Newspaper of The New York Herald, July 27, 1848, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated July 27, 1848 Page 1
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T H ' WO. 5165. INTERESTING DEBATES IN CONOTE.S. 1H1K1IH H (OMilUBAN. ' PJKST r.SSlOV. Wi-HiMi 101, July 2>. 1848. Weather opprepriv. 1^ In i 1'iiiu couki rgatiou of Bpectutork in the gallriie* !;.>( . oi.'bio quorum present ill the Senate. TtlK NM.KO IJI l.lluK CONrmUKU. Ob mc-tioti ot Air Ci *> ro i, ti e 6?u ile resumed the bill providing territorial gi.TernniHtil* for ihe three territories of Oregou New Mexico aud California. Ihe Vim I'm-.n .-T ... n..e to be upon the auMiid.oeut nib-red by Vir. 11 tlx to strike out from the 6> h m otion the -?nrd? " free white," bo at to extend tin- rlrtl < rn franchise to alt males over 21 years, without distinction -t color. mb t'Mltl hlltu) iui.AI. Mr. Umibbwoou, from a .-ense ol justice to himself and bis oonrtituents. Umuigbl it ho July to giro an expoMliou of bit opiui on upon tlio groat sutyert whichit before the fs? unto. tio believed in tho power of Congress to logirlatu oror tho subject of slavery in the territories In iho 01 mujttloo. anxious lor a pacification of this vexed <| ii*- tion, ho had prupo-ed the readoption and extension id tho Missouri compromise; but it had faded. llo bud then pri>po-ed auuihor plan to tba committee, which wan to provide a territorial gorornuiontfor earb of the throe territories, or to gire a legislative assembly to ach ? to leave thorn ait free to admit or cxolude slat ery at Ihoir plea-ure; bul in reference to New Mexico and I alifornut, ou account of tba barbarian ignorance of the -hrtless mixed breeds Of Indiana and Mexicans, which constitute the ma-a of the population, he would allow tbem one branch of the legislative assembly to he elected by themselves, and the other to be cousinuted of the Cluvemor and Judges, to be appointed by the President?each branch to bave a mgttlite Upon the other.? Thus would these poor ign -runt creatures be gradually prepared for the exeioise of the attri th? inhabitants of all these territories to decide an territories and a* states whether ihey -hall adopt, the institution!* ot the North or of the South. He thought that, after the Missouri compromise, this was the ouljr plan of settlement He nest gave a series of statistics from the history of slavery in the several States going to show that from nstuial causes the institution of slavery recedes to the southward ; and that, therefore, beyond a certain latitude aloug the Pacific, if left to the people slavery aouid never be plan'* .) because It oaunot, north of a ee- tain latitude au*l n >rth of the cultivation of cerlaiu rendered pi otitable as free labor. Paasing then to a e n*iderati*>n of thee ionization plan of extinguishing slavery.the erudite Senator argued that by a piau < ftiunsporting all female slaves as they arrive at the sge of puberty, ami males at tbe age of twenty-one, in less than fifty yeais the expenses of tho Mexican war would remove slavery from the Union. He next pleaued thai while a dissolution of the Union would rapidly lead to the abolition of llaTery, it would alto till tbe northern States with the runaway slaves of the South; thus, while it would In< flict upon the South tbe greatest annoyance, and, perhaps, the greatest dxtigers it would inflict upon the North, in the aceuuiiibtiion of a b a<-k population, the greatest annoyat.ce. He next conteuded. in behalf of the people of the South an equal right in the ? territories of the Union Kiuallr. Mr. Underwood de elared, that though indispo-ed to support the bill, his amendments having failed, he would yet wait, before deciding conclusively un to his cuuri-e. for the opinions of his friends of the South in this discussion. { sin butu.h s vikwi. 1 Mr. Butlkr?I have forborne making any remarks upon this subject heretofore. ?nd would not now have spoken upon it, in all probability, bui f/r the remarks, the extraordinary attack open an institution peculiar to the Seuth, made yenteiday, by the Senator from Ohio, (Mr. Corwin ) The question, as I now tako it, is between fifteen States of this Union, struggling for an unlimited control over territory which jointly belong# to the whole Union, and fifteen other States which are contending for what I solemnly believe are j HO more than their political rights, as oititeus of this J confederacy. I am reuiiuded by the Senator from Ohio, that the States of south Carolina and Georgia would not consent to enter into this Union, under | your federal constitution, without a guarantee to them of the continuance of the African slave traffic for twenty years. And the Senator said that better 1 had those States been forever excluded from the Union, than that this concession should have been made. So I say sir. bad better South Carolina and Georgia stood out and refused for ever to enter this Union, tbau that tVeir descendants should be insulted, trampled under foot, and told of their inferiority. He adverted to the taunts thrown out yesterday, by the Senator from Ohio, against poor wornout Virginia Yes. sir but the Senator forgot that he has gone out of ber holders to build up the States of the great West. Were the South for ever to be taunt d Willi taetr inrerority and degradation. Mr. u utter argued the equal right* ot the South, in the common territories of the Union, following the opinion! hereto- ' fore expressed by Mr. t'alhnuu Sir, the Senator from Ohio, with hi* uncommon power* of eloquence, hi* unrivalled invective, sarcasm, and ad cajilandum argument*, would have it appear that a profound morality 1* hi* contro'lirg impulse My opinion i*. that ambition i* at the bot'om of it. I don't put it down to morality 1 he morality of the North ou this subject remind* me of au anecdote which the Senate will excuse me in relating Many years ago. at a certain religious feast given -oinewhere in New Eugland, a dish of veni*on graced the board from a deer fresh killed in the neighboring wood* As a proper act in the religion* ceremonies of the day. a blessing was asked upon the venison; but eub.-equeotly it was discovered that Tequod. ibe Indian, had killed the deer on Sunday. Here was a dilemma. But it was finally agreed that the blessing on the venison had removed the difficulty as far as the meat was concerned and to clear their conscience* en irely. the brethren ordered that Pequod be given thirty-nine lashes. Such is the morniity of the North; they will share us the profits of lavery.'but to clear their commence* they would give us tha thirty-nine lashes. The political morality of New York reminds me of Tristram Shandy. Tristram. Tristram ! can any good oonie out of Tristram? With several other hits at the mercenary spirit of the North with all their professions of mo'ality, Mr. Butler came to consider an argument of Mr. Baldwin to the effect that slaves carried from the limits of the local jurisdiction to which they belong on ship board, became ftee. Mr. Baldwin explained Tha 1 w* of the State whe ce the slaves are taken, do not accompany them on the ship. Mr. Butleb? So I understand you, sir. Mr. Baldwin cited a rase from the Supreme Court. Mr. appealed to the guarant es of the constitution. Mr. Baldwin referred to a. other oase of the Supreme Court, whirb sustains the assumption that Congress has no power and uo control ov r the transfer of slaves between the States as merchandise. Mr. Butlkb?The gentleman's doctrine is. that if cnt elatts are taken off in k >hip and are drifted into a Northern pott, they are free, and we have no power to reoover them; but Mr Butler continued that it was th* dut r of the Northern States to restore slaves to their masters, whether arr ving in the North by land or sea. Gentlemen talk of the concessions made by VUP Dill. J XIr mil uittlNvr. I I-UUI7PB. ??IJ (iIC*v ?"" cessions on the part of the South. Suppose wo take the Missouri compromise- will gentlemen nay, that under it they would not contend fur the exclusion of slavery Swulb of the line? Do they not, on the contrary, go directly against it? i hoy say no. we will take all we can get north of 36:30. and will tight for all south. I do not ask, Mr. i'rttsldeut, to ma ce a compact with a band that ha* a sword over it?if I make an agreement. I dee Ire that it should be honest and above board But. Mr. aa thin appears the only , prao irnble rompromiie that we cau get. I do not ? know but that I ah II feel it to be my Jutytosupport It i mr. foots't tutrix* or thk cur. ? Mr. Foots pre* nte , as au apology tor hi* trespassing now upon the patience of the senate, theextraor- ( ditiaty attitude in whieli he was ina 'e to stand Itefora l the country lie had la-en set down y an influen- t tial newspaper, the Chmltslon Meicury, as worse t than an abolitionist Hint a. worse than the Senator from New Hampshire. (\1r Hale.) which that Se- t nator will be as much astonished to hear as I was. Yes, sir. the opinion is expressed that I aui upon this sb-oiblng question before us a more dangerous character to the South thau the Senator from New Hampshire himself Mr. Biitlkr said the statement was made without any authority from tin pc pie of South Carolina. Mr Foots was aware that the distinguished Senator, his relative, if he might say so would disclaim auy authority for tho declm hi ion of the tfrrctiry, and yet he proceeded to a defence of his course on thin sub ject, which he maintained needed no defence, where bis eeutimeiita were understood or not perverted. The learned Senator from Mississippi spoke then, aa a first proposition, geu, rally upon the institution, an4 , With all the evils charged upon it he maintained that it had civlllxed and dietluguiahed the African race in this country ; aud that to the pernicious African alave trade itself are we to attribute the planting a civilised and Christian rcpublto of the black race on the coast of Africa He oame next to a mare painftil duty in this discussion He was conatrained to deolare the necessity which led him to differ with many of hia distinguished friends from the North and the Sontb upon this compromise Whatever other gentlemen might suppose, I have beta alarmed at the frequ> nt. signs around us. threatening a * dissolution of this Union ; and my alarm is becoming more nnd mere intense every day The pillars of our fklr republican fabric, reared by the wisdom of our ' fathers, have been terribly shaken by this tempe-t in i the North It was this alarm and bis love of the Union, | whioh had made hun anxious for a compromise His heart was full of compromise; hut the diflionlty to a compromise Is not yt t removed He examined most critically the declaration of Mr. < alhoun of the sii1 ' p'eme power of Congress over the people, and the tarritartea of the Union as hctog nothing else than the Wllmot proviso from head to foot, soul and bo-ly In contradistinction to the giound of (lencrat ( ass, tbia doctrine of the Senator from South Carolina waa moat dangerous to the rights of the south. I I concur also in the most able argument of the Senator froaa Vermont, (Mr Phelps) that If the question of alovery in California and New Mexico wen- referred to tbe Supreme? onrt a> now constituted, it would be daolded In favor of the Nortli Aud I b-dleva sir, that if ,i ike immortal Marshall and Story eould again take (heir placee upon the So r-ooe bench, and 'his qirsa % % 4 E NE NE\i t ioo were to oone before them. they would have to decide Mgiiilirt U*. (lentlnicn of the South, where ?r we? Oli. where are ere now? In u"t the naoriil'-e la thi* coniproime* all on our unlet With Home hit* at New hugUnil rluv?r>. and the hurt] master* h eh the 1 alike** b? caa.e la ihe South, Mr Koote exhibited that k large part id (. alitornia win adrpted to sugar. other* | rice kod Ubkccn and that there wan space for several bntitbirn Mae-; but by thin compromise should we not be debarred entering into that territory? 1 et he did ill t ray ttiat he ehouid rote agaiurt tiiia orni promise The Union, with him was the fiiet cnueidt ration ami the last. Kroiu a wide range upon the in ueral awakening over the wi rid ol the principle* ofliberty. Mr. Koote return rate the direct question of slawry. lie contended thM rluiery could not exirt iu (aliforuia and New It exico without fecial legislation. Suppose under thin law, by which any territorial legislation upon slavery is prohibited in there territories, a man shuuid so out v>??i xio >iui .lie iiuuureu rmves. ami KDIIULJ lt?l into ft collision wiih one of thein. and the slave should cik rigale hiui, where is bin redrew? The black m in was Mr ckeu first, lie defended himself till be vaui|Ul-hi d his sdveissry. Where is the redre-e io the master? Where, on the a'herhsnd. will he the redrei>N to the Lave if he in v autouly maltreated, for nil legislation on the subject is forbidin ? Mr. Atchison? Did 1 understand the Senator to say that without some speciul legislation slavery cannot exist in t al,forms and New Mexico? Mr. Foots ? I did not say that it cannot exist, but tint that was the inference. Slaveholders arc men of , wnse. The bill gives ahem no protection in the new territories. UDd without protection they will not go . Dare Mr. Footo aaiuiuuteied a caustic lecture 10 the Senator I rum Ohio, (Mr turwin.) for his extraordinary spee< h of yesterday. 'I hat Senator by his ineoa iiiK looks alone reveal-d bis hostility to the South, while arnth and vitup- ration streamed from his tougue, and?vel)geauoe, like thai of the tlery violook. red with ! blood, bellowed troin bis longs I Know not how auy man could ulter such sentiments who respects h e { couniry Mr ! oote passed to a review of the desolating ; aflects of the speech of Mr. tor-sin on the Mexican war?Low it roused the Indigualinu aud shame of uur troops iu Mexico, and how it inspired our enemies to liroloDg their resistance 1 could have wept tears of orrow and shame, that so brilbaut a genius as that of Ibe honorable .Venator should thus be arrayed in all its strength again-1 the honor and tba jburtotr of (our common country. Mr., Foot-, passing from this castlgatiou, which he pro'eouted for ionic ten minutes, came to ask the Honorable seuator die terms upon which he intended to support General Taylor. Mr Corwin said, that the terms upon whlah he in?l the free States would -uriport hiin would he, (hit jcueral Taylor stands coimu.ted not to vpto a bill Inch uiight be passed extending tin- WiluiOt proviso >ver the 1 erritorios of the L u.i. d .-,uteH IV.r. Foot a? It is the same bing bo I understood be Senator. The hero ol Biieu* Vista between ti.O N< ttb and the South, is in a bad way. With a speoiicntn u of hie several oijeotious tn the bill and of the kveial oompn mlses which might havr been successful, vlr. Kootc expressed bis int. niinn of supporting this nil, liom that high oonsideratiou its object was he harmony ot the Union Mr Winn coit next took the flour, and argued that he power of Congress to legislate over the territories ra* limited to general objects, scd referred to a oonroversy between tbe elder Adam- and a tory of 1T74, in tbe question of the right oi the British Parliament o legwlate for the Am. rieau colonies, as iuvolviug the xact merits of this discussion. The power which the 4 ry then claimed for Great Britain, is the powor rhicb is now claimed for Congress over the territories, 'lite, n years ago in the territory of Florida, he reisted the act ol the Legislature to incorporates bank or tifty years. He strove 10restrict the L gislature to uunicipai police regulations 'i bis was the doctrine he iienmainlaiogd. aud would now maintain. Therecords f Florida would show thi? to have b> en his position, and ii would append extracts from theiu to his speech. Is to tbe arrabgemeut which it is said is made in the ill), by which the subject of slavery ooyild be referred Dd decided by the Supreme Court, it was nothing lew?it always existed. The law which could not be eviewed and decided upon by the courts, would bo he most tyraunioal which ever existed on the face of lod's earth. Qive me said Mr. Westcott a despotism, n nreterence to legislation over which the Sunreine ;?url could exercise no power. I could put ts end to . deapot by it thruat of a dagger ; but to auch legiataion thtre could be no renie ly Mr. Wealoott then ead leveral exiruola troui tuea-age* of Mouroe and ack-ou. to ahow that the power of the Supreme J curt to arbitrate upou deputed point* of the constiulion alway* exi*U.-d aud waa uever denied He conended tbal the right* of the Slate* were sovereign, tud that the United State* had no right to dictate rhal local legialatiou ihould exiet in these aovereign ' Hate* ; aud if thi* waa diaputed the Supreme Court raa the tribuual to dec de He had every contidence n the integrity of that Court; aud lie kuew font experience, that il the ter.ilorinl effaira were eft to Congreaa, they would be nejeuted as the dlairti of Honda. when a territory, bad been, t'bci doctrine that a slave ia fr< e the moment he ouchc* a free State, if brought there voluntarily by il* mauler, is a very recent doctnue, aud one which a not tenable; it ia the same d<ctrine wulch the Balani au autboritlei- bad t he inaoleoue to urge in 1S43, then the slaves of the Alliance reae up in their ma* era on the coast ef Florida, and niurdeiud them, aud he British authorities refused to give the murderers ip. when they took retuge in the Bahamas. All the argument* that are urged in tavor of the right* of lave*, are borrowed from the emancipation of the iVert Indie*. 1 *hail vote for the portion of the bill rilh respect to Oiegon, a* Cougre** by it doe* not inerfrre with the sovereign right* of that territory. If rote for the other part, it will be under durc$e. and iccause I cannot vote with the Senatora from Ohio ind Connecticut; aa 1 believe that upon thi* subject hey cannot be right I shall not decide yet whether vote f>.r the bill or not; if I vote for it. It will be. I reeat under duretie; and I beg never to be reaponaible or it. tor I believe that so far aa regard* California, Sew Mexico, and that a worae bill never r iuld be deriaed. 1 will, therefore, reserve mr vote till the ia*t. Mr. Baldwin mede an exp'auatlon regarding a rgal care cited by him yesterday. and controverted by senator* to-day Mr BrnaiaN denied the correctness of the case ited; it bad been incorreotly reported, as could be leeu by the decision pronounced by the court itself. Mr. Baldwin further explained, that the mistake irose in attributing the opiuion to the court, instead )t toanimberof the judges of the court. Vf. Johnson said, before he proceeded to offer the -emarks he intended to offer, and wtiiob would apply i.ore particularly to what fell from the Seuator from Lihiu(V)r. Coram) yesterday, he wished to present ;wo amendnients to the bill, to remedy the alleged lelect in the 24th section, although, in his opiuion. hire was nothing to prevent the Supreme Court of he Lnilcd States frotn takiug cognisance of the oases ikely to grow up. even If the matter in controversy lid not amount to $20UU. should such be the pleasure >f Congress; and, as an Instance, Congress gave the rower of appeal to the Supreme Court, In cases of 121)0, brought In the District uf Columbia Mr Johii'ou ead his amendnients. which stated, that cases brought or the recovery of slaves, shall be brought before the iupreme Court, free of costs to the slave. He moved urlher to amend the 26lh section, so as that the pronation. in tbe cases of California and New Mexico, igainst 1< gtslating on the subject of slave-y shad bo onliusd to African plavsry.whereby the-aid territories vil) he left free, if so d epo-ed, to set ill the suppression if Peon slavery, or slavery for debt ,V1r Johnson said >e would proceed now (0 o'clock P M . after a session if seven hours of tbe most sultry day of tbe whole rear.) to address the Senate upon these propositions n.d the general subject, it they were willing to hear lim. Mr. Mashcu-I move you sir. that the Senate adourn. (! no! Oo on ! goon!) Mr. Hankoan obtained leave to offer a resolution, to vit, that the Senate take a recess to-morrow, from 4 to i o'clock. P. M. Mr. Clavion here rose, and suggested that it was lue to the Seuator from Maryland that the Senate do low adjourn; and lie would uiakr the motion, with the inderslauding that the vote shall be had upon the bill o. morrow Mr Baixier *ii understood as not absenting to this inderstaiidmg And the Senate adjourned. Koom of Krpirraentatlvra. Wasiiinuion, July 31, 1818. the contkit renewed. The House resume I the constderat ion of the motion ,o reconsider the vote hy which the ei*ll and diploinitio bill was yesterday r?j< oted. Mr ( B SwiiH.of Indiana remarked that a member of the Indiana l.egi-lature wa* asked the secret of lis popularity. He replied that he had made it a rule never to vote for a tax on the people, nor for an appropriation. and he could go upon the stump and arraign :hoee who voted for extravagant taxes On the Navy ippropriatlon bill passed at this session, forty-one rotes were recorded against. it. thirty four of which sere democratic. He had heard no particular olyecion urged to the bill On the fortification bill there acre sixly-one votes in the negative, ouly two of which sere cast hy whigs The gentleman from Michigan, |Mr. McClelland.) yesterday, wanted to know why i< me whigs voted against the appropriation of $50 000 or the Savannah river, in the committee, and fur it In .he House So far from exettlng prejudice this is an very day occurrence. The whigs hul no desire to 'brink flora responsibility. They were willing that the rote should be recorded on the journal The gentlenan from North Carolina. (Mr McKay) said that If he whigs would consent to strike out ihe objectionable item, the democrate would vote against It. Mr 8awvrr?I will not vote for It if the amendment e stricken out. Mr Smiih repeated, that the gentleman from Voith Carolina pledged his democratic friends that hey would voto for the hill If the Savsnnah fiver appropriations were stricken out The bill apir< prist en four or Ave millions of dollars and is It to be nst because this Item of fifty thousand dollars is in it? iVe are to consider the que-ttou. then, whether the louse shell strike out the Item Mr. Smith spoke in ?vor of the appropriation for the Savannah river and laid that the democratic Cowgrese. In IH.iP Inserted in .he gt final appropriation hill a simitar item, which vss approvid by a democratic President. The item in ,hle bill is proper and expedient, vet we aro aaked to erode. An argument is br ught forward that, no leas t he stricken out. he will veto th<- bill ! If gentlemen njpr-e that we are to be alarmed at the Presidential 'e?o, *nd shaXeo from f ur jnty. they arc mistaken > W Y ( V YORK, THURSDAY The House hu decided that the veto i* ru-ht, xnd should be continued in the bill. If we reeedp from the bit in conee<iueuce of the threat of the Presidential Tito, we are not worthy to flocupy our feat*. and are lit only to be the fleer* of a de*p<>t. Mr Sduith trn*u>d that i he whig* would stand up, although the President and hie trend* thutdir in their?are -veto! veto" Do gentlemen deuy that the people are cnp>tble of rll-gtveriiiueut? Mr W?.m woitii (in consequent) of a remark made by Yr Smith) luk.d : Am I mt ou-ist-ni? Mr. Smith?The gentlemau voted lor river* and harbor*, but when he come* to the preside ory, he vote* for a mau who vetoe* river and harbor bill*. Mr W i NTwoKTii- I will not do it next time. Mr. Smith?Vt ho wIM you vote for1 Mr. WtMaaiTii?A river end harbor ma a. [ ' Who'i that ?") Mr Schkhok?I ?hnutd like to know what the gentleman raid ; there waj ' *o much noise and confusion here." (Ha! ha! ha! ' A good hit ul I '.a** '"] Mr. Smith -I should like to know from the gentleman from lllinoi* whut are the opinions of (ieuaral Can*. ' iv't vvfstwokth? .\iut somi-ondy oiw i flftto been in Congress with Geu. Cass three sect-ions We have v. led uniformly alike on the rirer and harbor bill*. He and I used o?r influence with Mr. Polk to sign i he loll which be vetoed. If Gen. Taylor will do a* much on thin fubject aa Gen. Cans I will not complain. thk i itti r book?cea. caaa'a raiNOin ki. Mr. Smith?With the pleasure of the Houae, I will pic dure a i-uiall book (It was about an inoli square ; the exhibition produced executive laughter.) Like the primer of Johu Rogers, " 1 leave you lu re a little book, That you m?y look upon, That you may Fee your father'* face When be 1* dead and gone." [Ha ! ha ' ha !J Here is a little book, that the demociats may Fee I heir - fut Iter's face when he is dead and gone." I will read the hook without troubling the cltik to do so. (Looking into it.) It is" Littered according to an Act of ? ongr.h*. in the year 1S11. b'y General Concent." [ ' What is the title?"] 1 believe I will bend lbe document to the clerk. The little I took w it* conveyed to the desk by one of tbe little clerk*. (Ha' ha! ha!) Mr Wk*twohth?I hope the time occupied in readlug it will not come out of tbe gentleman'* hour? i be ci kbk commenced reading: "Detroit, May 17,"?[' Wiiat i* the title of the bouh?"J Mr. Smith?General Cans'* letter to the Chicago Convention, entered by General Consont in the United State* Clerk'* office. The Clkrk tin n read tile letter from General Cass, declining to attend the Chicago Convention on internal improvement*. [Ha ! ha ! ha !] /mr .smith?It i* a very important dooument ["It'* a g< od letter." ' It is more than General Taylor has ad."] Mr. Wkhtwomth?General Ca*s has voted for every rivet and harbor bill. Mr. Smith- He is a* unfortunate as the geutleman Limsi If. but ha* not so good an excuse. The gentleman was not prevented by " the noise and confusion " from giving hi* opinion on this interesting subject. Mr. Wkniwobtii I hope the gentleman will give General Taylor's opinions Mr Smith?General Taylor was not prevented by ' the noise and confusion" from giving bis opiniuus. General Cass, at Cleveland, was called upon to denounce the calumny that he was opposed to river and harbor improvements. lie said that unfortunately, there was "so much noise and confusion " that he was not able to ewires* his imintens Tile eenf teine .1 fr.wn Illinoib said that General Ca*a was iu favor of river and harbor bilis, and raid that he voted for certain bills. Let me auk the gentleman whether ho ha* aeon the letter of General Case accepting the nomination of tho Baltimore Convention? Ho rays that he approve* of every sentiment and principle in the democratic reso- . luticns Mr Wkhtwofth?Will the gentleman let mo say j a word? Does General Taylar endorse the principled of the Philadelphia Convention? [11a! ha! ha!) Mr Smith ? Kvery member of the Houho know* that the Baltimore Convention took the broadest ground against internal improvements, and endorsed every veto; and yet the gentleman contends that General Cass ia in favor of these works ! Mr. Wbm wofth?Certainly he is. Mr. Smith?If General < ate) should be elected, we will see a repetition of the Kane letter. Ia the South his claims are advocated because he ia opposed to the vetoes. Does not the gentleman know that the opinions of General Cass at one time are net his opinions at another time? He is a mere w> atheroook on the vane, turned by every wind I regard the Presidential election aa completely settled as it will be on the 7th ol November. The people want no time-serving deinaSegue, no political trickster; they want a man who, in is own language, baa-no enemies to punish, no friends to reward " Mr! Smith enlarged upon ,Gen. Taylor's views on the votenower. and defended Mr. Clav from the taunt* thrown out by ^1r Iverso u, not forgetting to \ Buy a word with reference to "father Ritchie's vituperation." 0 matters and timnus generally. Mr. Stiart, of Miabigan -aid that seventeen whigs who w>re for the appropriation for the ?*** nali ri er, voted against the civil and diplomatic appropriation bill There wan a majority of twenty-three , against the bill. Eleven on tbe democratic aide voted for it. For himself, he would never vote to atop the wheels of the government He votod in committee and in the lieuse against this item, beeauae it was in> troduced in violation of the rulea of the Mouse ff tbe vote by which the bill was rejected shall be reoonsidered. be would move that the item be stricken out. ; While he would vote for bills for internal improve- ; meute. within limits which the constitution wil jusii- j ly, he would never consent to legislate evideutly tor ' the purpose of forcing a veto, or making an argument against the dimoctatic party by forcing the President to sign the bill with the objectionable item in it. Such . conduct was not respectful to tbe President. The . whigs dure not go before the people with their princi- , pies inscribed en their banners, as in 1840, when they had their hard cider, their corn dodgers, coon skins, and their miserable emblems, which do not indicate an adberance to reason, Gentlemen will And that all the Mates will not respond to the nomination of the , Philadelphia Convention. They were Tylerized, but 1 will not be Taylorized. This Capitol could " a tale unfold." to show who-o opinions the Alison letter reflects. What is a moderate whig, "not an ultra whig," in contrast with a whig? Although there are abolitionists from Massachusetts and New Hamp-hire, and slaveholders from the South, they come up in solid phalanx to every thing which opposes the democracy. Although it has been six weeks since the letter was written to General Tayhr advising him of his muni- i nation, it has not reached him. He lives off the mail ' route The General, never travels, except with the I two or three men who have hiiu in charge The resolutions of the Committee on Commerce, condemning the veto of the President, etc , was insulting to Mr. i i.ik i in- leuur in uenerai ( imn. wnion wan mis morning read, was a private latter, addressed to an individual. raying that it was out of his power to atteud tbu Chicago Convention. General Cass's opinions on river and harbor improvements are not unknown. He. in the Senate, voted for every meature of that kind. As to the little book, the wings got it up ; it is one of the emblems ot the campaign, addn seed to the senses of women and children, and not to men The whigs dare not let their candidate express his opinions. 'I hey put Harrison under keepers and have placed Taj lor under keepers. The reply of General Taylor will not be received until after the election. Mr. Oi'tl*w?The letter to General Taylor from the Fresident of the Convention was written on the 0th of June. Mr Stvaiit?Why did It not reach its placo of destination ' Mr. the democratic postmaster would not let It go [11a! ha!] Mr. Stuart?The democratic postmaster don't know General Taylor's principles, and yet he keeps back the letter ! That is whiggery, with a vengeance. I bolieve that toe mails are pretty certain between here and Buffalo Where is Killuiore ? It is said in the newspapers that the whigs do not want to publish his letter until they hear from General Taylor I'hey want to see whether the two letters agree. They had no prl nciples for the public rye. Mr. Hai.i., of Missouri ?I inform the gentleman that he is mistaken I saw something from the general in the Hvera Viita. a paper printed in Baltimore Mr. STUART?'I he Utter will come ; I believe it Is on its nay, hut it is coming remarkably slow The whigs wild' wht they condemn If they charge the democratic party with trickery aud treachery, be assured they will resort to it themselves Mr Stuart consumed his hour In speaking of the principles of the democrats, and the tactics of the whigs. and in conclusion he said that he was for Cass, because, in his election. the democrats would sustain the principles of the party for which they had oontended for twenty the Dirrr.imwcr iitwhn the twi parties. Mr. (Idouis, of Virginia. obtained the floor, nnd commenced hie remark*, whan Mr Lahm aroee to a point of order, and objeeted to the gentlt man'* ccnwo of remark*. The Speaker?1 be bill of itRelf involves appropriation* for all the department* of the government for another year, and embrace* every question. Mr. Ooonti^Tesutned, and *aid, that yesterday, for the flret time, gentlemen were engaged In discussing, not the merit* of a bill, bnt the opinion* of the executive ; and he would *ay. with all respect, that badly a* he thought of modern democracy, and a* well a* he thought of the principle" of those oppn*ed to it. he could not And languxge sufficiently strong to stamp it with reprobation The vr/os of the demovratlc party, for the last twenty year*, have been to concentrate all the power of the republic In the hand* of one man If there wore no other Issue In the Presidential contest but General Taylor cn one ?lde, and the author of the little book on the other, that would be a platf >rm litoad enough on which to *tand The whig* plant Iheir loot where they stood in 1RU2. when the wh g party was again reformed. The whig* are against executive power ; the democrat* are for the veto a* a m< naichlcal power Mr. (loggln quoted from forin-r speeclie* of Oeneral Bayly, delivered In Virginia, to show inconsistency, and wn* about to read what Mr. Wire said, when Mr requested him. if he had anything further to say *bont hint, i Mr Bayly) that he would do so now, for he was about to leave the hall. Mr Uoiiiiia did not appear to have anything moo to say on that point, and Mr B yyi v. picking lip hi* hat, hade Mr l.oggingood , Bioi ulr.g, and left the House. Mr. t>?M.<<in then referred lo Mr W iw'r v port of th> IIveetigstlng committee, ijiirllf HentTYl .lftew*r,ji's J itwa niiMi mn ./n^wyiiiini wrnmmmmmmuam ) R it 1 MORNING, JUL'Y 27,

1 aifminietraUaa, to aho? that (inn Caae. while Sen i rotary of Wai^ allowed w?* ? >r . rviee* not perform-d * e*. n when bia favorite forged hi* official signature i ! ThU wan a pirtuiv. not druwn b> (loneral Cum tunnel; ? not extorted in tb<- ejciti mem of tiin moment, but it in the language nf a high i in <1 mnu, on hi* natli before ConpreM Mr. Goggili r?fcrr< i t.? the dinparily in the several,edition* of the r if- General .'ass.'* and I charged that they were do- go. I to deceive. th? oriiru 410 K. Mr. Thomnow, of Mb a expressed the hope tbat if the general papr^ r.nt ion bill, with tin* appropriation for tbn river in it. ei*>uld bo prevented to the Pre*'dent, he ^vill wittihold hi* eignature la it to pnvok' a veto? Ifo hoped not. but he wan induced to believe it wai. Me entered into a history of the oapiti'Jati'in of .Vtonterey. in condemnation ; and aid that General Am "! pudta had d*reivod GeneraM'sytor hy a trick. Healso ju-titled hid own conduct in -filing a proviso to I the vote of thnnke to Taylor, last Congrets, that the thanks " shall not be construed into approbation or disapprobation' of the \ '.uistioc and defended Minted from ' gross elan daft snd?irii>lushlng faltta hoods" In the Life Ooetjwil'1'itjlor, issued by the ( ongrrtti'linl Whig ( omiuilti#. with relereoow to hia 1 (Mr. Thompson's) courts on l-he proposition fo create ' the office of Lieutenant (/h-persl In conclusion he gave hit re&sous why he tt?e?ld -vote General I Tt>Jlor one of which wan that General Taylor brlongs 1 to' the. standing army ; to the r? tt ha from which those who have overturned republics hare heen taken, lie wears the epauletteeon hit should' r, and the sword at his side alid commands an sripy Mr Thompson had no objections to Washlngtoi ., nd .Jack-oil ; they were taken from the valks ot p- vate life Jackson and Harrison when presented tor 'h> suffrages of the peepie, had left the army. TUB It r AM'Si to ft WOTIS' AUAINITTHB ft IIX. Mr. Baanow said that the . bigs had been denounced at traitors because thev > i, oiirhf they ought not to vote for every thing wh.ich llo x<outiVe demands ; and because Ihey refused to sV-t , u ttte recommendation for ten additional regiments wh-n overy breeze eomtngfiom Mexico brought th. glad tidings of peace,tliey , were charged with moral tree an ' \^i here,in this hall, when it Is said the wheels. <> government will stop ; unless the appropriation bill be passed, democrats I voted against it nn&difiaod it As to the motives which influenced gen^lemeo. V formed bis own opinion* ; one of which was. that the tnan who is at the bead ot this nation is at lh>' red of hjs career. Only . f?* VTirips livnra uso t.. K.. .I.i - I t WI_ . _ .1 u | i- more important to battle for tin* nomination of the linltimoie Convention than to propitiate or uphold the expiring adminlatrntiiiD of Yir. folk. A* wax said by Air. Webster, in the Senate like the sunflower, they do net turn to their god ti.o smi c face they did when he rore. Beside, it wan itnpnr ant that every point for their advantage should be safely ,tmi securely guarded. They who voted against the liiii c ulil say that thvy had not voted for extravagant ?|.pr priatlons. Ooneral Jackon raid that Congress ?m to much influenced hy the ex< cutive ; and when he resigned his seat in the Senate, in 182.V he addressed a letter to the Tenin spce Legislature, taking the ground that the President ought? to he elected direetiy hy the people, and that no member of Congress should be appointed to ofllce until two years alter bis term of service baa expired ; for, he said, the executive had coiled himself, like an anaconda. around the two Houena of Congress, and was almost ton strong to grapple successfully against his wishes. The Kxocutlve ought to come to Congress, rather than Congress go to bint. and. bowing down at his footstool, say, ' May it please yopr Majesty, what law shall we pass, and what measure will meet w'th your royal approbation." fie would act for hiimulf. if he had been prere nt yesterday, bo womd have voted for the bill; he would therefore vote for the r< consideration, and against striking nut thw lt?m whtati had given rise to the ex'ating difficulty. He was will ng to go before the country on this Issue; he w. old submit to the flrmhearted and sound-headed; people of the N-rth, Kant, South and West, whether the uu u whom they have se- , i leciea to represent mem in m-s iihII. shall, bHforethey | come to a decision in legislative measure*. seek to kutftr the wishes ot the Executive Mr. Mcide?I would ask the gentleman whether he thinks the President ought to veto the bill, if he be- ' Ik-Tee it contains an unconstitutional provision ? Mr Barrow?i do; hut thl? .toes not approach the arguments I made use of U e have no right to Inquire 1 whither the Executive think- the item unconstitutional M'e nro the majority of the House; -and this is an answer to the gentleoiHu's ion Mr. Evsaa, of Maryland, moved 1Kb previous question. and under its operation, the vole by which the bill waa rejected was recmisid- red Mr. Cobb, o Georgia, moved a i-eonsidoration of the i vote by which the bill w&e ordered to be engrossed for? 1 a third leading, - And the House trtU?arneil. Washington, July 24, 184S. adjouhnmeVi or cuniiiu ! Mr. Cmngmai* obtained.the floor in the struggle, and asked leave to efTar a rosolution. that the Vioe President of the Senate'and the speaker of the House of Representatives, adjourn the two hranrhestif Congress, on Monday, the 7th of -tngo-t Beat,at 1* o'clock meridian. . * I 'J't-ve befng objection. Mr i'i.ivomai movedtoui- I pension of the rules prescribing the order of business, to enable him to introduce the resolution A message whs, at this juncture, received from the Pre-ideut of tbe United Mates informing the House that he bad signed the lull uiukiug provision for the retention of the general officers >,f rho army, he.fand communicating a message in Writing Mr. Coub, ol Georgia?I move that the message be read. 1 ne brr.. rf.r?ibere is r question pending before the House. Mr. Clinomai*?I hope the mes age will not now he read; let my resolution be noted upon first. [''No, no."' " Oh }os.''J The Srr.AKKR?The question in on a suspension of the rule*. Mr Stepiieha? I ask for tlie y-as and nuys. ["Agreed, agreed," "1 ts of no use." Mr. Clhvoman ? Do 1 under*.*ml the-e is objection to the introduction of the resolution ' TheSi'F.AKiR?Whjt-C'iou has hi > u made. Mr Burt-I rise to a privileged question. It Is known that the House ha- adopt- <J a resolution, fixing a time of adjournment. The resolution w .sseutto the Senate. and I submit whether until it be there disposed of, it be competent for the House to adopt this resolution. The Srr.aker?The House cannot know whether the Senate has acted upon the re- >1 ill o>u eeut to it ; no information has beep officially rare ved. Mr. Bi rt?It is au unusual course The Speaker?The resolution l- cl.-arly in order. Mr. Bort?If the resolution were finally rejected in the Senate, would not that body ?eud a message to the Heuse ? The Speaker?No ; unless *- a matter of courtesy. The rules were su-petided y*a* 110. nays &4 ; and under the operation uf the prevent- question the resolution was agreed to- yeas 120 nay - S!l A A1EUACE IRON THE PR EAII-K ? T?T HE OONgl'F a ED TERRITORIES?WHAT WE HAVE (iAIM.I) M? I H F. THEA r V , SlC . Mr. Cosh, of (Jeorgla? i uiove tbal the message of the i'resident, received this morning bo now laid before the House. If there bo objection* I shall mure a euFpens'ou of the rules. [ No objection." '-Head, read "1 Tii the lloutr of Rfprt$tnlaltnt? ofI lit Utiilrd Slain : In answer to the resolutions of the House of llepro tentative*, of the loth in-taut. request lag luloriualiun in r*'latinn tn \n* \lat inn All.I i ul inrniA I nnm mini. rati* herewith report* from the ,S< cr. lary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, th<- Secretary of W'ae. and the Secretary of the Nary with li? documents which accompany the came. These re(?nI* and document* contain information upon the cv.ra' p lute of in quiry embraced by the resolution* The pmp?r limits and boundaries of New Mexico and ?, aid >ruia" are delineated in the map referred to in too late treaty with Mexico, an authentic ropy of wp cli - herewith transmitted ; and all the additional information upon that aubjert. and also tile most reliable lulormaliou in reapect to the population of the-e respective proTincea, which la in the possession of the Kx cutne. will l>e found in the accompanying report of the Secretary cf State. i The resolutions request inform ttiou in regard to the existence of civil government* in New Mexico and | ( alitomia ; their 'form and charaeter."' by "whom instituted," by "what authority." mil how they are ' maintainedand supported ' In my message of December ?1 Is4tl. in answer to a resolution of the House of Representatives, calling for information "in relation to the estabil-hinenlor organization of civil governments in any p .rtion of the territoiy of Mexico which has or might he taken possession of by the srmy or navy of ihe United States." I communicated the order- which had been given to the officers of our army and navy, and -tated the general 1 authority upon which temporary iui i'ary government!! had been established over the cm jiiereil portion* of Mexico then in our mili'ary oooupatc n Tlie temporary gixernments authorixed. were instituted by virtue of the right* of <var. I'he power to declare war agelnst a foreign country, and to pro-ecute it according to the general aw* of war. a* sanctioned by civilized nations, it will not he questioued. exi-ts under our constitution U hen ongre** ha* declared that war exist* with a fnieign nation, "the general law* of war apply to our ailuat" n " and it heoomesthe duty of the I'reeident. a* the cun-t tutional commander- luchief ot the army and navy of the U nited States," to prosecute It. In prosecuting a foreign war. thus duly declared by Congres*. we have the right hy " conquest and mil'tary occupation" to acquire po?*ession of the territ'ries of the eueniy. and during the war to " exercne th# fullest right* of *ovcreignty over it " I he sovereignly of tlie enemy i* in such case " suspend- d. aad his lasa on " no longer be rightfeily enloiced ' over the eon querrd territory, or he obligatory upon the inhabitants who remain and suhnni to the conquerors " By the surrender. the inhabitant* " pas- under a temporary allegiance" to the conqueror ai d are bound by ?u< h laws, and such only as" he may choose to recognise and Impose " Krom the nature of the case, no other law* could be obligatory upon them , for where there i* no protection, or allegiance, or sovereignty, 1 there can be no claim to obedience " These are welleetahlinhed principles of the laws of war, as recognised and practised by civilixed nation* ; and they have j been sanctioned by the highest judieial tribunal of onr country I he orders and Instruction* l?-ued to the officers of our srmy and navy, applicable to siieft portion* of the Mexioan territory as had bee a or aslght he conquered bv our arms, were In strict oonformlty te these principles They were, Indeed, amelioration* of tho rigors I of the war upon which we hsve insisted They subetl I S "i JI A 1843. tutcd for the liarehneni of miiltay ruin earn'thing <? t the ttiilduoa iif civil government md ?rrn u >t <>nij the excit-be r>t nrfexcewaf power. but W> rn * rdaxtf lion In f?v i of tb<- pcaci aide lu',:iMta \U of the on ; fiut rcd term, ry who h*d *cbinllt d to our ai-lmrity, l and were alike pollliQ arid humane. |r. i* fr ,m - hu i tame rourco of anthnrity that we deriro the un j i.M. I tioi ?<J rtgh', hit1 r v. or ).? been iler'amd by t .oug , to blockade tee port* i*ni enaat* of ill- e no hit, to . tptun ho to* no, ritie- and ptovincee, and to lew eontributinua upon him tor the eupyoitof our :irmy 01 the mm* ctieraeter with the>e it the right to subject to out' temp, rui y military government tti coll | lured tenttorirH ( f out eticnij Tliey are all belligerent righte; and I lirir excrria- iv as eg.cuti&l to t'h alioerr el ul pniM'Culion of a foreign war as the right to light bsiilex. New Mexico mid Upper California were among the It rriloric* concurred and ocoupied hy our force*, and Fncb temporary goveroniente were e.tabliilied ov.-i th. in '1 bey w?re miablirhed by offloera ot our army and ii?t> In coininuiid. in uur uaneeofthe order in.-tiuctious accompanying my message to the il hiso : ol Kepress--ntatives of December 2*2,1, lSlii. lu their foim and detail, as at first eatablistied, th> y exceeded in some respects (a* wan stated in that message) tliu authority which bad been given ; and instructions f ir the roriectiou of the error were issued in desp Uches froui tlit- War unU Nary D?partui< nu, of the lltn of Januaiy, IS47 copies of which a in herewith transmitted. They have been maintaini'd and supported out of i 1i*i miiitury exaction* and contribution* levied upon the enemy ; aud no part o1 the expense ha* beeu paid out of the treasury of the United State* in the i out mo of duty, some of t' e officers of the army and nary, who flret established temporary governments in California and New Mexico, here been luiccieded in oouiniund by other officers, upon wuom like duties have devoivt d ; and the ageui* employ ed or designated by them to control the temporary government* bare aire, in a?me iuetanca*. b en super-eded by others Such appointment*, for temporary oirii duly during our military occupation tr.-re made by tbe officer* in command in the conquered territ ri-? respootively. On tbe conclusion and exchange of ratifications of a treaty of pence with Mexico, which was proclaimedon the 4th lurl . there temporary governments necessarily ceased to rxint. In the instructions to establish a temporary gorermnent over New Mexico, nu distinction was made between that and the other provinces of Mexico which might be taken and held in our military occupation. '1 he proviucc of New Mexico, according to its ancient boundaries, as claimed he ,Merino lies no h.itl, soles nf the Rio Grande. That part of it on the east that river *? in dispute whan the war between the United States au<l Mexico commenced Texas, by a succ.ii.slul revolution in April. 1830, achieved and sub-?<|ueutly maintained her independence. Ry an act of the Congress of Ti Xn*. passed in December. 1831. her western boundary was declared to be thu Kio Grande. from itsmoulh to ila source, and thence due north to the forty-second degree ot uorth latitude. Though the re public of Texas, by many acts of sovereignty which -he exerted and exel Oi-ed, some of whioh were elated iu in/ I annual message of December, 18W,had established her j cleat title to the couutry west ot the .Nueces, and bor d> ring on that part of the Kio (Jraude whioh lies b'dow the pioviuce of N?w Mexico, she had never conquered, or reduced to actual possess ou. and brought under her govirnuieut and lavs, that p*rt of New Mexico lying east of the Rio Graudo, which she claimed to be within her limits On the break.,ng out of the war. we found Mexico in possession of this disputed territory. As our army appro tolled Santa Km, (thu t ap.tal of New Mexico ) it was fouud to be held by a governor under Mexican authority, j and an aruit d foic> collected to resist our advance? ; 'i he inhabitants were Mexicans, acknowledging alio- j giauce to Mexico, The bouudary in dispute was the line between the two countries uugsged iu actual war, | and the settlement of it of necessity depend* on a treaty of peace. Finding the .Mexican auction iesand i people iu possession, our foroes conquered them and i extended military rule over thcin and the territory whicli they actually occupied, in lieu of the sovereign- j ty which was displaced It was not possible to disturo I or change the practical boundary line iu the midst ot ' the war, when no negotiation for its adjusting ot could be opened, and when Texas was not present by her constituted authorities to establish aud ma ntain government over a hostile Mexican population, who acknowledged no allegiauce to her. There was. : therctore, no altcrnstive I. ft but to establish and maintain military 1*0In. luring the war, over the o ?u- i qu> red people in the disputed territory. wno bad submilted to our arms, or to forbear the exorci-e of oar belligerent rights, aud leave them in a state of aaascby and without control. | Whether the country in dispute rightfully belonged to Mexicoorto Texas, it was our right in the tl rut case, and our duty as well as our right in the latter, to conquer aud hold it. irhilst this territory wai in our possession as conquer rs. with a population h utile to the United States, which more than once broke out in open insurrection, ft was our unquestionable duty to continue our military occupatiou 9f it until the conclusion of the sr. and to establMb over it usilit ry government neces ary lor our own security, as well as for the pio ectlon of the conquered people. By the joint resolut on of i ongress, of March 1, H45, "for annexing Te.Vaato the I'm ed States," the ' adjustment of ail questions pf boundary which may arise with other governments' was reserved to this government. When the conquest of New Mexico was u.m- J summated by our arms, the question of boundary reBtaimd still unadjusted. Until the exchange of the ratifications of tke late treaty. New Viexico never becpme an undisputed portion of the United S ates; and It mis.iiM 11,-ronm h?. k -- .uv.v.". V, MP * urru ptoilim UIO fcO umimr over to Texas that por.ion of it. on the wait side of the Bio ( to which she asserted a claim. However just the right of 1 exa* may have beeu to it, thai ri^tit had never been reduced into her pn.**e-sioo, and it was conteeted by Mexico By the ceMiion of the whole of New Mexico on both sideB of the ltio Grande to the United Slate*, the ,lunation of disputed boundary, ho far aw Mexico is concerned. has been nettled; louring the quest mu a* to the true limit* of Texan, iu New Mexico, to be adju-ted between that State nud the United State* Under the circumstances dieting during the pendency of the war. and while the whole of New tit x;co. an claimed by our enemy wan in our military occupation. I wan not unmindful of the right* of Texan to that portion of it which she claimed to be within her hunt* In answer to a letter from the Governor of Texan, dated on the 4th of January, 1847, the Secretary of State by my direction, informed him in a letter of the Utb of February. 1847 that in the President's annual message ot Idi ci ruber 1H40, " Vou hare already peroeired Unit Now Mexico in at present in the temporary occupation of the tn ope of the U uited States, and the g v?r iim-ul over it is military in ita character. It is merely such a government as must exist under the laws of nations and of ??r. to preserve order and protect the right* of the inhabitants, nnd will cease on ti e conclusion of a treaty of peace with Mexico. Nothing, therefore, can ! be more certain than that thin temporary government, ' resulting from ueces-ity. can never injuriously alfeot the right which the President believes to be justly asserted by Texas to the whole territory on this side of the Kio Grande whenever the Mexican ouim to it shall have been extinguished by treaty. But thin in a subject, which nioie properly belong* to the legi-lntirc than the executive branch of the government." 1 he leMilt ?f the w? ote is. that Texas had asserted a right to that part of New Mexico east of tile Kio Grande, which l* believed under the acts of Uongrens for the annexation and admission of Texan into the Union as a State, and undi T the constitution and laws of Texas to be well ton tided ; but thin right had n-ver been reduced to her actual possession and occupancy. The general government, possessing exclusively the war-Diaklug power, bad the right to take military possession of this disputed territory ; and until the title to it was perfected by a treaty of penoe. it was their duty to hold it. and to establi h a te uporary military government ever it, for the preservation of the c inquest it1 elf the safety of our army, and the security of the conquered inhabitants The resolutions further request information whether any persons have beeu tried and condemned for 'treason against the United States in that part of New Mexico lying east of the Kio Grande siuce the same has beeu In the occupancy of our army." aud. if no, belore what tribunal." and " by what authority of law such trihuual was established." It appear* that after the territory in qiieetinu was" in the occupancy of our army." soine of the conquered Mexican inhabitant*. who had at first submitted to our authority, brake out iu open iu-urreclinu. murdering our sulditrs and cit z tin. and committing other atrocious Crimea. Some of the principal offender*, who wereapfirehended. were tried and condemned by a tribunal nv.ctid with civil and criminal jurisdiction, which had been e?tabli?hud in the conquered country by tlia military officer in command That, the offender* deserved the punishment iiitlicted upon them, there la no reason to doubt ; and the error in the proceeding* against them consisted in designating and describing their crimes as " treason against tile United States." This error was pointed out. and its recurrence th- reby prevented, by the Secretary of War, in a despatch to the officer in command in .New Mexico dated on the 2?th of Juue, 1M7 a copy of which, together with copies of ail communicate ns relating to the subject which have been received at tbo War Department, are herewith transmitted. The resolutions call for information in relation to the quantity of public lands acquired within the ceded territory. and how much of the same Is within the boundaries of Ttzas. as defined hy the act of Congress ofthe republic of Texas, on the 19th day of Decemb-r lH.'ifi." No means of making an accurate estimate on the subject is in the pnase-ston of the Kxecutive Department. 1 he information which is possessed will be found in the accompanying report ofthe Secretary of the Treasury. The country reded to the United States lying west of the Kio Grande. and to which Texas has no title, is estimated by the t onimissloner of the General I,and Office to contain 526 978 square miles, or 3rtfl.6t9.920 acres. The period since the exchange of ratifications of tha tresty has been too short to enable the government to have accesetonrtoprocureabscaetaorcipirsoftha a 4 titles lssui d by Spain or by the republic of Mexico Steps will be taken to procure this information at he earliest practicable period It tsestlmated as appears from the accompanying report of the Secretary of the Treasury, that much the larger portion of the land within the territories ceded remain* vacant and unappropriated, and will be subject to be disposed of by the l otted State*. Indeed a very considerable portion of the land embraced in the cession. It is believed, ha* been disposed of, or granted either by Spain or Mexloo. What amount of money the United State* may b* able to realize from the *ale* of thaee vacant land* must be uncertain ; but it is confidently believed that, with prudent tnanagemem, after making liberal grant! 1 l L D. TWO CKNTS. f to migrant* and <?ia?r*. It will. t 'he nut ot the r ??*. Mini .->11 the i-*o* n.ieii to which w* h*r* bem lib* ji cl- d in acquirit g t II Ai* Wan reuem <i with InaghU-r ha! ha:"J , ' i he W'lulldn* ?l?o enf' Ibr the er.^eiioe, er tnj j>art thereof that the ' eMen-W" ami e.lonhle territ. iI' M c <ted by Mexio i to the Cnli-d it c.u-Uilute liiUtnii.ii/ for the paat." Tin uuruen.-e Tuiue i f the er<W e mutry d?n? net constat alone in the amount of wieiiey for which the p public Ui.(fx may be Miltl If u?>t a J -IUr c-asud be real!* rl frcni the sale of iin>i-e Ih u-Im trio ce*-e.u of the jurisdiction over I ho country, ere! the fact that it bM become a part of otlr I ' nlon, ami ??n u >t be in t to *ut>ji'i'l to Kun pran power coiirtiiu res nuplo "tndetnnily i tor the pat tin tho iin on-c raetve anil tirmiUiiM < < hi ?h Its or,|iioiihtn mil-1 give to H?e ooiu nai rigallnjr inai uiwctviriug no J agricultural i uler st-i of otir con u try. '1 ho vh I no of tin- public laud- embraced within tho limits of the ceded territory gn u ?* that value uiay he, in fur h ,-x important to the people of tho United States th in the rovarrignty orer the .emutry. Most of our Stutce cintuin no public laud* owneil by tha United States; and yet the sovereignty an t jurisdiction over (hi in are < f incalculable imgo'tanro to the nation. In the Stale of New V rlt the lAiitsd State* Im the owner f no public lauds, uuil yel two-tnirds of our ahole IIVI-lllll' ! collected at the great port of that State, and wi bin her liiuiis is fuuml .ibuut >m>- we-uth ol our entire population AUhoiieti nun? of the future cities on our coa^t of California may erer rival tho city of New Vork in wealth, population and business, yet. that Important cities wi.l grow up ob the magnificent barb, rs of that coast, with a rapidly Inert a-ing |iopulalinn, and yielding largo revet ue. would seem to tie certain I*y tho posression i f tho safe ins capacious harbors on the Califorii ia roast, wc sha I Inme great a Ivm ag-* in ecuring the rich coinroeice of the i,a-i and siiall lb us obtain for our prialuuts new and increased market*, anu girany enlarge our ouasuug >1110 r 1 'igu trade, M well ns augment our tonuuge ami revenue These great advautngcs.far uith i ban the simple Talm; ef the public land* I11 itio ceded territory, ' constitute our indemnity tor the past " JAMKS K. POLK Washisuto!*, July 24. 184H. Mr. Comi, of Oemgia ?I move 'hat the message ha rffein 4 to ih> Committee 01 I'erritories, anil that tlu message and 1 h?r accompanying document* ba printed, j Air. McCi.aHaand?I a*k my friend to ai alify his 1 niotioa, ho a* to priut au extra number 1 Mr. Bxrir ? More 10 print twenty thousand. Mr. Conn?1 u.akn the usual motion to refer the expediency of priuting ten thou au<l copiss to the , Committee on I'riuting. Mr Batlt ? Say twenty thousand Mr hemcsfx i should like to iiioto that ton thoa' Hand ropier of the President.'h message of December iL 184T, bepriuted (''Agreed ") I should like to suggest this. If it Ih iu order The Shkarkh?ft can only be recelred by unaalI moui eoBHent. 1 Mr. Cobb?i wil make no objection. elated the question when Mr. hili.iahd, of Alabama, eai 1 that the tnenuga first read wan boastful in tone? uulrua in facte; it advance* eld exploit*, and it must hare been observed that the Preeideat paaite* by. in indeoent haste, all the calamities of the war. without au allusion-to the patriot*, living and dead With an it\dacent has to bo advancea to the country that he ba* made a good bargain. New Mexico and California are ours. One of two propositions is true?either that we lost, or Mexico lost, by the treaty with Mexico. If we hare lest anything, we will hold the administration responsible; if we hare gained anything it is no oredkt to the charaeter arid glory of tbia country. How will the President answer tor plunging us into this war? On the Oregon question he laid clatin to 54 deg 40 min . which ba euniu a party cry, and n? afterward* came down to 4t * dog. We bail a right to an net Texas but what bo particularly objected to was, that an army was marcnod, without consulting Congress, to the ilio Grande, which wan disputed territory When the glory ana internal of the country jfre involved, no one wiM step to count the coot of the war; millions for defeion, not acrut for till ute? a oil It might be added, every thing for the glory of th-1 country But to what eonaniiMacrs would thiii ariiuieflion lead! 1'tae North waa full of excitement - la opon organisation against the South. An ex-Prerldent ha- been nominated for the f'rnai i-ncy, an a free noil candidate; arid the South was fuM of solicitude upon the suhjeot. .sectional jealousies am awakened. la not the President responsible fir thiii? In this nail there are meu who apply their lire* to a single purpose They are the r-ry impersonation 1 of bigotry, with averted face; they do not stop tu calculate the results of ruxhiog on blindfolded in their career. It is time to appeal to the patriotism of the country, to call upon men of all section* who lore the Union, to do everything towards strengthening and perpetuating the Union >,r CJiuoiwiis?I would ask the gentleman whether he would not rather see this Uuion dsstolrml than surrender what be c'aitns for the South ? Mr. Him.i abd?I may answer before I sit down. Mr. Giddisus?Will you answer my interrogatory* Mr. Hili.iauu?I will ryit be direrted trom toe linn of n>y argument, if the country is to be saved, now ia the time to do it. Congress has exaiusive power te legislate for territories, but. while Congress posses *ea exclusive power, the power is not unlimited in advance, i will state that I will give my vote against THE NKW CtMriOMIU VWIIKMX whichbas been introduced into the Senate. I do not believe th?t ia the sort of compromise which eh >uld t># accepted. My objection to it la, that the <I*t? (juration i* political ijucation It has always b??n aa regarded. Wbeu the convention met to form tha constitution, it was looked upon aaa political question, and the frainera, seeing the danger involved, united upon a compromise. When Missouri applied for admission as a State into the Union, it was a polttirai question, and a compromise was ejected ; a compromise which tha North passed upon Wheu I.outsiana was acquired, we gave up a portion of the territory ; and yet tue descendants of the very men who agreed to the vfieaourl compromise, now oppose it. I say this ia aa spirit of uukindness. It is time we shonld look to the country, in all its lnteiests, and not merely to a section. Another objection I have is this The asw ?lau does not settle the question ; It simply adjourns t; Oregon is left to legislate for the exclusion of slavery; New .Vleg co and Cnliforuia have no rights; the question of the introduction of slavery is left te the judiciary. W hatever decision may he made by the .supreme Court, the agitation will still go on, and continue W hen the 8enaie proposition shall come lata ti e House, 1 will oast my vote against it. most heartily. Settle the ques ion now, definitively, so that it wtt never he revived again. Let there be a compromise ta he understood. Mr. Hllliard adverted to the veta power, and said a tew words, incidentally. In favor of his friend lienetal Taylor. S1.AVERI ? MARTI* \AX BU RICX?BALTIMORE fOXVEIVTIOX Mr Rirpvall. of New York, read a speech, asserting and niainlaiillng the doctrine of nou iaturreutioa on the question of slavery, as the doctrine of the congtitutiou. Congress has power only to legislate with the public properly in the territories, tin expressed the belief ihst the abolition of slavery in the Uislriot of ( olumhia, without the eon nnt of the slave States, wi uld be in violation of the constitutional compact and disastrous in its consequences Hy looking ver the documents, he pemeivsd that John I' ifale, I'rnstou King. Charles Benton. Auderson. Kith bun, aad others, voted to lay upon the table a petition from New York, asking Congress to extend th principle of non-slavery. This pe itinn was laid upon the tali n by a vote of 108 to 51. The design ot Mr Van Uuma and his adherents is to break up the d-m icralie party Whatever may he sa'd to thH oontrury there is at the b> Item of the Northern movement the dark spirit of abolitionism, which Mr Van Bonn an "I"" da. nounced. Who ran doubt that he I- capable of ?uJ met of treachery mud baseness. VV? emu calculate a man'a degradation wh-n he ho nut* frun di-?ppoiuted auibition. Thane factlonist* invoke the name of Mies Wright, but they aid have no deeper dtmie tion than history a*eigu* them Si Ian Wright sai^, " ue cling to the t'nion. an a means of perpetuating liberty i n our o ?n country an I through it the world. If there are any who forget their obligation* to their country, let u* use erery argument t? convince them of their error." Mr Bird-mil. in oonclusiou, spoke in favor of the principle* of the Baltiimrn Convention, which will not only secure the triumph of republicanism, but uphold the right* of ail the Statea shvmptioi* or rowra. Mr Vintow said that It struok him a* a reraxrkable fact that. In every mess ge from the executive, there is M me new assumption of power indro n of the right* of Congress A* long a* he had been li r# he had never *eeti any r engage pr. seated to thin b > 1/ so palpable I this p itieulaf Instead of vubnit'iog tot ongres* to ?ettle the boundary of Texan, he d?-ec to undertake to ettle It himself It is a question between the I'nited ?tafe* and T*xa?. or "o b* nettled by the JuolcUry The President can enter iuto negotiation with foreign power* but not with the States It la a usurpation on the part of the Pre*id*ut ; th' President has n< thing to do with It. The President not only undert he* to nettle the qile*ti<in. bilt undertakes to surrender to Teas* nixty or neventy million* of property wlthoul asking the consent of the Congress of ihe f'tiied States. Mr Vinton wished to introduce n resolution to ki.ow whether the executive I* going t# surrender up all the territnr-. acquired to Texas Mr Ctsasx? Do I understand the gentleman to sag that the *o.l I* worth sixty or seventy millions * Mr. Mct'innwavD?I desire to ask a question D# ( understand the gentleman to say that th* President undertoo to d> termine the boundary between Tsxaa and New Mexico? Mr. Visitor?I undent and him to tell the autheritian of Ti ik* that their boundaries extended front tlM roouih to 'he source of the Rio (Jrande. Mr MoCi nunaivo f understand tie President to any the reverse; thel the settlement of the boundary halt ngs to Congress Mr Vivtov ssked for the reading of the porttaa of the noss'ige r> ferred to 1 he Cl?:s? read it, to the effect: " In anawep to the letter of the Governor of Texas by my direction, the N.rretery of State lofsrmed him. on the li of February. HMT. that in the President'! message of IMd. It was stated that in New Mexico a temporary solitary government wee set up and occupied It was merelf such a governmi nt which inuat exist under the U?saf war. and until the c-n -luslon of peace This reiailed firm necessity; It never prejndleed the righto of Texas hut. this Is a subject more properly bsdc aging M the legislative than to the executive branch of gaTet nment." Mr Vistos resumed ?Hs said tha' It wnsjust as ha had slated The lTe*lde?t uodagieeh tc vntanteer aa

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