value Subsequently the Rothschilds rented these mines fror the Spanish government, and now having the entlr monopoly of quioksilver, refuse to sell under $140 th quintal. In this manner that house regulates the annual quan tity of silver permitted to leave the mines of Mexico The rloheet ores of silver yield only three or four ounoe of pure metal to the 100 pounds, and the quantity o quicksilver lost in many iustanoee was twice the amoun of silver produced. There are eome prospects of suoaes in the two native mines of San Luis Totosi and San Bias Should the eupply from these prove abundant, and a cheaper rates, the quantity of silver will be muoh aug men ted. The annual yield of the gold and silver mines cai never be ascertained with accuracy; in consequence o the amount secretly exported, to avoid the export am transit duties, being unknown, as well as from the quan tity retained in the country without being oolned or pu In circulation. The most autbentio work on the mine and precious metals of Mexico, is that of M. St. Clai Duport, published in Paris, in 1643, and oan be oonsultei by those whe desife a more extensive acquaintance will the subject He eetlmates the quantity of coil made ii 1641 ae follows: ? Silver $13,731,747 Gold 761,048?$13,48-2,801 Aud for the year 1^12 13,'.)7!),7I' The exports of the precious metals, annually, he statei as follows : ? Vera Cruz $:y>()0,00 Tampieo , 0 500,00 Matamoras, 8to 1,000,so The ports on the PaciQo 7,900,00 $18,000,00 I or th**? eighteen millions. on* million is sent to Cbini four million* to the United States aid Continental En rope, and thirteen million* to Kngland. To this can b added what is in deposit and circulation in Mexioc whioh may safely be calculated, along with the Santa W trade, at two millions?thus making In all, $20,000,000 a the annual produot of the mines. The taxes and duties on the gold and silver, are o various kinds, and have so often been changed as to ren der a mistake easily made in stating them. This mucl seems oonceded, that when they were low, they wer< punctually paid, and afforded as large a revenue as whei high, there being in the former case no temptation toi fraud in the returns and exports. Under the tariff o 1827, the export duty on gold coin and gold plate, was percent.; and on that of silver, 3X per cent. The du ties wnresubsequently increased under the tariffs of 1837 of 1841, and of 1H13, and are now on the gold 0 and ?> percent, and on the silver t> and 7 per cent. The transit duty lrom the mines generally chargsi baa been S per cent. These duties (the export am transit) will be slightly modified while in our posseesios as I understand, at Vera Cruz, to 4 p- r cent for transi and i per cent lor export duty. In addition to these, ar those duties at the mines (which are somewhat uncer tain)?the melting, assayiag, and coining, and to tb Minaria, or college of mines. The m*!ting, *?. are don at the mints, which are seven in number, hi the depart ments north and west of the metropolis, with one in th oity. Mix of these are leased to the llritish mining oom panies, but I could not learn what were the rents paii for this important concession. This delegation of on< of the rights of sovereignty ought to be rescinded by us as it involves no violat.on of public law, or prlvats pro perty ; for although in the nature of a contract, it doe not belong to that class whioh is reepsoted by belliger ents. To the Mlneria there is a duty of one real oa s'j mark silver,* which is equivalent to IX per cent 'l'hi seminary ot learniog was instituted for the education o young men, to prepare them tor the oonduoting of min ing operations, and also in other respects to faollltat the working of the mines, and has been eminently use ful. Ths Knglish. however, prefer agents brought frou Great Britain or Germany, where there is another ool lege of the same character. The exportation of gold and silver in bars has beei always prohibited, sxoept at Masatlan and Guaymas, oi the i'aolflo': and at these ports, < n paying 12 per oent oi gold, and 10X on silver. General Soott has prohibit*! all exportation in bars, until farther instructions arc received from Washington. The whole amount of duties and taxes heretofore imposed on the produots of the miues, has been variously estimated, aud many have informed me that these exactions were so enormous and complicated, as to rendei mining unprofitable. They assured me that the chargsi were equ*l to 20 per cent on the gold and silver of the mines. I have seen some authors who assert they ar< more than the one fifth, but their explanations weri more statistical tban satisfactory It must be under stood that the facility with which the preoiou* metal can be concealed, ha* enabled them to be smuggled ou of the country, after evading the Inland duties, and tbu escaping all taxation The mining districts are yet li possession ot ths Mexican army, and General Scott, ii his regulations of taxes, has cut off internal duties o many kinds. I regret, while I oom* to the conclusion, that thi mines canuot. as we are at present situated, produce ui in the way of revenue, one million of dollars. In fac ths whole system of taxation on gold and silver is vi cious. and ought to be obanged. The laws in relation t< the metals ought not to be different from those in relation to the agricultural staples. The exports from the produot* of ths mines In Great Britain are flvo tlmec greater in value than from the miues of Mexico; and II the experience of Kuglend, as well as some common sense, were applied to thi* source ot revenue we would derive annually mors than $3,000 000. A mistaken opinion prevails that the books of the custom houses will show sn exportation of gold and silver to the amount of lo.oooooo annually; and 1 perceive thii data Is taken upon whiob to calculate a revenue for ths future. But I could never discover any official statement, of late years, cf this amount passing through the custom house It Is true General Thompson asserti that official returns, as reinsured at the ouston houses" acknowledge this amount; but with all due deTerence, I am Inclined to believe he mistook a conceded tact of the value of legal and Illegal export*, being $18,000,000 for an official exhibit. If eighteen million* paeeetj through the custom bouses, it would leave no margin foi illegal export*, which all eonoede to have been (i|Ual tc the regular exportation. The tobacco monopoly formerly produced a revenue to government, well worthy of their attention and of oui nerion* consideration The cultivation of thia article of luxury wae prohibited, exoept to a oertain extent. Ir a limited dlslrlot of country, and the Rtate became the purvhaeer and vender of the otop at itea own price Be fore the revolution the monopoly w?i entirely In the hande of government, who paid tor the tobecco In thi leaf, the ealarie* of the clerks, Sid , the carriage of the tobacco, the rente of houiea, material*, Sic , the alcavali for the artiole purchased in Havana and manufactured ror the paper used, eea freight.* from Havana, and the wage* In (ho manufacture*. Sic., tic. The profit*, oi couree, were very large, a* will be ahowa by the f.llow' log tabU But, slier the year 1810, they begau to dr ollne. and are now almost nominal, although there i* nc fea*ou why the government should not realm a* much now from the earns a* at any firmer period. This monopoly, owing to the miserable state of affairs in the republic, had fallen into the hands of Individual* who were in receipt of prlnoely fortunes,which ought to have belonged to government. Oen Thompson remarks, that it was sold to a private company, they agreeing to pay $50 000 per month, but the sale we* rubeequently re cindel. Blnoe then It ha* the second time been dispos Ueaeral Thompeoe, lahis "flecollectiori of Metico,' I'jute inst the rem esufe. which je JJ ?eau upoa every ttT'SSrc iKWW Cfmiil Men MM the dttr *t eae real the mark. 1 LD. MM Vwi OMM, y ed of, but not on bMtffr terras; and Gen. Soott hu agtln if put the monopoly up for the competition of parnhasir* i- But until it Ik conducted on the same principle* end r, economy adopted by the Vloeroye, It will only be n nuie i sance, injarioue to trade end agriculture. It ought g either to be regulated or abolished y The importance of thle monopoly may be understood r by the following table prepared oy order of the Mexican e government, commencing at the 14th February, 1796, a when the monopoly was drat established, to 1810: ? li Yt art. Salt t. Pro ft It. Yeart. Salt t. Profit! g 1765 to D-jlt. Heels. Dolt its. Dolt. Iteels IJols Rs d 1766. . 1 417,816 t ffl,W7 I 1788.. 6 343.18' 5 > t d 210 T 1767.. 1,469,478 5 417,7:12 3 1789.. ti Ml.181 J 3 610 310 4 1768.. 1,532,2915 1117,3816 1793.. 6 235,314 7 3,397,965 6 f 1769.. 1 821,490 2 980,763 7 1791 8.405.6* 6 3 t!6l!7 6 1 1770.. 2,027,958 7 816,1191 5 179?.. 6.785.635 3 3 714 631 7 Q 1771.. 2,501,015 3 886,757 4 17 93.. 6 681,883 6 3,4263)93 0 ? 1772.. 2 859,268 3 959 638 1 1791.. 6 526,351 7 3,108,812 2 I. 1773.. 3 052,154 1 1,218,719 0 1795.. 6 975,163 3 3.935 599 0 1771.. 3,192,111 4 1,741,538 5 179'... 7 336 519 1 3,030.227 4 . 1775.. 3,681,86 1 0 1,229,99 2 5 1797.. 7.663,319 4 3 813,319 7 I 1776.. 3,815.742 7 1,514,791 7 1798.. 8,251.574 3 4.539.791 3 1 1777.. 4,355.307 5 1,913,191 7 1799.% 7,521 621 1 3.396,389 4 * 1778.. 5,091,36 1 4 2,433.151 3 I8i0.. 7,433.159 0 3 112.600 2 '1 1779.. 5440.335 2 2,657 180 6 lBill. . 7,825,911 6 3 993 814 3 t 1780.. 5 668.107 7 2 985,216 5 1802.. 7,686 834 6 4.092,629 4 1781.. 6.079,078 5 2,957,862 3 1803., 7,717,528 6 3,550.614 4 I 1782., 6 389.523 7 3 21:1,929 6 1?J4.. 7.910,719 1 3 781,971 6 , 1783.. 6,631,846 7 3,285 918 6 1865., 8,599 621 7 4,274,344 6 1781.. 6.705 496 0 3.357,841 1 1806 . 9.1:6.392 6 3 861.326 5 1785.. 6.417,558:1 3,286,528 1 1807.. 9,417.204 4 3.120 701 0 1 1786.. 5,824,995 0 3.091,613 5 18 8.. 9/61.468 3 4.447.4*0 e 1787.. 5.957,719 4 2,921.065 0 1809,. 9 550,697 6 3,579,950 8 | y Total in forty-font years 242,561,296 0 117,482,551 0 g The direct taxe#v Including the monopolies or rsirte i- on playing oards, stamped paper, lotteries, &e , are vae tious, and embrace so many objects of a domestic ohai raoter, that their simple enumeration, without stating d the assessment on each, would occupy too muob spa##, if As it is Intended to describe the raveuues of the general e government only, I have omitted some whlob go to ths i- cities and States. These direct taxea are synonimons y with contributions, and havs principally been Impoaed on the people by executive deorees without ths sanotion o of Congress, under the plea of some etate necessity, i, which made it imperative on the government to raise n funds, and 4><iualiy imperative on all classes of cltisens i- to contribute. a lirka. U I. Iknf awaw. nkiaa^ ailaaawtlkla *# 0 taxation imbi to be embraced in aohedolee of the den creed, the amount collected Inust be very large. The >f National Institute of Geography and Statistics, In 1839, a calculated the whole yearly production of the national it industry to be at least 300 millions. In 1817, it wm ese timated at 3-27 millions of dollars. It is within a reag sonabls calculation to assert that two par cent on the larger sum can be collected with oare, common honesty, e and economy, making $8,000 000. a The taxes imposed by General Ssott on the respeeil tire States of the republic, under date of December 31, s 1H47, and amounting to about three and one-fourth > millions of dollars, can very easily be oollect? ed In those States where our arms hare extend> ed. This t"X is a very light one, and will net be considered oppressive. Being left to the Mexi, loan municipal authorities in the respective States to collect the sums demanded, It Is a perfect s godsend to them. These honest gentlemen, even 1, under their own blessed laws, never had such tempa tation for plunder; and in raising the amount ded manded, they will not forgA themselves, as a salvo to t. their wounded patriotism, in thus being made to oolleet n the tribute for "the perfidious Americans." There Is e no responsibility, nor aooountabUity, except as to the e amount in the General's order, all beyond that being dear profit. The munoriat presented from year to year to the Mexican Congress, exhibit the fallowing table of receipts s into the treasury. But It must be borne in mind what f has already boen explained as to the credibility of t Mexican finances. s Yea it. Receipt! in the TVeasury. i. For fiscal year 1834 $9,770 371 3 0 t Kor 8 months 18:1ft 9.710,771 4 ? - From Sept. 1, 1816, to July 1, 1816... .13,848,167 ft 0 , From June 30, 18-17,toJune 30,1818. . .11,640.737 1 10 a " do. 1818, do. 1819. . .11,816.009 3 0 if " do. 1819, do. 1830, , ,11,190,0*10 1 1 1 " do. 1830, do. 1831. . .17 166.881 0 4 " do. 1831, do. 1831. . .16,338,880 ? 1 t " do. 1831, do. 1833. . . ? S " do. 1813, do. 1834. . .19,798,464 3 0 r " do. 1834, do. 1836. . . ? 1 " do. 1836, do. 1836. . .16,478,609 6 ft l Kor fiscal year 1837 18,477,979 0 0 l " " 1838 16,119,697 1 10 " "" 1839 17,618,677 0 3>? " " 1840 19,886,306 3 4 i " " 1844 15,906,348 1 11J{ I In submitting ths above oaloulatlona, statements, and s remarks. I deem it proper to state, In conclusion, that in our possession, Msxioo would produee the following revs1) uues annually 0 From the import duties $13,000,000 0 From the duties, ko , on gold and silver.. 6.00'),000 0 From the tobaoco monopoly 3 000,000 From direct taxation, rentes, fcc 6,000,000 li Lectura on the Mteam Knglne. J* Mr. Copeland, U. S. Engineer, delivered his * second Lecture before alurgeand attentive audi, ence at the N. Y. SocietvTLibrary, last evening. t In my last lecture, said Mr, Cojieland, I explained fully the nature of steam, and itscondenf sation. It was, however, mentioned tome after wards that I had neglected to explain the phe1 nomena of water boilinir at a lower temperature ' than the boiling point, 212 deg. In some matan( ces I believe even as low as 90 deg. In a subseif <|uent part of the evening he took a Mask about i lialf tilled with heated water, but perfectly quiescent, which on the application of snow to the bottom of the llask commenced boiling. The ati mospheric air had been expelled by the steam, , that part of the flask where there was no water, 4 being filled with steam, on the application , of snow it was condensed, and the pressure ol the atmosphere being removed, the water boiled. The most simple application of steam, says the lecturer, is in heated houses, baths, cooking, &c. These are done by pipes, a still or worm, or a double bottom vessel. There arc a great many other purposes to which steam is applied than those I have mentioned. Here he gave an account of the arts in which steam was used, and the manner of the application, such as in the manufacture of paper, glue, &c. I shall now resume the consideration of the principal purpose to which steam is applied, engines. The first kind of boiler I would speak or is the high pressure. Here a tin model was exhibited, showing the form of the boiler, the circular holes through which the ateaiu paseea, and the pipes which brought back the eteam, either over the top or side of the boiler A boiler for cooking was also exhibited, which Mr. C. said was on the same principle aa the locomotives on railways Krom the bridges aud tunnels in railways, the chimney can't be made tall, and consequently some plan has to be adopted for producing a draft '1 his is dene by turning the waste steam into the furnace, which baa that elfeot, aud lathe pulT, puffing which you hear on rallwaya. These are called the plain cylinder floe boiler. In our Western country, where so many accidents take plaoe, and so many steamboats are blown up, these boilers are generally used. The boilers most be filled about two-thirds with water. The negleot of this produces almost ail the accidents which take plaoe. The boiler burst or the tubes collapse, that is. are forced together. ao that nothing oa-.i pass through them Here several small model tin boilers were shown, and their several peculiarities were pointed out In some the steam p issed through the boiler twice, aud in others three tiinea by meaneof tubes When boilers buret it ie the out i-lde which Is rent by too much pressure. Sometimes it rents from use, and In these cases there is no blowing up; the damage is easily repairrd. 1 have known cases where an accldentof that kind was reptfred without the passengers being aware that anything had occurred.There are three classes of steam enginee-the high pressure and noa-oondfusing, the low pressure, aud the high pressure and condensing. The first time we hear of steam being used, was about a century before our 8avlour, by lliero. It wis very simple A ball with one tube attacked to either end, e nd by the resistance of the atmosphere and the escape of steam produced a rotary motion, it wts applied to no practical purpose The vlarquis of Worcester, In Irtb.i, wrote a book on inventions, and he gives diagrams of a steam engine Gut his description is not dear, neither did be attempt to apply it to any ueeful purpose. Another attempt wee made by 8avory in lbt>8 He used it in raising water from mines This is an Improvement on the other Engines now are brought to great perfection. High pressure engine boilers bear from iO to -J?H? lbs , and, sometimes, in our western country, 3d) lbs psr square inch. The most simple engine is the rotary engine, and was the one invented by lliero. Indeed, the only diff-rence from his rotary engine to what we use now, is, that ours is enclosed in a ease; hie being without that. Here the lecturer exhibited models of thee- three kinds of engines, and explained their mechanism, whioh it i* impoeeible m.nn.r Ithnni Iliurinii lie I many people lose a great ouantity of fuel by suffering the heated water to escapo, ana pump into the boilI ere oold water, Perhaps ?ome may say, how oan thle p be? and what loss is there' The loss Is easily seen > from the fact that oold water is only sixty degrees, while heated water Is from 130 (leg to 400 deg. 1 The amount oan be calculated thus suppose the heat P ed to be 300 deg , that is 140 deg higher than oold wa* ter. and suppose the amount required 1 303. If we di> vide this by the I ID ae find that is about on? ?ighth or i what Is necessary In other words, the parly who do?e this, If he use four tons of coal a day, eaves one-half a > ton of coal every day I h* proportion may be lees, but > the priuoiple is the win' I be high pressure steam eo > ginee are also more fitted for steamboats, a? they ate I oot so heavy as the others, so that these boats can sail i with a veiy small dratt of water. In Flngland the weight on low pressure engines is from 7 to 1 lbs but f here troir. 30 to 30 lbs per square inch. Mr. Copelaudcouoluded amid great applause 1 According to the almanac published for the yeer I 34* by tbe Aoademy of fit. Petersburg, Kuropesn Uu*eia comprises a suiface of 90,117 square miles, with a p pulatlon of S3 194,000 souls; the Kingdom of Poland an ntent cf 3 .JJO ii|uare milee, with 4.830,000 iuhabitauts, and ths grand duchy of Kloland, 6,044 square miles, and 1,347.704 Inhabitants. Acoordiug to the last census. St. Petersburg possessed a population of 443,000 In 1046, 1 667 poods of gold (the pood Is 40 lbs ), 1 pood ot pla tlna, and 1,190 poods cf silver were extracted from the mines of the empire The public debt Is estlmeted at 313,084,300 silver roubles t? rouble Is 4fr 44a ) BtPscf credit sre In circulation to ths amount of 336,187 488 i silver roubles,and assigaats of the smpir* to MM st W 138,330 silver roubles I

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