Newspaper of The New York Herald, March 27, 1848, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated March 27, 1848 Page 1
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TH Whole No. 5057. TH2 REVOLUTION IN FRANCE, The Event, and Incidents ^Leading to the Slvent. SCENES IN PARIS. &C?, &C?> &c? Pahu. Fob 32, 1849. The bstwe?n tho uovernrai utapd tho oppoei tlon h^g comraenof J ia Fraceo Thf politique irr'con ri i,ihl\ as M d? llamu'tt well oa)l?d it,in now duvelop in? t?ett J li* electoral banquet bas been suppressed anil the opposition retaliate by an Impeachment of minirtrrn?tb rcjcctiou of the impeachment to be followed by the resk-DRtiou of aUr^o maw of opposition members audtbe question of impra^hrnent tlnia to be brought before the country, eliaU, if r-itifled by the electoral body, become the roily cry of tha opposition in parliament Suoh is a eumipary of tbn news in yesterday's Paris journals, it W'iuld rppear from th? report of what took place ic th? Chamber, that it was only on Monday that minister) decided upon the necessity of proclaiming the banquet and the!r resolution was founded upon the inanifsstc published in the opposition circular, of whlab we yesterday gave a description As tbis manifesto announced that tbn National Guards would take part In the procession. a proclamation boa be?n addressed to the National Guar-is, reminding them of their duties; and as tha students were tnjotn. another proclamation forbids the as Heiablnge of uny number of person* in the streets. Th< proclamations were, writea our oot respondent, placarded at the place of meeting In the course of the evening, where crowds had been assembling all day; but the fact of t' o suppression of the banquet, with all th< atterdtnt circu'.nstane<)s. was not generally known thixu^tiuut Paris until the appearance of the evening journals l be excitement than displayed was moit ex traPrdiBary. It was by main struggle that a paper could be procured, and so soon as the fortunate purchase] bud fought back bis way, with the paper crushed in hit hand, to save it tro'n b>iug sutidied away, he was surrounded by a uunibcrcf anxious listeners, to whom b< r>-:.cl the contents by the light of the nearest lamp oi (bop window. In a time inoredibly short, the paperi had disappeared, and not one was to bs had at all Aftei a lotifc interval. moie papers w?r# printed, and the boyi who Berried them to the stands at which the evening journals aro sold, would be intercepted, and the paperi breed from theax by competitors, who seemed ready to p iy any price. Adi to this tha spectacle of oanjaon Hml ammunition wagons occasionally arriving from Vinocnnes. Yet, strange to say, the fuads rose at th( Passage de l'Opera thirty ceutimes. "Do not mind that.''sal '1 a shr? wd observer to our correspondent; l-thos? peculators deal with immediate effects, and do not trouble their brads about distant contingencies. As they c.otne ti e speculators will de*l with them as marketabls commodities" Although the funds rose, the rumor had got wind of the intentions of the opposition to impeach ministers, and having presented the act of impeachment to re<iga en masse. Paris, Tuesday, Feb. 32, 1848. This morning I was early on foot, and the tirat thing that strui-k my attention was a troop of soldiers entering the hotel of a minister Kor some minutes thev were men to r;;<road through the cou.t and garden, and iher disappeared, in obei- i^nce, no doubt, to a prudent order Shortly Ki'CorwardH t^e Boulevards began to be fillet] with people, moving in considerable numbers and in th< direction of the Madeleine, for It i? at the Cale de la Ma> /ipleinn. at the corner of the Rue Royale, that the mem ber? of the opposition are in the habit of meeting. Pro everting towards the Bourse, through different streets, I Ouuld otis'-rvn nothing of nn unusual character. People wero pursuing th*>n- ordinary avocation*. Even ?h< pNor glazier, ui'h his frail load, was tranquilly oll>rir<) t0 nd window*. All looked p"ao?able and quiet ? AVhei*tTQr proclamations were posted up, crowd o curious "topped; bnt still no excitement AgentWmiti Wl]0iu I m told mo he had tioen up to the Rue d< < "halllot. 'i^He banquet ground was occupied by milita ry, ''Ut there ^?s eveu ther uo issemblase 1 proceedec through the Pa'lai* Jloyal; all wai quiet. 1 wwlkti across the garden ''1 the t'uileiie*. and. tur the first time perceived a crowd s??U>diog on the terrace overlaokinf ih- Place de la Consorde. It had rained during th< night; the ground was wet and the sky dull There were several people moving about In the Place de la Con cord*, but none stopping At length, say ?bout half pist 11 o'clock, a decse sa*<s of persons emerged from the Ru? lloysle, mostly wearing the blouse all marching abreast in perfect order, and shout ?? - *- i- Thin 1 n?i>i1 no lug 1U ciiwruB * ? tall yo? was u direct violation of the proclamation agai..st a' roup mrnti I waited until the whole of tb< rune arc.i wn? rule , anil it "ppear'd to Me that ihey d.J not cross tin bridge l?ading to the Chimber of Pepu tie*, but torned < B to the right as 11 towards Rue (.hail lot So solders presented themselves, but a few Are men coming trim the Hue Roy ale with their brass hal mam, com- jokingly said, " yon aro coming to extin guish tha firayt," and laughed An 1 returned I saw the troops turning eut ot the barracks of the Rue Neuve di Luxembourg, as if to take tbo procession behind, anc f made my way to a boat" near the hotel of the Prime Violator. Here 1 witnessed a long continued scene oi the moat datig*roua excitement; groups of persons be^an to asternul* to groan the minister, but they passed in At length I saw a crowd following lour National ..uirds abreast, on 4 this ciowd stopped and groaned and th n began to throw su>neg I saw some young boys k<nk at the gate, one of whom took up a huge paving stone and dashed it against the boatds, and th? prospect of a collision was growing imminent. A body of Municipal Guards, commanded by a commissary ol polk.* Li colored clothes, but wearing a tri-colored (usb, turned out Into tha court, and deliberately loaded theii guas. 'I hey were th?n drawu up before the door. A body of Horse Municipal Guards rode up and dispersed the mob Soldiers of tfc* Sine weia drawu up along the Boalevaril side of tha hotel, and a line ol Municipal Guards was druwn up in the garden, which is separated by a railiHg from tha Boulevard. The troops showed great foibearance. From time to tioe youli be heard " jSh n im dt la loi" froui the mouth of the commissary of police, oalllag on the people to disperse, and from the people, " Vive la Hgne," intended to flutter the soldiers Then there would be a charge from the Municipal Guards on horsnbaok, and the crowds would be dispersed only to foim again, until at Ust the plaoe rang with a universal chorus of la Marsriuaite. By about one o'cleck the avanuss about the hotol were pretty well cleared, but, above the part of the Boulevard where there were no soldiers, a dense mass had formed en each side Two companies ot horse Municipal Guards, earl: extending across tha whole street, patrolled up and dowa, the mob at both sides s ill staging and shouting, but the pollen, evidently no: intending to proceed to violent meuus so long at tbsy confined themselves to noise At on* mojient, the commissary of police had nearly bean earned off by the mob. yet amidst all tne provocation i wl.u shed i dim; sav that the authorities displayed the mojt ndiair*bl? temper anil forbearanoe. 1 wan told that la th* looming ihe leniale mxmbfri of the Prime Minister's family were teen to leave the Hotel, ami whatever faults the minister may himself iiave fallen into, no OT?f oould, I am sure, help fueling sympathy for his ng'd mother, wh> ne hunband >ii?d oy the'guillotine, one at ihe martyr* of the tt?et reirolutlou. iiir daughters. also, are yciumr ana lovely, aid dpsonh'd to bo of most affectionate depositions and unaffected manners As lor pollti opinions. 1 fh-.ll ouly say I at mtny soHnd headed * sous think that Louts i hilippe ought to have taken Mrora the Kitg of Piedmont, tne Grand Duke 01 T~J"* and other reforming aoferngns, and adopted ' . ..4 the ref<>rm movement, which. however if _ 8 ulr*01 - must leave the seeds of discontent be" l?i? djimsty to standing perils. It is SI1# ? announce ? law regulating the right wiVh^rnn <"C' 01 '1"?toral "n<l P*rliamOtttaof noting w th prom. >J<ht ^ tUf te>rrU)1# flcit? want whi,h I thla'day have -^'Von'the Prim* Minister*1 that I nw an attack ceramenc , f. ^ ??i?ter s hotel from n mob, among whom S*r*, ?,,1ard" homing Down with Hie nini.Ur,' ' *** L"?.'10 thiown. and preparations to broak ope ^ t" k v? , Pro" sence of the troop*, whom I s*w Ion 1 the r '?U!>aete, you muft allow that a sanguinary collision w? * TerJ ?mnii neat. Taris, Thursday morning, Fab- 24, The p?rt of the city from which I write, Is no# . ' the hands of the Insurants As far as I omi see along tJ* Boulevards, noihwig's to he s??n but person* cutting down tre<>s. pulling op pavements, and makin* barn ca'les. Theoi'ly totdlere in eight ar* a regiment of infan try nnd ? sqii" iron of cavaliy, drawn u^i in front of the Hotel il?s Affsires KtrawRi res. The grratest delight rsas shr.wc everywhere 00 th? announrienvrit ot tiio Ull of the mims;ry. Th s mob d<>eerted their barricades, a.id went in iminensu bodies nli .i^ the BnuWards, for ihe purpose of saluting M. Guizot with gio.ms, and proclaiming ttrir triumph, fcyerywhrr* tliey went th'-y forced th!? inhabitants to Illuminate, rnd the Kue de la Pals, the Place Vetidome, the B"nl?v?ids and, in f.ict, all*the best parts of Paris were illuminated m brilliantly as it the greatest joy existed, in* ead. ai the tact wni, that the ctiy was in posees'ion of the mob Tha etowd become at last so denae that the erale tv*s four, led, and largebodies of troops war* liroughv up Icr tno <iMono? <>i mo ?,i .?> girt .. tno o'clock it unforltin?rely occurred to ihe ri tors to demand the r- lease of th? prisoners, ami a large body went to the Palais de Justice for the purpose; but they were tired on in the Pliee do <J:? ve, and Rre?t uumtioK klllrd. Others w-nt towards lln .iff.if t F.t rttngirn, ior the name purpue, but some of i hera having uuloriunnt. y atUiupied to p?n?tr*te into M Qui*ot> oftlrial resldetoe, tor the purpose of forelng him to ^inmii ate 1m honor of hi* own Ml, the sol Hers drove ' took. A rufftiu then thrust a torch into the faoe the. . 0f soldiers, who flred his musket This whs 5?ont '*1 for a general discharge from the whole of the The sign may oonoeive the o "n fusion, for the lioulenne. iou -*d?d to txcw. It w?s an immediate irai/v* vard was oro. rut number were killed and wouuded In f!" ?"'u'?an<\? Hilar the number killed and wounded tun nig&t. Altog, ^ lt? pontequenoes, as upwards of tfU ' ? ^"?al cry, r armr,!' 1th, ;l,' "Jib*; futi la ractl" VI Aha, I-""" Phtltpp,! , immet.se Th.y I nummi! ' And th* **hpu*"* ' wm% , #K_ - . * returned to the barrio wlm; ai. iT'J, has been going on without inter. "P1100l h? whole of this morning the '? 00 every where. At the moment I aiu wr,t'nK immen?? riomiicri of troops, oavalrv and infantry", *re Hjntr P>i*t IWiictdee aie greeted in front ot every dcTT. The Ne tiouiil lititd*, wherever Uiey allow thenm Ives, are well received by the people. <>auer*l Lamorlc.iere bus just parsed in the National Guards' wiilorm at the heed ol a at sir in tfee tame dress Ha It oh* <red by tba people. Pahs, Fab. 34, Aftaraoo* It w ? on th? Tamlag of W*dB?4 1*7, *t tturee o'oloait ?- .w* iH"i - jb&k+ *** E NE1 NI I that M Rembuteau, the Prefect of the ftelne, waited upon i bis Majesty Louis Philippe, to Inform him that the Mul niclpal Council had decided on demanding the reslgnation of the ministry. His Majesty immediately convoked , i oounoil of minis'ers, and brought the subjeot before ; them. The ministers replied, " Sir?, r-nuoy r noui." | Having accepted th?ir resignation, the king sent for M. Vtolii, who replied that he acoepted ol the miw'i'ere dt I I'emwtf . The news of the resignation of the ministry spread like wildfire through Paris, and for a moment the fighting ceased In the evening, the Raes St. Honore, St. Martin, and Rambuteau were illuminated; the troops withdrew, with the exception of those stationed in the Pia-e da t'arrousel, before the Hotel de Ville and the Halles; they, however, allowed the people to move about wherever it pleased them Banda of oitia?ns, carrying torchos and singing the "Marseilaise and the chorus of the Girondlns," emerged, at intervals, from different streets, and then vanished in the distance, Intermingling their songs, by cries of d bat Quiz it! Vive U R'forme! Quiet seemed restored; but about ten o'clock a dense I mass, consisting ohirfiy of students, was seen advancing , lowaids the Hotel of the Ministor of Foreign Affilrs ? Th?y were stopped by the detachment of troops on duty before the hotel; they endeavored to force the passage, i when the troops shouldered th'ir muskets aud fired ? \bove sixty of the foremost fell killed or wounded, i This greatly exasperated the mob. and cries of " Quizot i (i la linternf," were shouted by some of the nnre furious , Barricades were immediately erected, and the deep tones i of tha tosoin pealed from the towers of Notre Dame. i VIEW OF FRANCE, BY AN EX-PRIVATE SECRETARY OF LOUIS PHILIPPE. THE CONDITION AND ORGANIZATION OK THIt PKOPLK ! Tne French, before the revolution of 1789, were divided into six classes?the clergy, the [ nobility, the parliaments, the so callled haute bourgeoisie (gentlemen, not nobles, but of independent fortune,) the merchants and tradesmen, and the peasants The only result of that revolution, and of all the other revolutions which succeeded one another, has been, the simplification of that division of the people. There are now but two clisscf.?the persons employed and paid bv the government (about 500.000,) and the rest of the people, nearly 34,000,000. In th<former state of France, which wus certainly bud enough, each of the classes, having opp mit interests and conflicting pretensions, acted as u check upon the others; and, with the exception of the peasants, who were the victims of all, knew pretty well how to resist the encroachment of rival classes. It must also be admitted, that elements of independence existed in every ou# >f these classes, and that hostility to the court was the predominant feeling of all; so that, in 'act, the absolute power of the king was conliuedwithin narrow limits,and the public liberties vere in some sort secured by party rivalries. The great evil was, the pride of the aristocracy, which was principally felt and resented by the townsmen of every rank, and by the peasants; and the exemption of the privileged orders from taxes. At present, nobility and ti'les are nothing in the State. The only acknow ledged superiority is derived from holding office under government?All that are not.employed? dukes, counts, plebeians?are equally crushed under the administrative despotism, und equally nelpltss in defending either public or private rights againsi tlie encroachments ot the government. Thus, the anarchy of castes, existing previously to the French revolution, has been succeeded by their annihilation under the tyranny of an irresistible and irresponsible power. STATISTICS OF T1IK FRENCH POPULATION. The population ot France is, at present, above 34,400 000 (.inhabitants, who are disseminated iver the country; not, as in Kngland, congregated at many points in large masses. With the exception of Paris, there is but one city, Lyons, containing 100,000 inhabitants; eight containing trom 40,000 to 70,000; and about twenty-five containing more than 20,000. According to the last ceneus, 7,650,000 inh buants live in 2,194 cities or towns (reckoning as such, places with a population of 1,500 or more individuals), and 26,(500,000 livr in 35,900 rural communes (villages and hamlets). This obviously indicates, that agriculture is the employment ol tiie greater part of the popuation, as will be seen from a division of tno in jtaouanis, according 10 uieir occupations :? j 1. Agriculturists of *11 ranks, with their fa, inillfs 18,260,000 I J. Tradesmen of all kinds, with their famikits 0 1180,000 I 3. Mxnufaoturers, baukurs. raerobants, re1 ttilers, with thrir workmen, clerks, assistants, and families 4.190,000 4. SoirutiQo and learned {.rofessions 760,000 ! 5 People of independent property, without , trade or prot'ssion, living on their income 640 000 >1 Functionaries paid by the government.. 1,096 000 , 7. The army tie navy, aui. State pensioners 620 000 0. Paupers 1,855 000 Total 34,400 000 With this view, I proceed to a subdivision. The threejirst classes?the agriculturists, the tradesmen, and the manufacturers and merj chants, are composed of masters and servants, or workmen. The following table will show in i >vhat proportion they stand:? Class m Maittrs. Servants?Work mm Vgricullurists 1.394 000 16,866,000 Tradesmen 1,168,000 6,812 000 vianuf*oturers, Ato 764 000 3 426,000 Total 8,326,000 26,104,000 The result of this subdivision is, that the three elates are now reduced to two. The first, composed oi 3,326,000, devoting their capital and iheir intelligence to the pursuits of agriculture and industry, are, in some sort, independent. The second, amounting to 2H,104,000, have no fit hpr o m ni fM I th:m thrir hrwiilv afreiiofh. which hey let on hire to those wtio compose the first. This is the working class, owing their daily luead to their daily labor, aud precluded by their poverty and their occupations trom all participjion in municipal or political action. Adding to their number the poor, the indigent. estimated u 1,855,900, we have a total of 27,i"5;5,il()0 individual completely shut out from civil life; in one word, the French helots. Persona living 011 their income, and those engaged in learned or scientific professions, form he superior class, being more independent, "ither by their fortune or by their acquit ements Finally, by adding tlie state p. nsioners, the army and the nuvy, to the paid functionaries, we obUin a complete classification of the population of France, as folio we:? 1st cUra?The working oImms, the poor, the h*l?t? 27.9S9 000 ill Agrioultariita and ind uirith . . . 3,3JB,0(J0 .id cIms? Lnirue 1 an J ncicntlflo profession*, *nd people living ou their Income 1.400.000 4'h ciAfi?Paid olMoi*l?, array end navy.. , . 1,715 oeo Total 34 400.000 We now begin to perceive the causes of the ' power of the French government, and of the , lethargy of the people, under the uncontrolled absolutism of their rulers. We see that the go- , vernnient ban not to contend against 34,000,000 Mibject#. 27,959,000 of these subjects are of n*c-ssity helpless. They have no means of mflu. iynn<? the legislative or ministerial measure*; tiiey have no time to attend to them; nay, they oat; not know them. Tliey can, indeed, feel ? idem; they feel them, in the view of a scanty meal, aurrounded by famishing children, or at ui./Kt nt ?11 # iMV.fr itlmrer Mini n( the ir??nilarnto rh-only right they have, id that of being sitis- ' fied with their halt ration. Pay thry must, or go ' to prison. A curse, many curses, may Bwell their ' hottoms", hut there they must remain entombed. Resistance is impossible; tliey are isolated?they are disarmed Furor armn minixtrat? True; hut, poor fellows! they know ihai three glorious <lay? and a day of magnanimous triumph, leave | their families without bread during lour days, and, besides, may afterward* leave themselves without work during many months. The government has to contend only with the j second and third classes, amounting to 4,726,- ( 01(0 individuals; but, besides being supported by 1,700,000 functionaries, with 500,000 well- . loaded muskets, and thousands ot cannons always prepared tor wholesale murder, the French rulers have many other means of preventing all resistance on the part of those classes. On that head no fears can for an instant be entertained. . We must remnuber, that it is Irom amongst the members ol these classes that the government choose the honorary officials, as well as j those who, although unpaid by the treasury, derive a good income from their offices or mouopo- , lies. More t .an one third of these two classes must be deducted from that numerical force, and 1 >e enrolled in ihc opposite ranks. The conflict. j r!ir is between 3,139,000 independents and 3 302 0?*? dependents, the government having a 1 '"X/.1. mlmritv" 'nu"1 still he increased, by the i tddiUOOOt HlW for oilier who know that their only chance of getting anything i is, by outstripping the hold?''' office them W YO SW YORK, MONDAY M( selves in their zeal for ?h' support of the government. Besides this, many of those belonging to the second class art- very little, it at all. above thoBe of the lowest, the helots. What is a poor conntry baker, or smith, or grocer, or joiner 1 Yet they form the half of the second class, with the retail dealers and small shopkeepers; so that more than half a million must asain be deducted from the independent portion. They, of necessity, are dependent on the mayor ana the clergyman of tile village. As to the rest of the two classes, there is nothing easier th in to prevent their being arrayed against the government. The French ruiersknow that well, and they act accordingly. By customs duties, protective taxes, and premiums, they have set the agriculturists against the manufacturer*; the manufacturers against the colonial interest; the colonial interest, against the tradesmen and merchants; and each against all the rest The merchant of ll'ivre is intent upon the annihilation of the sugir manufacturers of Arras. The iron master of the Haute iV/arneknocks down the wine grower of the Giroude; and the royal forester levels his gun at the coalUeaver This is, nccordiny to the doctrine of la pondiration dex forces, the political equilibrium of the popular nlMtiUfu XiwL ia fliA nnlittnul ucionno tn<-? nt*W conquerors ot the Gauls. Mere again occurs the question. How can an intelligent and people allow themselves to be misled by such doctrines, und tr .inpled upon by such doctrinaires? Let us, in answer to this question, consider the intellectual condition of the people. The published or sp.)ken accounts of our English tourists in France, the self praising und bombastic comptes rendu* annually presented und printed by the minister tor public instruction, and the amazing number ot literary publications, however bad they be, have not prepared my renders for hearing that, with the exception of the Russians, the French are probably the most iguorant people in Europ . duch, however, is the fact, as established by other comptes rend us, also annually presented iind printed, bv another equally high authority, ih(5 Minister of the War Department. It is known, that the stability, the hohor, and power of the French government rest on a standing arm v, 400 000 men strong; and that every year 80,000 men are drawn by lot,for military Bervice, from among all the young men who, during the year, have attained their twenty-first year of age. To ascertain the progress of popular instruction, the recruiting and civil authorities have been enjoined to examine and report the educational condition of all the. young men at the moment they are bronpht to be drawn. The official returns, presented by the Minister, on the instruction of this class of the popula- j tion, recognise three degrees of ignorance, and three of instruction. Taking these returns as the basis of o tr calculations, we find the following results for the whole of the population:? lit?Unable to r*ad and to write 16 855.000 id?Able to read, bnt not to write 7 097,000 3J?Heading and writing, but inoorreoUj.... 6 968 000 4ih?Reading at>d writing oorreotly 2,430,000 ath?Having the elements of classical education 735,000 8th?Having completed their classical studies 316,009 Total 34,400000 I must observe that, in the preceding computations, I have applied to the whole population of France an average which, according to the official returns, applies only to the virile population. It is known that, all over the continent, but particularly in rrauce, the instruction of young yirls is considered, by the laboring classes, as much loss necessary, and is much T'ss attended to, than that of their boys. I cannot, therefore, foe accused of exaggeration, when, overlooking this fact, and extending to the whole the results of the investigation made on one half, and ] which cannot, by any certain process, be made on the other half of the population of France, I conclude that two-thirds of her population are in i state of complete ignor.ince; one-fonrth is in a state of comparative ignorance; one-fourteenth l>art only can rend and write correctly; and not one in a hundred has completed a course of classical studies A point, which appears to me of the utmost importune, is to ascertain, as far us possible, in what proportion the four classes of the population participate in the six decrees of ignorance or of instruction, as it may lead to the discovery of the real causes of the moral weakness, and of i he consequent violence of the government. The following table will answer the purpose:? <LAMK? OF THE rOPUHTION Degrees tVork'g Agricul- J earned Paid Total, j of Igno- Classes, turalists] Prof.fin- O/fl-e.ials ranee <J" Helots <|* Manu- dependent Jhmy <finstruc facturers property. Aluvy. ti>n. Ifntranre. Him ... 15,271,0iO ?81,000 282,800 421,600 16,855,000 ecoim.. 5 9Vj 00 758,(100 181,000 JI9HOO 7 (197,000 , Third.... 5.8,8.000 604.000 136,000 3)0,000 *,968,000 j Instruction. KilK .. . 875.000 789.000 3)0,000 436,00# 2,430 CfO second.. 19,000 818 000 216 000 22! <00 735,000 1'iiirJ... 1 001 46.000 21)1,000 67,000 315 rOO Total..27 959,000 3,326 080 1,400,000 1,715,000 31,400,000 The first observation which the foregoing table suggests, is, that, in the distribution of instruction amongst the four classes of the population, the govermeutal and administrative class is far from having any advantage. The third class, although less numerous, reckons 436,000 individuals, having received a classical or complete education, and only 625,000 ignorants, (the children of that class.^ whilst the governmenlal class includes only 299,000 individuals completely educated, and the number of ignorauts amounts to 980,000 The second class, the agriculturists and the manufacturers, is also much superior, with regard to instruction, to the governmental and administrative class. Besides 7??9,000 individuals having received a good general education, there we find 294,000 men having the advantage of a classical and scientific education. Finally, the governmental class does not include the fourth part of the educated portion of the people, and therefore the doctrinaires are not justified in saying that their government rests upon I'arittorrntif dc? lumibrta. But to have the condition of the people still better understood, and to appreciate with still ;reat?r accuracy how France stands with regard to her government, we must again proceed to another sub-division of the population. Of the lf4,400,000 inhabitants, more than the half are excluded, by their sex or age, from all civil or political action. We therefore must withdraw them from our calculations. rhf uumbfti ol Irj Franco l? 17,233 000 Under 21 jaiiri cf age 8 2S7TOO Of 21 vmm of or fthnv*. . _ 8 9A5 000 Phe to!el of the male population I* 17,164 000 UnderSI year*ofiige 8.143 000 l)f. or above 11 years of age 8.016,000 Thus the active part of the French population, te? citoytns nrtifs, those who are entitled to civil lights, amount to 8,91(5,000; and those really compose what we call the French people. These " citoyrn? actifa" belong to tlie four [. lasses in tlie lo.lowing proportion? l?t?The workiag olarse* on J paupers 6 585,000 id ? Manu acturing, trading, and agrtcnltursl capltaliits #17,000 3d?Learned proiesdons, and independent inoom'H 43ft 000 Ith ? r.tidcffloials, army, navy, and pensioners 070 000 Total 8,916 000 It is ol some importance to know in what prolortion general education is diffused amongst lie lour classes of activc citizens; and it is shown in the following table? Active Clutet Ci(ism$. Educated. Uaeducff'd Klr?t 6 585,000 804 000 ft ,601 0011 leoond #17 000 881 000 4.) ,0011 Third 435.000 10 87.000 * fourth MU000 637,000 aoi ooof The superiority of the third and second classes, with regard to instruction, over the class of ilacemen, is now evident. In tho-etwo classes, herelor>-, the faults, the abuses, the misdeeds of he government cannot pass unobserved, unr-'sisud or unresented The only resource of a >fc?l government is to weaken resistance, and to >revent resentment from becoming rebellion; itid that is Hone, as I Hinted betore, by givm; iboi\t 280,000 honorary otlices and monopolies ?f professions und trades to their favorites in ho>e two classes. This gives them a lumerical majority of 2S0 over their opponents; ind then every thing m carried on as it pleases the tilling pariy. Yet it is not so much on bccount of their intellectual qualifications, as on account of their property, that the government f ivors or disregards the members of the several clusses Property is i very thing, and therefore I must try to Hive an idea of the distribution ol property, and * In thl*ola*<< not only every one la sducaterf, but alio 871 women < r youthfi under twentj-one year* of age. t The state of the army and navy aocoanta for thl* lgnoranoe It appear* that of every 1,000 ctntcrtti, 500 do not know their alphabet. RE. U )RNTNG. MARCH 27. IF of the supposed incomes, in the following table of the direct taxes:? Taxri paid 8'ippottd fncim* P' upri'tura. From to From t'i 1,000fr. any amount 9 00ofr ?ny amount. 19.900 500 1,000 4 500 ,..9 000 98 800 300 500 2,700 4,500 52 500 200 300 1 800 2,700 110,000 160 200 1,350 1 800 155,000 100 150 900 1,350 197,000 #n 100 720 900 264 000 61) 80 540 720 345.000 40 60 360 540 887,1'flO 20 40 180 S60 1,195 000 10 20 90 180 2,315 000 Under 10 Under 90 3,850,000 Total of the proprietor* 9,165,200 The total number of the tax-payers being 9,165,000, whilst the number of "active citizens" is only 8,896,000, it follows that amnne the taxpayers there are i\t lenst 500,000 females, or mincisj, to make up the iliffert nce,un<tto account for he indigeut aHult who do not pay. The first. class ol the population, the working class, pay almost the whole, of the tuxes utider forty Irunes Every individual of that class in 'he country fortunately has a house, a most miserable one, p rimps, hut still a house of his own, and a small plot of girden attached to it, where he grows vegetables in sufficient quantity f >r his family Many have an orchard, and some . *ve have half an acre, an acre, or even more of at tble land, to grow corn, or to feed a cow, or a irv.' pigs The average amount of their earnings is 430 franc*, (?18) a ye.tr. With this, a laborer keeps his family, aud saves a few francs every year to purchase a small parcel of land. The taxes, from forty to 200 I'rancH, are principally paid by the second clasj, and by the fourth A small part ol them only is paid by the learned or scientific gentlemen belonging to the second ul ;ss, who pay the highest rate of taxes; and thus the third class, the least numerous, has the greatest share in the distribution of wealth, and of education. We have now a complete idea of the state of the French population, with regard to hs division acording to six, age, education, aud property; but we have something more to say on the condition of the 8,890,000 aduit individuals really composing the French people, and called ' active citizens" because they exercise theii civil rightsThe rights of a Frenchman, when he becomes a citizen by completing his twenty-first year, art the following :? 1st. To draw lot for the coDRcrlption, and, if the chance Is against him, to be made a soldier, and pass the b*st part of his life, if he does not lose it, in scouring Kurope under a Napoleon: and, under the Citizen King in a oareer of butchery, pillage, and devastation in Africa, or evon in France. Nearly a third part of the yiung men who arrive at twenty-one years of age, are uunually compelled to exercise this right. Those who ilraw a good number have the right of composing the moveable national guard, and of being oalled to active military service, if tne exigencies of the government require it 2d The right of paying the capitation tax, (le r.onlri hutiun pcrtonni'lle), and the licence duties (let jiatentri) The right af paying all the other taxes is enjoyed by al persons, without regard to rex or age, when they hav< an.v property. Tho former is a privilege. 3d. The right of acquiring or disposing of property bj ^le or mortgage; of contracting binding obligations o my sort; of suing or biing sued in any court ol'civil law <>r being appointed trustee to orphan ar lunatic relations in one word, of conduoting his own and his fhmily'i business as he thinks proper, subjeot to the legal and fiscal, or other regulations, imposed by Ihe government, Such are the civil rights ot the French citizen They are more properly called individual rights as they refer only to the private acts of indivi duals, and not to their conduct as citizens, at members of a community, or of a political bodv Ah members of a community, the citizen* have or lit l^ast ought to have? communal (or, as thej are call d, municipal) rights; and, as members of a political body, they ought to be allowed tc exercise political rights This is not the case, ("he municipal and political organization of France, having for its object only to strengthen the influence of the government, cannot be founded on a popular b tsis. That organization now demands our attention, and we will begin with the municipalities. the municipal organization. A commune, as hns already been stated, is either a city, a town, a village, or a group of small villages, or hamlets. The communal, or municipal authorities, are, a mayor, ?nn adjoint, or assistant, in communes containing less than 2,000 inhabitants; two ndI'linrs in the communes having from 2,500 to 10,000 inhabitants; and one adjoint more for every 20,000 inhabitants above 10,000, in all the other communes; together with a municipal council composed of ten members for 500 inhabitants; twelve, for from 500 to 1,500; sixteen, 'or from 1,500 to 2,500; twenty-tme, for from 2.600 to 3,500; twenty-three, for Iron 3.500 to 10,000; twenty-seven, for from 10,000 to 30,000; and thirty-six, for above 30,000. The municipal councils are elected, not byall, but by a part only of the " active citizens" of the commune, in the following proportion: ? There are ten electors tor every 100 inhabi* tants in the communes under 1,000 inhabitants. Above 1,000, there are, lor every additional 1000 live electors for every 100 inhabitants, till the population is above 5,000; when the proportion is lour electors per cent, tor 15,000, and then three per oont for above 15,000 inhabitants. The electors are the highest rated people of the commune. This dcs not imply that they are the rich of the country?quite the contrary; most of them are hardly above the working clases, or are confounded with th-m, for tho greatest number of these electors belong to the rural communes, under 1,000 inhabitants The uumber of those communes is 34,500, and their population is about 21,800,000 inhabitants; and, m many cf those communes, the highest taxpayer could not be a communal elector in a more populous locality, or in a town. The municipal electors of the rural communes not only bi. long to the poor classes, but also to the ignorant classes ! as it is principally in the villages ihat education is most neglected, 17,800 of them having no communal schools. There, then, the government lias not to fear meeting with much opposition from the electors. Meing poor, they are dependent; and, being ignorant, they can be imposed upon, and therefore their number may be large without any danger. But, m the towns and in the cities, where there are wealth and education, independence and knowledge, there is need of precaution; and tne number ol the electors must therefore be reuuced.in proportion to the importance of the place; not, as it is said, because they would be too numerous, but, in order to be enabled to influence majority of them. The proof is, that without any qualification, most of the functionaries, iuid any one havin? a retiring pension of 600 franca, are, e.c-officio, municipal electors. The municipal electoral body being thus constituted, it is plain that the government has no reason to fear much for the coinji sition of the municipal councils Liberals, oppositionists, nny be elected; nsy, in some cases, the majority of the councilmen may belong to the opposilion;but th^ government is always certain to obtain me flection r>l live or six or us supporters, and that answers all its purposes, since it enables it to choose a mayor and the adjoiats from amongst its own partisans. In tne towns of :i,0<)i) inhabitants, or more, the mayors and the adjoints are nominated by the King In nil the other places, they are appointed by the prefects; and these officials, although unpaid, aie, particularly in the rural communes, the i..ost subs-merit of all the funetionaries. The government well knows how much a halleducated peasant is jealous of his authority, and tond of exercising 11 over ms betters ho the mayors and their assistants are generally chosen, not from amongst the old lords of the manor, who are, for the most part, legitimists; or from amongst the best educated, these being generally liberals; but from that class of men, who, conscious <>t thf ir [ ersonal inferiority, are always inclined to make their superiors f> el their official power. There is hardly an example of the mayor chosen by the King or t e prefect, being the member of the council who hos obtained the greatest number of votes. By such m-ans, the communal adminstration is reduced to a Vf ry simple process. The minister transmits his commands to the pref ct?; the prelects trasmit thtm to the mayors; and every one obeys and submits. The muncipal councils have no means of opposing the execution of these commands. Thes* councils cannot meet but when called on, or allowed to do so, by the prefect; and they cannot discuss, 111 th? lr assembly, uny other matter tha? that specified in the instrument of their convocation. If they act contrary to tins, all their deliberations are void; and, as they cannot legally meet without having first usked permission from the prefect, and at the same time announcing the object of their meeting, it is eviden' that the prefect, by refusing the necessary authorisation, is always able to defeat their objects. This ia not all. If one of these municipal j [ERA! 148 councils, assembled by order or permission of i w the prefect Jo discuss a question, conies to a d?- ' a cision contrary to the views of the prefect and n of the government, the prep ct is uthoriz-d to | quash mid annul that dt-ciaion; and, it the coun j cil persists iu its opposition, a royal ordinance, on the demand of the prefect, pronounces its 1 dissolution There are, at this present moment, many municipalities without councils, on ac- I count of their having opposed the mode ol re- v cenxtmmt (the census) ordered by the minister t of finance. t The communal electors, iu such circum- t stances, ar^ generally disposed to side with the s municipal councillors; and to re-elect them, 1 when dismissed for having done their duty to I their fallow citizens To guard nifaint such re- ( lection, the king is authorized to suspend the I municipal elections, and to appoint mayors, ad- c joints, and councilmen ot his own choice Such li is the law passed in March, 1881, eight months t after the revolution of July ! We must not imagine rh.it it is only when in- i terfering in political matters, thut municipal fi councils are exposed to the rebukes of the pre- ci lects, to suspension or to dissolution. They a have no occasion, no opportunity for considering v political questions, and tliry do not attempt to I transgress the prohibitions They attend to the 1 interests of their localities The maintenance J or the establishment of a school; the repairing of a church, ot abridge, ot a road, at their own ex- 1 pense, and according to their own views; the regulations for keepiug the streets in proper order, are the only subjects which they can din- ? cuss, and that only after havin; first asked per- 1 mission of the sub-prefect, who refers the de- 1 inand to the prefect, who grants or refuses the 1 authoriz ition to summon and assemble the council Not a frtnc can be expended for any pur- j pose without that authorization. The communes, before the revolution, had some pro|>erty in wood* and lands; but that property has generally been taken from tliem, and . now their only revenue is a percentage (centimes | iidditionnels) on the direct tax< s Th it r venue not being sufficient to cover the expenses, in the large communes and the towns, they provide for the deficiency by the octrois, the duty imposed | upon the provisions introduced into the place, and by more additional centimes; but they csnr not do that?they cannot even meet to consider the neces&ity or the practicability of the inea| sure, without the assent of the prefect. ' | Ot course, the representatives of the prefects, the mayors, scarcely ever fail to execute the or^ ders transmitted to them, and often go beyond t their instructions. The municipal councils can( not prevent it. They have no authority but i when assembled; and the mayors are not inclined i to propose tneir convocation, in order to have ' their own misconduct inquired into. ' The prefects can order the assembling of the J councils when they want their approbation to . carry any measures; but those measures being frequently not for the interest of the communes, . but profitable only to the government, are accordingly rejected by the councils, which is generally 1 the cause of their suspension or dissolution. At 9 their regular quarterly meetings, the municipal councils have no other power than to receive and 1 f pass the accounts presented by the mayor, of the authorized expenditure of the commune during | the preceding three months. Most of the couni oilmen, in the rural communes, know very little I of reading and writing, and still less of arithmetic. N?y, many thousands of the mayors them selves, belong to the uneducated cli^a We > m?y infer, then, that those account-, however " unsatisfactory, are hardly ever found Unit with. ' In the towns and large cities, this is n t tl?e case Tuere the members of the councils Ho not ? so easily submit to the discretion of the m tvois ' and to the will of the prefects. They at least re' sent the abuse of authority on the pan oi those ' functionaries, and seize every opportunity of j stigmatizing their nets, when tln v can do no more. The fact is, that, of the 2,200 Lo>*?n councils, more thin sixteen hundred ar^ in o>>p"S'tion to the system of the governni ut.Hnd it .principally on that account that tii >v. nimc.it has so completely crippled the iitutui .lathoi.i^ of those municipal bodies. The municipal councils are r newed one-half ( i every three years; and every three years, alter the election of the new councilmen, the mayors and adjoints are appointed. All, however, may be, and generally are, re-elected I conclude the exposure of this mockery of a municipal administration by an enumeration of the electors and aaentsi? ( The unmberof the "aotive citixem" in 8.896.000 ( The communiil electors amouut to 8,7M,M0 I'be communal counoilmen 426,000 In this new division of the population, we ' hxve, 1st, 6,101,000 active citizens debarred from all participation, '*ven in the communal can- t< cerns; 2nd, 2,795,000 whose interference ia limited to the election of councilmen, who are pro- v l''ssedly chosen to manage the affairs of the t| commune; 3d, 426,000 communal councilmen, ,| who are, t?y law, prohibited doing any thing un- ^ der any circumstances, but what pleases the ? king, the ministers, the prefects, the sub-pre- c fects, the mayors, and the assistants. ? Yet is this the only institution which really t proceeds from any considerable portion of the people, and which can be said to belong to the / people, from the condition, the habits, the r occupations, the interests, the feeling, the t amount of property, and the degree of instruction c or of ignorance of the electors and the elected I! id as the lnw is, it does not answer all the pur- j poses of the government. In almost every one of the municipal councils, there are, at the least, j three or four morally independent men, who | lead their colleagues; and, if they cannot v propose and pass any of those measures which r they consider beneficial to their localities, th^y ? oppose, u far u speaking and roting can do it, . the official measures which they deem injurious , or obnoxious to their fellow citizens. They feel ? their impotency, they claim a real muncipal r authority; and, almost every where, the councils , are arrayed against the authorities which they t ar? bound to obey. Before long, then, the law v of 1831 must be altered; the number of communal electors and couiicumen must be considerably educed, so as to ensure the submission of all. Xlk. U??>lnlli>n < *- 1BLU Th> niha> "Now nono go poor ai to Jo him reverence." Mr. Editor?1 have been very much stir prised nt the universal condemnation of tiie fl] fallen dynasty of France. Looking upon the reign of Louis Philippe as the very best that > ever existed for that country, and accustomed a? h I have been to read in all th- journals the most 11 extravagauteulogiuinson all his measures,it has y been with gr<*at astonishment that 1 have not a heard one voice uplifted to stay the torrent ot ? most patriotic ind'gnition against the measures ? which have produced such astounding results, n Any person ot ordinary capacity, who his ? paid attention to th'1 proceedings in France for ' ihe last year, must have foreseen that a crisis u was impending which required th" most vigo- ll rous exertions on the part of thgovernment to avert I look upon tli?*se reform banquets as j,, akin to the Jacooin clubs of the last century; at and so, doubtless, did th>> government ot Louis ti Philippe. As they were entirely contrary to law, th it w is clenrly the duty of the ministry to put them down But let us suppose that this bunquet had taken place?what would have b'-en 8 the result! Can any one doubt! Look at th pro- m gramme. A double line of National Guards, (of ,j, course subscribers to the banquet,) through *u which were to pas-?, first, the supt rior officers In of the same guards, then the invited guests " and subscribers, then the National <iuard, in columns, accoidin^ to the nuinbur of their le- '' gions, then the, stud' nts, who, when there is uny disturbance, always act their part, then Nutional Guards from the city and neighborhood, \\ close the cortege. Now, eari my one imagine ?ti that this imposing procession, end all the attend- I I ing circumstances, would not have called out an co immense number of spectators, and tluit the government, lor it? own security, would not have li ad all the trot ,s under arms! To every tnnni- 2 festation, song, toast, or sentiment inside, ail v? immediate response would have been made out- to side, and som very patriotic chiffonier from the th citi, had only to cry out what a very tine thing it foi wasto mourir pour In patrie; anoth r to blow .-nil the brains of s mie unsuspecting otlicer, lb ihe Marstillaiae, a bat Guixot, then mourn- />our la Patrie again, tnen the barricade*, then lit i pub- [ lique, then the flight of tne meilleure repytbhctr, | and f^rand finale, the sacking of the l.ni.* . and the Palais Royal, where tne afor ttiotic chiffonier and his r.< feder.iteu i > riously drunk Irom C amour de la patrie. I y Now, seriously, Mr. Editor, is not a.I tl ' V? truel And what is the object l 1 answer, a dim , a gle for power. Will any one pr< te.< i n - Mi > Gamier Pegs*, Odillon IWrot, l.'o > de vi vilie, or any other of the fifty-three <lei.ut < i a ,io ' signed the act of accusation, love tin ir country 1 m', any belter than tiuizot, Sauzet, Salvaudy, or the j to< conservative deputies ? No, no?a thousand i pa times no. The first mentioned had the mob bo " n \ -A J* J* Prlet Two OMta. nth them, ami whoever comannds th?"n will lwavs succeed in Pari*. Do not mil nl" ii<i 1? ? I know that r'?er.- itr muiy i>ir' v - il l' in] lit Fr ncluii'" <*,!i h' ' ' ;*! Iir rcpub'ic wo1 db the beat i mr h- ir fuuutrv; hut I would . sk *v 1 i' I ' ' ' n show ? Look bwk 'if '1?l{ ; i .1 *' or, nhi11', consul^t-, !r?*. r t'i i \ id inaliy ill.* | i||cn coiHtuntion il in i i ?i [) v vill i itch enmp'tr** with i -r f A no he adv.intnge* to Fr-ine v ? t / in iv >r I lie latter ? When lor / i'e "i / 1 Iih t i lingdom enjoyed such r- ! -V i n h t > ihe been in rf r^Bpec'ed at li > n m l thro id? iVhen ha* li-r comm^rc and min i t if-1 teen mor<" flourishing or in t nnr.- i^ii'iv :ondition 1 I should like to know vh-n.? "ifow all has been changed by t'l i o* >k" t fe v lesigning politicians, and I rat i rthink infers live yone a little further t'i in ev*"i tm>y m ? ndeq. But if they nre to have a republic, th ?n [ i ?pj lie people will insist upon u iivtsi iutfniT"? five the -ey-jtem a ftir trial?Irt v ry Fr- "hm "i it' twenty-one ye ua of a<e com n ? to h ,io U .nd give his vote; and my lite on it, two y-ir.< vouid not roll round b-fore th * very m-u w'i > iuve stirred up this volcano, would (if their leads are left on th* lr should th ) jflad'y wel omeback any member of the Orlemi family, rhe French are no more fit for a republic tna? he Americans are !or i monarchy. -lima, hi coneiuson, i wouia nrg* .n? ir Louis Philippe his erred, (which is not my opinion,) do not let his rn*ny virtues b; i>rgotten; do not let the many advaUt^'-t wiuoi luv lccru'-d t.< Fiance from his reigu, be swallowed up or unheeded, and universal condemnation, amounting almost to execration, fall upon the nearl of one .vho has crtaiuly done an urn* i tor t boll* FlUM. An Ambkican ClTlXCM Cixcinnatt, March 8, 1848. The late Legislature of Ohio will be long remembered by the people. Perhaps so wise, so culm, so dignified a body never before assembled ni the State. A!l whose names are enrolled on the journals will doubtless look back to th?' session of 1847-8 with peculiar pride, and their chil dren and children's children, will, in time to come, recur to this period with exultation. Oh, most wise and patriotic men, how much do the people owe you for your noble deeds ! As a specimen of the diguitj,' of their proceedings, I may r-ler to tlia rebellion of the fifteen loco-toco Senators, for no other reason iu the world than because, by the division of Hamilton into legislative district*, the supremacy ol their party in this ciiy would be endangered. An account of this atliir his already been published in the Herald A specimen of the wisdom of our Legislature may be tound in the new law in relation to banking. That law makes it unlawful for any bank, broker, or private banker, to deal in the notes of any bank, save those of the State of Ohio, and nil debts contracted tor such foreign paper, with auy bank or broker, is declared null and void, provided the paper is obtained tor circulation within this State. I send you a copy of this extraordinary enactment, which it may be well to publish. The operation of this law, if its provisions wer^ strictly enforced, would produce most serious conseouences. We have not enousrh of domestic paper for the busings? of th<; people, and consequently th.* notes of the Indiana and Kentucky banks have found their way into the rttate, and constitute a large proportion of our circulating medium Withdraw tiie*? notes, and we will not have money enough among us tor ordinary business purposes, and our commerce must furiously suffer. But no one his iny idea thai the law will be carried into effect. In order to obtain the notes of the banks of other States, a man has but to say that he wishes to irculate tnem out of the State, and all is right. Jutthis does not exculpate the whig majority, ho i'. h- d the law, tmd upon whom the responsibility restn Not at all. They had the will, in not th? wi.idom, to do a mean thine. Last night, the anniversary of the battle ol Uerralvo was celebrated at Washington Hall in i spirited manner, on which occasion a splenlid sword was presented to Major Giddings, !lie hero ot that memorable contest. It was the ?ift ot the brave regiment which he then led to victory. A most melaucholy occurrence transpired in /berry Alley a few nightssince, at the residence if Mr Thomas Andrews. Mr. A and lady wer? !?seut, when one ot her children went near the rate, by which her clothes caught fire, and beore assistance could be obtained, she was urned to death. What a scene was presented o the alHicted mother on her return ! A young girl, about eighteen years of ng?, /hose friends reside in Newport, Ky., opposite his city, committed suicide a few days ago, uner peculiarly distressing circumstance. She iid been Hi'' victim of seduction and abandonrieut, and for the last lew years had lived a life if shame. Ia despair, she took the last leap, and low rests from her sorrows in ths voiceless oinb. The funeral of the brave Captain Irwio, U. S. V., who dif-d itt (Ik* city of Mexico, and whose einains were brought to this city for interment, i?ok place on Thursday last. The military wer? iut, und a vast number of citizens joined in the rocessi?n. He was a fiue ollicer, and " every :nch a man." Ephraim H. Eastman was arrested last week, n his room, at the National Hotel, for countereitinjj. He was entrapped by a policeman, who vent to his room to " pure lime " some of the noney ; about $20,000, composed ot counterfeit lotes on the various Western banks, was dismayed to his ast< nithed eyes, by the unsuspectne Eastman, aud while nv^oiiatioris were going is, the guilty man was arrested by several other dheers, who, uccoidinjj to previous nrransjanents. came in at that moment Eastman has leen duly committed, and will doubtless be collided and scut to the penitentiary. Old Itougli an'l Ready to Ueneral Sfott Hitaii Qi ahtisv Arm? or Occupation, ) Camp near Victoria, Muxiuo, January Ifl, 1147. ) Sir:?In a communication aldresvd this day 10 your aff officer, I have replied to so much of your letter of in titU instant, anil its enclosure* its relates to points of tail; but iheri'are oth-r and grave topics embraced in ios? communications, to which I deem it my right and iv iluty to rnpiy diroetiy. The amount of toto to be drawn from this frontier, id tho manner in which It is proposed to withdraw it, \d nUTor fully o^nia to my knowl"di{>i until yesieri.ty, iou<{h hinted at in your note of Nmaailier 2V ii ou, (Ipn'r.il, relieved me at once in the wholo command, od am^ned me tf> 4uty under your ord?r, or aliosred ie to retire from the Held, baassured thut no complaint rould lii?vo bflen hoard from me; but whll? almost every ran of my regular fores an ! half the volunteers, (now i roapeotable discipline) ?ro wnuarawn tor distant Mtice, It term* that I Am rxpeotod, with I'M thaw a thou ind regulars ?n t a volunteer f.'rce, pirtly of new levies, i hold a defanoiv-e line, while a 1 irx? may of more than x'ulj tlir.u.?au-i ni n is lo my front. I speak only "t a defensive 11 n??; lor the idea of nssii iu^ olft). s I v e operations iu the direction at Snn Luis / ' laroh, or even May, with aucti troops as c in then be my dispoiition, iaijutto too preposterous to be enter mod lor a moment After all that I have written t e department on the subject of such operations, I id it difficult to b*lieve th*'. I Rtn Jenou^ly expected t<. adei teko them, wiiU the extraordinarily limited moan" my disposal ( cmnot. mlnun lersUnd the object of the nrra"?* ents indicated in yonr letter*. I feel that I have it e confidence of the government, or it would not h-r" ff?ri>d m? to remiin, up to thin time, Ignorant "fits iinntions, with ao vitally affecting committed my charge. But however much I may f el personally ortlflel and outraged at the o nrae pursued. unprecemted, at least, in our own history. I w 11 carry out in 0"! faith, while I riunia in Mexico, th? views of the ivcruBit nt, though I may be sacrificed in the effort I deeply regret to find io your letters i. January 3, to ajor <Jeuer?l Butler and mys-Jf. *u allu'ioa t my poion her?, which I can but oorsiler an insinuation that lave put myself, willingly, mi* of the reach ol yonr lumunicationa I b\< leave to raraark lhac "lie wove fuc of the troop* in this direction, end my own .uaroh (her, wero und#ftik?n for pnbtii reax n?, freely ?st rth In my reports to the adjutant. general, one oi ihem ing my desire to place in position for embarkation to iraCru*, should the government order an nxpedition that point, the force (two thousand regulars and two ousnnd volunteers) which I reported mifcht ba spared r that servine. I have the honor to be. general, Your obedient servant. /. TVYLOR, M?jor (Ion U. 8. Army, Commau.iiDg VlsJorGen. wisnrld ''cott, Commanding Unltr d 'Uatse Army, Brums Isltnd, Ttx Satisfaction prom England.?We p'ibliilird a* rddy si i aragrnph, o;i the authority of 'he* w V'.frfc 7 a lit, regarding the ^aspen"4"" from olBo* i ap.aiu May, ot the stfamer T:viot, ?iid pi' iui*ed t<> '* tha oor. eejiOndenco b*tw?en the Am*i < m minister t >r> iou, i\ud Lord I'almsrstoa, on the su ect The rTespoodeuoe will be found 'u another column, but i are gUd to stata that c'apt '? May, wfcri was 'h? bobinder of the Teviot wh?n th# orcurrene* d?Uiled ok pltos, is now commander ot h? Koval .Mall ( onlay's steamship Msdway, at present lying la our hnrt ?Kingilon {Jam.) Journal, F'b. 13.

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