Newspaper of The New York Herald, February 20, 1848, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated February 20, 1848 Page 1
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TH] Whole 5016. 1lor old Koropeo* Correspondence. Italy. Gknoa, Jan. 23, 1848. Excitement in Italy?King of Sardinia Prepared J against Austria teith 100,000 Men and 200 Can- , non?Entry of the Austrians info Modena and \ Parma?The rope?The Herald's Editorials in 1 Europe? Remarks in Vindication of American ( Democracy?Effect of the New York Address and i of the President's Message?Progress of Free i Trade Principles?Opinions on the Fate of Mtx- j ico?Public Spirit in Italy?The Peers of France , going for Italy?An English Squadron on the i Coast of Italy Supporting the Pope?Slaughter J at. Milan by the Austrian Troops?Immense Ex- \ citement it has Caused?All Ooing to Prayers? < IVar Threatening?The Pope's Refusal to let j Troops March through his Territory against the Sicilian Insurgents?Anecdote of the Tri-color \ .cin'l.? Fnnnii Elssltr a Sufferer from 1 ""ft if - - I Hatred ugainst Austria. All Italy is in a state of excitement, and Rome , parts of it are filled with alarm. The march of ; the revolution is still uninterrupted?what the ^ consummation .will be, God only knows. All , the governments are arming themselves, and in i many portions of the Peninsula, there is every Hppearance of war; but it seems highly impro- J bablo that Austria will risk the hazards of general hostilities. Charles Albert, the warrior king of .Sardinia, has quadrupled his army within two j weeks, and he can now file a hundred thousand i soldiers, and some two hundred cannon, along i the frontier of Austria, which would constitute j a serious barrier for the imperial troops. Al- | rowdy, at the request of the dukes of Modena and of Parma, some 3000 Austrian troops have enter- | ed those territories, from which poists they threaten all Italy. The Grand Duke of Florence, , who had no army, has granted a national guard to his people, and in all his acts, for the last six | months, displayed the most fearless and earnest | advocacy of the principles of reform. I It is needless to talk of the Pope. Pio Nono is the most glorious pontiff Rome ever had, and already he sways lrom his pontifical Bee the mightiest influence of any sovereign in Europe. ( lie is a man of our times. He has nothing of | the monastic age about him?bis sympathies are , all with the popular progress. He began this , new movement in Italy, which is silently and j powerfully changing the institutions and society , of ali Europe. Americans can have no adequate conception of this man?they cannot think , of him except as a Pope, and sucn he is not, in | the ordinary acceptation of that word. He is a sovereign of the people, educated as a man, which , no other sovereign in Europe has been. His j heart is with the living age ; his eye is on the , future; his work is but just begun, and yet its beginning has shaken the whole feudal j system on which the society of Europe is still ( based. We are apt to overrate our American influence abroad?it amounts to very little out of , France, for the great reason that we have never , had an organ in Europe for the expression of our , opinions. Frenchmen could not read our lan- , guage, and hence the mass of thatpecple could never be reached by our press. The plan you | have adopted of putting your principal editorials into French, in your steamer Heralds, will do more than the free circulation of a score of American tournals on the continent. I observed that those articles were republished all over Europe, lor French is the universal language? where one reader would be found for an English editorial, ten thousand will be found for one in French. I hope you will press this department of , your paper, and you may be sure that in less than one year, your principal editorials will be republished in an hundred of the continental journals I have been exceedingly interested in tracing the progress of one of those French articles of yours particularly. It was on the general subi ject of the Mexican war, in which the great features of its romantic history, and its stupendous consequences on the civilization and commerce of the old and new worlds, were clearly brought out. The Europeans reprinted the article, and txtraa containing it were sold in the streets of t\ many of the great cities. The Europeans saw at a glance what they would have been long in discovering, viz: that the grand result of all this | conflict would be, that the Anglo Saxons would | find their way to the Pacific, sweeping the half- i barbarous structures of old Spanish superstitions | and feudal institutions away. i Americans who have been abroad have had i abundant occasion to know, that from the very i foundation of our government, the English press | have given the continent all its ideas about America and its institutions. We should long ago have established, in Paris, a great paper, whose object should have been to communicate directly with the mind of Europe, and the advantages of i such a press would have been?1st, That Europe , would nave had the truth, and not a part of it, , and even this small dose so mixed up with false- j hood and prejudice, that no man could form a | co rect conception of us or our history. 2d. The j pure, lofty and sublime principles of republicanism, of which our nation affords the only tolerable sample in the world's history, would have i been brought before the people of Europe, and no I limits could have been fixed to the influence that would thus have been put forth. 3d, The ] progress of a free, intelligent people, in the arts of peace, would have been made apparent, and a j final answer given to the old, but still ever recur- i ring, argument, that democracy means anarchr ; for in Europe this has always been true, for the simple reason that no people in Europe are capable ] of self-government. " It is all a dream," say i even the Latayettes and Pellicoes of the < Continent, " that we can introduce republics? they will not last?the people are not qualified to govern themselves " America might have done I much to render them so, if we could have i brought ourselves, our mind, our history, our 1 institutions, our thoughts and our feelings, in i collision with the mind und heart of Europe.? We have never done this, and we never shall until we can have an organ on the Continent i through which, in the language of the Continent, I we can reach its people. French is this language, t and we must make use of it if we would put forth that influence abroad which our history, our in- | stitutions, our great men, our civilization and our < advancing power give us a title to exact. i The address of the people of New York and 1 the Message of the President, reached hlurope i about he same time. The one was well written, clear, dense, simple, lucid and moderate; a fair I Simple Of the feelinirs nnH th#? tirinrinlpu nl ths i Americans. It was at once translated into every I language on the Continent, and many of its dia- ; lccts. It had a glorious effect. No docu- I ment has come from the other side of the sea, i Bince the times of the Revolution, which has < been read by so many people, or probably put i forth so much power. The Message of the Pre- i sident was quite a different affair. It was so i long it was barely translated into French?hard- i ly another language on the Continent; and wher- i ever it was read, it was regarded as his poorest i Slate paper. Your remarks on the message went i very currently over the Continent,and were con- i sidered very just. i The mere announcement that Mr. Walker's I free trade tnriir hud increased the revenue some ( six millions of dollars, was worth all the mes- I sage. It startled every cabinet in Enrope. Iam i sure that within ten days an hundred articles < have appeared on the Continent on that wonder- i ful fact. Here popular sentiment is drifting ra- i pidly towards freedom of commerce, and the t greatest journals in Kurope are giving us their I warm hearted "t lod-spred" on our road to em- i l ire on the land and on the tea. It is, indeed, a < new and a sublime spectacle to see a great nation, t which has fifty thousand of her sons on the battle t field, with an exhausted treasury, come forward * and proclaim the great principle of policy, that < the only remedy for such a financial exigency is ' a reduction of duties. It is a cheering spectacle t to see us triumph. I The common opinion in Europe is that we shall 1 be obliged to absorb Mexico, and all the States < and territories which lie between us and the shores of the Pacific. However perilous this 1 may seem, we shall be compelled to do it?how- I ever startling it may now be, we shall soon grow | familiar with the idea. Rail ways and telegraphs i arc annihilating distance, and the law of human ] progress, which seems to he carrying society along in America with the same electric swiltness, will probably render the work much easier i than many things we have already achieved. It seems to me to be but an accelerated motion given by political events to the enterprise begun two i centuries ago on the rock of Plymouth and the banks ol the James river 13y removing the 1(1- I dnii tribes beyond the Mississippi, we have only bean staving off an avil that in a few years will I E NE" NEY itare ua in the face. We seemed to think that we had got finally rid of those outraged people Sy sending them away from their homes, into a distant forest?but we have already passed beyond them. In California and Oregon ind from those distant shores, we shall soon be FiresBing up around them on every side. Why ill that enthusiasm about " all of Oregon," in which every body joined, and why all this outcry against the acquisition of a foot of land beyond the Nuecesl Short-sighted politicians, and ugglers of all sorts, in political clubs, mav Ray ind do all they like. The movement which be?an on the shores of the Atlantic, two hundred years ago, has already crossed the Continent, ind any attempt to arrest the tide, will be the rainest of all political dreams. Better for all rational men to join in controlling and guiding the nrnorreaa of a stream which no united nower ;an atop. Such are the views which the leading ournals of Italy, and France, and Germany, have expressed in regard to this matter. In Italy there is now but one feeling, and that is a national spirit. For the first time in manv centuries, the people of this country have united their aympathies and their efforts on one common point?the achievement of the independence of the Peninaula. To this point are directed all the efforts of those three sovereigns who have joined the new free trade league. Pio Nono began thiB movement, and Charles Albert, of Sardinia, and the Grand Duke of Tuscany, and all the population of Italy, and the sympathies of the world, are with him. Austria has been foiled in all her diplomacy thus far, and unless some event transpires which hurls the hopes of Europe to ruin, the power of that infernal government is lost in the Peninsula. She has held it unbroken lor nearly a thousand years. She has made and unmade popes?she has ground the Italian nation into the dnst?she has robbed them of their treasures and their independence?she has sown discord.between their prince and people?she has resisted every reform, and blotted out the light of everything but undying hope itself. Iler long, dark, dreary reign is closing?gradually her hold on Italy is loosening?her nower melting away. She is arm;ng for a conflict she dare not begin, and preparing for a war she knows will prove her ruin. Just at the last moment, the Cnsmberof Peers in France has spoken out for Italy, and the house has listened to many a brilliant eulogium on the Pope. Guizot, who was once the most earnest and powerful advocate of constitutional government in Europe, the warmest friend of the new civilization, the most sloquent writer in Europe against the Jesuits, has been forced to declare that, in the event of an attempt on the part of Austria and the enemies of liberty and progress to stop the Pontiff in his refprms, France would espouse the cause of liberalism, and maintain the peace of Europe. This fact created a great sensation in Italy, nnd it is quite probable that Guizot will be forced to abandon his intrigues with Austria. England, too, has an immense squadron on the coast of Italy, and the admiral (Parker) is now in Rome, assisting at the festivals in honor of the Pontiff and the recent martyrs to liberty in Milan. The entente cordiale, which has within the past year been so apparent between Guizot and Fiqualmonte (the successor of Metternich in the diplomacy of Vienna) has aroused the jealousies of England,, and her fleet is hanging along the shores of Italy, with instructions, it is supposed, to oppose any advance ot the Austrians. Indeed, England would be compelled to interfere in that case, if she would preserve a balance of power on the Continent. The slaughter at Milan has ceased, and a pall of death bangs over the city. Eighty citizens were murdered in cold blood hy the Austrian troops, who followed them into their houses and stabbed them around their own fire-sides. The strongest appeals were made to the Viceroy, and to the Emperor at Vienna, and, for some days, fair words calmed the people. The city is still uuder martial law, and the Emperor has published a jiroc'.amation which leaves things where they stood. There is the peace of the grave ; but the first moment an opportunity offers, there will be another insurrection. Some most biting reproofs have been administered to the tyranny of Austria since that bloody affair. The Milanese set apart a day to say mass for the dead, and the churches were crowded by the population, all dressed in mourning. The venerable parish priest of the Duomo, wno is fc5 vears old, went with his white locks to the palace, and boldly charged the crime upon the Vicerov. "I have lived." savs he. "to see the Austrians, Russians, Prussians, and French enter Milan as conquerors, and at the point of the oayonet?and I have seen much blood (low in all these revolutions ; but I have never seen a day like this. It was a legalized massacre." The most stirring and melting appeals were made to the people; and while they celebrated the solemn mass with which the Catholic church dismisses believers to the future world, many a eccret oath was sworn to revenge their blood. These same solemn ceremonies have been repeated in other parts of Italy?and everywhere with the greatest effect. Theatres are deserted to go and pray lor the martyrs of liberty who fell at Milan. This is one of those ceremonies which cardinals and bishops can order when they please, and it is one of ths most powerful of all means to stir the popular national teelings of Italy ugainst their great enemy. Austria has already marshalled an hundred thousand men in Italy. She is making vast preparations, and. to all appearances, there will be war. Not unlikely this steamer may bring vou the report that war has actually broken out. But 1 can hardly believe that Austria will risk the hazards of battle. She Itnows what sort of a feeling exists among ihe Italians. She has friends in the Dukes of Parma and Modena, and she has occupied those States?in the king of Naples too, and she demanded of the government of the Pope permission to pass through his territory with 30,000 soldiers on the march to the two Sicilies. Some of the Pope's councillors are said to have voted in favor of the proposition?but Pio Nono, firm as he bMalways been, resolutely refused. It was tantamount to asking him to put his head into the [ion's mouth, and it is quite natural he refused to do it. The delegation which went from Genoa two weeks ago, with the mammoth petition, were refused an audience of the king. The minister told them the proceeding was irregular, and the king could not be dictated to by his people. He should do what he Pleased, and do it when he pleased, he. This cold reception and tyrannical reply excited universal indignation throughout the kingdom; not, perhaps, so much the refusal to grant the reforms requested, as the manner in which the refusal was made. lie would not listen to his subjects, to hear what they had to say, and some of these delegates were the proudest nobles of his State. The fact is, he will grant no more reforms than \re necessary to insure him the support of liis people in a trying crisis. He has no idea of divesting himself of his power. I expected by this steamer to tell you that Ferdinand of Naples had reached the end of his rftpe? as the homely saying goes. But he is still alive? tin a tyrant?but in a very icared state. A tew nights ago he was persuaded to go to the theatre; it was his birth-day, when his friends had got up some display in his honor. The play whs interrupted by furious shouts and cries for Pio Nono, and the timid tyrant fled trembling to his palace, ind there fainted away! He lives in a state of iremendous alarm. His Austrian allies cannot mme to him by sea, for an immense English feet darkens the coast by which they must sail; ind all Italy would ru h upon his army if they were to attempt to march down by land. Sicily is in open insurrection, however, and it will be 10 easy matter to bring it back again to subjection. There is a desperate feeling being mani"ested in that kingdom. They cannot hear the ihout of freedom from their brethren in the ither parts of the Peninsula without shaking heir own fetters. In a public square in Sicily he Italian tri-color flag was seen floating >ne morning from a standard planted there luring the night, and It bore these bold words? Woe to him who touches it." One of the gen*Varmtt went up, and as he reached out his hand a rail from some unseen quarter struck his heart He fell; but the flag was left floating; and no ither man dared approactvit. Poor Fanny Elssler has been compelled to leave Milan. She danced to empty boxes, dressed in mourning. The same fate is shared by other jreat artistes in Italy. The p-oplc will not be danced out ot their liberties this time ; the joke lias been repeated so often it has grown stale. Even in Modena, the ladies will not invite the Austrian officers into their boxes, nor to their oirfcj. In fact, there is not, probably, in the world a people that feels, in their very souls, so implacable an animosity against another nation as the Italians do for their Austrian oppressors. Such are some hurried lines 1 have made out for you, in the moment of leaving for Milan, where I have some curiosity to loon on sooitty for myself I knew the eity well? but 1 wieh to W ? O 7 YORK, SUNDAY MORIS be on the ground at this interesting moment, to i judge for myself. You will now hear from me 1 regularly by every Cunard steamer. 1 h*ve no 1 confidence in those French affairs they call I steamers. Rely upon it, all that transpires here, ! you will be duly informed of. I send the files of ] the Italian papers. Yours, truly, and in great 1 haste. 1 I Paris, Jan. 20, 1848. i Tin State of Commercial and Financial Affaire in I Europe?7 he Difficulties in the American ^ Army, fyc. fyc. 1 The Bank of England and the London bank- < ers, create the same difficulties in the commer- j cial affairs of England, as did the United States ( Bank in those of the United States. The bank is a great gambling machine, which controls j both commerce and ministers in England; and ( the great bankera of Europe co-operate with it 1 to produce distress in the commercial commu- | nity; because, from such a condition of things, they experience immense profits. A crisis has passed, in technical language?that is, the bank has penapfl to ortish the hnsi.ipaa onmnminitv for the present, and those persons only now fail who have been so injured by its past operations, 1 as to be unable to recover from the shock. This combination of stockjobbers ure now turning their attention to the United States; importing specie from that country as fast as possible, to affect the pecuniary condition of our banks and merchants, and, consequently, the price of produce and exports. They are preparing the way to buy, and to import from the United States; and, by restoring the credit of European merchants, and, again, apparent European prosperity, to sell again at immense profits in these countries. It is to be regretted that the power of this moneyedEnglish monster is not limited to England, which gave it existence, and continues its being, and that the merchants, and banks, and people of our own country, are more or less affected by its gambling aperations. England, and other parts of Europe, need our produce, and must pay for it, if our people are able to hold on upon their stocks until the point of necessity arrives. England paid last year one hundred and sixty-five millions of dollars for breadstuffs imported, and, notwithstanding the crops of last year, a very considerable part of her own population, as well as the masses in Ireland, are suffering from want of food. Import, she must, or her population will starve to an extent that may caBt a shade upon her humanity, and endanger the existence of social order among her own population. Any one can see, at a glance, that ths United States can raiss and export their produce to England cheaper than it can be procured by England from her own people; ana that, for the future, , the grain of the United States will find a market in England; and that there can, hereafter, exist only temporary interruptions to our trade in American produce, at remunerating prices. How far the people of the United States will be made to suffer from the present operations of the Bank ot England, and its allies of stockjobbers, remains to be determined; and the coining crisis will tend to develope, in some measure, the comparative commercial strength of the two countries. The recent large failures at Vienna have created some auxiety in Paris and London; but it is to be hoped, that the effects of them will be less extensively felt thau waa at first anticipated. There have been alao some heavy failures in India; and, among the rest, the Union Bank, which have fallen heavily upon man/ English families, and deprived others of their all. In Europe, people suddenly deprived of their property, have not the recuperative power which exists in the United States; they sink under the stroke, and seemto feel that there is, for them, no hope for the future, and that they muBt immediately take and occupy a lower place in society than their former one, and resign themselves to the evils which are so severely felt by the European poor; m uy uiusc vTAtii vciy iniiucu uicauo. iicir, inert. more pcopK: thau means; wrth lis, more means than people; and a man of energy, struck down one day, in the United States, rises up the next in some new business or position, and the past is forgotten. The recent notice which has reached Europe, of the difficulties between our gallant officers of the army, has created a feeling of profound regret and Borrow among the friends to our country, and all deplore an event which may tend to affect injuriously the reputation of the army, and diminish the admiration which all feel for their gallantry, and unexampled achievements. All the papers unfriendly to our country, copy the letters and proceedings, and give them the greatest publicity in Europe ; while the pages ot history, in which are written their mighty deeds, ana heroic achievements, are not referred to, and all disposed of with the least possible notoriety. IIow sensitively an American feels for the honor ot his country, and his country's glorious defenders, when residing abroad, and especially among the European nations. Our country is a republic?our enemies stand ready to revile us ; and the friends of our institutions moan over any event which tends to bring discredit upon a government or people, whose example has reflected so much light upon Europe, and tended so effectually to modify the worst features in the most absolute governments in these countries. The diplomatic controversy between the English and French cabinets, is pretty severe, over the affairs of Greece ; and the English charge the French minister with being the author of the despatch to which Lord Palmerston made so caustic a reply. Observer. Aflfclrs In Mexico, dtc. California, August, 1847 Affairs in California?Salt of Real Estate. It matters not to you from what town in California I write, nor the day of the month?any month or from any town in the "farthest west," I hope will please you, and perhaps your readers. The first and last rise of the Californians in September, 1840, was put down and ended in January of this year by Commodore Stockton? the revolt cost the natives and Americans the lives of some fifty men. Capt. Jose Maria Flores, dabbed Gen. Flores, in his own des, atches, which made a flare up in the city of palaces and poverty, informed the Mexican government that sueh Americans in California as had not been killed, were being driven into the "Mar Pacifica." (fen. Flores, therefore, triumphed in Mexico as the third "Napoleon,"? the second of that name of the west; Santa Anna par excellence, being the first on the tongues of Ins countrymen, it would ba too much to say in their eyes or thoughts. Flores wus enabled to carry on tne revolt against Com. Stockton by purchasing from the Spanish vice consul of California, una an English merchant in the Pueblo de los Angeles, some $30,000 worth of goods at retail prices, paying with his draft on the supreme government of Mexico for $00,000; with these goods he opened a store, sold goods to the inhabitants. and paid his men in dry goods When they would not take fair words, some agreed to take the latter, if he would give an equivalent in broad cloth-noeo de un, y poco de el otro. You may ask haa not the Spanish consul in California any other business here, than to assist the Californians in rising against the United States 1 We may hope he hacf. Commodore Stockton nnid nn nttpntinn tn him nr ittiv nthrr ncrsnn r assisting the natives against his forees ; he was well aware they would find it a losing game, and knew their empty pockets would curb them the second time. Most of the foreigners, old residents, and new comers, are driving a flourishing business in this territory ; even many of the Californians are exerting themselves to meet the coming and sure effects ; but some very carelul ones among the foreigners yet hoard up the gold ounces, and deny they have (habit is strong unon them) waited for peace, and to be sure that Uncle Sam has California, before they invest in ranchos or town lots and buildings; others have taken from the alcalde town lots of 50 varas square, (one hundred and fifty feet) at $15 ; (the deed being void if there is no nouse on it within twelve months,) and within the year sold them for $200 or $300. Lots in San Francisco of 50 varas, granted by the alcalde in 1844,for$15, are now worth $100, the building, to save the lot, being worth $50 or 100 ; water lots, of 50 varas, that could have been obtained of the governor of California up to July '46, by asking for it and paying $2 or $8 for the stamp paper, sold in July, of tbi* year, lor $1200. at uuoiio i. The alcalde ol ban Francisco, on tna bay of ban Fraueteco, by public sals, last July, sold 100 water lets, each UK II IING, FEBRUARY 20, 18 15 feet by 138, from $50 to $500; a few sold less, some even higher Lots near the beach in Monerey, worth, the day before Commodore Sloat noisted our 11 ig iu that town, #'500, have since neen quartered, and the quarter sold at that price, d.anchos worth in June, 1816, #300 a league of nine mile?, in June, 1817, sold at that sum the

single mile. You may suppose, in this case, for those who are to come, there will neither be cheap farms nor town lots. Such is not the case, places that are now too far off to think of, will, when the all-powerful steamer Bpouts in California, be nigher a market than some farmers now are, who send their heavy clumsy carts only ten or fifteen leagues to town. Places (hat are now one thousand or two thousand dollars a league, that at present no one dreamsof,will ere long, be laid off in towns, selling their 50 varaOhouse lots at #100 to $1,000 each. The Straits of Carquines (30 miles from the entrance to San Francisco) has a place laid off for a town called Benicia, being the name of the former owner. This town nas five miles on the bay? building lots of a large size now sell at $'25. This may produce a city, und the owners of the land, which two years ago was of no value, may realise thousand of dollars. In this manner will speculation spring up every yearn giving to each succeeding emigration opportunities of profitable investment, and improving themselves ; but few think or care what Mexico may have to do with California hereafter, should our country by some unaccountable event give it up to Mexico. Still, it will belong to Yankees, if not to Yankee government; all the principal natives of Monterey, the capital of California, have their children at English schools. Alcalde Colton, formerly chap lain oi the United States lrigate Congress, will immortalize himself in Monterey, by the extensive buildings he is putting up for schools and other public purposes; his school house is not only large in size, but a model for the people to build by. Native alcaldes, of former years, could never more than pay their secretaries; and retiring from office often showed u balance coming to themselves; yet it was not an uncommon affair lor them to have a larger dwelling house of their own in December than they had in .Tsuiuary. PaiiaSO.], Dec. 27, 1847. Hunting up a Fight.?Suitor Battle on Shore, fyc. The times are exciting here, and although we are mw at Mazatlan, and have for our protection the frigates Congress and Independence, and are consequently safe, yet but a little back of the town all are enemies, and all are hostile. This tends to depress business, as the town and the country are no way connected. Lieut. Montgomery Lewis took a party of sailors asd went out a few nights since, but a little distnfee, and surprised and routed one hundred and ffjty Mexicans, killing eight, among them a colons 1. I saw a gentleman, to-day, who said thatscaptain of cavalry had sent by him to ask Lietlf Lewis if he would not be kind enough to return him an order of three hundred dollars fromhis coat pocket, which he (Lewis) had taken in the affray. Lieut. Lewis said, in my presence, to the gentleman, "most certainly, and his coat also, as 1 only took it to protect me from the oeld." The truth was, Lewis charged in a dark night upon them, and those that were not killed (led, leaving every thing, and, as he said, he put this coat cn to protect him from the old, and in it, after arriving at Mazatlan, found the paper sent tor. This was all done between sunset and sunrise, and by this you see those who wish a fight have not * great distance to ride to hunt one up. Indeed, the enemy have been in sight of the town, but such attacks have caused them to retreat a little. California is quiet about San Francisco, but they anticipate trouble at the "City of the Angels," and Lower California is in a state of insurrection at this time. They have had more I fighting within a month at St. Joseph's and La Paz, in Lower California, than all the others sigce the war commenced; and yet the Galifornians keep the field in large numbers. Tlve tn'iff gives great dissatisfaction, and will cau?e the loss ot the Calitornias to the United Slates unless repealed, as thev are unlike Mex ico, and have all surrendered, and should be protected and not oppressed. But the rulers will never learn until too late, 1 fear. The sloop-of-war Portsmouth sailed on or about Dec. 20, for the United States, and will be home probably in April or May. R. G. opinions of our officers in mexico, relative to the war. [From the Washington Union ] In addition to the indignant letters whioh we have published from our gallant army in Mexico, we are Informed by an accomplished offloer that the Aztec Club, in the city of Mexico, consisting of near ISO of our best officers, have discussed the proper mode of prosecuting the war to an honorable termination ; and they go almost unanimously for the most vigorous measures. In fact, he remarked that when he arrived at New Orleans, and read the President's message, be was vary much struck with the strong coincidence whioh presented itself between their own views and those of the President. It almost appeared as if the President had been listening to their oounoils, and oarryiDg out their own deliberate and deoided suggestions. Extract of a letter to a member of Congress, dated ''Jalapa, Mexico, January 13,1848 ?The Colonel (who Is in the oity of Mexioo) says that the move against 8an Luis has been postponed, and that the talk is of peace.? Mr. Clay's letter and the message have b-en received,? The latter is universally approved, and the former as universally oondemned, by all parties." army intkllioenck. The sohooner Captain Page, Horner, and schooner f.oma Norton, Capt. Webster, for the Brasos; bark Touro, Capt. Welsh, for Tamplco, and ship Amerioan, ' apt. Stuart, for Vera Crux, left last evening, with tome government stores. General Towson, Colonels Wilson, Belknap, Bohlen, and Major Dashlel, went as passengers to VeraCruz. in the ship Amerl an The United States steam bark K.dith, will leave this morning for Vera Cruz Lieutenant Colonel Stantford leave* to-day, for Vera Cruz, in the Edith. It is probable that the Colonel will bake command of the next train to the city of Mexioo If he does, the guerillas will have to look sharp, as Col. 3tanitord will be down upon them in the same smashing ityle in whieh, at the head of the gallant 6th Infantry, he met the oharge of their famous lancers at Palo dlto.?2V.u> Orltam Delia, Feb. 10. Appointments uy the Governor and Senate, Feb. 18 ?New York? Elbert Latham and David Bruoe to be port wardens. Klchard Scott, notary public, nlueens?James Hernman,' of Jamaica, and Benjamin Kushmore, of Hempstead, to be commtsxloners for loanng oertain moneys of the U. 8. vice Jar vis Jackon and Peter Lystor. Alexander Hodden, of Hempstead, to be k notary publio, vioe O. S. Denton. Gilbert Sayre, of lamalca. and Charles F. Stewart, of Oyster Bay, notaries >ubllo. Kings?John B. Taylor and Peter Shapter, jr , >f WUllamsburgh, to be notaries public, vice James H. 'aterson end Peter V. Kemsen Daniel T. Walden, jr., iam'l Goodwin, RleharJ J. Wood, David Dean, and Jenjemln D Slliiman, of Brooklyn, to be notaries publio, 'ice David Trembly, John L. Cowenhoven, It >bert T. Cerrine, Alexander Campbell, and Benjamin D. Sill I man Miscellaneous. A horM belonging to * Mr. Whit*,of Baltimore,mule k l*np *t Cherlestown, V*., * few days since, whtoh 1* iiom kin to th* f*moui l**p made by Putnam'* horM, in 'evolutionary time* Running eff from fright, he enlountered a mill raoe 19 feet in depth, whioh he at .empted to leap 10 feet from lie edge, but etrlklng th* >ppo*!te bank with hie head, dialooated hi* neck, fell >ack, and expired. The dlatanoe he jumped la Raid to > twenty-Ore feet ? Baltimore Sun, Feb. 14. A girl named Eliza Durant, about 90 year* of age, irlng in the family of John Goodrich, in Springfield, dees., committed auiclde on Thuraday by taking poiaon. '"rom her recent behar lonr. It la anppoaed ahe waa Inane. Ship building ia aald to be progressing steadily In iFeetJeney. A large schooner is to be launched near iridgeton on Thuraday. At Salem, Mas* on the night of Monday, 7th Instant, . man named James Curren, an Irishman, said to be if atMdy and industrious habits, was called up from his >ed by two men, whs knocked and Inquired for him ? ie went to th* door In his night dress, and has not inoe been heard of. Ilia olothes still remain at the tonae. Koul play la suapeoted, and legal investigations tie being mad*. The Richmond fFAi* has heard nothing of the duel aid to have taken plaoe at Karmvllle, Va , and think* here is some mistake about the matter. Gen. Brooke, who officiated as president of the Krenont court martial, Major Eaton, aid to Gen. Taylor, >nd Col. Joseph P. Taylor, a brother of the general, arived in Cincinnati, from Washington, on the 10th Inst dajor Katon proceeded south; Gen. B and Col. T. renamed at Clnolnnati. Major General Quitman returned to Philadelphia on donday. The sm>ll pox has disappeared from Rochester. The following statistics appear in the ?<Ae de Vet??t. t appears from a work recently published In France, hat there are at preMnt la that country *0,008,000 kens, luppoelng eaeh of these to lay 190 eggs per annum, there rould be a total of ,*11,690,000 eggs, which at 40 o*nimes (4d.) per doaen, would prodaoe an annual revenue if 190,440 000 francs. This sum gives an idea of the enoruous gain to be got by France out of this single article , vers It* working properly understood. If, which is not mposslhle, Franoe were to add to the population of Its irmysri* a hundred millions of h'ns 18 M*) .715 900 of | ggs would b* laid, ahioh would prcuu * reveaus cf even bandied and slaty miUioal eigb.y thousand j mass I I [ E it A ] 48. Washinoton, Feb. 12, 1848. n A lirief Review of the IVar Debate in the Senate, j' and of the Debaters. , t It is said that in the States bordering on the Gulf of Mexico, a plant peculiar to the o marshes in that region, which absorbs for its support the mephitic gases that rise with the 0 nightly exhalations over all the lowlands,?thus p arresting to some extent the fatality of the sickly |i season. Our armies in Mexico, in the midst of R a state ol war, seem to act on the converse of si this principle, for in the heart of a region moat M sickly in its moral atmosphere, instead of absorbing the contagion, they diffuse around them a b heathful oxygen, marked and immediate in its benign intluences, and for which the lepei-os of p the National Plaza are utterly at a loss to account. | j8 It ia gratifying to know that the horrors of war C are thus converted by the contact of a superior people into the agency of the amelioration of an h inferior, oppressed, and misgoverned race. It is pi very agreeable to have the evidences that have e: been all'orded 119 since the occupation of the city of Mexico by the invincible Macedonians of Gen. Scott, that an invasion of freeman is an invasion 1' of freedom itself, and though a nation maybe * extinguished, an oppressed people will be disen- v thralled. The only danger is, that in giving too enlarged an interpretation to the divinity of the U enterprise, we may carry it into an assumption ^ of rights which belong to others,?into disputes n] upon the booty acquired, and the costs of its nc- _ quisition, into quarrels of sectional jurisdiction, p( and into a severance of the federal organization. _ j'l The question of the further prosecution of this |-? first Punic war in which we find ourselves in- t| volved, embraces all these momentous considerations. The ten regiment bill in the Senate, which has 0, been some two months before that body, liaseli- ? cited the most ample discussion uuon the origin, vj causes, and resultB of the war, ana also upon the ar probable consequences to us, if we should push it to the extreme of absorption, annexation, oc- J., cupation and association with the existing sovereignties of the Union. . ti We purpose rapidly to follow this discussion ,, througn down to the adjournment of yesterday, ?| with a passing observation or two upon the seve- tj ral speakers. _ j. Mr. Cass, as the head of the military committee, introduced the bill, and urged the reconimendations of the President's message for the |( vigorous prosecution of the war. lie undertook this duty of pressing the bill upon the Senate a| with singular confidence, and enthusiasm.? . There was a little pride, too, betrayed in the evi- ,, dent delight with which he assumed the exercises . of his important position. We was surrounded , with the glory of the American arms?he was ' transported with tlie plaudits of the American people?he hud heard of the cry of annexation? , he was bold to give it an echo in the Senate?he , dreaded not the result, it would not kill us ? Give us the regiments, let us prosecute the war ?if it leads to annexation, so be it, I am ready, , I defy you to the tournament ! It wbs precisely the way in which he opened upon the Oregon a question in 1845. Where he found himself, we leave it to Col. Benton to tell, as hemay yet, per- Jv haps, tell us, on this very question. The impres- ? sion Irorn Mr. Cass's first speech, and its accompanying explanations, was that he had received a hiscue?thut lie must "hurry up those cakes," and look lor his quid, pro quo at the Baltimore 'J Convention. It would appear that the administration had arrived at the same conclusion, and ' that the chairman on military affairs was travel- (), ling out of the record, and must be taken in a ' button or two; which having been done, ns the sequel will show,the Senator from Michigan be- , came correspondingly tractable and reasonable, , and patient of delay. Mr. Cass, in appearance, is heavy and obtuse, u suporihc and phlegmatic. In debate, he is quick, j* pointed, diffuse, a little too frank, and, withal, . so rapid in his manner, as to be constantly run- 1 ning himself out of breath, being frequently v' compelled to pause in the midst o?a sentence ? for an inhalation upon his exhausted lungs, lie is always listened to with attention, however. a, and seldom without instruction. ,tf Mr. Calhoun's speech (upon his resolutions) *1< which we had the pleasure of communicating , to the Herald, in advance of all competitors, ex- 10 plains his policy and his position, his fears of ^ approaching dangers,and the reasons upon which they are founded, lie is a man who m cc " Fears nothing mortal, bu'. t? be uojust; ? Who Is not blown up with the flattering puffs ' Or spongy ijoophanU: who stands unmered, jv Despite the jostling of opinion.'' tn His policy is the policy of Gen. Taylor, as de- ^ fined in the letter to Gen. Gaines ; for the pub- yj lication of which Old Buena Vista was so se- ,,c verely reprimanded by the Secretary of War, and which reprimand brought down upon Mr. ot Marcy, not a " hasty plate of soup," hut the old ,,0 dish of the " wolf and the lamb," done up in (jp cayenne pepper. But as principles, apart from |;r the " spoils," are unavailable capital in the political market, Mr. Calhoun finds himself in the ' Senate, standing almost as " solitary" as Old Bullion, when he set the expunging ball in mo- 0f tion. And yet his position and his speech have not been lost even upon the Senate, where every j8 man's mind is understood to be made up in ad- jjj vance, and where speeches, as a rule, are made not for'the conviction of the unconvinced, but st for home consumption, and for the latitude of w the Aroostook OT the Toinbigbee, as the case may he. But, although Mr. Cajhoun has hut ja two or three disciple?, h;s opinions upon this pd question, as upon the Oregon question, are |1( gathering strength and reflection* as the furor ol c| enthusiasm subsides into dispassionate reason- t|, Mr. Crittenden wields the spear of Ithuriel. )r Whatever he touches, however plausible its dig- 3 guises, assumes its proper identity, and comes out with an explanation. If not satisfactory, he w touches his victim again and again, till tortured L[, into a full confession. Mr. Cass has had some- us thing of this experience; but his lrankness in the outset, in telling all that he knew, has saved p|, him the dangers of the searching cross-examinations to which he has been subjected. Mr. j,| Crittenden denies the necessity of the hill. NV Mr. Mangum, bold and emphatic, strong, fresh, rj( and sonorous as a summer wind in a mountain U9 gorge, takes the same position ; but that which iia Crittenden extorts by his searching ingenuity, Mangum demands from the tenure ot his position m and the rights of his place. iin Mr. Clayton holds the same views. The troops lf, are not wanted. The war should be stopped. As a speaker, the man, the manner, and the matter of Mr. Clayton nre unwieldy and heavy. His m( style is monotonous, though compact and nrgu- V1( tncntuli v#? ?h i a i nH i cm a t i on in Without wrath. and his humor without brilliancy. ,,r, Mr. Badger takes the broadest whig view of en the case. He collates, he dilates, he collects W] and compares. Though not so pungent, his sa- |,r tire is scarcely less keen than that ot Crittenden ?though not so emphatic, his denunciations are scarcely less bold than those of Mangum ; though CH not so diffuse, his style of analysis is even more t|, forcible than that of Clayton. Mr. Ilevcrdy Johnson has been remarkably unfortunate in this discussion, in taking both sides w| of the question ; and yet no man in the Senate w| could have made out a better case in a legal ar- w gnment than did Mr. Johnson :a his special pleading upon the causes of the war. fie de- w nounccs Mexico he denounces the President? an he proclaims the war a righteous war?he de- w clares it unconstitutional?he would not have any indemnity?he desires peace ; arid yet, with th a view to the vigorous prosecution of the war, he will vote the supplies. Mr Pcarce has an open field The whigs of fer Maryland are indignant at the Janus-faced case n* of their Senator, Ajax, in the Senate. Mr. ./ > Pearcc. thus far, has been content to stand off in g*< the shade ; but here is a legitimate occasion for a trial. He comes up to the work. He demolishei the structure of his colleague, and lays the rums around him right and left. It will do. He goes the whole whig figure. 1 he Annapolis delegates forthwith reappoint him. They va- or lue that speech as equivalent to a six years' vo' term in the Senate. . Mr. Hale, who was among the first in the de- the bate, was the most fearless and sweeping o.' all, in his allegations and condemnations of tho tne President and of the war. He is u forcible and animated speaker, aud his wit is pointed and acute. He believes the war originated in the llt1 annexation of Texas?that that originated in { slavery?that the present war will end in ensUv. nig Mexi.o, ifcoatinusd?and that the win, be' ? , lug unjust, he would call home tho army by the r-v shortest route, aad the ahaapeat road, and will p*i V V wrnummm-y*m * *^'1 J5? LB. I - MM *? Ottu, I ot vote them a dollar for any other purpose. la H us view ot the subject, we doubt whether Mr. H late can be elected to the presidency short of H te abolition of slavery in South Carolina^ H Mr. Foote, of Mississippi, is a propagandist? H ne of the progressives. I ("advocates the ab irptiou or deglutition of Mexico gradually, not H II at a mouthful, lie is a reader of the poets, H t the historians, modern and ancient; of the H hilosophers?from Diogones, up and down; of H ie sages, statesmen and politicians of the world. H If the classics, he reads t'ic-ro in the original, nd Demosthenes front the Creek. He is a H cholar, a lover o( hooks and of authors, and H 'e therefore like him. We think such men are H 'ortli having Hut his speech was so full of H [orace and Demosthenes, of Cicero and H tnni- H al, and Allison, and Hymn, and (roldsmith, H _ a a 1. _ a i i r ?i. ? a ^ . i i.. _ i_ i 1 Hi iii~ mrruu oi iiir narrative wa? unuiy ou? :ured in its meretricious ornaments. Rut Mr. oote is also a champion where a point of honor i involved. He therefore demanded of Mr. layton what he meant by charging that this war ir indemnity was highway robbery in its tnoility. Mr. Clayton explained, because if he ad not, he would have been called to a strict trsonal responsibility; and we rather think the xtreme to which the allegations of robbery and racy were tending, required an estoppel like lat applied by Mr. Foote. We dismiss the ?nior Senator from Mississippi, with these nes from Horace :? Pallid* mors mquo pultst pede lupsritm tab*rn?i, r*gumqa? turr**, O beste Lsxti. tiro gumma brevls, ipem nos vat*t in ohosrs longaa." Mr. Dix is one of the best Speakers in the oited States?one of the clearest and most idactic of orators. IDs voice, his action, his hole system of thought and of speech are harlonious and melodious. He advocated the war -the supplies?and the holding of our present isitions, with power for sorties when necesiry, as the readiest way to an honorable pe -ce. le judiciously waived the Wilmot proviso, thus ir proving his desire for a reconciliation with le Barn-Burners and the Old Hankers. _ ' Mr. Dickinson, like Mr. Calhoun, not having ?ope enough on the war bill, spoke upon his wn resolutions, favoring the project of indefi- , ite annexation, and throwing the Wilmot pro- V' so into the hands of the people who may be ab- I >rbed. Mr. Dickinson is a great reader of the % lets, and hence that which appears to the calcutingmind of Mr. Calhoun as the box of Pan rira, without u drop of hope at the botim, is to Mr. Dickinson the sheep of the olden fl-ece, the gardens of Ilesperides, and ic divine ^promise, in course, of providenlal fulfilment. There may he some gammon i this magnificent enthusiasm; there may be 1 ame political scheme, working to the ostracism I f all the Van Burens in this matter; but we I :ave it all for the future for its solution. As a pcaker, Mr. Dickinson uppeara to feel his way, nd even then to deliver his thoughts before they re fully fledged. His prime fault is his poetry. [e dresses up every thing in similes and hyperoles, and, notwithstanding his sound judgment, e is us fond of the "airs of the sweet Bouth," nd the "howling tempest on the briny deep," a a young freshman 111 his first annual recitaon. But where a man's heurt is full of poe y there is always something genial and congei&l at the bottom. Mr. Butler sides with Mr. Calhoun, or goes " | ir a peace commission. He has a strange air bout him, a sort of absent-mindedness in his if he were not thinking of the ob;ct upon which he is speaking. Yet he is a Hind reasoner, a high-minded statesman, and ver ready at such repartee as would have been ccounted legitimate by Sir Richard Steele. Mr. Douglass, the "little giant," of Illinois, is ne ot the most promising men of the dav, and a I lose and methodical orator, blending the anima- * on of youth with the still increasing discretion I I maturity. Of course he goes for the bill, and I ne time, and the administration, and for the ' Giole of Mexico in preference to none. Mr. Jefferson Davis has made several incilental speeches in the discussion, rather cxplanaory of military science than ot anything else: nd in this view indicating the well-eaucatea cliolar of West Point. He goes lor a military ine on the frontiers of the table lands; but for nterior operations or positions, in combination nth the salient line of occupation, as the means f reducing the enemy to peace. Mr. Miller goes for withdrawing the army to defined boundary; believes it just to denounce le administration, and right and proper to upold the integrity of the whig party. Mr. Downs speaks as il*mlet.reud to old Ponius: " words," "words," "words." He >es forthe administration the whole length.? re hope, however, that Mr Soule, (a Frenchan) his colleague, will be permitted, when he unes to the Senate, to express his sentiments >on this foreign war, if he should desire to do >, notwithstanding Mr. Downs is so indignant at Albert Gallatin, an alien, should presume to eak so loud lo the American people, without ying " by your leave;" though to tell the truth, r. Gallatin has scarcely advanced the object ot ace in his animadversions upon the war. Mr. Bell has made the most striking speech ol the session, eliciting all the information that mid be had in regard to the objects of " inmnity and security," and getting a frank aclowledgment from Mr. Cass, Mr. Sevier, and r. Jefferson Davis, severally, that they are opsed to the annexation of Mexico. Mr. Sevier has given a more lucid exposition the official state of the case than any other :nator, aud while he repudiates annexation, ha ready to meet the issue, if it is forced upon im. Mr. Phelps has presented the case in its most riklng financial aspects, showing, that if the ar is continued, it must end in a general revulon of trade, currency and commerce. There no fustion about Phelps ; lie is a mayer-ofct Yankee, and argues the subject upon busi*ss estimates ; glory und laurels and all that ass of materials, being with lum mere tinsel at does not pay the cost of its acquisition. Mr. Hunter is a.deepthinker upon elementary inciples of government, or abstractions, if you ease, those things upon which all governments pend, and out of which they nil originate. He ill vote the supplies, though lie recommends e defensive line, and agrees with Mr. Calhoun to the hazards of annexation. Mr. Underwood strongly recommended the an ot Mr. Clay. There is nothing very remarkile in the elocution of this gentleman ; nothing marked deficiency, or marked superiority; but hile there is nothing in it to charm the galleu il,?,u urn nn p y r ru n poii a rl.msirvil HiffrPHrtinns i with Mr. f-'oote, and ilo superfluity of" poetry i with Mr. Dickinson. Mr. Clarke la another of your New England en who deal in substantials. The war is coatly id ruinous, and it ought to be stopped. This enough for him in tins case, at all events. Mr. Niles is one of the most independent minerals that we know of. His aentimts, though somewhat peculiar, were the sws of a strong and active judgment, and were pressed in a bold and masterly manner, lie oposes another effort at negotiation, and to loree its acceptance upon the Mexicans hr ill vote the troops, but if the experiment fails, would fall back upon the defensive line. Mr. Turney, we think, has clearly established e lact, that the annexation of Texas was the use of the present war with Mexico, and tha' at act having been accomplished and brought out in too much of a hurry by John Tyler, and r. Tyler having been placed in power by the hi gs, the whigs are responsible for 'lie war hile President Polk, as ihe conductor of th* ar, is entitled to the credit ofits achievements # Here we stop. Some ten or lilieen senators ill yet, wc suppose, speak upon lite bill, and nong the number we expect Mr. Sturgeon ill deliver his views. The following will be e probable vote upon the ten regiments, after e debate is reeled off. A TBI?Allan, AsbUy, Ath?rto?, A'.chtsoo, Bagby, a ton, Bradbury. Bress*. Bright, Cameron, Caai, Jrl son Davis, bis, bougies#, Downs, Keloh, boots, Han gin, Houston. Hunter, llrverdy, Uttiry ftntan, Lewis. Mason, Moor, Nitos, Husk, 8evi"r,Bluron, Turney, Wsstoott?3 J Vat? ? B?uc?r, Baldwin. Bell, Berrien, Puil.r. C?i ja,Clark, Clayton, I'orwin, CruUuden, John Dans, yton. Greene. Hal", Manguui, Millar, Fsaroe, Fndps, ruanoe, I. nderwooil, Upham, Wabster, Kulrs ?J3. Two whigs in the affirmative, and three demons in the negative, marked by italict. This te assumes that there will be a full Senate. Jpon the whole, but little hao been gained by i discussion thus tar, except delay, and that y yet save a large expenditure, it the ?itf?s ot i peace with Mexico mean iyiy thing. To all ;eptions to this husty recapitulation of the de;e and the debaters, we submit the saving quacation ot Itesp clluhy, Tuk Doc ma. I delegation ol Tooawanda Indians are at WashlngI, ueyfine t*i"lr :'i!ro in relation te an apillesMn ? pen ' . ' t?w Ur.l ed Stairs, to ?rse ami nibduy ln? ireaiy by %hicn tn? Ogden o<.m ?y elaim?d lo have patcbased tae 1 vn* wand* Ian? ? J

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