Newspaper of The New York Herald, June 18, 1848, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated June 18, 1848 Page 1
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JL JljL Wh'Jr Ko. KV/4H, Affair* 111 tUe i?ut Indira. Calcutta, March 8, 1818. ft,. I?r,n- in Hrilith India ?Probability of .? War toi'h China ? Mercantile Matter!?Curiou? fitI'inri' of Doing Hutinesi ? bank of Calcutta? Earthquake?" School" <>y Elephants?fifeimeritm Imlia, if-r., $-c. 1 n commencing this sorlos of letters, I do not propose to restrict myself to any definite plan. When there is uews you shall get it ; when there is none, you must contrive to go without, contenting yourself with whatever I m ?y hare to offer in the way of comment on an infinite variety of subjects, which will, probably, many of them be new, and at the same time interesting. to a large portion of your readers. Of my ability * to dq justice to my varied theme, I hare no inordinate opinion; but a lengthened residenee in this oountry, under circumstances which haro giren mo peculiar opportunities for observation, leads me to hope that my letters will not bo altogether worthless. If worthless they should turn out. you will know what to do with them. The mail from China came in yesterday, with Hong Kong dates to the 20th of January. We had been oxpecting to receive by this opportunity, Keying's final answer to the demands of the British Plenipotentiary, but hare been disappointed. The news is neither one thing or the othor; but there scorns to be no immediate prospect of a war. I do not enter into particulars, sinco Calcutta is so far out of the direct route between China and America, that whatever I might offer on this head would he stale before you get it. I shall only say, then, that whatever may be doing in China, here we are preparing for wnr. Troops have already been sent to Hong Kong, and It is generally understood that government has contracted with the Peninsular anil Oriontal Steam ? Navigation Company, for a steamor of 1500 tons, to he kept in roadlnnss to proceed at a moment's notice with strong reinforcements. There are now in Fort William two Queen's regimonts of about 600 strong each There is a large force of artillery at Dum Hum. seven miles ofT. and at Barrackpore. sixteen miles from town, are three Sipnhi regiments of 1200 strong each?the flower of the native nrmy. They are already sending troops from Bombay, and there aro plenty of soldiers, white and black, at Madras and along tha Coromandcl coast, rea lyto proceed on servioe at very short warning. Tile probability of a Chineso war ha? already had Its effect, ami that sorious enough, on the opium market. Of late years the prices of nplum at tho Calcutta sales, have averaged from 12 to 1500 rupees par chest. At the last sale held two or three weeks eg.,, the drug only fetched from 760 to 80Q rupees, and even these prices were only obtained, owing to tho loss of a steamer with BOO chests on board, which of course wore lost to the market. Should the depression In prices continue, the effect on the uublic finances must bo disastrous. Next to it* Ian J revenue the opium monopoly is tlin mainstay of the government of Bengal. When the drug brings 1200 or 1200 rupees per chest, the net annual rovenue from this soureo is above a million and a half sterling : so that you may imngiuo how seriously must be felt the present reduction in prices, and how embarrassing a further fall would prove. Still, the severest blow that could be given to the company's revenue, would be the legalization of the opium traffic by the government of China. Let the use of this drug bo once permitted In the Celestial Umpire, and it will soon be found more a lrantaguous to allow of Its cultivation at home, than to import it at a heavy cost from abroad: and thus the enterprising Chinese agriculturists would soon learn to produce a better and a cheaper article than that now imported. There ran be no doubt but that the Celost'al Government will, before long, sec the policy of legalising both the cultivation and tho traffic. As the trade goes is sadly to the disadvantage of China; for the opium is nearly all paid for in bullion. You will observe that 1 am speaking of this question merely as a matter of policy?with Its moral bearings I have nothing to do at present., although I imagine there can be but one opinion on this head. The news from Rangoon is of some Importance. The insolence of the successor to Tharawaddie is growing day by d iy. and British interference in some shape railnot be delayed much longer. Captain Crisp, a British subject, trading at Rangoon, has just been put in prison. and threatened with the stocks; and only managed to escape on payment of a heavy sum. It is said that our government intends to send a -resident" to Rangoon. If he I* not wsll received, he will probably be backed by 'credentials" of the proper sort. A couple of war steamors would very soon scttlo the business. You have, of course, heard of our rocent mercantile disasters. About twenty houses, groat and small, have ' succumbed to to the pressure " during tho past four months, and the total amount " failed for " cannot fall short of five crores of rupees, or Ave millions sterling. These failures have taught Calcutta a lesson that she will not be in a hurry to forget They have put an end. and it is to be hoped an effectual end. to ?li.. I.W..I n,.mnt nhnM nf ereHIt that lias ever dls graced the annals of trad#?a system which, in enriching hundrn Is. ha? beggared thousands, and now that it 1* exposed in nil its hateful ness. has made the''Integrity " of the British merchant a bye word among the natives of India?the history of our trade with Kng1 n iid since the ronewal of the charter, in, indeed, extraordinary. The phases of the markets hare puzsled the wisest among our mere economists; none but the practically initiated ever comprehended the matter Manchester goods, such as twists and calicoes, hare almost invariably been eheapor in Calcutta than in Manchester. and sugar, indigo, silk aud lac dye. always dearer in Cnleutta than in London ! You look incredulous. hut I am speaking from hook." From year to year the fact has hcen known and wonderod at?it Is nowaecouutod for. and every body is astonished at his stupidity in not having guessed at the truth beforo Tile solution is now easy enough. The London merchant bought gooils in Manchester for shipment to India simply because he was in want of money. He paid f <r the goods in bills ud iudia at six months date; * an 1 as soon us they were shipped, an advance was obtained ogain by a bill at six mouths for a huge part of the first cost, by the consignee, who again. In his turn, not unfreqnently drew upon the house in India, against the bills of lading when transmitted. By this means both parties were put in funds mouths before they actually paid for the goods; and very frequently those bills We re renewed at maturity, on pretence of allowing for the returns in a long trade." So much for Knglaud. in India tile same tiling was done, only tlio abuse of credit was still more extravagant People went into the hsiaar. not because they had money to trade with, Yone.iea ?Knw m/itintr fit mgftf n V?1 i fr A M rt n n ' Whit way so simple," says a knowing writer, " as to purchase a cargo of sugar, pay for it in bills on the Lontl <nhouse at ten months date, transmit the shipping documents by tho overland mail; and In less than two months the goods on the high seas, or perhaps not yet passed the mouth of tho Hooghly, were pawned In Lombard street, putting the. London house in possession of funds. eight months liefore the drafts against those goods fell due." Indeed, f have known of money being raised on bills of lading which were signed not only before the goods were on board, but even before they had arrived in Calcutta from ' up the conntry " I suppose there are very few Calcutta merchants whohave not been guilty of the "Impropriety" of Induc1ns a captain to sign documents for goods not yet shipped broonently have our merchants drawn against snch fictitious documents, and taken the proceeds of the bills Into the bazaar to buy the very goods which the documents protended to represent. You may well ask what is to lie thought of the captain who would sign Irll.s of Inding for a cargo not shipped; but you must bear in inind that a good dinner will make a Liverpool skipper wondrous kind when there Is any thing of this sort to bo done Dot us I have said. I hope the system has been effectually ma-hed. It was one which no house nnao Involved in It could ever have hoped to escape from unharmed. and st could never have been broken up but bv the general crash we have just, witnessed. All the damage is not yet done- at least further failures seem to be Inevitable; but it Is to bo hoped that the cause of our disasters exist s no longer. The ?xtravagane of tho partners of many of the Calcutta (Irias. tins hastened their ruin and deprived them of sympathy, now that they are dow n. Some of these people have been living at the rate of ?10 000 nor annum, an<l yet fully aware of their insolvency. What, you will say, would be thought of a London merchant, deeply implicated in hnrsc-racing7 And yet. some of tho partners of our Calcutta houses have been over head and ears Involved In the speculations of the b Ming l ing. They have not dared to let their own nani-s appear as the owners of horses, and under cover of their new* Jegutrrt. have. perha| s. managed to Keep the secret from ihetr correspondents In K.ngland; but lie thing has been for years the scandal of Calcutta. Lvtisffiifuiion frtn \ t\ nilmr almnol hat liolnad fn irnf rid of their money. nn<l at the same time to keep up a too funeral belief that their resources were inexhaustible. What I ho business eetablhhmcnt of the firm of (,'ockorell 8t Co., which hoe failed for a million and a-half sterling. may have cost. I cannot ray: but I know that the book-keeper of the house received ?14(0 per annum, ami that two other clerk* had ?2.490 between them. This firm may pay sixpence in the pound; and yet. now that, It is lu the Insolvent Court, tho wife of one of the partners drives out every evening In her brltska. drawn by a pair of Arabs, worth at least a thousand rupees each. Ar d this, too, while many who once kept their carriage, have boon stripped of everything by the failure of my lady's husband. In my next letter. I shall attempt a short history of the Union Hank of Calcutta, an institution whose failure has ruined hundreds of families, and crowned tlio disciae > o; the britis^ mercantile body. The i hank had i paid up capital of a million stctllug. A j year uco it declared a dividend of seven par cent, and ! on that occasion 1 he directors congratulated tho share- , ho'-t (i?, flourishing condition of th?lr property. It now turns out that the whole ofthe capital has hce a swept away, and its placo supplied by liabilities j amounting to half n million over anil above the paid , up stock. It also appears that the bank has been lu- ' solvent foC years, and that the dividends have been 1 paid out of the capital, merely to conceal tho losses and to allow the directors time to help themselves to the shareholders' money. The accounts published every lisir year were false from beginning to end. Yet they wi re believed In. for the position which the directors held In society was such as to place any doubt of their Integrity out of the question The chief delinquent seems to have been Mr. W. p. Grant, Master In equity and Accountant General of her Majesty's SuI E NE IN prerae Court, and sod of Sir John Grant, one of the judges. Then are Mr. A.deH. Larpent. son of the well known Baronet, and senior partner of the lirin of Cockerell Co.; Sir T. Turton. and others. But I must not anticipate. In bringing the commercial part of my letter to a close. I may mention, and It will be to your satisfaction, that none of the American houses here have suffered seriously, if materially, from the storm that has brought down so many of their neighbors. Yankee merchant* here have the reputatiou of being a canny set of fellows. Thoy do not. like English merchants, put themselves iu the hands of the natives; but aro ever wide awake to the nooessity of acting for themselves. Least of all arc they addicted to that extravagance of which I have spoken. But I usust give over this heavy writing for the prosent. or I shall degenerate into a Stock Exchange grumbler. Calcutta is not entirely beaten dowu. There is, 1 hope, plenty of life in her yet. We had an earthquake the other day to keep us agoing, and it was a very successful move, in so far as it gave us something butter to talk about than commercial convulsions. Earthquakes are by no means uncommon here; but they arc geuorally very sorry affairs, hardly worth a newspaper pnragragh The last one, however, just came up to my idea of what a woll-bohaved earthquake ought to be. Compared with one of the South American breed, it was certainly " no great shakes." but yet It was sufficient to remind one that people who tulk of terra tirma don't know what they are driving at. and to lead one to suppose that geology must be a highly interesting study. The shock lasted for some seconds, and at last succeeded in knocking down threo empty brandy bottles, the property of an invalid major, whose rooms aro next to mine, it was accompanied by a rumbling noise?but this was nearly drowned by the screams of the Brows and Coolies who infest my neighborhood. One house, in the European part of the olty. was rendered unteuable. 1 don't believe it did any more harm. In fact, the housos of Calcutta aro so well built that it is no easy matter to knock them down. The connection between earthquakes and the atmosphere is a curious subject, and I am ini-li . -<1 to think has not yet been satisfactorily accounted for. I am aware that Mr. Scrope has suggested thn' the phenomenon may be simply barometrical; th i is. if I remember him correctly, that the intensity of the action depends on tho degree of atmospheric exorcised on tho lava in volcanic craters. Th s is intelligible and satisfactory enough in the caf of earthquakes happening in the neighborhood of active volcanoes; but we have no volcanic vent of any sort within jiOO miles of Calcutta, and even these only eject a little "mud now and then. More than this, the last shock appeared to come from west to oast, and as it was not felt at Bombay, it must have arisen in central India, where there are no act ivo volcanoes at all. Perhaps the connection between the air and tho earthquake is more electrical than anything else ; but one thing is certain, that in India the connection is so marked that you can almost always predict a shock from the state of the atmosphere, just as sailors anticipate a storm from the bad behavior of tho baromoter. You, perhaps, never heard of such a thing as a school of elephants. Tho idea was new to me until yosterday, wheu I hoard of it from a passenger on board tho English steamer. It seems that as tho Haddington was on her way up the river, she suddenly cauie upon what was at first supposed to be a wreck, but which turned out to be a school of elephants. No less than nine of these auimals were crossing the channel, each with a mahout (driver) on his back. They wore all tied together, aud were in tow of a small boat. This where tho stream is uearly two miles wido! The story has beeu a good deal laughed at here, and wondered at still more, for elephauts and their ways are unknown to Calcutta oockueys. There are probably thousands of natives in Calcutta who have never seen an elephant iu their lives?the animals are not permitted to enter the town. The same is true of the other stars of the menagerie, tigers and such like cattle. A tiger is far more of a lion in Calcutta than in any obsnure Vaukeu village. Lord Hardinge brought a fine fello^ into town the other day, en route for England ; this iF) tho llrst that I have seen in Calcutta?the only one that has entered it to my knowledge for two years. I was told tbo other day by a lady, born and bred in tho couutry. that she saw her lirst tiger at Wombwell's menagerie in England ! Laughable as this Is the case is a very common one. Jlpropot, of this I may mention that I heard a person say recently, that he was afraid to visit England ju-t now. for fear of the cholera ! 1 suppose this was meant for a joke, but there is after all some reason for it. When the cholera last visited the west, its horrors wore increased ten f dd by an absurd notion that the disease was infectious, and that to visit the bedsido of a cholera patient was almost certain death. In n large proportion of cases then, the sufferer was left to help himself, and no wouderthat tho pestilence should have revenged itself for this slander on its character. We mauoge these things differently here. No one ever dreams of danger, whether in waiting at the bed side of a sick friend, or in visiting tho wards of a cholera hospital ; every case lias the best attendance, aud in good attendance are oomprised the most favorable conditions for recovery. The favorite remedy is half a tumbler of raw brandy with from forty to eignty drops of laudanum. Take this at the lirst appearance of decided symptoms, and the chances are three to one that you will get well. Wo caught a now governor general a fow weeks ago and are turning him to tho most profitable account. Lord Daihuusio is a little man. but by no means insignificant looking He has not yet had any opportunity for immortalizing himself, but he is getting very popular, not only because he is hospitable, but on account of hie atteution to businoss. Old Bishop Wilson is becoming daily moro infirm, but still has his heart about his work. The bishop's hobby of late has boeu the cathedral whioh he ha? erected on the margin of the magnificent plain that bounds Calcutta to the south. This edifice has cost ?60.000, ten thousand of which was paid out of the good metropolitan'sowu private purse. It seems a pity iriai no uincn money snouiu nave own mrowu anny The church accommodation of Calcutta is already in?ro than ample, and the money was sadly needed by the missionaries. Then the building itself is a sorry alfair. The style is bastard gothic, the material brink and stucco ; the coup A'ail that of a highly ornamented Christmas cake. But perhaps after all. the worst thing about it is that it was not needed, aud that now when built at such an enormous expense, it will only seat 4(io or 450 persons, though its dimensions are some 250 feet by 180. Thero is a painting on glass in the chaneol, which has been highly admired by the newspaper reporters, and highly abominated by everybody else. It represents the crucifixion, aud is said to have been left in an unfinished state by West, and completed by I don't know who. It Is altogether worthy of Ocorgo the Third's pet painter. If it have any particular fault, besides that of being altogether a sad daub, it is that the angels introduced inte the pieco, seer: to have anything but a tendency to fly udwards. They look more like a set of Icsri. too heavy for their wings, and in the act of falling from their high estate, it may be. according to Newton and Laplace, to atflict cherubs and that sort of people with gravity; but it isn't very artistical, and I don't think it is orthodox, eithor. In one corner, to be sure, there are two or throe airy creatures. that seem to have been touched with a kinder hand than their neighbors; but a friend of mine maintains that those are second-baud spirits, which have transmigrated from ar dher canvas, ami I am disposed myself to belicvo in this sort of metempsychosis, for like the Hindoo and his cow. 1 think I remember to have seen them in another state of exl - moe; though, to throw away the metaphor. 1 can't prcti nd to say from whom they were copied. The sain s are not much better than the superior beings, auu I don't think, the piece on the whole, likely to improve anybody's devotional feelings. The cathedral"'.u3 a large stall' attached to it. such as canons and all the other appurteuancos of the ehurnh militant. I h.avo heard one of these canons. His calibre is smi-11. or, if you can gut over the contradiction, he is a great bore. I ri-o i mu ooiitinjt u. II1I1K miWJr ui it; buu nn I linvr coino to punning at Inst, perhaps you and I had hot tor part for the present. My head is full of subject*, which I must defer. Among other thing*. I have * wonderful chapter to give you on mcsmorisin in India Perhaps you are not awaro that a mesmeric hospital was established hero in 1440 by order of government and at government It has done wonders, and there are not now ten regular surgeons In India who are not mesmerists. Of course, we have chloroform too; but mesmerism has a higher destiny than any nostrum, however benellcout But. as I said before, I must not anticipate. So with my boat aalaam, I bid you good bye for the present. DOWN EAST Calcutta, March 20, 1848. ?Mnrt Fun,iu Fail. ...... v^,........ ......... .............. . . 7 uree?Mesmerism and Chloroform In India?Thi Cholera?Ethonology of Ihe Nation of India?Interesting Information. I hud scarcely pouted my last letter, when a government gazette was put Into my hand*, containing an not Abolishing all discriminating duties on Articles imported or exported on foreign bottoms. From the 25th of Mare.h, this act goes Into effect, placing the trftdo of ail the world. British or nllon.on an equal footing with respect to British India. Such a liberal measure as this augurs well for the administration of Lord Dalhousle. Our tariff has always been a light ono; tho very highest duty hitherto charged has boen one of 10 per cent on British and 20 per ennt on foreign wines and liquors tho ordinary duties on otlier articles l>eing from 3 t<* 5 per cent ad valorem. It is now still lighter, and I bopo tip. Boston merchants will loso no time in taking advantage of the change. Two American vessels have arrived during the past week?the Audubon and the Cato; both. I suppose, will keep their hatches closed until after the 2oth. when, as I have said, the new net comes into play. Itegnrdlng this act, the Fhiend nf India Justly says :?' It la a bright and noble measure; all the brighter, too. from the certainty that foreign nations have not the spirit or the wisdom to reciprocate it, ami to admit British bottoms to an equality of privileges In their own ports. This is emphatically legislating for India, and aot for tho interest of a section of her exotic community. It Is opening tho trade of India to tho world, enlarging and multiplying tho mnrkets for her produce, and giving her the advantage of ohtaiwlng supplies from Kuropean nations on the cheapest terms.'' It it more than probable that Lord Dalhouste was ad, vised to this bj ths ministry bofbrs hs loft W YO FEW YORK, SUNDAY M( England. The days of the British navigation law* are tl no doubt numbered. and it is somewhat curious that t< the iirst blow their vitality should come from India, tl I am inclined to think, then, that Lord Dalhousie's aet a is intended to pare the way for a more comprehensive 8 oue at home. American ships can now take " bread- 1 stuffs" to Liverpool, and there ship cargoes for Calcut- u ta, Madras, or Bombay, purchasing hero the return n cergofor America. This trade ought to be profitable, ti f ir vntir Hllina IIPH un mnnh ahnuimp thnn itnea that WAI1 h oau afford to taUu freight at au abatemont of AO per h cunt on the Knglish rates. 1 enclose a copy oftbo new act, for the guidance of your merchants: ?Four it'll.Mam, II ISO: Dkpartmknt, > i Legislative, March 4th. 184*. \ The following act is brought up before the legislative council this day, the governor general of India in council being desirous that no time should lie lost in passing tho not. Resolved, That the rules requiring tluit all Acta of the governor general of Iudiaiu council shall lm brought up fur second reading u two months, or in throe months from the date of the tirst rending. be suspended in respect to the following proposed Act, and that it be at once passed into law:? act wo. vi. or 1*14. An Act for egualizing the Dutict on imported and exported on foreign and Britith Bottom), and for eitabtiihing duties on good) carried from port to port in the Tcrritorie) tuhiert to the Uovernment of the K nf India Company. I. It is hereby enacted, that from and after the twenty-fifth day. ol March, 1*1*, all goods imported on foreign bottoms by sea into any port of the presidencies of Fort William in Bengal, Fort St. (Icorgo, or Bombay, shall be charged only with the same rates of duty us suoli goods would now by law U- charged with if such goods were imported into any of the said ports on llriiish bottoms, any thing in any act of the council of India contained to the contrary notwithstanding. II. And it is hereby enacted, that from and after the said day all goods exported on foreign bottoms by sou. from any of tho said presidencies, shall be charged only with the same rates of duty as such goods would now hy law lie charged with if such goods were exported from any of the said Pfrts on British bottoms, any thing in any act of the council of luuia eontaiued to tho contrary notwithstanding. III. And it is hereby enacted, that from and after the said day, no duty shall tie charged on any goods lawfully carried froin any port in the territories subject to the government of tho East India Compauy to any other lsirt in tho said territories, any thing in any act of the council ol India oontained to the contrary notwithstanding. IV. Provided always, that nothing iu this act contained shall apply to the artielos of salt or opium. Sinco my last, wo have had another failure for ?150,000; all these liabilities arising from returnod bills This will probably bring down more houses, and it is generally feared that the large Arm of Bagshaw 8c Co. will bo compelled to stop after the arrival of the mail of the 7th of February. A bankruptcy in India is generally a splendid affair. It is highly disreputable to fail for anything less than ?50,000. and most of the houses shoot far ahead of that sum. You will understand me bettor when I tell you that the liabilities of six houses which failed in tho year 1880-34. amounted to fourteen erorcs forty-eight lakhs of rupees, or fourteen millions and a half sterling! The names of these houses were. I'aluier St Co., Alexander St Co., Mackintosh 8c Co., Calvin ft Co., Kergusson 8t Co., Crut.tendon. Macklllop St Co The amount of dividends paid hy all six is equal to 24 per cent, on tho above sum. One firm, that of Alexander St Co., paid 0 per cent, on more than four millions sterling. These statements, incredible as you may think them, may be relied on; they are derived from the very best official authority. But what is more, I find I have spoken of these dividends ns paid, whoreas many, though declared, have never boon paid and probably nevor will be. This is owing to the defalcation of O'Dowda. the official assigneo to the insolvent court, who received ail the assets of insolvent firms, and whose business it was to pay them out at once. O'Dowda's account recently exhibited a ilnflrinnpv nf mnriv fnVhi nf rnnhAi an thiit tho nrnHi. tors of tho above mentioned and other firms lose (treat ' part of tl^'r dividends, pitiful as those dividends wore. I What do j ou think of Calcutta now ? " I n my Inst, I had a few words to say about mesmerism in India, and I had been intending in my present t letter to enter at somo length into the history of the ' science of passes, as cultivated among us. This 1 shall 1 defer, however, till another opportunity, as also what I have to say about our banking affairs. I may as woll ' tell you. however, that the new Governor General has ? already become a convert to mesmerism?if one is to ' judge him by his actions. It is understood that when 1 ho first came nut, be scouted the idea of giving the I least countenance to what he called a " humbug that ' we exploded in Europe long ago;" but a day or two was announced that his lordship had appointed ? Dr. Esdaile. the apostle of mesmerism in the east, as I'residoncy surgeon. T^iis is an appointment only be- i stowed on very old or very distinguished publio servants. Now Dr. Esdaile is u young man. and his name stands at the bottom of the list of surgeons in the com- i pany's army, and he is distinguished only by his advo- I cacy of mesmerism, so that there is no mistaking the I import of his promotion. The following note from the < doctor himsolf will show you how the act is inter- < prated:? I My Dear Sin.?I was dispose! to think Lord Dalhnnsie a sen- i -llile man. and now I know it. Having had tho honor tofued with | liia lordship last night, lie took tho oeoanion to congratnlntc me , in being Presidency surgeon, and was pleased to say in reply to my '.hanks, thad " I hiid only myself to thank?had only done aii not of justice." May he live to do many more like it to tho same ' Icscrviiig individual! I am told that no lias taken rroat pains t with his mesmeric report-, and lie has expressed himself quite sat t isticd. both to myself and to others. Tins Intelleettial conversn. , lion does lienor to his understanding, and will not lie without < {oud effects. Yours very truly, J as. Esiiaii.e. ^ Dr. Esdaile. though u mesmerist, is not a mesmerist , only. lie was the first to use ether in his praetice. < when the discovery was made known here, and I had , the honor of being the first porson in India who took , chloroform, and it was by hiui that the chloroform was | administered. By the way, it seems highly probable . that both ether and chloroform will prove most valua- ( bio remedies for cholera. The disease has already made | its appearance in Calcutta, and as the season has been , very unfavorable, there is a prospect of its assuming a t virulent typo. , The researches of Dr. Pritcharil have Invested the study of ethnology with so much interest that I have ( no doubt a few words on the present condition and ( prospects of tho science, as prosecuted in India, will be | acceptable to a good many of your readers. The study , of races has always incited no little attention among observing men among us ; it has gone hand-in-hand with Indian philology, and the transactions of the Asiatic Society, together with the published records of I the various missions, afford an amount of information which does credit to the industry and sagacity of sojour- | iters in the East. But hitherto enquiries of this sort have been conducted without the slightest regard to system. ( and the available result of all that has b-en done Is lamentably insiguiflcant. With the history of the Ariah or [ .mmigrant family, which comprises both the Hindu and dussulman occupants of the soil, wo are tolerably familiar: but it is those classes whose history is of the ' least value in an ethnological point of view, since they I ire plainly exotic, and it is comparatively easy to fay ' where they came from. But with the Tamulians or iborigines, the case is different. We find them scatter- f ud all over the country?that is?in every jungle or 1 billy tract throughout the vast continent ?if I may so call it?of India. There exist hundreds of thousands of ' human bolngs wroso stato has been not inaptly com- ' I>?rcd to tnat or tne ticrmans. as ocsnrioeu oy i neiius. 1 fbey covor the subordinate range of hills that skirt the I base of thn Himalayas : Micy make their dwelling in I the South, where rape C.mnorin sinks into the sea ; A*- > <am in the far F.ast. is their homo ; so in Ougerat. in 1 the extreme Went, whllo central I ndia swarm* with my- ' riads of these children of nature, who hare never bow- 1 ed the knee to Vishnu. nor yet been taught to pray 1 with face toward the sotting sun, whose creed is as simple and as little repulsive as that of the old Mohawk, I and who for ecnturies have lived as isolated from his I Hindu and Moslem Invaders of the country, as though 1 they had dwelt ou the plains of Tibet. It is plain that ' they are the people to be studied, if we would solve the ' problem of the diffusion of the human race from Its ' parent stock, as far as India is concerned; and lam flail to find that there is a prospect of the investigation ' being carried on with vigor, and what is of no less im- < portanre, in a systematic manner. Mr. B. H. Hodgson, 1 who was formerly resident at Khatmandoo. on the com- ' t'ortable salary of six or seven thousand rupees per ' mensem, hut who sometime since resigned the t'.nmpa- ' uy's civil service, that he might devote his whole timo ' to scientific researches, has just appeared under the ' auspices of tho Asintie Society of Bengal, as the pro- ' pounder of a system of ethnological enquiry, especislly ' tpplirahle to India, and to which it is intended Unit 1 ill future Investigations in this field, by whomsoever ' undertaken, shall conform as far ns possible. Thirty ' years or more of unremitting labor in the fields of ori- 1 Mital philology, archaeology, ethnology, not to speak I >f zoology and other natural sciences, have well qua [ lifted this gentleman to become the Magnus Apollo of our Indian itvant, and not a student is ' here, of whatever calibre, who will not gladly look " up to him. So much for his antecedents. He enters 1 the field with a normal essay on a single group of tribes, 1 his first of a series of essays, part of which he proposes to fill out himself, leaving the rest to those who nre wll- I ling to follow In his footsteps A rapid sketch of this <ssay may not be unacceptable. First, then, the au- ' thnr. in his preface, introduces the subject of Indian ethnology. He starts with a theory-that Is, he as- ' umes the original unity of tho scattered tribes, of ' wmon I have spoken. Tills assumption i* maue purpiy for what I may cull empirical purposes: that in. as a stimulus to observation. and as a sort of fixed point, with which subsequent ascertained fleet* may bo compared. The author cioea not profess to hold it a* a creed, and I hare no doubt would be perfectly satisfied If the result should upset his assumption, only so long as he arrived at the truth. I need hardly say that lingual means are mainly rolled for the determination of the unity of all these families. or, as they may be collectively called, the Tamnltan race. The task will prove a difficult one, however; for it Is ascertained that there exist no less than 28 different languages among the aboriginal tribes of the sub-Himalayan region only?that is. the narrow strip of alternating hill and dalo, subordinate to the Himalayas proper, which extends from Knmaon to Assam. and divides the British territories and the kingdom of Oude fWun Nepol, Siktm. and Bhutan. You may Imagine, then, the number of languages to be studied throughout India?languages, ton. absolutely

without literature or even written characters? and thus form an Idea of the advantage to be derived frorn a good model, falthfally followed. In giving to the labors In this wide field that unity of purpose without which their agrregate valne must, of necessity, he comparatively small, as far aa concerns the solution of the Important ethnological question involved. (Ireat part of the work Is occupied by the mode] vocabulary The words are not arranged alphabetically, [ but according to association of Ideas by similitudes. ! ontraat, and habitual connection It is extremely copious, and posaesses the peculiarity of showing a large number of " blanks''?that Is. F.ngltsh words for which no corresponding word hss been found In the languages under consideration The author gives an excellent reason for retaining these blanks He deems " the negative evidence almost as valuable as the posl- < RK I 3RNING, J UNE 18, 1848 ive? not to mention that, haying in view application o other respondents of different nations, it follows , bat the blaulu in one paper might be filled up iu nother." The vocabulary is followed by a grammar implu enough, like the language of vriiirh it treat* 'hen coiues what tnay be more strictly called the Kthlolqgiral Kssay. occupied with the history, religion, I lanuers. and customs of the people. The group of | rilnfii under consideration is composed of three mem- [ eri?tlie Kocehs, Bodes, ami Dhtmal. Of the Korchi, owovor. only a remnant retains its primitive tamp; the mass of the tribe lias been absorbed mong the MuMutinan an<l Hindoo populutiou. Dange to say. the higher grades of tho conerts were admitted to the eminent status of Kajut, or Kshatriya, a faet which seems to be well ascoraineii. and which form* a remarkable exception to all hat history tells us of the exclusiveness of Hindooism. Phis transfusion seems to huvc taken place about two enturies ago. The tribe has had Its days of power. Jnder Hajo. who nourished in the fifteenth aud sixeentli centuries, the Kaj. or kingdom, extended from 8 to U31, oast longitude, and from 25 to 27 north latiltde. and it was not till 1773 that this territory was bsnrhod by the company's gigantic power. These pooile have been described by Buchanan, and as they are ast Using their distinctive characteristics, their coalition is not half so interesting as that of some of their leighhors. Tho Bodo and the Dhimal are two rnces. nhahitiug scattered spots within tho geographical iniils just mentioned, tho Dhimal being conilued to ho most westerly portion of this wide rungc of country. I'hough they would seom to possess tho land in oomaon. and to share it very amicably, yot they live in oparalc villages, and tfhere is no intermarriage between he two tribes. Their condition is in many respects so nucli tho same that they may be spoken of collcctivuy as one tribe; yet the lauguage of each is as distinct .s English is from either. All writers have agreed in living a tolerably favorable picture of the aborigtual ribos iu North Eastern India, but Mr. Hodgson's ostinate ef the ISodo and Dhiiual is far more flattering han all; and one would bo disposed to think he had loen misled, were it uot that he has been in actual untoct with them for several years. Tho condition of hose people is semi-nomadic; they cultivato tho soil, ret remain in one spot but a short time, seldom oxceedug four, never six years. Their rcligiou is distinguished. as Mr. 11. says, 'dike their manners and customs, by he nbsonec of everything that is shocking, ridiculous, ir incommodious." Thoy seem to have deities iununerablc. Mr. 11. gives a list of thein, occupying some lagos octavo' but they are all very amiable gods, there >oing no malignant powers, and as in such case one vould oxpeet, no inhuman propitiatory rites?suttee ind infanticide are abhorred among them It is true, hilt their divinities arc apt to resent neglort; but a rory trivial sacrifice Is sufficient to restore them to ;ond humor. Few nations are less priest-ridden than he simple Bodo and Dhimal. The sacred office is herelitary; neither does It require any very formidable imount of initiation. It is open to any body who chocs to enter it, aud for all that Mr. H. says to the conrary, tke whole mummery might bo picked up at a liuglo lesson. If the ecclesiastics are soon made they ire soon paid; their perquisites being wonderfully easonable. Tho priest is obliged to work for his bread ike an honest man, and ull iio gets for his spiritual lounscl, Is a share of every animal offered up, and throe lays work per annum from every male In his flock, do takes unto himself a wife, like any body else, and if 10 gets tired of assassinating cocks and pigs he may lirow off tho cauonical dress, (if he ever had any) and ake to the dibble or kill-hook. Mr. Hodgson thinks this i very good specimen of "natural religion." Tom Carylo would be sure to admire it for its freedom from all ihams. Thoso two tribes may be said to live much hotter .ban their rice eating lowland neighbors. Thoy devour fish, flesh and foul, in all their varieties, except >ooes aud cats. "Ghee." the delight of Hindus and Vlussulinans. aud the quintessence of all the ahominalilia, they know not even by name, and oil with which ill the Caucasian Indians anoint themselves, till they itink again, is only used by t he Bodo aud Dhiinal for 'ood, aud that but sparingly. They distil no spirits, mt make a fermented liquor from rice or millet, which Mr. Hodgson appears to have found tolerable tipple.? Thoy also use tobacoo, whether they smoke, cliew or muff, is not said ; but are innocent of opium or hemp. The manners of the Bodo and Dhimal are described as 11 pleasing medium between tho unsophisticated roughness of their liighlaud neighbors and tho artificial smoothness of the plains. There is not a bit ?f the Bringing rascality of tho Bengali about them; they are Trank and good humored, and what is host of ail, use their wives and daughters well, treating them with lonildeuce and kindness. The position of women ininnir untnn nf ihuir \'DrtKniiafiirn +rilw?? {a u <?a [ratifying as it in curious. Among tlio Kocchs just ncutioned above, the women alone are entitled to hold jroperty ! This I state on the authority of l)r. Hush.mail. ' Tosuin'up." says Mr. II. '-the character of the Bodo ind Uliiual is full of amiable qualities* and almost ntlrely free fi >m such as are unamiable. They ire intelligent, docile, honest and truthful in deed and eord. industrious in their own way of life, but apt to M mutable and idle, when first placed in novel situations, und to resist injunctions injudiciously urged, vith dogged obstinnev." which last character romind>d me of the North American Indians. Perhaps you vill suppose I have got through the whole list of their rirtues, but I have not come to the climax. In the nst page but one of his book, Mr 11. says :?" Among ill mankind, women, wiiio and power, are the great .emptors, the great leaders astray Now the Bodo and Dhiraals rise decidedly superior to the first temptation, ire not unduly enslaved to the second, and are cutirey exempted from the third.'' What more can you vant. I am sorry to be obliged to say that these exemplary >arbarianx have very ugly Mongol mugs. Add to this. :hat they are outrageously dirty, and you will only lave another illustration of the truth, that perfect non are scarce. DOWN EAST. Political Intelligence. Nr.w Hampshire.?Moses Morris, Jr., democrat, has jeen elected Senator in Congress for six years from the 1th of March next, iu place of Mr. Atherton, whose :urm then expires. Maine?A democratic legislative caucus has nominated Gov Dana for re-election, and Hugh J. Andei1011 and Unfits Mclntire, for Presidential electors at arge. Old Hunker Meetino at Albanv.?The old hunk rs held a meeting at Albany on the evening of the 14th instant, which is thus described by the Knickerbocker :? Phis gathering was one of the most comical affairs hat ever came off in this city. If possible, it exculied n picturcqueness and low comedy, even the celebraed Cass procession. The meeting as we said yesterlay, was very large, but at least two-thirds of Iho heads >elonged to whig bats and barnburners. The tirxt man o open the hall was Senator Allen, who went back, ;for the purpose of a good start we suppose.) to the ,ime when Adam kept a soological garden. Having (ot untied, he floated away down tlio stream of time. Jll he reached the dark ages, when he seized a banlana handkerchief and gave himself a pull by the nose hat was duly appreciated by those who were being While he wi.s performing this feat three cheers were proposed aod given for Henry Clay, John Van Duren. fourth of July, the Wilinot proviso. yellow corn, and jaked beans. Having cleared him-eif or Ills ut&rcuba be revived his " course of time," and glided down the >trcam of years till he run against the old Federal, where he grounded for one or two hours. His condoling remarks were particularly rich, and almost verbatim as follows : ' Gentlemen, the formation ?f the >ld federal party (shut up your trap) was an era in the ilstory of this country (Joe Uurns. stop squirliug eyins pepper against that old gentkmau's trowsers ) - Don't do any sueh thing, if people attend political nectings they ought to be excited " " That's a fact." ' Another squirt. Joe." ' Give old Allen a turn next, ind see If you can't animate him." "Order." "Where's )ld Taylor." "Three cheers for Buena Vista " "Hur nh ! hurrah ! hurrah !") Gentlemen, as I said before, he formation of that party was an era in the history if this country ( So was t.h? Unltimore convention, ind the man that struck Pattsrson." " Where's the nan with the claret, colored coat?" "Who are you mking with that stick?" "Lay ((own. you old fool, ind suck a doughnut " " Where's the hangman from Hiss ssippl ?" "Three cheers for the horse boat." Slop your noise." " You lie d-cl " " Tell me that igain and I will swot you over the mug.") Gentlemen, he formation of the federal party took its rise tinier the elder Adams ( The h?I it did." ' Two lunrts of fried pies." Don't throw that tin >an at me again or I'll run you down."? rhree cheers for Old Ritchie, and the Cass mourners! >'i Kara 11 oo??mi '' 1 "llnrrah for 'I'.m 'tiring out old San Jacinto." '-Show us the elephant; va've seen common animals long enough " "llou-ton, louston. Houston ") In response to their call, the Seiator from Texas came forward and made as good an i Idress as lie possibly could, under the circumstances, t was evident that he had been invited to a feast, >f the the majority of whose dishes he was totally unicqualnted. Senator Bright also offered a few admirable remarks, which elicited the most unbounded apdauso. By the way, Senator B. Is one of the most glo ious speakers we ever listened to. Ilis words flow out ike a stream of water, and partake of an energy and loquenoe that is difficult to surpass. He is th? Edwin 'orrcst of the Senate, and has a voles like a speaking rumpet. The closing ceremonies wero performed iy Senator Foots. "Hio ipeettli t adjourned about 11 I'clook. From Vrnkzi'kla.?Schooner George I'ollok, Jnptuin Sweet, arrived at this pert this morning, roin Curacoa, which place she left on the 24th tilt. inpt. S reports affairs In Vonesnela as hseomiug m?ro piiet. with the exception of Maraenibo, which was till in possession of the revolutionary party under leneral Raex. A body of troops under Monngas. to the ' tuinber of tlve or six thousand, had landed on the In- ! linn coast, and were to march upon Maracaibo on the lay upon which t;apt. Sweet left. There were various ! umora of a contradictory character In circulation, and ; herefore entitled to but little credence, one of which i ras, lhat there had been another outbreak in Opposi. I ion to the government at some place to the windward, 'apt. Sweet also reports the U. S. ship Albany as hav- J ng arrived at Curscoa, ou the 24th alt., to sail same lay for the windward. A habitant, arrived atTolnte Levi this morning, from Ite. Marguerite, [south shore.) states that wlion he sft there, seven inches of snow lay on the ground !? Jueftse Mtrcury, 13fA isil, F T? U A l?i Jtt A A Few Word* about the Tombw. The building in Centre street, known as the Halls of Ju?t:ee. alias the Clty|PriHon, alias the Kgyptian Tombs, comprises a greater variety of public office* than is generally supposed, and respecting which volumes might be written.developing mysteries such as Ned Bunt line and others who have attempted to pourtruy the evil doings and sayings in notham. never dreamed of ; nor will they ever come to light until every poor devil who has had the misfortune to be looked up within its walls, with eeuie of the needful at hi* command, shall have revealed to the world the result of bis experience?an event that may be looked for in vain; for where will you And the man who has been guilty cf a single offence, and succeeded in escaping the punishment which he ought to have received, through the magic Influence of that ' sovereign balm ofj Oilead." the "almighty dollar,'' that will come forward and make known the fact T It is true that some ot them will occasionally speak of existing evils, and allude to this person, and that person, as being corrupt; and by a peculiar shrug of tho .shoulder or shake of the head, intimate that they know something ?that they oould tell a tale, if they were so disposed, that would create a stir amongst tho ofllcialH in tills quarter. And there Is no doubt but devulopemunts of a startling character could be made by them ; but to reveal what thoy know would be coming too close home, and place those persons, previously above suspleion. in very unenviable positions before the public. On tho othsr hand, those who have been faithless in the discharge of their public duties, for tho sake of luere, will of oourse " keep dark" as to what has passed. For these reasons, then, as we have before remarked, the most shameful abuses, heinous oifeneos, series of intrigues, seduotions and peccadilloes, connected with affairs of the ' upper ten," will probably forever remain behind the curtain. But te return to our first point: we would state that this mussive structure of granito, to which wo have alluded, comprises the Coroner's Office, Court of Sessions Room. Grand Jury Room. Police Court, Sixth Ward Police Station, and the City Prison, proper; besides the Keeper's and Physician's offices, and others unworthy of notice. Coroner's Office.?Of all tho departments in the " Hulls of Justice," that of tho coroner furnishes matter ef the deepest Interest. What a record of human wo ! Secrets, stifled until life becomes n burthen, aro unfolded to that worthy official. Mental sufferings, t - I l_ ,.f t.. .. Ul? t 1...I..,. In his hand* fall package* of lotters that unfold tho miseries thut ' Aesh la heir to,"?these are consigned to the Aamos?their contonta unknown, except to him; their publication would harrow the souls of tho living, and carry duaolation to many a family. The dead could not be restored to life by oxposing to public view their oontenta; neither would their publication tend to make society more virtuoua, or deter tho aeducer from a repetition of his infamous arts. Amours in h gh life, as well as in low; jealousies between husband and wife, and the hundred causes which lead mankind voluntarily to ahake off this " mortal coil," are revealed to him by the examination of witnesses; and were it not for the confidence imposed upon him by the very nature of his office, what a budget of startling facts, ''stranger than Action," might lie not daily furnish, and thus feed tho curiosity of those who feel an intereat and anxiety in having exposed the misfortunes of their neighbors! Tho details connected with the multiplicity of cases to which the ooronor's attention is called, cannot in any wiso affect the result required by the investigation; they are not, therefore, except in eases where the public welfare requires it, brought to light. Thus the secrets acquired by tho coroner, will be buried with him. unless in after times ho should lenvn a " diary," exposiug the miseries and mysteries of the human heart, as developed by bis official duties. Police Cocht.?Ttut few persons can form the slightest conception of the varied and singular nature of tho cases which the police justices are called upon to give their attention to and dispose of ; and it certainly requires a stock of patience and fortitude,which very few possess, in order to pass through the ordeal to which the magistrates and clerks are almost daily subject. If any one should feel sufficiently interested in learning a chapter in " New York as it is," let hitn attend daily iu this court, for a week or a fort night.from its opening in the morning until its closo in the evening; nnd mix as it were, with the degraded, dissolute and half covered wretches, who are brought in from the different police stations each morning?look upon the picture, note down their language, and remember their summary disposition. There ho will probably see a few genteel rowdies, who have been cutting up some 1 ueni shines during the provious night, who are called <i; to give an account of themselves; when earnest appeals are made to the presiding magistrate to let them slide for once, as their mamas don't known they're out. and by promises of future good bobavior.and the shedding of a few crocodile tears, as far as possible enlist his sympathies. After paying a small Ane as a penalty for his folly.and listening to a suitable admonition, the fashionable rowdy is. perhaps, allowed to depart. The remainder of tho day is usually occupied in makiDg nut vagrant commitments, attending to cases of bastardy. hearing complaints, and examining parties charged with tho commission of of a serious character In days gone by, considerabln " Star Chamber" business was done; but for some time past, very few examinations, if any, tako place, from whioh the reporters aro excluded. Court or Sessions.?With regard to tho aAairs of this court, we can sposk iu a less satisfactory manner, bio mystery connected wTth proceedings and matters which ought to come before it more promptly for adjudication. Again, the manner iu which the proceedings of some trrals are conducted on the part ?f the people, not unfrequently appears to be very objectionable. Kor instance, the culprit|or prisoner, when he oomes into court, he is at once surrounded with all the prejudices arising from a presumption of guilt. In fact, he is looked upon as being guilty before he is tried This is altogether wrong; for it is a well settled rule, that when a party is to be tried for an alleged offence. for which he has been indicted, the evidence in the case must strictly bo confined to that issue only ; but here, if the uecused party happens to be known by a policeman, or any other person in court, they are very ready to say that he is an old offender; and then, during the course of the trial, the public prosecutor, instead of confining himself entirely to the facts and evidence adduced, by way of remark observes: " This man is an old offender?it appears that he has already served an apprenticeship in the Stato prison"?which statement very naturally has its prejudicial influence, upon the minds of the jury This course, it must be admitted. is an abuse, and an illegal mode of trial, not recognised by any sound principle of law. The fact, that Aldermen set iis associate Judges of this court, is likewise a ground of frequent complaint, and apparently to us, a very just one, inasmuoh as no one who has been an observer of Its proceedings, can for a moment doubt that they are not nnfroquently governed by party in flue nee ; and tbe truth of this remark strikes us more forcibly by a recollection of the circumstance , that on several occasions when active politicians have been placed on trial. Aldermen who aro not only of the sams political creed, but probably even intimate friends and associates of the accused party, contrive to bo on the bench during the progress of his trial; and singular as it may appear, the Aldermen , regardless of polities, seem to be very accommodating amongst themselves, in these matters, changing off. or. in other words, resigning their seats to the more interested dignitaries, for the time their particular intluenoo is desired. Several eases of this kind could bo referred to. in which the jury found the accused parties guilty of the offences charged, and the Recorder, as presiding judge of the court, wes disposed to Inflict severe punishment, hut was overruled by a majority of the bench ; and that majority consisting of the two Aldermen belonging to the same school of politics as the accused to save whom they had volunteered, or lought. the privilege of sitting as associate judges (iasvo Jot.?The nembers of this body are usually selected from amongst '.he most intelligent citizens of the county, to lnve-tlgate such cases aa are presented to them from the different police courts ; also, to take cognizance of notices of alleged existing nuisances that may como before tneni. wttn respect to tn* proceedings of the Grand Inquest, on account of their privacy. we have hail let* opportunity of forming an opinion on the subject of any abu?e. or manoeuvring. on their part In disponing of case* presented for their consideration We have good reason to believe, however, that note* are frequently received by members of thin body relative to complaint* preferred against parties whose case* have been laid before them ; and that in many instances^hose communications it i* cODfllentlybelioved, have had * very prejudieial influence upon the mind* of the recipient* in their deliberation*. Citv Pkisoi*.?Of the doing* in thi* department, wo hear less and know less than formerly ; no trials of deputy keeper* or demi-official*. for alulng In the escape of felon*, having taken place ot late, whereby we could obtain information relative to the internal machinery of this establishment, or the wonderful effect* which champagne and oyster snppers. it hi Babe and Iloag. might have in securing peculiar privileges, or greasing the prison key*. Arvot*tmr!?t? nr t?ir Phk?idf.*t ?Arthur T Bagby of Alabama. to bo envoy <xtra< rdinary and minister plenipotentiary of the United States to Russia. In the place of Ralph I Ingersoll, recalled at hll own request Colin M. I tigers oil. of < onnrutiout. to be secretary of the legation of the United States to Russia. lu the place of John R Clay, appointed charge d'affaires of the United States to Peru. II. T. A. Uatnals, to be consul of tho United States for the port of Ktreuoro, In the place of E. L llainals, resigned. I.anj Offices ?John Taylor, register Of the I.and 1 Office at Defiance, (removed from Upper Sandusky.) Ohio, rice R. McKelley, resigned William I,. Henderson. receiver of nubile moneys at Defiance, (removed from Upper Sandusky.) Ohio, vice Curdy McElvalne. deceased. Joel S. Flsk. register of the Land Office a, Green Bay, Wisconsin, rico John F Mead ren'vcl Duncan B. Graham, register of the Land Office at Montgomery. Alabama, rc-en pointed Wade H Greening. register of the Land Office at Sparta, Alabama, reappointed. ?^ LD. Prln Two ConM< Ireland. Br Uai.r.a Lrorf, or Lvo?sdai.c. Hi Mr. land of the shamrock. no longer in ohalns Lie weeping ami pierced by the steel of thy foe. No longer in anguish let Israel?strains Of darkness and aorrow thy heart overflow' Where, where is the spirit of Clontarf of old, That taught the invader the strength of thy might* Unshackled hy tyrants, unfettered hy gold. Ve battled for freedom -ye conquered for right. All Kurope looks to thee, thou pearl of the aea, The tours of whose sorrow make emerald the sod Remember, thou'st power in thyself to be free? Then arise for thy children, thy country, thy God. Where, where in the spirit whose patriot strain | Was breathed by an Fmmett. a Grattan. a Moore ? Have Bruce. Kosciusko, and Tell lived lu vain ? Hare ye tears, and not blood, o'er the gibbet to pour' Thy sons battle well in a despot's employ. And ye have the blood and the hearts of the brave; Why sleep in your futters ' Wake -earn the true joy He feels who ie winning (for freedom) agrave. The people of Rome are a catling to thee: " Now. now break thy fetters and dry up thy tears,'' And France cries, in barricade glory, " Be free Our tricolor's risen?away with thy fears !" I Thy iron-armed Ruler hath smitten again Thy people, through Mltchol. the fearless and bold? | The martyr?the felon?who's dragging his chain, For tliuo. dearest F.rin. the bartered of old. Arouse, for the sake of the Virgin, whose shrine The hirelings of F.ngland abase and decry. Arouse ! By Saint Patrick, what glory is thine To live as a slave -as a coward to die ? Difficulty axons the Winnebaqoe*.?Refusal to Immigrate.?Vrry great opposition Wub manifested by the Winnebagoes to emigrating to their new homo. Stormy interviews havo been held with the eub-Hgeut, Gen. Fletcher, and severe threats were made by the Indians, in view of force bciug used to compel their removal. When Mr. Henion (by whom the news was received) left, the Indians had taken down uearly all their wigwams, and all the squaws and most of the male Indians had loft for parts unknown. Little Hill was addressing those who remained behind. Baptists, a chief deeply hostile to removal, was Just starting for the Agency, his countenance filled with indignation. Capt, Motgan was apprehensive he should be compelled to send to Fort Crawford for reinforcements.? The principal reason of the refusal of the Winnebagoes to remove to their new home is said to be that they have not received a certain sum of money from the government, which they were promised should be paid to them before they wero called upon to emigrate, it is said they offered to take even one half the promised sum, and remove peaceably ; but that was refused them. Another fact which aggravated the difficulty was that Gen. Fletcher, the suh-ngent. had revoked the lioeneee of all the traders, save Messrs. Rice. The Indians say the design Is to fleece them unmercifully when thev arrive at their new homes, and that the sub-agent Is to participate in the profits of tho operation. One of the traders. D. Olmstnad. was expecting from Washington daily a permit to trade. Much hostility existed toward the Sub-Agent personally, and threats against his life trrri* irtuujr veiiu'u ujr tun muinun. inn rt-nmoDOB W1B guarded by a detachment of troops each night. On* of tbu Winnebago bands still continue in Wisconsin, oh tinately persisting in their refusal to coma In. They aay they never have receivedany money at the hand* of tho present aub-agent, and they never will.?Dubut/ue (Iowa) Tribune. Mined laneou*. A young man named Middlebrook jumped off a log overhanging Genesee Kails on the 16th inat. He waa drowned, as was Sam Patch at the same place. business on the K.rle canal Is said to be very dull. There are 100 boats laid up at Buffalo. 100 at Albany, 10O in Troy, and 100 in New York. Kigbt or ten tow boats are lying still at Albany for want or employment. Alexander Kly, a revolutionary veteran, died at Rochester on the 15th Inst. He witnessed the execution of Major Andre, and was a participant in many of the deeds of valor which occurred in his youthful days. Mr. Thurston la to make his second serial voyage a t Canandaigua on tho 4th of July. A new and beautiful steamer, called the Alabama, was launched ut Detroit on the 10th Her arrangements aro similar to those of the North River steamboats; she is to run on tbo Sandusky and Buffalo line. Her dimensions are 240 feet keel. 20 feet beam, burthen 1000 tons. She druws only 4 feet S inches of water, and lias two engines of 850 horse power each, with 28 inch cylinders and 7 feet stroke. There was a grand turn out at Albnny on the 15th inst . to sen a new steam ferry boat launched. The company were waiting in almost breathless expectation to see her go off - the hand struck up a beautiful air, the block was cut away, and the craft stood stock still; she wouldn't budge a line. After a close inspection. it was discovered that sous mischievous scamp bad driven an irou spike, about a foot long, through tho ways into her hull. This wu finally removed, and off she went. The centre watch in Boston reported on Wednesday night last, that on their " first out" they saw 244 persons smoking in the streets. The sheep shearing festival commenced at Nantneket on Wednesday. The steamer Bay State came out of the dry dock, at the navy yard, Charlestown, on Thursday morning, and on Monday next will make an excurslou down the bay. There was a frost in the vicinity of Albany on the night of tho 14th inst. The plum trees were tho prlncipal sufferers. Tho Board of Aldermen in Trovidence have granted llceuHcsvfor the sale of spirituous liquors, and refused to grant $>700 for the celebration of the national anniversary. On the 15th inst.. as the men employed at the Charlestown Navy Yard were raising to its place the main topgallant yard of the U. S. steamship Mississippi. the tackle gave way. and the yard fell, striking one of the cranes and breaking the spar iu two. At the time of the aceideut, a man. who was either on or near the topgallant masthead, was thrown from his position, and caught in the crotch of stays to the mainmast, where be hung until he was taken down, in u state of Insensihilty He was taken on hoard the sloop of war Kranklin. where medical aid was rendered him. His physician considers lib recovery doubtful.?Button-Id . vertiler, 18lb inst. On tnc Sth inst, a young man about seventeen years . of age. killed his uncle. Samuel Coop-r, near Renohler's. five miles from St. Louis They belonged to an emigrating party from Tennessee, on their way to Ar. katisus. The young man's father and uncle were drink uik; the father find whipped his mother. and the uncle Nuiit be would bent her to death Souie altercation took pi.ire between the parties, the boy taking the part of his mother, but finally attempted to get out of the way of his uncle, who pursued him. when young Cooper soi<"d a rail, struck the old mau a blow over tlu head, and killed liiui, and then delivered himself into custody. Hrltlsti Rxactlons la America. Mh. Editor.:? The experience of a nunihnr of yearn has convinced me that your able journal is at all times ready to expose abuses of every character, whether they he perpetrated by governments, States or individuals. With this opinion I take the liberty of pointing oui what I, and every one else acquainted with the circumstances, consider an ubuse, an lin- V position, tin extortion. You are aware, no doubt, that British Consuls, unlike, in this respect, the consular representatives of the United States, jtre paid a regular annual sa hry, and that they arc not, like Am -ric <n Consuls, dependent on the fees of ilieir office for Jreinunera- * tion for their services. Thus the British Coueuk at this |?>rt receives a salary of eight hundred pounds sterling per annum, which sum one would suppose was abundantly liberal for the services l*-rt'ormed. This, however, it api>ears is not sutlir ctent, at least in the opinion of that functionary. 1v?| Iir irnivb u1i i vi-iy iuiumi ci mill arfivcw in <his port, a miim varying according to th?? size and tonnage, of from fifteen to twenty-five dollars ; and yet the very certificates which he issues for those services arc marked "No Fees." Now my object in addressing you at this time is to protest against this levying of black mall on Irish ships, at least. That country has for centuries been basely trampled upon by the British. Its trado and commerce have almost been annihilated. I? is within my own recollection, Mr. Kdttor, that previous to the carrying ol that infamous and diabolical act called the act of Uniop, Ireland's commercial relations with the 1'nited States were very extensive. Time and time have I seen Irish vessels fieighted with her linen, hohhinets and other manufactures, reach our shores, and in return carry hack the productions of America. Now how diiterent is thecasr! I'ntil withm a very shorttime, 1 it was a rare thing to see an Irish vesrel in our waters. Should not this trade be encouraged: but more than that.should we. in Ameriea.nermit tho tv? runny of British government to feacK irishmen in America 1 A vessel arriving from !r?* 1 land,according to the present usage, must deposit ita register with the British Consulnefoie it cun enter Mt the Custom House. For undergoirnrthia lormality a stun of fifteen or twenty-five dollars must he paid; and yet "no ires" is endorsed on the very certificate which certifies that this formality has been complied with! i I apprehend, Mr. Editor, that it is full time this system of black mailing -horrid stop. I don't see any reason w hy the functionaries of that infamous and tyrannical government should be permitted to make such charges in rhis country on Irish vessels urriving at our ports. By giving publicity to this you will eonf-r sn obligation on your obedient servant, " No F^nts.''

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