Newspaper of The New York Herald, June 2, 1848, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated June 2, 1848 Page 2
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i \? in ' ^ ~ * 4 KEW YORK HERALD. IJ n lorth-VkMi Curntr of Kullou and llitflM M*. | JAMB* uotioow ukxkktt, PROPRIETOR. p] PAlLY ItSRALD?Every d . y. (Sundry included.) tvx> cent* per .-ocv?t' wr U i.F.Kl. Y HERALD?Ety-ry W'i*?rdof??H% frnf? f?" <-oj>y? (..1 i.'^ per .rayiurn?ti (V l/?iM urtnuinUtriwri, $.'> tr, imdm, jo include the pettier fe ; on edition (i/i the French .1 and tinfMm). wlH h? gmUuVil o? rtvry European " rteam picket day, u ah intelligence from all parti 0/ Ihi* con- J tir.n,t. to th> latett moment. ; iOFfiKI'J.'Ui.VSKrs(rnogtilnvryimmw)nf rentoi.able I C f> 1 < < ? j In fw trmten (n n plain, lefible manner ; the proprietor ! ?,4 responsible for errort in m inmcrivt. a PRlS'TlSd of eiU fci/irf? executed beautifully and i.ith itpa trh. Onfert received at the Publication Office, corner , f " Fulton and Sutitti tfrrcfi. i ? ALL LETTERS by mail, for tubtcripliont, or ?.-ifA adver- , litcmt ( . to K Mit paid, or the pottage will be deducted from V the money remitted. I < >L l/N TAK V CORRESPOXDF.SCE, containing important " ueirj, tnlicited from any ^u:rter of the world?ani if utcd 1rill 1. be liter illy r> iid for. SO S'OTICE can be taken of anonumout communication!. \\ Whatever it intended for inicrtion mulN authenticated by the name and addrnt of the 1griter ; not ncce-i inly for publi- \ 1) cation, but at a guaranty of hit good faith. W? cannot unAar. ? lake t? return r elected communication!. 1 ALL PA YStEXTS to bt made in advance. j( ' ' d AMI SKMKNTS THIS EVENING. n PARK TIHaTRK?VI?W'?.>I?. mM'im IN KOI'B OIVKR- 0 TUCUENTS?I1ani \ CONCI.I NA1!?B ?\>S A>' llo! B. ;i BoWERY Tfc EATKE. Bcwkij?Otiiu.m>?Oi.ivkr Twist. j v CHATHAM TilEATHE, Chfttiii>n> ?rr??t.?Tut and 11 Mil Yohe a< It I*?Fatal Snow iron*. c PANORAMA HALL, Bro*d*ar, EHr Houjton?Baj?ta*d'? v Pakohama or the Mississippi MECHANICS' HaLL. Broadway, bmt Broom*- ' 'Kacrrr'i xiaitttia-KriuoriAn k?i!i*-BDiiJi?ra Da! oiks, fca. 1 MRLODIOK, Bowsry?Virginia MiFrrKKU. to. PALBO'S OrCP.l HOCPK. ( hambers street-Mono. A? ti?t? NEWARK, N. J., Concert Hall?I.A.vatbr?Thb Skcuat? Popping im a*r> Oi t New York, Krl tnjr, June ti, IMIO. ActiuU Circulation of tlu Harald. '' June 1, Thursday, dally 19.320 ooples. I The publication of the Herald commenced y??t?r ta* ' at 10 ai'ButoK before 3 and finished at IS minutes past L T o'clock j TUe Sunday Herald \ We desire to inform that portion of our subscribers t who take the Herald at their stores and places of busi- s nets during the week, that if they desire it, the Sunday G Herald will be left at their residences every Sunday ( morning, at two cents per copy, psyable to the carrier. 6 W? desire, aire, to Inform the public at large, that the t Sunday Herald can be subscribed for separately, and will be left by our carriers at their residences, by leaving directions to that effect at the publishing office, c North-west corner of Fulton and Nassau streets. We ' wish it to be distinctly understood by all. that our re- ' gular carriers are not authorized, in any case, to charge v more than two cents for the Sunday Herald, and we will be obliged to any person who hears of a violation of I this rule, to report it to us. We learn that the com. j munity have been very much imposed upon in regard t to the Sunday Herald, and we are determined to apply c a remedy. Th* Prraide ncy_im port ant Political Move- c menti. A public meeting of the friends of Gen. Tay- 1 lor, took place last evening at Lafayette Hall. It was attended by the usual number, and the speeches f were made up of the usual matter, and went oft in ( the ordinary style. A meeting of the friends of Mr. Clay will be held on the site of N'iblo's Garden , to-night. A number of orators have been engaged | for the occasion, and no doubt it will be got up in the . usual way of such meetings. In this city, and proba. | bly in the interior of the State, the mass of the whig , party are decidedly in favor of Mr. Clay; but this v meeting, at the near approach of the whig conven tion, amounts to nothing. For any practical pur- t pose, it resembles the fellow who, during an erup- ,, tion of Mount Vesuvius, took a kitchen bellows to l blow up and increase that eruption. A report of the Taylor meeting will be found in our columns to-day. A rej>ort of the Clay meeting will be found in the same columns to-morrow. , Thus far the whig*. The democracy, of both chools, arc not idle. The regular democratic committee at Tammany Hall, in which there is a majority of hunkers, have passed a resolution, ap- . proving of the nominations at Haltimore, and call- , ing a mass meeting in the Park, on Monday, the twelfth instant. The barnburners, who were de- ] feated in regular committee, have organised a committee of their own, composed of the oldest and / most respectable of the democracy, at the head of which we find Stephen Allen, of blessed memory, j who have also called a mass meeting in the Park, . in anticipation of the hunkers, on Tuesday of next week. There is, therefore, a regular breach be- ( tween the two sections of the democracy; but judging from a survey of the whole chess board, or j rather from a look over the prairie of politics an?' public robbery, the barnburners occupy a very ! narrow passage to the spoils and to glory, and the least mis-step may precipitate them into the gulf of oblivion below. Their position re- ( minds us of a visit we once made to the beautiful ( scenery of Trenton Full-, near Utica. These , falls are formed by a deep gulf in a rock of secondary formation, for two or three miles in length, in which a torrent falls from ledge to ledge, at a dis. tance of fifty or a hundred feet from the surface of the water to the top of the precipitous rocks. There is a passage up the dreadful ravine, which I visiters take ; but it is extremely narrow and dangerous to those who are not careful of their footst"P3. Livery one visitinir this beautiful scenery walked up this difficult ravine on the occasion reierred to, until a beautiful young lady, in the excitement of the moment, missed her footing and tumbled down into the foaming gulf below. The barnburners, on their political platform, have only the breadth of a negro's broad bottom on which to travel through the ravine of politics, during the nexfelection. The slightest miss-step will precipitate them into the gulf below, as the talae step hurled tlie amiable young woman to whom we referred, to her final home, when she at- ! tempted to travel through the ravine of Trenton Falls. The position of parties, men, and principles, at ( this moment, ia different from what it has l>een for ( twenty year*; but it resembles in foiiic resects the ? onditiou of |m>]ittee 1 affairs when< General Jackson first became a candidate for the Presidency in 1821. Tlitrt is n t a single organized party i)i thif country | that har a majority of the popular voir. This was ( ihe case, too, at the last election, but it is more so | now. The following may h?? cast as an estimate , of the vole then taken, giving South Carolina, which elects by legislature, with her nine votes, the same popular vote which Alabama had. with an , equ.il number:? Pon-i-AH Vorr in 1c44 Whtg?-< lay 1.300.000 v Democrat*? I'olk 1.3*0 000 i Abolitlonl'tc?Birncy 60 000 , 2.740.000 | Making allowance for the increaac of popula- > Hon. and taking every element into consideration, i we have formed the following estimate of the po- < pular vote, and the condition of parties at the present time:? I fc?TIM?T?. OK I III. I'uriLAR VoTl I > 1S43. Wbiz? 1,400.000 ' ' Democrat* f,400.000 I NuliiA'r* 100.0UO , | Haruhuru'T* 200.0O0 , Abolitionists 100.000 ( 6.000 1 ; f 3.126.000 1 ft will be seen from this, that n< distinct party, I organized as a party, has a majority of the popular { vote at this moment. In an eleetion for President, j therefore, whatever the conventions or the States may do in the way of nomination, nn election l.y the people must be produced by the union of two or morr parties, in order to get the electoral votes *4 soin* of the prineip.il States. 7 be first gr< at question involved in political cal- < .cnlatiovs, preliminary to voting, i* that of the men iio b?* Micfctcd. The men selected by the different L /actions are more controlled by the influences of -"W w<"?-' ' .ticrtacn i*rt> made its nomination, g?iiciui rinciples, general measures, and national issue*, lay come into play; but the motives which rule at ll nominations, are much more their supposed 0 vailability, in private pledges, or tlio distribution a I oilier, tiun great national measures or princi- v les. t ^ Now in this pot.iiion of things, how do piatters a and t j 11 There are three prominent candidates before all v io factions, and before lb? nation at large. The ; emocracy have nominated their man?General j c lass. The whites are divided between Mr. Clay c nd General Taylor. It is conceded that neither n ultra democratic candidate, or nn ultra whig andidate, can receive a majority of the popular i ole. General Cass will !> ' opposed by the ulliliers of South Carolina, as well as y the barnburners of New York. Mr. Cluy -ill be opposed by the nulliliers, the baniurnere, the abolitionists, and the natives.? either Clay nor Cass can therefore receive a ma>rity of the popular vote. Yet if no other candiate were to run but those two, it is probable that ne of them might be elected, and the chances are bout even which of them it would be. If the fhigs, in their convention next week, should no- 1 ninate Mr. Clay, General Taylor will still be u 1 andidate, independent of any party or taction, and ' rould probably unite those extremes of the North 1 tnd the South?the barnburners and the nullifiers? ' n the support of hi9 cause, in addition to various ( ither masses. In such a conjunction of circum- | itancep, there would be no election by the popular 1 ote; but the three candidates would be returned 1 o the House of Representatives, as in 1824, and 1 n the House, General Taylor would also stand a 1 food chance. The democrats could not and would 1 lot vote for Mr. Clav, nor the whigs for Gen. Cass; 1 ut sufficient of both might, in the long run, unite 1 m General Taylor, and elect him in the House of ' lepresentatives. If he should not even be elected ( ?y the House or the people, he would still be the ' nost prominent candidate at the next heat, and 1 vould be a tower of strength to the party that sticks I o him through all. But if the whig convention ' ihould decide that Mr. Clay is unavailable us ' t candidate, and should take up General Taylor, ' hey would decidedly have the best chance to t mcceed in the contest. In such case, a conside- ' able portion of the friends of Mr. Clay might ' ibundon the whig cause and support the demo- 1 ratic candidate; but that might ba made up by a ' lingular union of natives, barnburners and nulli- 1 ters in favor of the hero of Buena Vista. If the 1 vliig convention, therefore, nominate General 1 Taylor, the barnburners will be extinct as a paity; 1 >ut if they nominate Mr. Clay, then the barnburners ' night have a chance to walk op the deep ravine ' if politics without being precipitated into the gulf if political oblivion below. Such at present are the most accurate views we i an take of this important subject to-day. General < Taylor is the most available candidate, ly every ; >dds?that is certain. I The New .UuictARY Act.?Previous to the raming of the new constitution, and the passage )t the judiciary act, a vast amount of ink and paier were expended in appeal to the public, through ' he press, on the various quibbles by which legisation was prolonged and justice delayed, if not 11 together frustrated, until suitors became abeoutely fired out, and in the end ruined. Many of hesc appeals were made while the convention vas in session framing the constitution, and were ntended to operate on that body; and their auhors predicted that the new constitution, and the udiciary that would follow it, would remedy all hose evils; that the old, antiquated method of heading?the subtle distinctions and arbitary rules n use under the old system?would be done away vith, and that the proceedings of the State courts .vould thereafter be based upon common sense, ind conducted in accordance with the progress 1 ind spirit of the age. Those two instruments are low in operation a year, and we are not yet able o discover any improvements in the principles by a hich the courts of justice arc governed, or in heir mode of administering justice. On the conrary, we find that suitors are subject to the same lelays, expense, and consequent vexation, as be"ure. In proof of this, we need only refer to the calendars of the different courts, which will be found to be overloaded with causes ; but in particular, we refer to the mass of unfinished business 011 the calendar of the Superior and Circuit Courts, which is really frightful. As a set off, the judges complain of want of accommodation, and throw the blame on the Common Council; while ihe Common Council, on their side, insist that the accommodation at present provided for the judges, is sufficient for the transaction of all the business r>f the city and county; that by providing additional court room, and organizing more comt?, ihe entire of the legal business of the St.it* will be transacted here, by which the ciiy will be put to great additional ex|<ense in fitting up court rooms, providing additional officers, stationery, coals, <Scc.; but the accumulation of business does not arise from this cause alonethere are other difficulties in the way. There i.?, it seems, a want of unanimity among the judge* themselves. We remember that, at the opening of the May term, there were only two judges in town to organize the Supreme Court. Th? consequence ivas, that it had to he adjourned half a dozen >f times, and, at length, an express was sent off to the Governor, to request him to select a judge, and :ompel him to come down to this city, that the court might be organised and the business proceeded with. We are not apprised what steps his Excellency took on that occasion, or what answer lie wilt; but we understand that 110 judge came, and that the Supreme Couit had not been in session in this city, except partially, during the May term. In addition, we find that, under the new system, lawyers have still the same scope as under the old, for exercisim.' Iciral inirenuitv and so;ihistrv. mid turning the Stale courts into ?tar and Inquisition chambers. W'c had an illustration of this in a asc that happened a few days ago, in which Editor Bennett is plaintiff and the redoubtable Hishop Hughes is defendant. That very astute awyer, Mr. Charles O'Conor, raked up an old Haute, passed some twenty years ago, which enabled a party to examine a witness, tie bene esse, .vho might be about to leave the country, and, in :ase of his refusal to answer. Arc., authorized the udge to commit him. As we said before, .Mr. "VConor raked up this Btatute, and very ingeniously attempted to graft it on another passed in 1KI7, vhich enables either party to bring his adversary, n the incipient stages of the cause, by a subprona, ?efore a judge, to be examined, but annexes no enalty to a refusal to answer. When this was hown by Mr. Galbraith, our lawyer, up starts Mr. '"Conor, and rails upon the judge to commit the editor for a contempt, under the section in the old ict which empowers him to commit a witness (not a party,) who refuses to answer; but Judge Edwards very promptly told his legal Iriend he could Jo no such thing?there wasno connexion between he two acts; they were intended for different putloses, and to obtain HifT-rent ends. Mr. flennett A'ns not before him under the old art; and under lie new one he had no nuthoiity to compel him to (ubmit to nn examination. He might answer, or 1 not, just as he pleased. The Caledonia left Boston on Monday, for Ilali- ' ax and Liverpool, wnh 35 passengers and $W>,G<>2 1 i) specie. 1 Marine Afftilr*. Twr fur s< r?t r ' ttt.?This rn'W and splendid st<~nm> r left her wharf precisely at four o'clock. ?< mi\?tino'l. and nt twenty inlnuti'ii pa>t whh abreast of (unrnDllnt. ifotnjf at * rapid rate, with tlie wind nn j Iter quarter. hlowinjt nlmo?t n |r:i)e She wa* n? tiff ] mil ii- l.noyhitt nn whin ut her duck and moved down *ith more (frui e and velocity llmu any vessel w ever tiw leave tlie iinrt of New York She is dccidcdly one if the fluent r-ti i |>r t liat now tluata. in every pre I \ large number of parsons collected on the Battery and he wharves to witness her departure It w?? worth 1 ^yiianiaBMii Kt volution In ComouNtal Atkli??Tiw I nlted lUtM and Fi-mim. Among the important results which will spring ut of the establishment of a republic in France, nd the spread of democratic principles over the ^hole of the continent of Kurope, which, sooner or iter, must be the cane, either by force of urms, i nd by blood und carnage, or through the n;..ral afluence which both France und the United States k ill exercise over the minds of the million, not the east will the increase of commerce. This will he me of the numerous advantages which will grow lut of the overthrow of monarchy and its <*xlenses, and the establishment of democracy, ?>i epublicaiusm, und its economy, in Europe. The commerce between this country and France, considering the position of the two countries, and he advantages they possess for a mutual exchange >f the commodities of nature and of art, which hey respectively produce, has never been near so arge or extensive as it ought to have been. The mmense expenses attendant upon the support and 'xtravagance of the monarchy, with the other ex>enses which such a form of government, entail ipon all countries, must be provided, either by lirect or indirect taxation, or both, us is modt go- ] lerally the case. The direct taxes are laid on lie lands, persons and property of the citizens, and he indirect on commerce, affecting that branch of luman industry not only to the detriment of the counry directly interested, but indirectly the whole :ivilized world, proportionably to their amount and he magnitude of the tariff under which they are m posed. France has now relieved herself of her monarchy, and of its attendant expenses; and herelfter her government will be carried on as econonically, and with as little injury to commerce and he industry of the people, as the government of j his country has been conducted ever since the ime when it thought proper to sever its political ! connection with Great Britain. This happy result | annot. in the nature of things, he achieved in a Hav: I jut it will be done before a very long time. As ! Boon as it shall take place, the government and icople of that country will naturally direct their at- f tention to the United States; and it will be the 1 policy and advantage of both to enter into treaties, jased on the principles of mutual reciprocity, to as jreat an extent as possible, for the mutual exchange of their productions. The articles which France produces, and which we do not, we can sermit the importation of into the United States jnder a duty nominal, or not far from it; and vice versa, what we produce and France does not, she j can permit the importation of under a like nominal ! tariff. Both countries will be in a position to make | such treaties. The expenses of the government of ) uch will be trifling, and a moderate tarifl will be tbundantly sufficient for them. This state of things is very likely to grow out of the establishment of a republic in France, and it j needs no argument to prove the immense benefits which it would be to both France and the United Slates. With'her thirty-five millions of inhabi- j ants and our twenty millions, the two greatest , countries in the world, with fifty-five or sixty milions of people, with a treaty existing between them of this character, would control and re- : gulate the commerce of the whole world, , and make every other country follow in their : wake, not only in the reduction of its tariff, but in the establishment of a similar form of econo* j nical governnieut. While it would foster and iromote industry of every kind among the people af the two countries, it would complete the shock I .vhich England and other monarchical countries iustained by the dethronement of Louis Philippe, f that or any other monarchy should chance to be in existence at the time, which is a matter of extreme doubt, and prepare the way for universal democracy over the whole civilized world. The country which it would at first a fleet would be England, because she has, at present, the greatest commerce. She cannot lessen very much the expense of the monarchy, as long as that monarchy is in existence. If she were to attempt a reduction in her tarifl' of duties on commerce, the deficiency should be made up in some other form ; and the only way in which it could be done, would be by taxation at home. That remedy is out of the question. She has gone so fur in that, that she dare not move a single step further. Indeed, so oppressive hav the taxes become, that curses loud and deep are daily uttered by millions against their authors, and the objects for which they are designed; and an attempt to increase the income tax was abandoned by the government, lest, in the present state of the world, when kings and ministers are flying before their liberated subjects, it might lead to revolution. Notwithstanding this, Great Britain would be compelled by the stimulus given to commerce, by such a treaty as we have named between the United States and France, to do either the one tiling or the other. She would be obliged to reduce her tariff, but ahe could not make up the deficiency by taxation, for her people would not submit to it. She would be compelled, th? refore, to reduce the expenses of her government, and the nearer she approached in that resect the economy of that of either France or the United States, the happier it would be for her |>eople, and the faster it would promote n radical change in her government. These great changes in ihe domestic policy of England may, and, in all probability, will be, to a certain extent, effrcted by the reform confederacy, which has been recently formed there under tin. auspices of C'obden, Hume, and others, before the results we are ore speaking of as likely to occur by the establishment of treaties of commerce between France and the United States, but only to a certain extent. The work which this confederacy has uiid'-rt tken, will be finished by the United States and Fiance; and when that time will have arrived, England will be either a republic, or a monarchy only in name. It w ill be seen, therefore, that the work of improvement which the United States were the first country to commence, and the example of which has been followed by France, and her example again being followed by other countries in Europe, ia nul In fnrl in i>l?l>nlini> inn..I, ..w? UVOH..VU ? - I I I UI I l\ I 1111 |U UIC standing of freeman in a ]>oliticnl point of view only, but will, through the uilluence of commerce, penetrate nil the channels of society, and confer on our r:ice social improvement*, the which have hitherto been the subjects of dreams by philosophers and enthusiasts, and which are now about to be realized in a practical way. These great change?, particularly as regards England, may,however, be accomplished by other means than those we have marked out in this article. If France interfere in the Austiian and Italian nlfairs, nnd take sides with the Poles against the Austrians?as it is very likely she will do?a general European war will follow, as sure as light follows the rising of the sun. In tins war, England must take part, and these results will be hastened. This war, as we have before intimated, will involve thegrent issue between monarchy and aristocracy for existence in Europe, and wil| be conducted between the masses on the one stile, and the remnants of aristocracy and monarchy i>n the other. In either ca?e, however, the whole commerce of the world, as it is at present constructed, will totter nnd fall to the ground. Hankruptey nnd repudiation will follow in its train, and on the ruins of the old system a new one will spring up, which will penetrate the farthest recesses o| the globe, and bring together in intimate relations all the people of the earth on whi-h we live. We shall then be as near a millenium as the nature of man will admit of, nnd lawyers, |K>liticians, barnburners, and jugglers of nil kinds, will be no further needed, and will be compelled, by the necessity r>f the case, to cease from their tricks and become axkfucaa IAiEaN Stka.m Navigation?Ajuuval of thk Uniteu State?.?The amval of the United State* on Wednesday morning, in the very short passage of thirteen duys and six hours, was hailed as an auspicious event, and created feelings of the utmost satisfaction among our people generally. As the United States is the first that has come in direct collision, and the only American vessel ever admitted by the English people as a rival of their ships, the result of her homeward trip was the subject of much interest in Liverpool and London, and large sums of money are pending to be settled on the termination of the passage of the new British ship Niagara, now due at Boston. No pains or expense, we learn from the papers,were being spared to give the Niagara every facilitypossible; and although theUnited States sailed three days previous, they predicted the arrival of the Niagara at Boston at least one day before her. How far their prophetic assertions have been verified, is already seen. The United States performed excellently well, even equal to the expectations of her most ardent friends; and, notwithstanding certain acta of meanness on the part of the Royal Mail Company at Liverpool, to which we shall allude, both her freight and passenger lists are as good as could be expected. The subject of ocean steam navigation, from its

importance to the great commercial interests of this country, and its effects upon the social and political aspect of the new world, offers a sufficient excuse for the frequent allusions we have made to it. But at a time like the present, when anything pertaining to the subject attracts so much attention, and when, until within a short time, so much mortification has been experienced by the ill success of our first attempt in building ocean steamers, a few remarks U)>on the causes and the results will not be out of place. The amount of capital invested in sea steamers in New York, at the present day, cannot fall far short of eight millions of dollars; which fact, apart from the anxiety for the security of the money, and the critical position of our character as a scientific people, must give the subject of ocean steam navigation a preponderance over all others of a commercial nature; and, as it works its way to the interests of every class of society, its potency and power mjst be maintained. There are many persons here, and on the other side of the Atlantic, who are ready, at all times, to make comparisons where the result is most favorable to their prejudices, and never has this feeling been evinced to a greater degree than when applied to the steamers Washington and Hermann. It is true, these vessels have not been as fortunate as the Cunard steamers ; but we think it is susceptible of proof that, in proportion to the experience we have had, compared to that of Great Britain, we have surpassed them to an infinite degree. The fault our people committed was in their effort to surpass, at a leap, that which oacupied all the science and skill of England yearstoaccomplish. Our river steamers are universally admitted the fastest and best in the world; but they have only been brought to that degree of perfection by long experience and observation ; and when we shall have had less than half that experience in ocean steamers, they will stand in the position our sailiug packets have occupicd for more than a quarter of a century. Our experience has, in truth, been nothing in the business of ocean steamships building until within the last eighteen months. Previous to that time, and for as long a period as twenty years or more, the British people, on account of their geographical position, and for the purpose of availing themselves of that great power in the propulsion of vessels, found it necessary to construct, at the outset, vessels of this description,to keep an open communication with France and with distant parts of their own empire. Vessels intended for such, should necessarily be constructed in as strong a manner as possible; and made capable of weathering the storm which so frequently visit the coasts of the old world. They were in the hibit of doing this for a long aeries of years before the great problem of navigating the Atlantic, from one distant country to the other, was solved. The moment the practical men of that day decided upon the feasibility of doing this, there was no delay necessary; there was no nenessity of constructing vessels specially designed for such service, because the power to withstand the elements nnd the force of the sea in the channel and on the coast, was demanded of vessels already built; and were, therefore, considered qualified to cross the Atlantic with a degree of safety. The Sirius was accordingly despatched; and this vessel, which was one of the Dublin and Liverpool packets, and considered the finest and fleetest then in the country, reached the port of New York after a passage of eighteen days. The experiment, as far at the crossing of the Atlantic was concerned, to all intents succeeded, and the Sirius was followed by other vessels with more or less success. We all remember the passages made by th? Liverpool, the British Queen, and the President, which, if compared to the first attempt of the American steamers, would place the latter, according to the rate of progress in steame, some ten years their superiors. The Liverpool, British Queen, and others of that class, were followed by a line, in which the government of Great Britain took much interest, and extended every encouragement possible, to render it, in all respect*, perlect. This line is now known as the Cunard Koyal Mail Steamers. We have no desire to detract in any degree, from the merit ol these vessels. They are all woll constructed, well appointed, and have accomplished all if nor more thun was expected of them. What we mean, however, to uphold is, that in proportion to the experience which we have had, that, under the circumstances, we have accomplished more in the same field of enterprise thun our neighbors have: and instead of comparisons to our discredit bein^ drawn, the reverse should be the ease. In the space of two years wc have constructed and put in running condition six thorough ocean steamers. Two of these, from the very start, have given such proofs of their speed and seaworthiness. ns no steamer. Kntflisll or anv other, run adduce. The others?we mean the Washington and the llennann?although with slight defects in the machinery, have not been behind the first of the Cunnrders, as the log of the Hermann on her last passage will show. The steamer United States, under very unfavorable circumstances, new and without copper, reached Liverpool without detention of any kind, in less than fourteen days, and returned to New York, under every disadvantage as regards stress of weather, in one of tha shortest passages ever made between the two potts. So true and so perfect are nil her equipments, both in model and engines, that had there been coal on board, she might sail to-day to Liverpool with the same success. Another ship of unsurpassed beauty of model, fitted with the most costly engines, by the name builders, Messrs. Secor ?V Co., has made lier appearance within a lew days, and will leave for her destination this afternoon. We speak of the Crescent City. She is about as larjfe as the (ireat Western, but greatly her superior in both model and speed, having tested both in a run toSaudy Hook, which was accomplished from the Mattery in less than one hour, making her spaed at least eighteen miles per hour. These we merely give as specimens of our experiments on the Atlantic, but what we are to pra, (luce both on the Pacific and the Atlantic may be ] estimated by that which we have already placed before the world. Til* vast Pacific, with its zephyrs, gales, and its ?mooth and unruffled waters, invites us to trade with the Indies and the coast. We Inve become possessed of all the s ife and commodious harbors | on the North We?t coast; and between the United ' States and China, the voyage can be made from forty to forty-five d ivs. Already we are preparing to ent?r that vast fiefd, and bringing to our aid the uncalculated power of steam, we shall find incentives to exercise tlit' inventive genius of our engineers. In a f"W years that vast ocean, as well as the Atlantic, will be traversed by our steamers; and I judging of the future by the last short two years, - - ? LT.il. | th<* English v<???*l* a? tar behind, a* lh?y really I imagine they are ahead. The Cunard steamer*, we must admit, have, by I a course prompt and systematic, become profitable and flourishing in the highest degree; and the proprietors are likely to be, ii" not already, paid hand- j aoutely tor the capital they have invested. The i encouragement so bountifully bestowed upon them has given to <1 portion of our citizens in impetus to t action, which, at no distant day, is destined to | produce, as we have said before,"that which will ] ? supercede the greatest and most effective efforts of ? the British mechanics. 1 While upon this subject, we may as well give j some idea of courtesy extended by the Royal Mail , Company, towards our steamers in England. The i following is a copy of a circular issued at Liverpool previous to the sailing of the Hibernia:? ' Fkeiohti at Liverpool.?'The arrival of the American Nteamer United Status has induced the British and North American Steaui Packet Company to reduce their freight by this steamer, Hibernia, from X'7 per ton 1 measurement to ?<1, and by the Niagara, hence 2l)th inst.. to ?'i 10s, after which the old rate will be resumed. The rate of passage is also reduced to ? ' Harnden 4r Co.'t Circular, ptr Hibernia. This is something similar to a placard issued j at Southampton, while the Hermann was at that I place. Both exhibit a disposition on the part of I the managers of the Cunard steamers to throw ! every obstacle in the way of the American line.? | The spirit evinced in the extract from the circular | we give above, is so plain to be seen, that it will j ultimately react upon them, and do our steamers more good than harm. At all events, the American steamers can successfully compete with the English line, upon anv terms they may adopt. It is not UMfHin fllfl nnttrar /?f ^mrlniw] nr untr Atnur nufmil not even our own, which is by no means the most 8 liberal in these mutters, to set bounds to the.energetic developments and progress of a people! who t are stimulated by the highest principles of honor and enterprise. i Organization ok the Barnbvrners?A Prnt.ic Move for General Taylor.?That portion of the j democratic party which has been called burn- i burners by some, and more recently ' cut-throats" J by others, has had severul meetings during the t last few days, and has appointed a committee to j make arrangements for holding n large mass meet- g ing in the Park on Tuesday afternoon, the 6th , instant, when, as we are given to understand, j they intend to nominate General Taylor for Presi dent, Thomas II. Benton for Vice-President, and , Senator Dix for Governor of this State. This is ? to be in anticipation of the whig nominations in Philadelphia on Wednesday next, the 7th instant, j and at the same time to take the wind out of the ? sails of all other parties now floating before the breeze. This will be truly a curious meeting, and must have an influence upon the Presidential ques- ] tion. ; The first meeting upon this subject was held at { Tammany Hall, on Tuesday, the 31st ult. The i chairman of that meeting was Stephen Allen, a ' gentleman well known among the democracy of j New York. A committee of arrangements, con- J sisting of three from each ward, was then appointed from among the old democrats. They met at t Stoneall's, in Fulton street, again last evening, t and, according to the most accurate interpretation ' of the sentiments of this section of the democracy, J there seems to be no doubt but that they will nomi- t ! nate General Taylor for next President, Thomas Ilart Benton for Vice President, and probably Sc! nator Dix for Governor of this State, on the en- ' | suing election. These nominations will have a t powerful bearing upon the movements in Philadel- ( ! phia next week; and if the whigs do not at once ; take up Geu. Taylor?if they insist upon putting f j Mr. Clay forward?there will be three candidates ' before the country, and the chances of Gen. Taylor ? | will be |>erhaps the best of the three, and at all f i events, as good as any of the others. I The late Thomas II. Smith, well kuown as an j eminent China merchant of this city, was an ex- \ tremely liberal and open-hearted inan, and parti: cularly so to the sailors on board his ships, of ' which he had many sailing to all parts of the easti em world. One day, as he was standing before the door, at his store down town, a rough, weather- 1 beaten sailor stepped up to him and asked him if lie could tell him where T. II. Smith, the merchant, lived. " Yes," replied Mr. Smith, "I can do that, my good fellow, for I am the man my- ! 1 self." " What!" exclaimed the sailor, starting ' i back with astonishment, and gazing intently u|>on ' ! the merchant, "do you really say you are the j man 1" " The fact, and nothing else," said Mr. i Smith. " Then give us your hand, my hearty," j ( said the sailor, "youhave a soul to be saved, and , 1 I am glad to see you. Good morning, sir; that is ' J all my husinesf; glad to sec you, sir; good morn- i ing, sir." If the barnburners nominate General Taylor, we i can onlv say, " You have a soul to be saved: good morning, and go ahead." Arrival of thk News Steamer.?The news , steamer Naushon, recently purchased by the | Herald, and four of our contemporaries, arrived ! I here yesterday aftertoon, from New Bedford, via i ! Edgarton. The following is the report of her cap- , I tain: I New York, June 11. s4s. i Steamer News Boat Naushon. from New Bedford. I and last from Kdgarton. left the Utter place on Wed- 1 nesday night last The whole distance she encoun- j 1 ! Ureda strong windfrom N. W to W..with a very heavy ; cross sea; and hfts proved herself ft first rate sea boat.? 1 Her speed I* fifteen miles per hour; but. on account of j 1 | the heavy sea. she could not bo drove on her passage | j from N?w Bedford to Kdgarton. When off the east ; j end of the Island of Naushon. on Wednesday noon, she passed several square-rigged vessels bound west? ' nmong them, the barks Ida. of Boston, and Kmpress. , ' and brig Ksheol; passed Holmes Hole, on her way to I ( , New York, ftt Mix o'clock, P. M.; saw from thirty to I forty sail and as many more, most of thein fishermen, j i i coming in for a harbor, on account of the high winds : , from the westward. For tho last sixty miles In the j Sound, not a vessel was seen bound west, on account ! of the heavy blow. I Yours, he., ABRAHAM BANCKEll. The name of the steamer is to be changed from Naushon to Thk Newsboy. She is to be emmedi- 1 ately overhauled, and put in complete order; und i i will probnbly be ready for service on Monday. It is expected that her speed will fully meet the ex- , 1 ! pectation of those who have entered into this piece i i of newspaper enterprise ; but if the is not fast , enougn, ail we nave to do is to obtain one that will ; ensure the purpose for which Tub Nkwshov wuh purchased. I Fashio.nabi.k tsroiuis a.iu Shoitinu.?Of late , ' years, splendid stores in Broadway have multiplied J' to a most extraordinary extent. It is only necessa- ! ! ry to go into Heck'sor f^tewiirt's, or any othersplen- ' i did establishment of the same kind, to be convine- j ed that a threat revolution in matters of taste and ' refinement has taken place in the shopping line.? ' We can now rival Herlin, Paris, London and Vi- I l enna, themselves, in splendid establishments, de- j voted to the servi.-e of fashionable ladies. These n magnificent stores are filled with valuable and cost- ' 1 ly goods of the newest fashion; and are, besides, | ' interesting places for the assembling of fashiona- | ; ble ladies, and ofdoing much business in gossiping, | ! chit-chat, sentiment, love, and fol dt rot. While I < the brokers are busy in Wall street, putting each j 1 : other into corners?and endeavoring to shave with I i a keenness beyond even that with which Jim Grant j j ' performs (he operation?the fashionable ladies i i , about town arc equally busy buying silks, talking j j 1 sentiment, pricing satins, and pouting pungent j i | criticisms upon their neighbors, 111 these fash- i j ionablc places af resort. They are renlly quite a ! ( I study, and it is worth the while to go round them j i and take a look. ( E.miohation?Health op tub Citv.?In the advertising columns will be found the report of a l sub-committee appointed by lbs committee ofciti- J 7-ens of the fifth ward, to draw up a statement of j the proceedings taken in relation to the landing of j J 1 emigrants at the foot of Hubert street. To the re- > ' port arc attached certificates of the most eminent j physicians in the city; giving it us their opinion , , that the measure, if persisted in by the Common j i Council, will be fraught with great danger to the , health of the citizen- of the fifth ward, and of the public generally. The injunction case in this mat | 1 ter was argued yesterday before Judge llurlhut, | meOBAPHIC mTBIXIQQfCB. THXRTI1CTH COTURBM. FI&9T MISSION. I?iiate. Washington. Juno 1, 1848. The Senate convened at the usual hour. Mr Dallas, lie Vice-President, being ubeut. Mr. Benton, of Aliisouri, move J that Mr Atohison, t the wa 111 j State. b? appointed President of the Senate. ro Urn., which was agreed to. and the Senate proeeded to the consideration of business. , Numerous memorials and petitions were presented HEtOLCTlO.fl I'KOM ohio. Mr. Allen. of Ohio, presented resolutions from th.i .egislature of said State, relative to various subjects, rhich were duly received, and ordered to be printed. EFI.'NDINO MONC\S ADVANCED TOEql'ir VOLUNTEK'Mr. Risk. from the Committee on Military Atfai eported the bill from the House in favor of n-funili u loneys advanced for the transportation and snl^i ence of volunteers entering the service of the I'liil <.1 tales, prior t-> th-ir being mustered into nerviri. notion made to take up the lull, was agreed to. Mr. Ti-rnet, of Teunesee. moved an amendment to be bill, in favor of paying interest on the amounts adanced The bill, as amended, wa* then read the third timo ind passed. THE INDIAN APPIIOI-KIATION BILL. Mr. Atiiebton, of New Hampshire, moved to take up he Indian appropriation bill, which wu agreed to; vlien Mr. ArcHiNiON, of Missouri, proceeded to address tho ienute. at some length, in support of the amendment le offered yesterday, in favor of paying demands for he removal and subsistence of tliu Cherokee lndiunt roiu North Carolina. Mr. Athiutox, of New Hampshire, addressed the lenate. at length, in opposition to the amendment ; .fter which, the subject was Informally laid ftfide. the oregon bill. Mr. Bright, of Indiana, then moved that the Senat* ake up the Oregon bill, which waa agreed to. The pending question was upon Mr. Hale'* amendnent, offered yesterday, in favor of oxtendlng theordilance of '87 over the Territory of Oregon. Mr. Hale rose and said that he had been accused of hrowiug a firebrand into the Senate, by the introduc ion of this amendment. He said, however, that be did lot wish to embarrass tlie bill lie would, therefore, vithdraw the amendment, in order to let the question >e taken on Mr. Westcott's amendment in favor of he adoption of u bill reported by the Judiciary Comuittve at the last session of Congress, as u substitute or uie present Dill; and, paid .Mr. H., see Uow you will ;et along with that. A debate then sprang up on the sutyect. in which klr. Butler, of South Carolina, Mr. Bright, of Indiana, klr. Waleott. of Florida. Mr. Bagby, of Alabama. Mr. filler, of New Jersey. Mr. Dickinson, of New Vork. Mr. 'oote. of Mississippi. and Mr. lialit, of New Hampshire, >artici]>ated; when, without taking uny question, on notion, the Senate a (journed till to-inorrow, (Friday.) House of Representative*. The House convened at 11 o'clock, A. M , when the speaker resumed his Beat, and called the House to orler. Prayer was offered up by the Chaplain; after vhich the journal was road and approved. treasury expenditure*. Tho Speaker announced the first thing in order on lis table to be Mr. Strohm's report on the expenditure! it the Treasury Department, which tu undisposed of yesterday. The proposal to print ten thousand copies was first ;aken up. when the minority of the committee asked lelay, for tho purpo.se of being enabled to make a counter report. The majority of the committee, howler. urged that the present report might be printed now, ind the other could be printed as soon as it was ready. Without arriving at final action on the utyect, It was aid aside. naval appropriation bill, Mr. Windsor, of Ohio, moved that the House resolve tselflnto a Committee of the Whole on the State of he Union, which was agreed to?Mr. Richard W. Thompson, of Indiana, in the chair?and the Naval \pproprlation Bill was taken up. Mr. Vihton rose and proceeded to explain the naure of tho bill. * Mr Riiett. of South Carolina, obtained the floor, ind said that ho desired to speak on another subject. Points of order were raised, and rules cited to sustain them. The Chair stated tho question to tho Honse, and lecided that it was in order. Mr. Thomas J. Henley. of Indiana, appealed to the louse froin the decision of the Chair. The yeas and nays were demanded, and the decision >f the Chair was sustained by the following vote?yea* 10. nays 44. Mr. Riiett then resumed, and proceeded to make a lavery speech. When ho had concluded. Mr. Venabi.es, of North Carolina, followed on the rime side, with decided ability. H? referred to the >rovislons of the constitution, as the grounds of his :hief argument. When he had concluded, the comuittee rose and reported the bill to the House, when it vas ordered to be printed. On m tion, the House adjourned till to-morrow, (Friday.) The Court ot Inquiry. Baltimore, June 1,1848. The Court of Inquiry, at Frederick, met yesterday, ind adjourned over until the 10th Inst. Markets. Baltimore, June 1.?Flour?Howard street rule* iteady at $6 50, with sales of 600 bbls; and city mllla it $5 75 a $5 87X- with moderate sales. In wheat here is not much doing. Wo quote good to prime red it $1 '20 a $1 27, and white at $1 28 s *1 32. l orn Heal?Holders are firm at $2 37>? a $2 44 for Penulylvanla. Corn continues steady, with a good donand. Sales of white and yellow at 42c a 40c. Rye 1* lull, and no sales transpired. Oats are selling, to a 'air extent, at 30c a 32c. Provisions are without ma- 4 Lerial change. The demand is mostly for the supply o. Lho regular trade. Whiskey is 21 V,c in bbls. and 22V in casks. Bckfai.o. Judo 1.?Receipts within the past 24 hou: Klour?3 (H)0 barrels; wheat?23.100 bushels; coi 20.000 burhels. The flour market wan dull. Salt* ? 1.000 barrels were made at $4 C2>, a 4 76. Wheat? Sale* of 11.000 bushels were made, including Chicpgo, at 01c.. and good Ohio at $1 04. Cora?Sales of 10,000 bushels weru made at 38c. No change of moment in nther articles. Freights by the canal to Albany?Flour 50c. per barrel; grain 14c. per bushel. Boston. Juno 1. ? Flour?The market continued steady, and sales of 700 bbls wee made at $0 a $0 37S, including good Wostcrn brands, with Genesee, he. Horn?Sales of 5.000 bu hols were made, including flat slid northern yellow, at 5'2o a 57c; the market closed Brm Rye?Sales of 300 bushels were made at 78c. Oals ?Sales of 2 000 bushels wore ina.de at 50c. Tb? provision market remained about the same. Freights were firmer. Shipping liilrlllgt'iicc. II ai.timokf, .June 1?Ait i?rig? A ran.vie. New York; anil Diver, BjsUid. Maj. Cie\. Gidkon J. I'iluw.?Several politicians of tli" democratic school, of Teunessee, recently invited Major General Gideon J. I'illow to ;i public dinner?probably of roast goo.se. The gallant Major General declined partaking of the hospitality, in the following characteristic letter:? Nauiivii.lk. May 10. 1H4M. OefTLKMCM?I have pleasure in acknowledging the receipt of your letter of this dat . tendering mo. on behalf of my friends and fellow-citizens of Na?hville." the hospitalities of your city?congratulating me upon my return home, and inviting myself ami staff- the gallant Gen. Shields?and other officers of the army, now In your city, to partake of a public dinner, to be {iven at such time as may suit our convenience, l.'niler any circumstances, such a murk of public approbation would bo no loss gratifying to my feelings than to a just pride and houuruble ambition. Hut its value is greatly enhanced by the very llatt-.tring terms in which you have been pleased to mention my own services in a campaign of unsurpnssod brilliany. That Tennessee has had a full share of tlio honors of the war?that she has sustained the high character won Tor her by the haro of New Orleans, should be a source i?f great State pride and of proud exultation to every patriotic Tenncsso.in. That she has furnished over peven thousand of her bravo and gallant sons for the war. [who have shed their blood upon every battle-Hold of Mexico.] justly entitles nor to the proud and envia l?Io distinction conferred upon lirr, In tho designation uf "the fighting Stato.'' While I thus, with proud satisfaction, refer to tho liigh spirit and patriotic devotion of Tennessee's son*, I will. I am sure, ho pardoned for hearing testimony to the equally distinguished gallantry of tho whole American army. It was the Indomitable valor of tho American soldier which has crowned our arms with sucrcsfcs as astonishing as they are glorious. My recent division of regulars was composed of officers and meu from almost every State in tho Union. I'hat it did Its duty?that its success was unsurpassed l>y that of any division of tho brave army which inva led and conquered Mexico, is to me a sourco of untnl tilled prido and satisfaction. I trust you will pardon me, gentlemen, for thu? alluJing to tho patriotic valor of the American soldier?? subject which constitutes tho honor and pride of tho nation?and from which the world has soon that w? can maintain <>ur rights on the field of I attlo. as wo prolervo our iiljcrties and administer our government at lie ballot box That our country has a high destiny to fulfill, and that we have been soheted by theiill wirw Ituler of tho l'nivrr-,o to march as ' a of pillar cloud" ! before tho oppressed nations of the earth, can now t carccly admit of a doubt. ,| In reply to your tender of a public dinner. I hope :hat you will approve of my determination, respectfully ir. decline any public manifestation of the approbation if my countrymen, under existing circumstances Die rules of military etiquette will bn better preserved iy sueh a course, and my public duties ami engage. nents. (independently of this consideration) are of a haracter. at present to put It entirely out of my lower now to accept, or to designate with certainty, iny time fur the fulnro, when I could gratify my own Heart by thus partaking of the hospitality of your city. Allow me. gentlemen, to express my high gratification at the handsome mention made by you of the dls- I ;lngulshed and gallant fienernl Shields, who Is now risltlng your city, and to hop* that nHli* ugh his stay C nay bo short, if. will be as agreeable to himself ns 1 I am sure his reception and treatment will be kind and ' losplUble. Accept, gentlemen, assurances of the high regard rlth which I am. Your obedient servant. (HI). J PILLOW. Mes'rs. Catron, Horn iTini, (Chatham. Nu iioi.iot,

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