Newspaper of The New York Herald, May 8, 1848, Page 4

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated May 8, 1848 Page 4
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? - i???? ??mmrnm?M NEW YORK HERALD. Korth-Wert Corner of Kuilan ui44IIumb m. JAMES OORDOH BENRBTT, froprittor P.W.Y 11F.K ll.D?Eivry dty. ( included,) tiro ctult **11 rfH^LYU^K 41.P?Entry S iturdav?fi\ cent* j*r ropy ? $3 I2V. ptr annum?m the I ;iited Stain. Europeaiitubicruieri, $5 ? MNum. ?i> include thr pottage : un edition (in the French (ind EnoliM1+nounnet) trill be pnUithrd on every Europe,m team picket any tnlh intelligence from all partt of thit continent. to lh. i ttent momrnt AO EK TtSE wjk.n TS (renewed every mormnii) at rratonable pricet : to be written in a plant, legible mariner ; the proprietor not reufoniibU for trrori j* mauuici ipt PKl\ J IStl of all kind* c Tauted beautifully and with del potih. Ordrri receueti at the Publication Ofiet, corner of Vullon ami \atiau it recti ? ALL LETTERS by mail, for lubtcriptionn, or with advertisement*, to be pot paid, Or thr pout ape I rill be deducted from IHr llu.neu rnnM 11HA~\TAR V CORRKSPOXDRSCK, coniaINI'1 y imperil/lit newt. lolicite,! front any quarter 01 tkr world?ami \f uted trill be liberally paid for. SO SOTK K rim be t,ik< /. of nnonymoui rommunicntami. W iilrtvr it intended for insertion mutt be authenticated by IV name a tut addmi of tfe writer; nut nrrruatt rily for fiul'/icatifn. lut a* a yuarant y of hit fj.wd faitH. Il'e cannot underlam to return rejected communication!. ALL P.1VHK.N TS to be t runic in advance. AMUSEMENTS THIS EVENING. BOW EUY THEATRE, Bowery?J\c.,n Lr.isj.Bn-I.Anv or THI LlO.M. CHATHAM THEATRE. Chatham street?TBvwrrrKR* I>AvoiiTrR?SrimiT or the Water*?New York a< It i?? Nik the Cabman. MECHANICS' HALL. Broadway, near Broome?Ch*i?ty'? Mimituels? ETHIOPEAI SINOIMO?Bi 'Rlesqve Dawcino, ko. PANORAMA Hall Broadway, uoar Hou?ton-?BANVAni>? Pa?aboma or thk Mitsissiw. MELODEON, Bowery?Etmiotkan axo Ballad Sisouta. PaLMO'9 OPERA HOl'SE, Chambers itrott?iLLVtTB ATEii Pini'sci SOCIETY LIBRARY, Dro?.lw*j-?Mr Arthurson'i Soibee Knout PATERSON N J. ODD FELLOWS H.\1X?Obamii Soiree Mvsicai.e. Hew Yorlt, Monday, May H, 1848. The Circulation of the Herald. April 30. Sunday 18.480 copies May 1. Monday 18.888 2. Tuesday 19.440 " " 3, Wednesday 18.240 " " 4. Thursday 18.480 " " 5. Friday 18.03'J " " ti. Saturday 19,080 ' " Weekly 11.040 " Aggtrgntc issue loot week 142.080 May 7. Sunday. Daily 14.400 copied. The publication of the Herald commenced on Sunday morning at 26 minute* pant 4 o'clock, and finished at 16 minutes before 8 o'clock. ARRIVAL OK THE STEAMSHIP BRITANNIA AT BOSTON, ONE WEEK LATER MEWS FROM EUROPE. THE STEAMSHIP HERMAN. The city was thrown into a state of great commotion yesterday morning, by the announcement that the steamship Britannia had arrived at Boston, with one week's later intelligence from Europe. The telegraph reported that the Britannia was coming up the harbor of Boston at half past 11 o'clock in the morning; that after that hour, in consequence'of the electricity in the atmosphere, or something else, the wires refused to operate, except in incomprehensible flashes from Bridgeport, Hartford, New Haven, Springfield, and from heaven, until half past 3 o'clock in the afternoon, when it was ascertained that the steamer reached the city about one o'clock. After that time, the lightning from heaven took entire control of the wires, and the thunder atorm6of the afternoon could be traced all along the line of telegraph in flashes, that wrote in words unknown to any human being. To the hour of going to press, no news reached us. The probability is, that our parcels will reach us early this morning by a special messenger or government express; the latter was understood to have been arranged to bring the steamer's mails. It is supposed to have left Boston about four o'clock yesterday afternoon. An Extra Herald, with the news, will be published in one hour after it is received at this office. The Hermann is due here; she may arrive at any moment. The Treatv Again?Another Secret of the Administration Let Ot t.?Our readers will per ceive by the accounts from Mexico, that according to all appearances, and the opinions of the beet informed political men throughout Mexico generally, there is scarcely the shadow of a probability that the famous?we might almost say the notorious? Trist treaty, which Mr. Polk so eagerly snatched up, and the Senate so hastily passed, will be accepted or ratified by the Mexicans. This was our opinion from the first, and we expressed as much. We earnestly desired j>eace, in common with even* friend of humanity ; but we saw no legitimate government in existence with which to make peace, and no legitimate treaty or treaty-maker in the document sent into the Senate. The plain truth is, that the only dc facto government now in Mexico is the government of the American army. The jtower is in its hands ; and at all times, in all countries, where the power is, there is, (It facto, the government. But what a terrible dilemma is this in which we are! We anxiously desire peace, and it flees fur from us. What is to be done ? There being no further hopes of peace, we have a choice out of the two categories, expressed in the two simple words, retreat and occupation. But will any prudent statesman recommend that we should entirely withdraw our army??that we should leave the country to be torn to pieces by contending factions?leave it, perhaps, to fall, under the power of some military chieftain, and ourselves to be laughed at and insulted for having " come, seen, and conquered," and then run off again, and left them, without obtaining any of the things we demanded?nothing in the sha|>e of indemnity for the i>ast, or of security for the future? It seems, then, that, by the necessity of circumstances, we must retain possession of all Mexico. If, then, this is?as evidently it is?the only alternative and our wisest policy, it would be well to lose no further time, but to proceed to put down every remains of the Mexican military, to organize t!ie country throughout all its departments, to pro* mote connncrce, tranquillity, and security of life and property, to dcvelopc the resources of the country of all kinds, to gather in the revenues to pay for all our expenses, not only present but past, and to |>av therewith the claims and debt due to us, and to hold the country for the i<e??ple till all this it accomplished and they are ready to lake it back into their own hand*, having become wise enough by experience at length to Ik- able to govern themselves. We have every reason to believe our government will pursue neither of these alternatives? retreat or occupation. We believe the intention of Mr Folk to be, (when it is ascertained that all hopes of peace are at an end,) to take up with hall of these two things?that is, to decide neither upon retreat nor upon occupation, but upon a half-retreat and a half-occupation. That is, he will withdraw the army partially within certain limits, and not occupy the whole temporarily to accomplish definite purposes, but seize upon certain territories, vis: those s|>ecilied in the treaty for a permanent possession. He will leave the Mexic ins all the rest of their country, as an arena wherein to fight among themselves, or to organize the means to pre|wire for another war, and to fight against us. This is, we believe, the secret of tli* cabinet, and the policy intended to be pursued, and it will be called by them HctuiK upon the treaty of peace, and treating it as ratified and in force. But this will be bad policy. It will have the appearance of force, robbery and spoliation; whereas a temporary occupation of the whole country, and a sequestration of all lis revenues, until we are paid 111 full,and the people brought to their senses?and may be alter a hundred years?a surrender to them of nil their country without the forced abstraction of an acre, would be conduct which no one could reasonably complain of, mid which the whole world, includiug Mexico herself, would applaud. I j-'fl II I I I. TintJBtRVBtuxicR* of New Youk?Thi? is the natirv of a new party, originating among the democracy of New York, and promising, from the post, tion of the country and the pratpect* ahead, to become as important and powerful in future event* as the famous locofoco party was in a former age in Tanunany Ilall. One of the principal leaders and originators of this party, is John Van Ruren, whose eloquence, wit and talent, have been reverberated f rom the farthest ends of the Union. According to present ap|>earances they will play an important part in the ensuing Presidential election. In a couple of weeks the democratic convention will meet at Baltimore. The barnburners will knock at the door of that convention for admission. According to present appearances and prospects, the influence of ihe hunkers of New York and of the nullitiers of the .South, will prevent the entrance of their delegates. On their rejectionfrom that body, they will accordingly organise themselves into an independent democratic party,and will proceed to issue a splendid address to the United States, and probably nominate the same distinguished man who received the first fruits of their efforts at the recent convention in this State?we mean General Taylor. The recent letters fromGeneral Taylor are considert>() fA Ko /InniA/tVntiAnllo ' ?-? ? i? viv unn in ii? any ^iHPuriiuu^ii iui any icunuuable democratic convention. It is true, the (General culls himself a whig, but not an ultra one; but as the General's notions and language are,in these matters, probably those of his early years, when the term whig was used in contradistinction to that of tory, General Taylor may be considered a democrat of the old Jeffersonian stamp?and even a better one than many of those who supi>ort the Baltimore convention, and adhere to the creed of that party. At all events, if the barnburners in the convention at Baltimore, after being kickcd out of the regular convention, should nominate General Taylor, he will be their candidate at once, according to his own letters; for he expressly says that he will take a nomination from anvparty, and will not give up the ship to Henry Clay, or any other great man. If such should be the case?and the prospect is very fair, the whigs at their convention in June must either follow the trump card of the barnburners, and nonunute Gen. Taylor, or, in the present condition of the country, submit to an overwhelming defeat of their candidate. If the whig convention should drop ill their other candidates and put forward Gen. Taylor, the additional nomination by the barnburners would sweep the Union, and produce an entire revolution in parties throughout the United States. No doubt would exist of the overwhelming triumph of General Taylor against ail others. If the whigs do not see this policy in nominating Gen. Taylor, under such circumstances, then the three candidates inay go into the House of Representatives; and in the existing situation of that body, we would not be surprised to see Gen. Taylor have a better chance than any other candidate. Thus stand political affairs at this moment. We are on the eve of a great revolution of parties in this country, beyond doubt, and we shall endeavor to give strength and momentum to it, as much as we possibly can. We hope and trust that the barnburners may be able to constitute our provisional government for the overthrow of the two corrupt and unmitigated rascally old factions of whigs and locofocos. It is time to overthrow these two desnotisms. which have wield ed the polipcal power and monopolised the spoils of the country for the last twenty years. Political Etvmology.?Though our readers in ! this State arc no doubt perfectly familiar with the origin and meaning of the two party denominations which have lately sprung up among us, we are convinced by observation, that in the other States people are generally at a loss what to understand hy these new party names. We propose, therefore, to make them at once understood and familiar, by giving the supposed etymology of the two denominations. The democratic party in this State is divided into two divisions, one of which is called hunkert, the other barnburncrt. The political division which has taken place has originated from a difference of opinion upon a very great and important principle. The hunkers maintain the principle common to southern politicians, viz.: that " Congress has no right to exclude slavery from territories where it does not exist;" while, on the other hand, the barnburners assert as the principle of their political creed, that Congress has the perfect and undoubted right to exclude the said institution from all new territories where it has not, hitherto, been implanted, and where it does not now exist. We published, the other day, the address of the barnburners, containing an exposition of their views, and shall be ready to do the same for the hunkers, when their political manifesto reaches us. In the mean time, we give the supposed etymology of the two names which seem now to have been adopted definitively by the public, in speaking of the two parties. The name "hunker" is supposed to be derived from a vulgar word, in common use in some places, as "a hunk." Thus, it is often said of anyone, " he has got a good hunk of bread," *' he has eaten a good hunk of meat." Hence the opl>onent8 of the hunkers are supposed to have given them this name because, belonging to Mr. iiia.. ... ... ? ...j i v/i?v o j'tiiiy9 nit j iiinuu^ it/ uuiaui u ^uuu "hunk" of treasury loaves, and also a large hunk of fishes from the same fountain. In other word*, they are the men who share the spoils and monopolise to themselves the whole "hunk" of all the good things dispensed from the treasury. Hence the origin, as it is supposed, of the word "hunkers." On the other hand, the " barnburners" are supposed to derive their name from the following fart: Having made a split from the treasury party, and forsaken the bam, or granary, which gave out a share of its sweets to all the party, they manifest a disposition to destroy the party, and burn the very barn over their heads, rather than to give up quietly the principle they have adopted, and m;ike concessions which would keep the party together, and enable them to maintain possesion of the "barn," or public ?|K)ils. Their obstinacy in refusing to give up their obnoxious principle, by endangering the party, threatens to destroy and burn up the barn out of which the purty has hitherto derived such rich and fattening food. Hence their opponents call them the " barnburners," on account of the muss they have raised in the barn, and their threat to burn it over the heads of all, rather than yield their point. However, it is |>ossible that Mr. l'olk may succeed in heuling this breach in his party; probably by letting the rats into the barn, and giving them good quarters. If he docs not, there will be a revolution. General Tavlor?The Secret of the Rec ent Decline ok ms Cacse.?The victory which the democrats have just obtained in the State elections in New Hampshire and Virginia, and also in St. Louis in the election of the municipal officers of that city, is rendered both signal and remarkable by the extraordinary efforts made by the party op. |(Owd to thriii, who fought under the name and banner of General Taylor. These event* deserve, perhaps, more attention than would otherwise be due to a mere municipal election, from the fact that it has tended more fully to develo|te the causes of the sudden fall and declension of the cause of General Taylor, at first so promising and nourishing. The whole secret of the transition of the |>eople from the highest enthusiasm for the hero of Buena Vista, to a state of apathy and unconcern, is to be found in this, that the "natives," a party looked upon with suspicion and abhorrence by every patriot American throughout the I'nion, have, everywhere, upon every Taylor move, rnent, fastened themselves upon the skirts of the General, and thus have dragged him down with themselves into the pit of political perdition. They were the chain-drug upon the wheels which clogged the movements of the Taylor cause at St. Louis, and indicted defeat upon it. The barnburnI cr? will put Taylor on his legs again. tmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmamarnmmmm Mr. Pot.k avd mi* Ivmieim.?Mr. Ritchie de. nw* that Mr. Polk is intriguing for a r?-nomination for the presidency. Perhaps Mr. Polk himaelf make* no personal efforts?has taken no personal measures for the consummation of such an object. We admit thu9 far, but no farther. But President Polk has a number of individuals around him?a species of atmosphere in which he breathes?and also different cliques in the various States, connected with public office, all of whom are anxious for his {'( nomination and re-election, in order that they may bo continued in office, and be enabled to feed a little longer at the public crib. Can Mr. Ritchie deny the general truth of these efforts, made by his personal adherents, and those that will b: made at the meeting of the convention 1 We doubt it. When Mr. Ritchie favors us with a reply to this question, we wish also that he will solve another difficulty which has laid before him for some davs. but which has not been noticed yet. We allude to the leak through which the Trist correspondence connected with the recent treaty with Mexico came before the public. Mr. Siinonton, the reporter of the Union, made his affidavit that the correspondence which he offered us for two hundred dollars first, and for three hundred dollars afterwards, and on our refusal sold it to the Journal of Commerce for about one hundred?we say Mr. Siinonton has declared on oath, that he did not receive a copy of these letters from the Union office, or from any other official quarter involving a breach of confidence. Now it is well knnwn that Mr. Buchanan has made the same statement to the Senate, in private?it is well known too, that every Senator has declared himself innocent of divulging that correspondence. We are left, therefore, in this dilemma, to recur to the only source from which it could be procured, and that is the White House itself. We, therefore, ask Mr. Ritchie to inquire, and say whether Mr. Polk, or Mr. Polk's private secretary, did not furnish the original copy of the Trist correspondence, from which Mr. Siinonton got it, and sold it to the New York journal] We think it would b? prudent in Mr. Ritchie to answer this question fairly and candidly, in order to prevent further revelations in the matter?revelations which we may have the means of making, beyond his ken or knowledge. Suit for Damages Aoainstthe United States Senate.?We understand that Mr. Nugent, the correspondent of the New York Herald, has been advised in some quarter, to bring a suit against the United States Senate, for damages, in consequence ot the illegal ini-nrrerntinn which hn hnn snfii'reil n? ???- - ? at their hands. Wc hope this advice will be followed. Believing that the course of the Senate in that proceeding was unconstitutional?a gross violation of personal rights, and an atrocious precedent, which ought to be set aside at once?we think we shall advise Mr. Nugent by all means to commence his action in the regular way in the United States courts, against the Senate, for a violation of personal liberty in that ridiculous investigation. The idea of reviving in these days of liberty and equality, the absurd and atrocious practices which existed in the Star Chamber of England, is a thing bo unheard of, and so extraordinary, that it ought not to be permitted to pass away silently, but should be brought before the highest legal authorities of the country, so that the public voice, as well as the law, may be ascertained on the subject. The miserable intrigue in which the investigation originated, was contemptible in itself, springing simply from a desire in the breast of the President to make a case for the dismissal of the Secretary of State. He, by the influence of his office, induced u number of the members of the Senate to forget the constitution, forget the law, and forget justice, in order to gratify spleen and malice against a secretary, at the sacrifice of an unobtrusive correspondent of a distant newspaper. The atrocity of this conduct, and the motive, should not be allowed to be forgotten, nor shall they be forgotten if we can help it. We hope, therefore, that Mr. Nugent will commence his suit for damages, for the violation of the constitution in imprisoning him. Senator Foote and the Newspapers.?Mr. Foote, one of the members of the United States Senate from the State of Mississippi, is certainly in a fair way to b#come a great man and a great statesman. In a certain portion of the press throughout (U<i #iAiin(nr titA AltooniA tlio mnot nrA/fiiYtmia oHnrtC making to abuse, vilify, and distort the efforts and speeches which he makes in Congress. Some of those abusive articles are most amusingly absurd and interestingly malicious; but the fact of such articles being directed against a new Senator, is proof conclusive that he must have some talent. Now Mr. Foote, in the exuberance of his imagination iuid wit, may not be strictly to the taste of the dandy politicians, or the John Donkey lit era I run, but he is in a fair way to bring out all the better traits of his intellectual character, and to improve his mind as he goes along. Let Mr. Foote take things coolly, pursue his own course, |?y no attention to his enemies and slanderers,look ahead with a determined spirit, and there is nothing that can prevent him from standing among the first Senators of the land, and that, too, in a short time. C It OS WELL ANT) TIIK BARNBURNERS.?Mr. Edwin Croswell, of Albany, still continues his fierce hostility to the barnburners?a species of hostility that, without Brandreth's pills every morning, would make him a subject for a lunatic asylum, lie is not only awfully severe on John Van Buren, but he even indulges in some very uncourteous epithets towards one of the reporters of the Herald, and by implication, towards the Htrald itself. Now this is very ungrateful in Mr. Kdwin Croswell. In his various conflicts with that philosopher, Tnurlow Weed, we have generally taken the side of the old hunker in opposition to the anti-mason; and now, when we only wish to set before the public the correct facts in the negotiations going on between Mr. Polk and the barnburners for the vote of New-York, Mr. Croswell loses all sense and sagacity, and blows oft'steam like an old cracked engine. Keally this is had policy, and if he do not change his tactics, his plate on the kitchen table may be omitted entirely, should Mr. Polk be re-nominatcd. The Bankjno System Improved hv the French Revolution.?This great revolution seems destined to exercise an great an influence upon industrial and commercial affairs as upon the mere political condition of the people of France and Europe in general. In the United .States men have long and justly complained of the unfair and unequal operation of the bank discounting system. By that pernicious system a wealthy speculator is enabled to take up large sums on loan, in order to carry on injurious speculations and operations on a large scale, destructive to the great mass of men engaged in trade, but productive to himself; while at the same time the less wealthy and industrious man is unable to obtain the smallest loan to carry on a useful and productive business, giving employment to many persons. Against this evil the provisional government of France, with that energy, lustice. and urudence which have marked all their arts hitherto, in the most surprising manner, have taken the following measure*. They have ordered the establishment of a guaranty hank, in every place where there is a bank of discount The business of this bank is to procure for small traders and agriculturists the necessary endorsements, by which fliey may obtain accommodation at the batiks, as well as the great dealers, who have many to back them, and who bark one another. Any one who has goods, securities, warrants, A:r., or any kind of property, may, on the security of this property, receive endorsements from the guaranty bank, so ns to enable him to get his bill discounted. This is one step mudc in the march of improvement, and will, no doubt, soon be followed by others, more eflective and important, in pro|>ortion as these things become better understood. This example of liberal France will, we doubt not, soon be followed in liberal America. The voice of the people will demand it, and will hive it. ANNIVERSARY WEEK IN NEW TORK. FIRST DAY. AMlumry oftlulm York Bible Boetrty at the Tabernacle, Broadway. The annual sermon on the occasion of the annivernary of the above society, wa* preached last evening at the Tabernacle, by Or. Addison Alexander, of Prince- i ton, New Jersey. Notwithstanding the terrific storm ' of thunder, and lightning, and rain, which fell upon the city at the precise time appointed for the meeting, the great space of the Tabernacle wa? filled by a numerous audience. The preacher selected for the text of his remarks, the 9th r of 2d ch. of 2d Timothy: ' But the word of Ood is not bound."' In the opening of the subject. he gave a description of the Apostle Paul, of his former character and course, and of his situation when this epistle was written Formerly he had been a persecutor of the ehureh. and had, after eoiiscutiug to the death of the first martyr. Stephen, engaged in the service of the High Priests to pursue and persecute the Christians. He lmd " hailed men and women, and committed them to prison;" but now I he himself was in prison for that very cause which bej fore he had persecuted. But though he was bound, he ' emphatically declares that " the word of (iod is not bound."' The preacher then proceeded to point out and illustrate the lessous to be learned from the above state of facts. The first idea suggested is, that his own captivity did not put an end to his labors vnd exertions in preaching the gospel He taught in his captivity at Home, In his own hired house: he wrote this and other epistles, teaching.Jnstructing, building up and confirming the churches wherever they had been planted. Another lesson, the preacher observed. Is to bo drawn from this example, which given in itself a severe reproof to us. if we imagine when difficulties and troubles assail us. that we are relieved from the necessity and dispened from the obligation of carrying on any further our exertions When we cannot do every thing, we are too apt to think that we need do nothing, and arc ready to abandon the work. There is. observed the preacher, more of pride than humility in this sentiment. It was not thus that Paul thought and acted. Here the preacher adverted to the groat success of the exploits of men in the world, who oftvn achieve the highest deeds under the greatest discouragement?in illustration of which he referred to the succcess of the heroes of American independence, destitute as they were of resources, over their well equipped, well supplied and woll supported foes and opponents. A great lesson, again, to be learned from thissubject is, not to imagine that all depends upon our own personal exertions.? If, observed the preacher, Paul, with all his apostolic dignity, had hopes, and declared that " the Word was not bound.'' though he was?if even he, in such circumstances. did not imugiue that the success of this -word'' depended upon the success of his own exertions and the effort of his own pcrsoual agency, how are we to think that its success depends upon our labors and upon our personal agency and efforts? This example, therefore, is enough to shame us out of our reliance upon human efforts and agency. We should not, therefore. deem that all depends upon ourselves, and in this spirit be ready to frown upon the efforts of our neighbors, as if they were an cucroachment upon us. This selllsh emulation ought to be banished from our breasts. We may, however, deceive ourselves by saying that we do not put reliance upon our own personal agency, and yet it may be that we trust in our party, our plans, our frieuds. or our society. This is only a transfer of the mind from one idolatry to another, and is opposed to thu true faith, which excludes all dependence upon human power! Another lesson of instruction is to be drawn from the text, if we fathom it deeper?and that is. that truth I itself is a living element, which prevails and pervades everywhere, and is not fettered or bound by any chains, nor impeded in its course eventually by any human power or opposition. Hero the preacher referred to the discoveries and improvements made in the various arts and seiences?in steam and electricity. and proceeded to argue that there are no limits to truth ; it is not bound, and it will burst forth, and shine with a power and light of which men have no conception. He then proceeded to urge, that it is not to be despised, wherever it may bo, and in howsoever small a measure. Even in the systems and schemes of Infidelity, there is often some truth: but it is an adaptation of the truth contained in tne Bible, which, after having borrowed the light from it, they reject and cast aside. All these considerations forbid us to despair. "The word is not bound." We need not tremble for its safety; it will take care of itself. Like the elements of fire and water, though they may be absent from one spot, they are abundaut in others. It is a powerful principle, pervnding every where, and though we may not be able to measure and ascertain its actiou. yet it cannot be denied. It has acted powerfully and beneficially on the world, on nations, on governments, on arts and sciences. I,-.,., f?,.. ;......f i ?u? they may not havo been understood, recognised or appreciated. Nations, and government*, and rulers who have affected to despise it. have often been saved from destruction by its secret pervading principle and action. It is a conservative and antiseptic principle in society. Therefore, we may see by all this, that the word is not bound," but its influence and power extends where we little think it does. Therefore let us send the preacher. Ia conclusion, let us flood the world with tho pure and unadulterated word of God; let us saturate the earth with it. and spread it everywhere abroad. Let us disperse it abroad like water. and, though like it. some may mix and adulterate it with deleterious mixtures, as they do water, yet it is good, and will do good, for "it is not bound." but will have its course, and run prosperously, And be glorified. '* till the knowledge of God shall cover the earth us the waters cover the sea."' The preacher having concluded his learned discourse, then sat down, whereupon the services of the evening were continued by a prayer from one of the clergy present, a collection was made, then singing by a nume- > rous choir, to the sound of the loud toned organ, after i which the meeting dispersed. A n ill versa) y of the Foreign Kvange Ileal Do. rlety. The anniversary sermon of this society was delivered last night at the Mercer street Church, by the Rev. Dr. Adams, of the Central Presbyterian Church. The evening was stormy, but a large audience were in attendance on the occasion. After the usual ceremonies were performed, the Rev. | Dr. Adams rose and announced his text from the 2d Kpistle of St. Paul to the Thesalonlans. 3d chapter, i 1st and 2d verses. " Finally, brethren, pray for us that i the word of the Lord may have free course and be glorified." he., he. The principal subject of the discourse was upon the native claims of and progress of religion. The Kpistle was directed to the people of Thesalonica. that they might have the prayers of that people for deliverance [ from the stronghold of the enemy of the church of j Christ. The English had been peculiarly favored in j the dissemination of the doctrines of the Gospel, from I the fart that the Bible bad been put Into their nanus by royal direction, and through them and their colonies the Bible had been more fully distributed than by any other people of the world. In nome countries where papacy had long had the supremacy in the royal favor, infidelity had successfully rained it.* head, and though Napoleou. when excouimunlrated by the pontifical order, refused the mandate. he summoned to Pari* the papal father, and declared hi? owu Hon to be King of Rome. ThuH. for a time, wax the power weakened; not a soldier left their barracks but adhered to their Kmperor. It was then. In that total disregard of the authority of the Pope, that infidelity sprung up. Not no in the cane of Henry VII.. King of England. who, when excommunicated by the pontilT. presented himself to that dignitary. in Rome, to ask forgiveness. The recent revolution in France was one of the effect* of the infidelity growing out of the papal power in that country. There had been answers to prayer, but not in such a way as had been expected. They had looked for the turning of the kingdoms to Christianity by some protracted method, and not by the overthrow of monarchs. The standard of protestantism would follow the revolution* of the Kuropean nations, and the day would couie when France would plant Christianity in the heart of Africa, and the English Bible would be carried to every quarter of the world. True, there were those in the early days of the reformation who sealed the faith with their blood, such as Cranmer. and many other*, who would not obey, the royal mandate, in the denial of the faith which they possessed and advocated. They were driven, in many case*, from their home*. Iieoause of their adherence to the faith and the Puritan*. after having sought a temporary resting place on the *hore* of Scotland, came to this couutry, where more e<|ual religious lihcrtiuM were allowed. He spoke of the English IJihle in China, and the Tagan world, whoro the light of protestantism had already began to shine, and by the power of that work, tho light of Christianity would eventually go to the uttermost part* of the earth Contrasting the religious condition of the English kingdom and province* wTth the Spanish?in the former, where rro*te?tantism Krevailed, in the latter where the Papal faith waa adered to?the difference might be seen In Edinburgh the light of Christianity shone pre-eminently, while in Madrid, papal darkness was tlic Inheritance of the people. Even in our own country, tho comparison could lie drawn. St Augustine. Florida, the oldest town in tho United States, settled under the Spanish authority, wa* yet far behind in a christain point of view, of the town* of Now England : and what 1* the city of Mexico compared to Now V6rk, In the one, bigotry and want of intelligence are the predominant feature*, while ill the other, under the influence of the English Bible, the light of prostestatism. But revolutions have taken place, ami chistianity will show it??lf In those dark countries. In Italy, too. whore tin- Pontifical head in supreme director. the protectant faith ha* rained It* standard, und that ureal potentate has. of necessity. granted to the people liberal lawn, and the right to worship linn been allowed In the protectant form That HUliiiy clime, whoso skies are inost beautiful. has been convulsed by revolutions, and from these out break" the light of Christianity vpriug* up?and it will spread? the prayer of the faithful will be answered, and the knowledge of the Oospei lie given to all men No soouer had the recent rovolutiou In Kranee occurred. than the intelligent portion of the citixcns of Pari* assembled themselves together, and from that assemblage the light of Christianity shone forth ill the eijual rights proposed to Ih> mrricd out for the general tkineflt of the people in all the nations of the continent. the spirit of republicstiism had been manifested, and the establishment of that principle would ensure the progress of the (iospcl as declared und advocated by the I'rotestant world. lie spoke at length upon the claims of 1'rotestantlsin. but for want of time could not go on with the whole minutae of the subject. After the sermon, prayer was offered up. and then n collection was taken up. for the purpose of sending funds by the next steamer to Kranee. where they were so much needed, and where they would be attended with such good result* in furthering the spread and extension of the Christian Bible, that Protestantism would have a place in that hitherto (In Christian point of tI?w) benighted land. - The Church ?wntlkl to the Republic. Th? annual wrnoD in behalf of the American Home Missionary Soclty. was preached last evening in Dr. Cox'a churoh, in BrooUya, by the Rev. Edw. N. Kirk, of Boston. " The church essential to the republic," formed the topic, aud the text was taken from Matthaw, 6th chapter, and 13th verse: "Ye are the salt of th? earth." fcc. The reverend gentleman commenced his discourse by statiug that Ood has ordained the Slate, the family, and tho church to be the most important institution* in huuian society According to his wise counsels he has gi\en to the church its peculiar functions, aud u certain degree of importance ; yet men sometimes think that it depeuds ou themselves what this Importance or influence should to. it may be well to remind those who think In this way, that thil influence of the church Joes not depend on ourselves but on the will of the Creator. The ignorance or scepticism of meu would alter or annihilate this influence, which is a conservative power over man. but they cannot do it ; and it i;< to illustrate this conservative power . which is the object of the present exercise. He then drew it distinction between the family, thc.Stftte and the Church, aud said that the first embraces the smallest parts Into which the nation is divided ; the republic comprehends all the citiaens as far as relates to their Judicial, executive and magisterial functions, aud the Christian church is for the purpose of maintaining the worship of (lod. aud for extending his kingdom through jut the world. Many imagine that the founders of this republic solved the question of the relatiou between the Church aud State. We have, indeed, in two or throe instances, done so. The pilgrim fathers, considered that the Church was not the commonwealth. an argument which lias produced disastrous results. Our revolutionary father* chose a different course, inakiug the Church aud State different empires. to occupy the same territories, but not to know each other's existeuce. The time appears to be upprouchiug when discussion will be necessary to ascertain the foundations and the boundaries of each. In this argument he said he intended to make a comparison of those two organisation!, and to remind his hearer* that the church was founded previously to the State, and that the republic owes its emcicncy to Christianity. The nature of man has as yet batted all power of his own research. The speaker then depicted man with religion and without it. and said that paganism exalts the individual, but not the soul, its objects are determined by human authority and depend on the accident of birth?for a man born under pagan institutions would believe in paganism, in the same way the Papacy exalts the hierarchy, but Christianity places the soul of man before God. Republics modelled by Christianity. exalt the man, but only in his political rights; but as a political system it does not come between God and him. It protects his property aud his liberty, aud oven watches over his tomb after he is dead; but to the departing it is no light?it offers no word of hope. Some twenty millions of the humau race now occupy this domain of ours, and for seventy years our political system lias been growing in importance. It is now exteudiug its influence over all Europe. aud many of those who were opposed to It are falling, so that, in fact, at the present timo, this is the most envied nation in the world. It is natural that the oppressed masses of Europe should look to ours as the best system, and we know that it is favorable to the highest condition of mankind. France is now free, hut. lint, lioiipftil: she is sick fit lienrt. The nresent condition of our own country, as acknowledged by political men, shows that civil freedom and popular governments are but a negative good. Is there any selfish spirit among us.' Is there any departure from our primitive greatness Are all our statesmen solicitous to strengthen the State and not to injure it? This is an argument he would uot go into further than to show that the republic needs the care of the church for those personal interests of which the State takes no care. And this brings him to the next point, which is the interests of families. The State will provide against oppression, and government will provide protection for life, liberty, and property; but the State is divided into families, within whose peaceful circles are spent the most Interesting portions of life. Whatever elevates them elevates the nation, and we mean to affirm that but from the church the great body of the families will be ablo to realize the end of our institutions. Let those who question this, enquire into tho transplanted English families. Nay, more, if you have uot the church, the next best thing, it will be said, is philosophy, infldel, of course, because it must come in by banishing the church, which has not stopped short of denouncing Christianity. Ho alludes not to tho German philosophy, but that of the English und American philosophers. You may have education without the church, but no school will bo religious when religious men cease to control it. as would be the case if the reformers of the present day came into power. Mr. Kirk then referred to the intluence of the church on the State itself, and said that no country ulTorded so strong a confirmation of the good results of Christianity as this. The State of Illinois was barbarous enough to repudiate her debt; but the very men who voted for taxation to discharge it, now control the government of that part of the United States; and the tendency of the country is not downwards, but upwards. The Spanish and the French came and settled here; but what marks havo they left behind them? What institutions have they planted here ? There are. he said, but two advancing nations in this hemisphere, and they are Teutonic.? Within three-quarters of a century this continent has formed itself into independent nations ; but what has become of Spanish America, or of Spain herself ? Where is France, with her three doubtful revolutions? From the day of our first revolution, we havo risen to the highest position in the scalo of nations, and have been the schoolmaster to the world. Our revolution, in its wonderful character and wonderful results, now shakes the European continent, and will shake it until every government shall be the defender and not tho oppressor of its citizens. Mr. Kirk then read from the London Chronicle an article oil the excellence of American institution. which has already appeared in the Herald. nnd also an extract from DeTocqucvillc's book on America in praise of our political system. Then, said ifir. ivirK. ivt iui* lauuuu^ ui uiuci uaiiuui cease. They must crwo. We haTe a history ond n pant, us well as othei'nation* It is to the principle* of religion, which guided our forefathers, and not to our military resources, that we owe all the happiness we enjoy ax a free people, and religion is the secret of our political institution*. We do not owe it to our peculiar form of government, for other nation* have copied our institution* and failed. They cannot a*crihe their failure to the want of example, for we first plunged iuto revolution We differ in no rc*pect but in the religious character of our fathers, on their first settlement here. The other* are papal countries?we arc a protcNtant people. The papacy has one great principle in which it glories, and this is destruction of Individuality; and it i* folly for Roman Catholic countries to attempt self government. She can live under a free government when it has h?en formed for them by others. It is another fact. too. that protestant nations have a higher moral tone than any others; and If effect* can be traced to their cause, we can trace our peculiar history to our peculiar religion. Let none point to our institution*, or even to our Washington, and say there i* the solution. It is to our religion* charactcr we owe to Ood the effect of our transition from colonial servitude to national independence. De of the most impartial of travellers, docs not doubt it. Persons from foreign countries ask how law here can be so powerful without any physical power; and for an answer we can point them to our habits?we can show them our Sabbuth*. which, as the voice of Ood calls men weekly to bow down and honor God. the rich man and the poor man meeting together before their common benefactor, all learning the same lessons and trusting to the promises of (Jod's word. There is not a department of State in which the conservative power of the church is not felt. The influence of the religious press, the teachings of the sacred writing* in the church, and other influences?all these give strength to all. restrain the lust of nowcr. tend to keep the passions of men in check, and thus facilitate the movement* of the engine of State. The speaker then spoke of the evils which exist here, and said they must be remedied, and the remedy must be personal and spiritual. There are thousands emigrating to the West, where they have little leisure for reading the word of Ood. and where much of the preaching is more hurtful than beneficial. Our population Is increasing, our territory is increasing. We have got Texas, and we are looking for a part of Mexico, and if you Increase the arteries of the country, you must also Increase the heart. There is indication of danger, and it seemed to him that Christianity or atheism must he the controlling religion In this country. In cons?((Uence of scarcity of room, we are obliged to condense the remainder of the gentleman's remark* to a much Itrwfr ao(ri'(! iiun ?? nave mo preceding. ana conelude by buying, that Mr. Kirk dilated very forcibly lit some length, on the necessity of providing the means of religious instruction in every part of the country. A church must he erected In every district. He spoke nt length on the feasibility of doing it. and the manner in which it could be done. Annual Kvangcllral AmilvenMU-|r?. The first of these important meetings took place last night, in the Rev. Dr. Pott'i Church, University Dace, on the propriety of Foreign Kvangelical Missions. On account of the unpropitiousness of the weather, it was matter of regret, that the church was not so numerously attended as might have been expccted.froui the importance of the subject to be discoursed. After praise and an impressivu prayer by the llev. Dr. Snodgrass. the Her. Dr. Hodge delivered an eloquent sermon, from the !9lh and 'iOth verses of the UHth chap, of Nt Matthew, (to ye. therefore, and teach all nations,baptising them in the name of the Lord." fee. Itc. In the flrst point the Rev. Or. stated, that the above command was one of the most important injunctions of Our Saviour to his disciples wnlle he sojourned upon this earth. In adult baptism, persons so baptised must first profess their faith and belief on the blessed doctrines promulgated in the word of God, so that after the observance of this ceremonial law or commandment, such individuals might then lie reckoned symbolically the teachers and disciples of t'hrist. Many christians held mistaken views regarding the duties of the Apostles in ancient times, supposing that it was to them t hat the command of" go and teach all nations," tic. was given; this command was only at first intrusted to the disciples of t'hrist. the duties of the apostles being to watch more immediately over the flock of (toi| and rear tin a fresh host of spiritual labourers for the viueyard of the Lord. The Dr. nest referred to the fallacy of the Roman Catholic priest hood and their adherents in offering up sacrifice Instead of praise to the great < reator. and the absurd practice of the priests In preaching the word of (tod. to their hearers In an unknown tongue, (at least to most of them I t ontrast this, fsabl liel with the i form* of instruction* tn nil other christian churches and ' you will at once see that there I* more hereiiy witliin the 1 pale of the Homau ( iitholir < htirch. than in any other I in the world In many parts of Spain numberless and striking conversions had taken place hut conversion without sound scriptural teaching*, could never Ixncfit a nation ; this had Wen truly verified of late yearn In that country.? < tnleim. therefore, that christian* used the mean* which God had put In their power for the propagation of Hii blessed Word, and that. too. in the plain and tangible form laitl down in Hta Ounprl of revelation to , man it could not In- expected that their labor* would over he bleated In the conversion of the heathen. The Dr. next contrasted the present state of religion* In- I 1 i(ruction In Scotland with that of every civillMd t>?- I I tion la the world, and stated that Scotland might boa<t of it* christian knowledge oT?r the whole of them : thli> he principally ascribed to the attention that to* church of Saotland had paid to the spiritual welfare oi it* people, and It* strong and persevering attachment to the cause of Foreign Bible and Missionary Societies. Throughout the Doctor's discourse he was listened to with intense interest, by a most respectable congregation of dark hearers. American Society for the Melioration of Uke Condition of tlte Jews. Thi* Society met lust evening at the Church of the Furituns. Union Square The tremendous thunder storm that raged at the time, and the torrents of rain that fell, kept many away in the evening at 7% o'clock, which hour was fixed for the Society to meet.? 1UV iirivivuu ur. LUHU, I iriiuvuv t? IJariUlOUlU College. preached on the occasion. taking his text from the let verse of the 7th chapter of the Kplstle of Paul to the* Hebrew*. He Haiti he proposed to discourse of the connexion between the Jews and thu Christians. Ax the age rolls on. will nuy thiug occur to draw the Jew* and the Christians together? Do the christians make any mistake in their interpretation of the scriptures ? If the Christians have not made a mistake. ami the Jews have, for two thousand years, been diffcrlug with them, it was his purpose to inquire into the cause of this difference. There was no difference between them in a theological sense of the pliraae?no more difference than occurred between the Jews themselves. The Old and New Testament did not differ?their principles were the same. Many persons regarded the Christian in the same position as they regarded the Jew. aud as they did the Jew in regard to thu Pagan The Jews, as a nation, to be sure, never understood thu true doctrine of the Old Testament; they had no right to adhere to theology as the ground that caused them to differ from the Jews. There is a question between the Jew and the christian as to the divine authority of the New Testament. The mass of nominal Christians havo frequently surpassed the Jews In vice?for instance, thu spirit of war In Europe, the vices, the intemperance of the Christian people of Kurope?aud they arc not to be found in the classes of those who arc to be met in brothels in Kurope; and the Jews, also, were not to be found in the purlieus, and haunts of vice in the large Kuropean cities. Many of the Jews are already overtaking the Christians in their intelligence, and they would soon lie found examining the arcana of thu christian dispensation. We can imagine one other ground the political difference?not political in the ordinary sense, but political iu that sense, as regards thu questiou of church aud State. All religion was of God, government implied law; but state, implied the individual moral being, sustained by moral law. Its moral law was the law of love. The church was not founded for life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, that modern fallacy. Thu church was tuximperiuin in imperii). After concluding tyi able discourse, a collection was taken up. when, after benediction, the society separated. New Catholic Church, WUllamsburglt. This spacious and beautiful edifice was consecrated yusterday, by the llight Reverend Bishop Hughes, in the presence of & crowded congregation, several of whom were member* of the dissenting churches. The church is a splendid specimen ofgothic architecture, designed nccordiug to the Tudor gothic order of the 11th century, and is finished with exquisite taste, the interior preseuting a very imposing and grand appearance. and finished in strict conformity with the rule and order which it is designed to represent. The steeple, immediately over the main eutrauce, is one hundred and fifty feet high from the base to the top of the richly gilt rrois which surmounts it. The walls are of strong brick work, and the interior of the building shows that the works have beeu executed with solidity and strength. The contour is bold, and altogether tho exterior of the building will, when finished, give it the appearance of a noble structure. The interior is superbly finished in the richest style of this imposing description of architecture ; the windows being beautifully and tastefully fitted up with stained glass of every hue and color in the rainbow, and of chaste design and execution, so as to accord with the general character of the building. From the floor to the dome it measures 60 feet,and from the floor to the base of the dome 46 feet. The altar-piece is magnificcutly finished, and at either side two windows of stained glass, representing the figures of St. Peter and St. Paul, give an enlivening appearance to this part of the building. Over the aitar. also, is a smaller sized window of stained glass, representing the -all seeing eye.'' which has a very imposing effect. The organ fronts the altar at the opposite end of the building; and at either side, and also Immediately over It, are windows of stained glass. Seven windows of stained glass, which give a very enlivening appearance to the interior of the edifice, are also placed at either side, where rows of galleries have been erected. forming a second story?and above these at either side the base of the domo, which is narrowed, at top, are also seven other windows, of smaller dimensions. of stained glass, but of less lively colors. Tho alslo of the church has ranges of pews, and several pillars of the same style of architecture support the main part :of the edifice, and the galleries. The general effect is extremely pleasing to tlie eye. and In point of beauty, correct architectural proportions and general style and execution, this new Catholic Church has been pronounced one of tho most superb edifices of the kind in this vicinity. It has been erected mainly through the exertions of the Rev. S. Malone, its pastor, through whose teal and activity the church had been commenced a little over a year ago. Bishop Hughes, after performing the ceremony of consecration. attended nigh mass in tho church, and delivered an appropriate discourse. The singing in the choir was much admired. Altogether, this beautiful church will be an ornament to the neighborhood in Wllliamsburgh. John Donkey Litkratijrk.?We give in our columns to-day, a number of extracts from the Sunday newspapers, including, also, John Donkey, and embracing specimens of wit, fun, amusement, drollery, silliness, and all sorta of things, put together, which may be considered a true sample of the John Ikmkcy literature of this metropolis. There are five or six journals of this description issued in New York, circulating, on the first day of the week, between twenty and thirty thousand newspapers. They do not pretend to be anything but gossiping and amusing sorts of journals, and sometimes they are that, in a very interesting degree. The extracts which we give to-day, present a fair specimens of this species of wit. Pope Pitts the Ninth.?The present Pontiff of Rome is truly an extraordinary man. When tho twelve thousand men were about to march to the succor of Lombardy, he was asked for his bene- * diction, which he gave as follows:? ' Am Head of the Church. I am at peace with all the universe. As au Italian Prince. I have a right to defend Italy, ray country. I bless you. The causa you go to defend in a holy cause ; Hod will make It triumph. I bless you once more. Fight and conquer in the name of the Lord."' We question if there is any man living who could comprise so much mcuning within so few words. This remarkable speech deserves to be printed in letters of gold and pictures of silver, and hung up in the Pontifical residence, us a guide for the future successors of St. Peter. Yucatan. The particulars we published yesterday in relation to that country. show unquestionably that, as a christian people, we are bound to succor forthwith the thousands of women and children flying in every direction from the ruthless barbarity of tho savago Indian?many of the women In a complete state of nakedness, owing to the attacks being made on the towns at night.? There is no time for discussion. The abore acts call for immediate action ou our part ; but whilst we extend our aid and sympathy to those helpless portions of the Yucatan population, wo are at a loss for words to express our indignation and contempt for the males who hare brought those calamities on their wive*, daughters and children. We shall not Indicate the various causes of these misfortunes growing out of the quarrels of tho different parties ; the improvidence of their government in every respect and in all their measures. Why declare themselves independent of Mexico, if they had not courage and ability to prevent their own extermination from the Indian? As respects the latter, Justice tad *1 philanthropy require us to point out the causes of their I rising against tncir wlilte oppressors ; wc And thuso c?uw? fjplnlni'd in Iht very acts of the Yucatan ptvcrninent Wc find. in the Merida paper* au act dated 1st of April la*t. containing the following The Insurrection of the Indiana in owing to their repugnance in paying the capitation tax. and although this tax constitutes the principal source of the re?enuo of the government, It Hhall be abolished so soon a* tho Indians shall terminate their insurrection.*' i It also appears liy the same act, that the clergy, notwithstanding their Immense wealth In real estate of every description, were alno paid out of that inlnuitoua contribution exacted from tne aborigine, and wnich la a new thing to them, springing out of the independence of the whites, and which the kings of Spain never Imposed on thoso Indians, as appears by tho South American papers before u*. If the I'nlted States Interfere in Yucatan, have not these Indians rights to be redressed? Have tlu? white men of Yucatan any claim on any body for assistance? If the women and children were not sacri- f flced. those men should lie left to their own effort* for defence. By the letter of Commodore Perry to tho department at Washington, published by us yesterday, it will Im- seen that he states that the inhabitant* were about altandoning the strong and fortifled place of Cumpcacliy. surrounded by walls. Such cowards have no right to claim assistance. A. R. Insau hrity op Washington.?There must be something rtidically wrong about the climnte of Washington. During the present session, some twelve or fourteen members of Congress Imve died. This alarming fatality calls for Investigation. The number ,,r legislator* inai meet in wnsimigiun every winter, i? only about double those whit congregate In city; and yet the number of death* occurring ninong the former. In three or four hundred per rent ({renter I linn the number tlint. happen nt our capital. Almost every year a down or more are added to the quiet population of the Congressional burying ground There ha* not been a single death among our State legislator*, however. for two or three year*?the average being one-fifth of a number per year. This striking difference In the henlthlncM of the two cities. call* for attention. If the health of our statesmen can be Improved some two hundred per cent by just changing tlie location of the seat of government, it should 1m< done, and that Instantly. The proper place fur the capitol of the nation, la the city of New York?the headquarter* of commerce, business, deviltry, magnetic telegraph*, and salt water bathing ?Albany Knicktrhocker, May 6. V; U

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