Newspaper of The New York Herald, February 25, 1848, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated February 25, 1848 Page 2
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f ~ m.w. N ' W YORK HEUALl). | !fi)rtfa-?P?t Corirr of Folion and Nassau sis. , JA?TES GORDON BENtfETT, PllOPRDSTOR. \ fiju. y &KiuiLi>-ZittT, ?? ptr c?>py?I7 ttJMr nmnw iw rtf IMtfe* # * ^F##. f*4 yrr %nci* * thews* VrF.KKLi H&XjiH?Er- * f ?<?" fff f?fK?U IS r?rr the J?**1 ** r /.?*. * v r* - *?. f ta Pi ' * te' ' r*e T *ta*e. Afi edition (in the French us u-ell ut in the Knulith tanwill t>* jvbhf-tj cn the *t:y *f the d<i?irturt if ee:h iteaxter f~r any r*rt in ?itrjje. irt/A intelligence fr*v a-1 vartt of the .t n^rtca v conin*nl t? 'ht late\t ?* - , r??4' S*?\e v rt'onr f\4 a . .tf.ieneM* receive ! bybtnert , Goitgntn*, IS f'l'r-.rr. e, Pen#: i* ot*n*n4?, 1# r.-H .W f. j t- a^ier, bookseller, Henrietta otrtet, JL^ndon. __ priHSWKyiJrfL liEHALV? Kverjf Tuudop?One > , */)>''' Tl - .V TS tren*wtd every n-truing) l?i i ??- ? tic-tie T u??." fu 6* Vlfilten ?u ? tu;j*u, iepihle ma ntf { ; ?? f ocrtcltrr n it rerpanttHe far trrcrt in menuacrtfit I i'}. WT WSefii; hniti emec'Jted tcsutifulll <~*d I i ^ iert remved at t\e J'vAiir?rt.-?fi CWlr?, cer. I ??/ hi'litn on.i Nattau streett .?!. L i.KT'l LHS I y rrv?i.. /or m'ten^lwm, or viih ! t \ !<?, to A* ficttfais, jr ike f.ctttft vtU 6? rf?rif * mnrvu - emitted. VOLCSrjIHY Cotl!ih.SPl)NDl?.nCi:,$ I iwyvrt nt Hen j, loliriied frem w)i quarter of tht vurla? j ??' ? ifuted. tetli S< liberally j>aid /at. Ci Adi'lCKi ni tak!n <1/ uruiyiiuvi j t . IV ..:.ever tunUr.dea forimertton mutt .fit n.-.H. ?j?.t .1 '.drett cf the ? ? ;/ff ; fiat necru: puMict >?f?. lt?l <it a iutiru'.iu */ h?? * ?J/??'* *?'* * * i ' : - vr (a re'yn t r <-' ? i . 9yMA' N 7'S f? n*/Jt in \M1TSKMKNT9 THIS KVKNI>?* t?KB.\ i'Jic,A'i'KJ?, Bi.woji ? VIII?Honeymoon. \t|i *_m t"" v : k. c'lull;-u Mrcel.?Rjkh'i Pup. h m?Kin;* Vowbravi?Moutx Abii?ti-Jac? Imibinfcon ? > p hl> aionkk.t. ( IHCUS-BOVVK'tY AWUITHKATRE. Bo?r?nr.? r JIHIAMtAl, tlVM.MlTIf I, \0. r.U.'IO'S OP?HA TlOU.Sfc, CUamb?ri ?tr*rt?Model A*tllT<. ' HO'DW^T ODKON Odioh Misitmcm ? <>l>? L AKTtfTJ. KCH A.NIO&' H 1LL, Broadway. near Broome.?Chriitt?? V im11 l.kll? H, i mlll'14 S m1imo?Bl'rlk??iuic Da>v I'lRU, SLC. \ VOKAM\ H Brjf i!wr, ne-r Ho?it a?t.?-i5?rr. t ii'? i ifi-R* iA .r 'st Miniuirr;. TABERNACLIl, btMilwiy-?Concilbt or thp AroLLOXti>!. N'?w to rfc, flltlKjr, K?h! ??ry 35, IMS, ADVEIiTT^i-.'MENTS -enewed every morning ~?be News by Telegraph YMKrdMy, The intelligence w< yesterday receivrd by the a i of the electric tele'rraph, is of ft highly iiEpirtant and interesting nature. An extended avnopsia of the treaty with Mex ico was received at a late hour last night. We refer the reader to a perusal of this very important document, fur the particular stipulations of the terms of peace proposed. From W< ghiDgton, the proceedingsof Congress upon the death of the Hon. John Quincy Adams, will be rend with mournful and abiding interest l y all. Th^ departure of the spirit of that eminent statesman and philanthropist, has awakened solemn regrets in every breast. In theU. S. SenMe yesterday, the important resolutions offered by Mr. Allen,irelativetothe existence ot an armistice with Mexico, and for the puni*hm?nt of unauthorized negotiators, were adopted. Mr. Baldwin, of Connecticut, ofi'ered a resolution in substance similar to the Wilmot proviso, which was laid upon the table. A messa ? from the President was received, but not read. Th? announcement of the death of Mr Adams was then made, end after a beautiful una xoucning cu.ogy on use cnaracier 01 xne deceased by Mr. Benton, xhe Senate adjourned ? The House of Representatives was entirely occupied by thr mournful ceremonies attending the demise of i's late honored member, and adjourned until Saturday. We received from St. Louis, the proceedings of a Taylor meeting, which do not seem to indicate the existence of much harmony among the friends of the old General in that city. The arrival of ih Hon Henry Clay in Piiiladrlj.liia, wus Attended with h great ebullition of enihui-iaj'ic feeling. Throughout the wholej^c ccived unequivocal tokens of admiration and respect (rom the fair daughters and hardy sons of the Keystone State. Our State legislators were rather busy yesterday in endeavoring to m>ike some improvements in the wharves, and in other parts ol Brooklyn ; in the nppointment of a select committee to investigate the affairs of the Sing Sing Prison, and in the alteration of charters ot railroad and insurance companies. They also devo ed some ol their time in considering whether it would be better for party purposes that certain officers should be elected by the people, or that the uppointing power should coutmue in the hands oi the favored few. The Tr?a?y with Mtxlco. The treaty with Mexico i* the burden 9f every editorial and the typic of every letter writer. Every day some n^w facts leak out from different quarters, tending to Uevelope the exact manner in which it was negotiated, ihe position in which it stands, and the consequences to which it may tend. We give in our columns to-day, a number ot interesting extracts from New Orleans and Mexican papers, throwing some light on this subjecti and describing the present internal condition of :? ? j : - hi . ii-Aivu niiu u? ^tivrnimriii aii inesc inauers >vill be interesting during the pendency of the trertty in the Senate, where it will probably remain lor several days, if not weeks, before a derision can b?* reached, although no doubt exists ?>f its confirmation at Washington, and its return to Mexico in a short time. Much is said about the inode, and the persons by whom this treaty was negotiated. Some intimate that General Scott was the principal adviser and negotiator; others that Mr. Trist to< k the whole of the responsibility, under General Scott's advice; e.nd one intimation w thrown rut that Mr. Mcintosh, i-.a English banker in Mexico, was very efficient and instrumental in the negotiation. One curious idea s put forth, and that is, that although Mr Trirt 1ms been recalled, officially, by thr government, he was still continued, secrectly and privately, by instructions from President Polk himself, and has actually c-tried < ut th* real wiahea of Mr. Polk in pur uing the negotiation, while he was officially in a state of disgrace. This idea is put forth in one of the n! oinistration papers in this city, and tlier- is certainly room for supposing some such double-d?a',ing in the matter. It is well known that the President selected Mr. Trist, without previously consulting Mr Huchanan; and itisjust aslikely and as consistent with the peculiar character of Mr. Polk, to sappoae that he continued Mr. Trist privately in Mexico, for the veiy purpose of negotiating the tr-aty in question, and of humbugging the whin party in the Senate into its support, undar the belief that he himself was opposfd to it, end was merely controlled by circumstancis. There ib oertaidy some double or treble twisuog conduct .n the matter; but however that may be, the tt. fi y wi!1, undoubtedly, be accepted by our government, mu returned to Mexico. If it should turn rut that th* trewy was nego\*,-d in th ? 0'iri'tui way, then General Scott wi'l not rcceiv the ?clat of having; niide it; and the recent proceedings ordering a court of injury, seem to concur in nucii a supposition. The next |?oint of importance \g the reception which ilie treaty rrny meet with m Mexico, and the chancea of the existing government in that country betog able to reciprocate it* provisions, earry lie conditio?! into effect, and meet the engagements prescribed hy its terms. If the America army should Ic w ithdrawn at the eud of u | #? MiiUif, m i* now ultima**], w? vtry m??a ) fear the Mexican government would goon crumble into a slate of ruin?:i''w would ( prinj? up; and already intimations are thrown out, that the British government, in b cli a i-tate of thing*, are preparing to take a tlice ol Mexico, by way of paying the claims of her own citizens and capitalists. The confirmation of the treaty, v hich will undoubtedly take place, will thus lead to most momentous consequences and very important entau?lenienis, the United States, England, Mexico and probably Central America. Peac acquired in this mode will, no doubt, take ail the open questions growing out of the Mexican war Irom tlie approaching presidential election in this country Kll t f!lP < ^ I uoVitn n i rl AAHilitlAn d\f \-1 *? v i r?n |Ha MWIgauia U VUUUIUVM " intrigues of British agents in that republic and in Ci ntral America, and the position assumed l>y the United States, will lead to momentous c.o-\ sequence* before two years will have passi d away, that may re-open the whole question of the annexation, absorption aud invioltbilhy of tins coniinent, through any new acquisuiona by European governments. We will, therefore, wait for the denouement ot this extraordinary negotiation, to know whether it is Mr. Polk's secret fraty, or General Scott's, | or Mr. Mcintosh's, or Mr. Trial's, or who has j ihe merit of advising the movement, and in acquiescing in it. The next point of interest will j be the court of inquiry on General Scott, and the developements the r< by following. John Quincy Adams?His Dbath a:>d Character?This remarkable man has brt-athed his Inst. The intelligence of his actual demise was first given in our columns yesterday morning; and about noon various indications of the fact were made manifest throughout the city, such as Hags at half-mast, &c. ilr Adams was undoubtedly one of the most remarkable men of his age and times. Hia father, John Adams?one of the fathers of the present constitution, and the second President of the United States?was a great man in his day ; but in point of originality and extraordinary talent, lus son, John Quincy, outstripped him. Ever since he whs a young man, he h.ts been mostly in public life?occupied for one term the Presidency?and may be said to have died in harness in the House of Representatives. His intellect w*? of the highest erder?somewhat eccentri#, very peculiar, and very steadlast to the great truths of philosophy end Christianity. His mind was occasionally in advance of the tig*, but most freq uently on a level with the great march of the human race. As a learned man he has notleft his equal in the United States. He knew twenty different languages, and could converse with almost equal ease in all of them. On one occasion he astonished his friends by conversing familiarly with an Indian savage, in his native tongue. From the commencement of his public career, he was in the habit of noting down the events of everyday, with his own reflections and thought* on them. His memoirs will cover a space of forty or fifty years; and when published, will be one of the most valuable contributions to the history of the last half century ever brought forth in this country, regarding public men and public uflT/iirs. We hope that his son and farnily in Boston will bring some of these curious memoirs, before the world?those which it would be proper to publish at this period. In point of character, as a man rind as a politician, none of the public men at Washington are approachable to what Mr. Adams was Every other great mm of the day, with perhaps the xception of Mr. Calhoun, has exhibited some of the foibles and weaknesses of political intrigue, and an indirectness in the mode of ac i tvt- a 1 c<Muimeuiu? incii |iuipL*sca. auaiuo, vu an occasions, we believe, has been opea, pure, and uncontaminated?as single hearted as a child or an angel. When his soul took iu flight from the Hou*e of Representative^ plunderers and roBljers, to the brightest mansion? and purest spirits of eternity. What a happy change ! what a glorious escape ! The Herald a>u the Tribunk?Tub Bet ? .vlany enquiries are addressed to us every day; sking wlieu the bet will he decided relative to th?? respective circulations of the Htrald and Tribune newspapers. We are very sorry to be unable to give a decisive or encouragirg answer on the early decision of the matter. This whttle betting business connected with the two journals, might liave been examined and determined in two or three hours; but we are under the necessity of stating that the Tribunt concern has thrown obstacles in the way, of every kind?raising pettifogging objections oi all ^orts?so as to lead us to believe they do not wieh there should be any decision at all. We hope this conclusion of ours may not be correct: but | certainly there are strong reasons for thinking that it is so. We threw open our establishment in all its details, to the examination oi the Triirunt. The agent of that establishment, and its proprietors, know as well as we do, the exact ..f .u? i?. ?:n inuviv tiituiBui'im ui mc mu j'.iptric; uui Bilil they delay, procrastinate, and start one ridiculous difficulty and objection after another. As a last resort, we have instructed our agent in this business to propose an umpire, some one who is ncquaiited with-newspaper business, if that could lead to an early decision. But we much fear there will be no decision at all, if the Tribune can sncceed in preventing one. At all events, utter having fully ascertained the fruitleesness of this enquiry, we shall throw pen the books, records and documents of our i ?t?b\ishment to the managers of tha two Orphan Asylums which are to be benefitted by the bet involved, and also to any and every business .nan in this city, in order that they may satisfy tiiemselvt-s of the extensive circulation and surprising amount of business now transacted by tne New York Herald. If, as we believe. Bishop Hughes is ono of the chief managers of the Catholic Orphan Asylum, nd a distinguished Protestant clergyman the he<id of the other, we will invite both these clergymen, and show the facts upon which we base our belief that they are rntitled to the two hundred dollars involved iu the bet, and that the Tribune has lost that sum. Police lutflllgiiiir. ~1rrr$t of Phreluri - Assistant ( aplaia Hnrrirfan. of iheAtb w?r J polio*, sad <Utter Kiff hrr-el*d y?*t-T<l*j o young ini-u, callirg thciniifUfi <i,nr?r Hr.vt Jcht Johii??n. alias Wallace, una clj*ra? rf hurplarioufly entering ttia d wrllinn houm No 6# Varlek ?tr?et, occupied by Mr J Preeruaa, meklmg therefrom twri?" Mlr?r tab)* ppoous. four Icmo of i?* noouae. a large hrocbi sbawl, yaiutd at $40. a tick or ?r coat, and fl4 in m-'Buy It appcari tbat the aacu? <d j.nrt.e* oneupifda room orer Mr Monevp?nny'? dyine: p?tf.b't?nra?ot In ftreet, and the r<*?r of that bout* joined iha renr o? AS V stick dreei, wbiuh ie near th?i comar ?f Ctnal nod Vailok nlreaU, allowing km e??y ooetii where til* r?r ble cUmbed or-r. piihb* d up the huoh pa tier window, m l oanled off tlie stiver from the pau'-ry Kreeinta, it neirw, saw the came fallow- dur'ng 'he day iy i g mi tbe top cl^ni otiK li poaiiti'n tbey bad n laur t1?? of the parlor* in Mr P>e* m%u'? houie. time ' eii'g all* toma'nrv tkeirpla*i for the robb?ry at n'gbi Justice Drinker looked tbriu botb up f.?t a fur.her hearloc lloyl. we are inlorraad, it i?u ?c*ped uODViat from Blickwali'a Iditnd Chatf of Jl, ton _ a bl> ?V f-li< w * Bill Brown, wai arre?'<d laetnigl t oj rfl er , ! >f. An a nhmram >J filing c? to 11 ? C* r>' ir.-i 10 Km it>- tb atntt. and llki'witn ttire-tn.n tf to a?t Or# to otlKt building* Juniea Drink** loeked htra on ior * tart?i?T );> ?ni.( Charg' of Maiming ?09 j?r Bl mlt, of th? 6th ward, arroptrd laat u>i|lit a Mlow, callad Petar LtutUr oil *chaiga ol biting thaibuinO of J?rm K.van* U' arly < ir *h!lp in ? rou?li and tuuiU a flrfhi to Watt Brva Jwajr. Tka iming i.r^ro *m loukud up for trial. Sap Nkw^ from Hit,.una, Arkaisab?The Mrmplii* Apptnl .Ir^rriB iIihi liir nvrr bunk at Halo. A 1* caving in *?rj mpidlj. and that f*ar? ?r? .il-rt.ilnad that ib? principal portion of tba town win | ? d< ttroyed Many (mriour had alrnadv ramo??d lb?lr i??Hi* and In Km> piaaaa th?* hank bad cared to withtu a lev fa*t of tt>? liw?f N?w Mexico and tlM Cnlirornlas. As it is highly probable that the result of our first Punic war with Mexico will be th* acquisition of the Rio Grande as a boundary, up to 32, and the acquisition of the territory of New Mexico and the Caliloraun, it rmy not be amiss to describe our new territory, its population and products Uefore doing so, however, we have a word to say ou the contest which has resulted, or will, in ail prob tbility, result, in this accession to our territory; and ihat is, that every positioa assumed by M xico has been <;iven up by her, and almost every point wo insisted upon has be n conceded; th-it is, Mexico acknowledges the liio Grande a* a boundary, and indemnifies us lor the expenses we have been put to in thrashin'* her info her senses*. What now becomes of u.. i- i. ?r *L^ l" u : I-. u ii*- vijr bmuucib ui iiic i^iigusn juui ii-iim?nic London Timet, and its colleauuesu-in heaping abuse on the United States 1 We may add, too, what becomes of the charges of a portion of our own people, who, to forward their own personal ambitious schemes, or carried away by the phrensy of pirtuauship, have echoed the slanders which tlie Times aud other English journals emitted! Tlie province of New Mexico was one of the first Spanish settlements, aud contains a population ot one huudred and fifty thousand, more or less. It comprehends tlie valley of the Rio del Norte, a great portion of which is barren. The northern portion is very cold; but it produces wheat aud corn, and has a great abundance of fine pasture lands. The climate ot the southern portion is warm, and the soil produces fruit, principally grapes,ot a superior quality, in abundance, -inil wVi? at ?nH Inrli.m nnrn. The ehief town and capital of New Mexico is ilie somewhat famous Santa Fe, brtween which place and the United States an extensive trade has been carried on for a number of years past, by caravans and mules. The only mineral which it is known to possess is copper, which is found in great abundance, in a native state, at a place called San Juan Guetamo. Oil th- whole, as far as value is concerned, New Mexico is not a very rich acquisition; but us it is taken in payment of a b;td debt, we must be satisfied with it, and make the most of it. Upper and Lower California, which we acquire by the same treaty, is of much more importance and value to us than New Mexico is, and in this r?spect make up the difference, the whole forming a valuable acquisition. Upper California embraces an area of four hundred and fifty thousand square miles, and the entire country is more or less broken by hills and mountains, some of them several thousand feet above the level oi the sea, and is watered by the Colorado, Gila, and Bear rivers, and contains, also, the the gr?*at Salt Lake, which is ons hundred and fifty miies long by eighty in bre idth This part of California is highly spoken of by all who have visited it. The Sacramento river and its tributaries water a great portion of western California, and measures eight hundred and fifty miles in length, and is navigable for cralts of tolerable burthen for a distance of thre? hur.dr<*d miles.? So great is the abundance of fish in almost all ^ aIiCavmIh V-1 a tlf 1 t Vi on T n A i a I LUC I 1VC13 U1 vailll'illl.l) IIKIV tt 11 <i Uii 1UU1UII seine, the nitives frequently take fifteen to twenty barrels at a single draught. But above all things, the noble harbor of San Francisco stands conspicuous. A recent traveller?Mr. Hastings - in describing this bay, says : From tb? points forming the entrance, the *ea gradn- 1 ally expsnds to some eight or ten miles In extent, from north to sou'h. and twelve from east to west. At the extreme eastern p'irt of the va?t b?ein thai formed, its shores stain close in abruptly, contrasting so as to leave a pari of abo*", two miles in width, wh'eh forms the ?*nj trance to a second bay of still larger dimensions. From ; this gorge their high rocky banks again diverge for some ten miles, when they still again contract to the narrow pass of one mile, and form the paseage to * third The l itter Is more spacious than either before mentioned, and, formed In like manner, sxteads twelves miles from east to west, and fifteen from north to south, affording the safest and most oommodions anchorage. There Is ample water at all times for the entranoe or hips of the largest class, and it is asserted confidently, *h*t. *> JfaUc<t.hV? tiftf W&tftilvies of all nations. We insert the following description of this ! part of California, from a work entitled " Scenes in the Rocky Mountains, Oregon, California, kc. by a New Eaglander," published iu Philadelphia in 184ti:With such extraordinary facilities for oosnmeros, it ne?d? no prophetio eye to foresee the position Western California is destined to assume, befors many years have i>ass<d. and. from her position and natural resources, will >>e enabled successfully to maintain among the forem'iet nations of (he earth-provided-always, that some other p?eple mor* enterprising and enlightened than the pre sent inert, ignorant. stupid, and moagrel rao') lul"?sting < It wi*b tb?lr presence, take possession of the omotrj, dev.lope it* energies. and bring to light the full beiuty of its natural loveliness. w? an now l?d to speak of the peculiarities of nB> J landscape, soen>ry, oiimate, productions, and mineral I ivsou'c-s of this interesting country; and In so doing, 1 j would tint draw a suooinnt view of the territory lying bet W"u the Rio 8acram*uto and Oregon Here we find the most forbidding aspect, with oue exo-prion, of any in Western California The soil if gener*;ly very dry and barren, and tbe faoe of tbe oeuntty broken aud hilly The streams of water (a? in the Eastern division) frequently (ink and become lost in the sand, or force tL?ms>-lves into the ocean and parent streams by percolation or subterranean passages In m*ny places it presented a surface of white sunbaked clay, entirely destitute of vegetation; and In others, wide spreads or sand, alike denuded ; and yet again iron-bound luperfloes of igneous roek. Now and then (Troves of pines or flrs spread their hrodd branches as it were to cover the nakedness of nature ; while here and there a valley of greater or .1 s? extent smiles amid tbe surrounding desolation. All ttan various streams are skirted with bottom' of arable soil, ofttimes not only large but vary fer' le. though, perhaps, uaadapted to oaltivatlon. on acccunt of their dryness, without a resort to irrigation Smith's river pursues its way, for forty or fifty m '.ea, through a wide bottom of rish soil, most admlr bly suited for syicultural purposes wars it not for its in> ate aridity ; however, during the summer season, it is. <o a limited extent, watered from nightly dews, whish enable it to sustain a luxuriant vegetation Net one-fourth part of the north-westers portion of Ihls section is fit for tillage. That part contiguous to the s*a coast is saady and far Wss broken than those sections less Interior. The Tlameth mountains, pursuing a west southwest eourse from Ore/on strike tbe coaat near lat. 41 north This rang* has several lofty peaks covered with perpet usl snow, and shoots its collateral eminences fhr into the. adj-cent prairies There Is one feasible pass through this ehain a few miles island from tbe coast, that eervfts well for the purpose of intercommunication with Oregon The l-sa elevated parts of these mountains are frerjunnlly covered with groves of small timber aud opentogs of grass suitable for pasturage, while intermingled with them are occasional valleys prairtlloni of di oilnutive spar*, favorab'e to toe growth of grain and vegetables. The same may be said in referenoe to the California nbain for its whole extent, especially in the vicinity of the prairie. Following the o?,ur?a of thia Utter ridge fr'T: north to | couth, we And upon both aide* reach of vary broken ' *nd highly tumulou* land?cap?, tome twenty or thirty milei fcro.ii Near the head-watera of the Haoramento, theee land* are well wateieJ, and poaaeM a general character far fartill.y. producing a varlety.of kthkk, with ahrubfl. and ft t-w ioatt*riug trees Below, However, they are more <erll?, owing to the deficiency of water ; but yet th?y aff ri nnvarout Inviting epota A ootini 1-rab'e extent of country, non'.h of the South Folk or the river above named, ? arid and aterila. Rod baa but few atrearoa of water. It eustali.* however, among it* hill* and in It* valleys, a aparee vegetation, that ini^ht ba turned to a favorable account for grazing purpose#. Only about one-fourth of thU country ia adapted to other utea than tockraialng. Further annth ftom the bead-waters of tha Tulare and del PI a mac, ranglog between the eoaat and the high rolling Itnda rklrtiap thebaae of the California mountain*, to UN M nnrfary it the Lower Provlnoe, a aectlon of gently undula'ing prtitle, now and then varied with high htlHand (emetine* m< untetna, affords a rich soil, gene ally ron?ieMng of dark, aandy loam, between the bill* nd In the vatleya ; tb? highland* present a superQc* of clay and gravel. ftrtMcd by deoompoeed vegetable mattar, well adapted ta gracing, and about one half of It ouieeptibla ol cultivation. Timber li rather scarce except at Intervals along the ?r*t?r rouraea and oco*aion?l groves amorg the nl!l? j tint tua ooaat d*n?? forea's art frequently found, t l<imii>g traea of an enormous ?1?? Bui, or.a ,jra"?? d'feoc exieta In ifa general aridity. wn'tjn r HU ! Iin-'m.j r?*orv 10 I.?q'l?nl lrrlK*'ton iu tb* rnnluu f t othwr than gram pro Jucuoim. In wm* (j*rU ththbiiu h?c? ol Fmail ftlrraan would cum < tht? tH?k to broom? comparatiftly an ew; rnr ; and thiproIumbam of 4aw? to erotioo* oootWuouR to tha rlTari, Id v> na maaiuro an?w?r? >i h (tibali'utn Tor rain

Tb* bottom! m broad and ?x<enaif?. jit-idlng not only ib? moat axtraordtn*tT oropa of clovar nod ' tb j graaaaaj but inoalenlabla quantltU* of wllil oat* and flax,of tpontan*oo? growth, with ail tha wild liuits natural tu the I'limatf. In returning to tha Saoramrato and the rivtra whloh And thair dl?eh*rg*? In tha Day 't Ban Franoiaeo, w# ha*? b-f 'T* im ih? a)f?t jntfrarttn* and ln?aly pari cf llpwi California Tha laifMt rallay In tha wl)ola oounkcy U that ?Wrt expanse loads Inland from th? Bay of fit Fnnotoo tot nwly four han't rod mil?s. almost to the base of the CaJ. i'ornla monaUlui. and aversg-s between ?Uty lid alxtyfive mllM in width The valleys of the del Plum** and Amerioan Fork in also very large, and that of the Tulare gives are* of twe hundred and fifty mile* lorg by tbirty-ttTl broad. These' rulleya are oomp*ratlvoly well timbered with several varieties of wood, consisting principal of white oak, live oak, ash. cjtton wood, cherry, and willow, while the a^jsoent bill! afford oooaslonal forests ol pine, oedar, tlr. pluioa, and spruoe The soil, as well as the climate, Is well adspted to the c il'lruiion of all kinds of grain and vegetables produced , in the United States, and many of the Taried fruits ot the torrid and tempera's ones can be successfully reared in oue and the same latitude. ? | Among tbe grain* gta<ses, and fruits indigenous to the country. are wheat, ry<\ oat*, (lax,and olorer, (white and red.) vitb a great variety of grapes, all of which are sild to grow spontaneously. Wild oats frequently oover immmM spreads of bottom und prairie laud, sometime* to an extent of several thousand Hares, whioh rmrmbli, in appearance, tbe species common to the United Sut-s They usually grow to a height of between two and three feet, though they often reach a height of seven feet. The wild clover of these valleys Is much like the common red, and, Insomi! places, is afforded In great abunil*aoe. It attains a unual height of two feet and a bait, though It often measures twice that height?standing as thiolt as It can well grow. Korty buitiels per tare is tald to be ths average wheat crop, but sixcy and even one hundred bushel* have b'?u grown upon a little spot of ground This grain generally reaches its maturity In three or four mouths from the time of sowing. t orn yields well, and affords an average of from fifty to sixty bushels per acre, without farther attention from the time of planting till picking. Potatoes, onions, beets, atrrots. See , mav be produoed in any quantity, with very little trouble. Tob .coo has also been raised by somo of the inhabitants, wi: u most flattering success Pi-rhaps no country In the world Is p-ssesseJ of a rioher or more fiuitfu.j sou, or one capable of yielding a drearer variety of p-oductlons, thau ths valleys of the 3*cram?nto and its tributaries. The articles previously noticed are more or leu common to the bottoms and valleys of other seotlens ? Grapes abound in the vicinity of most of tbe oneks, which affird generous wines and deliolous raisins in immense quantities Tae climate is so mild that fires are useded at do sea son of the year for other than cooking purport**. By aid of irrigation, many kinds of vegetables are fresh-grown at ?uy time, while iwn crops of some species of grain way b* produced arnually. Flowers are not uufrequently in full bloom ia mid wiliter, and all natur* bears a like smiling aspect. In this, however, we cf oourse refer only to the low lands and valleys. The traveller, at any season of the year, may visit at his option the tresis and snows of eternal winter, or feast his eyes upon t'ie verdure and beauty of perennial spring, or glut liis tmte amid the luxurlaut abundance and rioh maturity of unending summer, or indulge his ohang?fcl fancy in the enjoyment of a magnificent variety of scenery as well a-i of olimate, soil, aud productions The only rains Incident to this oountry fall during the months of December, January, February, and March, whioh oonstitute the winter ; at other times rain is very rarely known to fall. Perhaps, for one-third of the four months before named, the olouds pour down their torrents without intermission ; the remaining two-thirds afford clear aud delightful weather. ? During the wet season, the ground, in many parts, becomes so thoroughly saturated with moisture, partloulatly in the valley of the Hacramento, that, by tbe aid of copious dews, to whioh the oountry is subject, orops may be raised without the trouble of irrigation ; though its general aridity constitutes the greatest objection to California. Of tcs geological and mlneralogioai oharaoter, little is yet known. Tne prevailing rook is said to be sandstone, mioa slate, granite, trap, basalt, puddingstone, and limestone, with occasional bed* of gypsum. Among its minerals, as oommonly reported, are found gold, sUver, iron, coal, and a variety of salts. The mineral resources of the oountry have not been, as yet, fully investigated, to any great extent, but the mountains, in different parts, are supp wed to be rich in hidden stores. To speak of AV<stern California, as a whole, it may be pronounced hilly, if not mountainous, and about twothirds of it is, probably, fit for agricultural purposes. Suih is a brief description of our acquisitions by our first Punic war with Mexico. By the time the thud shall have been concluded, we shall have acquired the remaining portion of Mexico, down to Yucatan, and including the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and the veritable halls of the Montezumus. Allah is great, and the United States, if not now, will be a great country. Who's atraid 1? We shall give a description of Lower California another time. Thr Opera?The Gala Nights?A Charity Subscription.?The subscription, nt three dollars a ticket, still lags behind. How can it be otherwise'! he proposed " soirie lyrique" is nothing but an ordinary concert, in which the principal members ot the troupe sing scenas arias, or duets, frorc various operas. The idea ol" asking three times the ordinary pjjee of tickets in New York from the public, by way of charity, for the purpose of getting the Opera out of debt, nquifeanew thing in Jaahionable movpments. r_ ..i:.: iiuitii uUAili/ 1 o pi v|?vi| DUt it yOll bring the spirit of charity into the walks of lashionable life, it ought to be done in quite n | different way. la order to establish the Opera, and orgauize j fa*h unable society in New York upon a suita- j ble hams, the leaders of the fashionable world j should put their hands into their pockets, like li- I beral people, at once. As a subscriber to the Opera, and a well-wisher to the organization of fashionable society, we will engege to pat down ',at once a hundred dollars to help to pay the debtj of the Opera, and especially the debt due to the embers of the troupe. Who will follow this card, and play trumps alse? Will the rest of the subscribers put their hands into their pockets aud help to pay the deb's of the Opera, particularly the five hundred dollars owing to Madamv Pico, and which she can ill afford to lose, as well as the sums due to Benedetti, and others of the trouve. who have b?cn horriblv shaved? Let the managers place upon the green table a sub- ' acription paper of this character, accepting no | lame under a hundred dollars at the tail of it. ! We offer to play first trump, if they can procure ' two or three hundred leaders of the haut ton to | follow suit. This would raise such a handsome awn as would set them on their legs again?would pay their old debls?would furnish them a aeoondhand wardrobe?would organize fashionable aociety?set the biau mondt on its legs again, end be, perhaps, as great a feat as the capture of Vera Cruz or Mexico. Certainly, there can be no hope that the lower classes round the town should be indue?d to pay three dollars a ticket (or nothing but a concert, merely becauaa they call it a " Soirit Lyriqat." Melancholy Accident.?Capi. Brock, of the ItMmer HicbmoMt, arriv.'d on Friday night last, iafarm* us that on his way down from Cheraw, be paw the steamer Utility, at Wahee landing. on th? Pee Dae , River. In a shattered eondition. The Utility was about ieavirg the landing, when the head of one of her boiler* wai blown off. doin< c mslderabla injury to the boat, and we regret to adi, killing one of the hand* employed on board. The dec*, from the boilers aft, Is ralsati from the hull; her stern is much shattered, and her oabin hat also sustained a good desl rf irjury Since the above wus written. a communication hss been placed on our desk, informing; us thnt a letter had been received (torn the captain cf the Utility, stating that she had received very little Wjury from the explosion, no part of the maobtnvry having b?en displaced; and that so soon as a new head ctin be placed In the boiler, whioh work is now in progress, the beat will ra nme her place on the line.? Charluton Courier, Ffib. 21. Woollkn Factory JJitrnt.?On Monday night !a?t, the extensive wnoll n factory in Norihfi?H, Vt, was discovered by the watchman to be on lire in the ; garret. The alarm was instantly given, but the main building, which was of wood, was destroyed, with tha valuable machinery, and tba greater part of the stock The Are is supposed to havebsen oaused by spontaneous combustion. The fkctory was a very valuableona, un ler the superintendence of Governor Paine. The agents in this city were Messrs Francis Skinner It Co. Tbara Is insurance to the amount ot $70 000, cf whioh $80 000 is at tha Manufacturers', and $10,000 each at the Franklin and Flremeo'a offices In this city. The remaining 120.000 is at offices In* Providence. Tha InsifraBoe fells considerably short of tha loss.?Btiltn Admtrtmr, Fib. 24. From Texas.?The; steamer Portland, Cant. Plac, arrived last night from Galveaton. We h?ve Galveaton p?p?rs to the 11th Inst., inolualva, from which we learn that J De Cordova has bran fleeted to rrpresent Harris oaunty. In tha present Legislature, ta eupp'y tbe vaoanoy oooeeloaed by the death of Magnus T. Rodgers Mr. Cordov* reoeived a majority of (14 vo'es over his o mp'titor * S. Tompkins The Portland b*<mght over the lamalns of tha lata Hui Isaac Van Z* b*cui>veved to the family burying place la Harrison rounty, Texas, via Kad Rivar ? Jftw OrUnns Drlta, Fib Ifl. DMTHtrCTIVK DkLUOK AT MAS8ILON, OjflO.? Great excitement Wfi* occasioned at M iaailon, on the 23d Inst , bv the town being flooded, and much d??'ru<*tlon oeoMlon?it by the content of an MMrrotr occupying * location nln?ty f*?t ?bOT6 th? town, ?i??plu< nod pourlog through It* inid*t. Th? force cfth? Hood tor* down M??r?I brink WM?hou?M, brick factory, th? Trumont Hoqm, ?nd th? o?nnl ?m hankment, ud *l?o?t all th* (torrt, war?h(mer?, lie . in w?r? oT?r<towp, ud thair eootrati damaged i b? ; dtMaUr oooorrtd about thraa o'aloek la tk? afornooa, ? 1 TELEGRAPHIC ISTi I.LISKSCF, HIGHLY IMPORTANT FROM WASHINGTON. THE ARTICLES AND PROVISIONS OF" THK TREATY WITH MEXICO. &c. kt. \ Washington, Feb. 24, 1848. I have already niven you the mun features of the treaty. I now proceed to give you asyuopsia of it, article l>y article. Senors Cuevas, Conto and Atristan are appointed commissioners on the part of the Mexican government, to adjust with the commissioner of the United States, Mr'. Trist, a lasting treaty of peace. Article second, provides for the present snspeasion of hostilities between the forces of the two nations. Article 3J defines the future boundary between the two republics. Tho line is to commence in the Gulf of Mexico, three leagues from land; to run up the middle of the Rio Grande to its intersection with the southern boundary o! New Mexico; thence north until it intersects the first branch of the Gila; tlunce down the midd'e of that branch of the river to the Colorado; tUCMUC 11 lOllOWS IIIC UIVISIUU UCIWCCII Ujipci and Lower California to the Pacific, which it strikes one league south of San Diego. The next article guarantees to citizens of Mexico, now residing in territory ceded to the United States,a'l the rights and immunities oi citizens of the latter country, provided they take the oath of allegiance ; or in case they desire to continue citizens of Mexico, there is guaranteed to them the right to leave the territory, aud to dispose of their property to th<5 best advantage. The next article of importance provides that grants of land in the territory ceded, made by Mexico prior to the treaty, shall be respected by the United States. The next article provides that Catholic residents in the ceded territory are to be protected in the exercise of their religion. The nexf article provides that grants of land in Texas, made by Mexico prior to the year 1836, shall be respected by the United States. The next article nrovides that this ijovernmrat shall take prompt nnd effectual measures for the defence of the borders from Indian incursions. In consideration of this cession of territory on the part of Mexico, the government of the United States binds itself to pay Mexico fifteen millions of dollar* In this sum are to be included the three millions of dollars already appropriated by Congress, for the furtherance of peace, and now subject'to the order of Mr. Trist. This sum is to be paid immediately on the ratification of this treaty by the Mexican government. The remaining twelve millions are to be paid either by instalments, or by the issue of a six per cent stock, redeemable by the United States. Several articles are devoted to the executory details of both of these modes of payment. The adoption of either is to be optional with this government. The next important article binds the government of the United States to assume all claims of American citizens against the government of Mexico?both those already decided, amounting to two millions, and those undecided, amountjog to about three millions of dollars. Some unimportant articles then follow, for the mode of executing this portion of the treaty; bucIi as the appointment of a commissioner to decide upon the claims, &c. &c. The treaty of commerce of 1831, between the two republics, is to be revived for eight years, and afterwards to be renewed at the option of botli governments. The troops are to lc?*c Mexico in three months after the ratification of the treaty by both governments, unless the sic season should come on brfore their embarkation can be effected; in which case, they have to retire to a healthy situation, and are to be furnished with supplies on amicable terms by the Mexican govemmeut. Supplies which arrive in the mean time, are not to be subject to duty. The custom houses are to be restored to the Mexican government, and means are to b? adopted for settling the accounts. The treaty is to be ratified by the President and Senate of the Unitsd States, and exchanged within four months of its ratification. Any future war that may break out between Mexico and the United States is t? be conducted on Christian principles and according to the usages of civilized nations. The boundary specified is to be defined ns laid down in Disternal' of Mexico, published at New York in 1847. N Th? Death of Mr. Ad>Mi_A(U*arnnitnt mt Supreme Court, dto. Washinoton, Feb. 24, 1848. Upon the assembling of the Supreme Court today, Chief Justice Taney announced the demise of the Hon. John Quincy Ada-ns, and the Court immediately adjourned. A general gloom pervades the city. Sorrow at the death of the venerable ex-President is depicted on every countenance. The Hags have been hoisted at half-mast on the various public buildings, and other indications of mourning are every where to be seen. A meeting of the citizens was held this even frig, at which it was resolvod to suspend business, close the places of amuaement, stores, kc. The different associations, societies, &c. of the district, are making arrangements to join the funeral escort. Taylor Meeting la It. Louis?Two Seta of IU. aol utlons_ Wlilg and Independent?-Great Confusion, Ae.A(< St. Louis, Feb. 23, 184?. The meeting called by the whig friends of Gen. Taylor, took place this evening. John F. Barker, Esq , presided, assisted by seventy vice Presidents. Geo. K Boyd and C. C. Carroll, were chosen secretaries. After the organization of the meeting, resolutions; prepared by some of the whig leaders,were read, but the language not suiting the taste of a large number of "independents" who were present, another set of resolutions was presented and read, amid great confusion. The question on the original resolutions wrs finally put, and they were adopted The second series, those offered by the independents, were laid upon the table. Speeches were delivered by Dr. McDowell, Col. Thompson, Mr. Bites, upon the services . and claims of Gen. Taylor, aad also upon the propriety of calling a State convention, for the ! purpose of nominating Gen. Taylor for the presi. dency. The latter measure was deprecated by some of the speakers. No speeches were made by the old whig leaders i The meeting, although short, wr.i spirited aid exciting?but its results did not appear to be very i satisfactory to the no-pariy mrn present. The a.-seinbltig1* finally adjourned, amid considerable excitcment, subject 10 a call from the President for another meeting. ! oss of the Jtfrltf gnvsnnshi 1'iui.ADsLrHiA, Feb. 34. The b^ig Savannah, from New York, bound for .Havana, was wrecked on the beaeh north o( Cape Lookout, on the night of the ?th inst. The vetMl has billed I I 4 j. i, . 1 < ENTHU8IASTIO RECEPTION or THE HON. IIENRY CLAY AT PHILADELPHIA Philadelphia, F. b. 24, 1849. We had ore of the ,ireatei?t days to-day that lias occurred in this city fur a l>nij time; and it appeared that the whole of the population of Philadelphia had congregated in Broad etreet to offer a welcome to the dibtnguiahed individual who was to arrive by the af:erno<n train of cara from Baltimore?the Hon. Henry Clay, the "Far mer of Ashland." The reception committee had gone down to Elkton to meet Mr. Clay and escort him to town. On their way to this city, iu passing through the several towns, there was a universal turn-out of the inhabitants to pay their respects, and shower bouquets and bleteing9 on the nead of Mr. Clay. On the rrivul of the cars at Broad street?that avenue being thronged for more th*n a inilt?a cavalcade was formed, consisting of about one thousand horsemen, vehicles of every description, and about five hundred of our whig citizen-* on loot. Mr. Clay then left the earn, and entered a barouche, which w-is drawn by four white horse?, accompanied by Mayor Swift. The procession then took up its line of march up Broad to Ar< h 6treet, down Arch, and so through the entire route, to the residence of Mayor Swift, in Tenth street, below Walnut cf U'liorii Ua antovaJi kitt o It nrtlir nftaoii' nrrln made his appearance at the window, and bowed as the procession passed a'ong. To describe the enthusiastic greetings which met him at every step, would be impossible at this moment. The balconies, windows, piazzas, and house-tops were filled with the fairer portion of creation, waving their hnndkercUflK and throwing wreaths and bouquets into th^^Huche which contained the honored atatenj^jj^TO'hile ihe "sterner sex" were making ilie welkin rins? with huzzzas for "Harry Clay." These compl* ments were returned by Mr. Clay, who continually bowed his acknowledgments. There were no speeches made. Congressional Klection In Pennsylvania. Philabki.thia, Feb 24, 1848. The election for member of Congress from the Sixth Congressional District of this Stat*, (comprised of Bucks and Lehigh counties), to supply tlie vacancy occasioned by the death of the Hon. J. W. Hornbeck, took pl'ce yesterday, and terminated in the success of the democratic candidate, Col. Samuel A. Bridges, ol Lehigh county* The vote was very close-Lehigh county gi~ ving 2371 for the whig, and 2375 for the demo, cratic candidate : Hunks. 150 democratic mnin rity. Three townships to be heard from, which will swell the democratic voto. The election of Col. Bridges will afford a gain t? the democrats in Congress, the late incumbent, Mr. Hornbeck being a whig. Tiie Virginia Wtolg Couvcntlon. Richmond, Feb. 23, 184S. The whig State convention convened te-day in this city. The attendance was very numerous. The Hon. W. S. Archer was chosen Prebident; he made a strong anti-war speech. The Hon. John M. Botts made a powerful speech. The Taylor men have a large majority. Adjourned until to-morrow. THlR'tlBTH OOVtfK.lC.33 first skssion. Senate. Washington, Feb 24,1S40. The Vice President called tiie SrBKte to order at 19 o'olook, and prayer wan offered by tbe Key. Mr. Ourlkv. Mr. Douslass gave notice that oa t e next reeelon of tba Senate bo would ark 1-nve to Introduce a bill for the etatlUbment cf thr territory of N.braeka. RESOLUTION CF ENQUIRY lit RRLATI01 TO TR) TREATV. Mr. Alle* moved to take up the reeolution which ha offered y?aterday, oallin; oa tha rraaUent for io for nation whether tbe active operations of the United State* army la Mexico havo been, and now are, auepeaded by an armlBtioo; and if ao, by wboxo ag?noy, and in virtue of wbat authority, auoh ariniatlce has been effected. Mr. S*tif.r moved tj lay ths reeolution on the tabl-9; bat the motion waa lost by a vote of 27 to 11. Tbe reaoiutiou tm then adopted, 41 to 8. punishment or persons negotiating with roRRie* OTERNMKNTS WITHOUT AUTHORITY. Mr then moved to take up tbe aecond reeoiutlou crf-red by bm, inatruotlng tb? Committee on tha Julioiary to inquire and report to th? Senate, by bill or otherwise, whether the law ef 1799, punishing those holding correspondence with tbe enemy in timn of war requires vji?a4ru*ut, aol whether fu*tb?r legislation be accessary to protect tbe rights and Interts'.s of the people of the United States against theoonseqaenoes whirh nay result from the atsnmptlon or any individual or individu* ale without authority to ant In the name,or on the behalf, ef the governraeat of the United States, In negetiatione with any foreign government, or with any individaai or individuals aesuming to be sueh foreign government or any department or offleer thereof, and especially In matters of peace and war. The rseolution was adopted without disouasisn. slavery in mexico. Mr Baldwin's resolution applying the proviso that slavery shall not be introduced into apy territory we may acquire in Mexico, was then taken up. On this subject, quite a lively debate followed, in whlnh several Senators partioipated. Mr. Foot* moved to lay the resolution on the table ' which was oarrled by a vote of (3 to 11. death or johff.qoinov adams annocfioib. A message was then rsoelved from the House, an oancingtDe deatn or Hon. jona vuincy Aatnu. Mr. Datii then r"?e, and, In terms of the utmost faeltag and jastloe, delivered a ealcgy upon the eminent and lamented decerned, the Senate listening with the profoundest attention. He alro moved the resolutions usutl on suoh occasions, whlck were unanimously adopted, with a resolution to attend the funeral of Mr. Adams on Saturday. The Senate then adjourned. Roum of Rapraaentatlvaa The Hou>e, when it opened, was muob crowded, every seat being oooupled, many gentlemen being apon the door, and the gallery filled to the utmost. A solemn air was on all oouutenano<*, as though each bore the shadow of a great national bereavement. KCLOaiKI Of mr. adams After the Hou^ was called to order, Rev. Mr. Spirrr addressed the Throne of Oraoe in a aoet appropriate and impressive manner, dwelling on the loss with which the nation had just met as the dispensation of all-wise and ever meroiful Providenoe, bestowed not suddenly, but In the fnllne?s of a long, laborloas, and fruitful life, end of a career as honororabla to the departed as it was ntefultohls mourning country. Mr Speaker Wirthrov then rose and pronounced a i ulogy upon Mr. Adams. His saddened and sympathetic eloquenoe reached the heart of every listener, as he did juitloe to the lofty* character, unsullied life, and emin int publlo and private virtues of the gr-at dead. Mr. Hudsch followed in a blograpbioal sketch of Mr. Adams, In which he recounted all the marked crlsei through whloh ha had passed, and the various public nations bo had filled, from the time when a boy of four* tern, appointed th PriTate Secretary of an American Arabaeeadcr in larope,down to the day thm,M a R prelentattra of NUei-acum-Ue, he navie hie In*', appearaxe In th*t hull Mr Hud?onconolnJed by ?ubn)lt;ing a re. lo'utiou, tli ?k the Home atjoucn to Saturday, to attend tue fareral Mr., of Sooth Carolina, followed inamut elo qaent and appropriate epeenh. Ml* wai a panegyrlq worthy to be psonounaad ortr the dead body of the most remarkable and exalted lege and itatftman of the rapublio. Mr. Viwto.i next addreeeed the Houie ia an exceedingly touchlag manner He waa hlmielf greatly affeot* d, and eeelly oomiaunl<*?ted hli orrn deep feeling to all around 9 Mr. MoDewtib, ?f Virginia, than paid a beautiful trito U>e gtee* departed | when U *M proposed U?*t %

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