Newspaper of The New York Herald, November 30, 1848, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated November 30, 1848 Page 1
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T H : NO. 5293. The Kminy Kemble Divorce Cn*c. Philidki phia, Not. 'iU. 1848. Tho Court adjourned yesterday before the armament of Mr. Mcrvdilh *11 ooneluded. This mora 111.? be ommeDced his remark by commenting upon the olr Iin..l.n....hlrh attended the writing of the la*t. let Ink. which were sent bj Mrs. Butler to Her husband, previously to her finally leaving his house. The of th??e letters represonts her eoalitloa such a) to render her situation unpleasant, and her life unhappy, And praying for an alteration. That letter remained nannwered for ten days. Finally, after writing again without, answer, she leavei- the house. declaring that tbe condition of her coming there had been violated. She i? not fallowed by any intimation from him that he thould return, nor wis her absence followed up by any offer to receive her back. It appears by the cases cited, that where a wife leaves her husband criminally?where the leaves in consequence of an offence not committed by tbe act of leaving, it l.-< the duty of the hnsbtnd not to leave her exposed to danger morally And physically; but here the offence ?on?lsted in the act of leaving; not merely leaving, bat ftttlMt bis will In Holland, Prussia, and o'hnr countries from which our system is derived, the husband is required to make an attempt to win back tha wifo who hfts deserted his habitation. During th? last ohabltatlon. the eoune of conduct of tbe li twllant was such. the position of Mr*. Uutler w/is no disadvantageous, and the elrcninstance* which surrounded her ro humiliation, that if they were short of legal cruelty, the? were such as to justify an iuferenee of legal indignity. aod justified her in leaving bit house In other word*, there are circumstances not anftlctent to authorise a divorce, but aufflglent to found allegations of dvfence. which may be set up in answer to a libel for divorce Here, they are sutllaient toeutitle her to a divorce, if she were inclined to peek on*. Mr?. holier allege* that she has been subjected to such cruelties and indignitiea as rendered her condition intolerable and her life burtbonaome. We are now told that the Knglish rnle must be adopted, and >tr!et eruelty proved - the cruelty which endanger* the life or person. But let ua apply ourselves to the act ot Atsembly upon which tbla proceeding la founded. It doea not cay that ; it aaye. absolutely, the reverse of that. We have gone from that state of judicial feeling which obtains in England, and which holds that nothing bnt a physical suffering is a cruelty. Wn hare adopted ti e belief, tbat in a civilized and enlightened oommunity, there are mental sufferings which are more painful than the most aggravated physical injury, llence, ourlaw recognizes thut there are circumstance which will render the condition intolerable, and life burtbenFome. There is a difference between an injury and an indignity In the advance of civilisation, the day has arrived when an indignity affecting the mind is considered more painful than the greatoat personal violence which could be offered We do notnndertake to show personal injuries to the respondent , but we show such circumstances of indignity as to render her life burthengcmu. We are not to repeal this pirt of the act of Assaemhly. What may bs (considered sn indignity to one, may not affect another.? There is a difference in the mind, and it is for a Jnry to find the fact, whether the condit'on of the respondent was such as to render her life intolerable and her condition burthensome. The Kng I ll?h court* now feel the pressure ot tne uocirine inac nothing but ? personal Violence is a oruelty. In Kifton Kifton. 1 Hagard. *59, they appeal to labor under the difficulty which makes it the doctrine of their law. that the Buffering person mart be beaten. In that cane tt is said that an attempt by the husband to debauch the female servant* in hin own house was a strong indignity to the wife. In the case of Durant vs Durant, same book and psgu. It is said that the untrue charge by the hmband ot a want of ehastity upon the part of the wife and turning her out of doors, which were not personal injuries, were strong circumstances of orue'ty. In D'Aigular vs. D'Aigular, In the same book, spitting in the wife's face by the husband was held to be a streng circumstances of oruelty. It is for such personal indignities that our aot of Assembly provides. The modern harsh form of the Knglish law is one fit for barbarous times, but is not fit for the present. The Knglish courts are nevertheless going back to that original state of the law thateiisted before the middle ages. The harsh and severe doctrine that nothing but personal violence is a cruelty, was one which sprung up in the interval of barbarism, when there was a retrogade from civillratlon ; between the time when enlightenment pervaded Kurope, and the time to which It is to b?? hoped we are returnlrg. It is said by the counsel f the Despondent, there are here no circumstances of cruelty. We are now told that all these circumstances are nothing; that It is nothing that the husbund should refuse to answer his wife's questions In regard to the disposition of his children, and turn away to read a newspaper; nothing to put a governess over her head, In the management, instruction, an 1 care of her nothing that she was placed In his house .atffw conditions?tbat she was not to speak of theaf' Ml of the house; not to see those on whose friendship tfh? had long relied; tbat she was not to see those whom be I6v#tf; nothing that wben she refused to renounce bef HgM to her dower, a matter which the law says jnust he ?0ne ?< of her own free will and accord, and without Meroion from her husband:"' she is told, "now, aio?* jvtf choore to interfere with my business, yon shall not ? to the Darby farm, where the children are " All these aets. we ar* told, are no indignities. and are sueh aa to render her condition tolerable, and undoubtedly pleasant. Is there no indignity in placing the wife at the same table, with no permission to speak to her husband, and constraining her to plane all her eomtnnnleatlona In writing ? All these elroumstanoes are sueh aa te render the condition of the wi'e intolerable, and are such as. under the act of Assembly, give bar a right to go before a jury. Mr. Meredith having concluded, the Court was addressed by the Hon. Rrrcs Choatk. for tbe resoondent, Mrs. butler lie spoke of the present condition of Mra. B , and the fact that in another and distant aominonwealth she found friends who are willing to aid and sympathise. To those friends she fled for shelter, and tbe severity of her afflictions was tuchat to induce them to assist her in this, the sharpeat trial of her life. It was nt the desire of her, and by those friends thought not undesirable, that there should be some oi.e engaged in the matter whose functions would be not to assist in the interpretation of modes of practice?not to instruct your honors in the law of this ancient Commonwealth?bat to oonvey to you some indication of thefeellugs cherished toward her by those to whom she looks alone for sympathy, in this tbe day of her adversity. An alien by birth, now a resident of another State, litigating in this court with a citizen of this State, her counssl will endeavor to show thst. In this case, her cause is just and that she has nothing to fear. I do not Intend to say any thing upon the local law. or any law which is not the same ' at Rome or Attica," and shall not atop to enquire whether we have here the form of the ecclesiastical law before or after the Reformation. The propositions to which I eball confine myself are easy, and my purposes humble. It Is to take the answer as laid before yoa, and I will Knbmit what I shall say upon that answer, taking It as it Is. supported by oath, and exhibits.and contradicted by nothing. I therefore propose to take up thesubstunae of the fact* in the answer, and the substance of the issue presented, and next what in the law applicable to thoee facta. I, therefore, am prepared to show that there has been no desertion of habitation of the husband, because. In the autumn of 1843. two years before that departure from the libelant's hour*, which is the ground of the present libel, these parties eatabl'shed such a relation between themselves?a relation, practically, of separation?a termination of the united life?which involved a lictnse each to the other, and certainly from the husband to the wife, to go whither she would, where she would, and when she would. We will show that there was no desertion, because, in November 1M3, the parties established this relation, which remained until the day that she tied from his habitation with a broken heart. We hold that there ha* been no desertion, an a matter of law ; because Mr*. Butler left by the express eoasent of h?r busherd. found In his express command that she would go We hold that the was licensed to go. by acts and declarations which were designed to leave her la no doubt that he dallied her absence. And we hold, Uktlv. that there was do desertion within the meaning pf the itnlute ; because we submit that she was justified in withdrawal by a course of indignities, ascendin* or desnendlrg. which tended to make her life burthenroue and Intolerable The agreement of October, 1643, elearly established the right of Mrs D. to go where and when she would, with a distinct intimation on his jatt, that he would rather she would seek any other roof than that which sheltered her children.? Coder curb conditions denrtion became Impossible. Xhll cotitipued until the moment of departure-, en tliat day in which she rcognjzed that rS?j con. JOfcal love had become e*Uli|t ji/ned ; by the terms of thai recognition the connexion ceased, and the relation came to an end. They were no longer to live together as husband and wife ; they were separated and parted, and there was an express authority to her to go whither ?he would. .Mr. Choate then read extracts from sotne of the letters passing between nivmlwrs of the Sedgwick family, and Mr. Hutler, In one of there, addressed to the latter, it Is said, "we understand that you have declared that If she wished to IIVl apart, JOU wnui'l 1II.IKIT liu uvjrvutiu. ..II UUIler fit}*, "it she wishes to life separate, I shall mak<> no opposition to her desire;-' and In another, ''I said she could live In thlj house or any other. I adhere to that determination, subject tu this condition, that she hall not go upon the s( age." .Mr. C. commented lengthily upon he circumstances of the ca*e set out upon the record, as applied to the position that the parties bad, by the separation, agreed that she should go when and where she would He then passed on to ma elimination of the arguments upon the point that lie ?a? commanded to go. and dedueed this from the circumstances attending his sending the children to the "farm.'' bla declaration that she should not aeeompany them. wh? n he knew that she l ad only ooino into the house in ord? r to be with them. When he deprived her of till", the only otytet which brought her there. It wan, in fact, taken in connection with the oiruumstance*, a command to her to leave his habitation In regard to the point of license, the circumstance* of tier final withdrawal were minutely commented upon When she announced that she was about to deprive him of that society which he ?hould hare held more prucious than all hut estates? when rlie announced to him that she was about to aithdiaw -not to >peaK ?as to be silent forever. ' He tl'at ran forbid, and not forbid, comnin n ls." |( he Krew she was about to go, and was silent. It was a fraud. That silence was a lice use. To furnish her the mean* of going wai au approbation ?>f her going. To furnish her mouey to Keep her out rif temptation when away, 1* prima facit a permission lor her to go. To tnppoee a husband who gives E "NE" MORN hid wife of abaence, can take advantage of tbo*n aeti, U to luppofa a mate of thtDKK which Urecogalned by 110 cotlaon thin side of the deserts of Algeria. The UUtlWim WUO RIDCllODB 1 Dt* HUtlKDOB U1 UU WHO, ujr such Mnetloa deprive* himself of tbe privilege of objecting. or before b* can maintain a proceeding for de- | sertion, inurt unequivocally demand ber return, a privilege whiob it seems this libellant does not desire. In regard to the question of cruelty, any matters which are injuries to feeling* ami sensibilizes, are cinelties The court will reject the doctrine that tba series of enormities so disgraceful. miserable and transcendant, whiob ar? digested and contained in these volumes of ecclesiastical law, must be suffered before a wife will be entitled to leave her bnsband. In enlightened Pennsylvania such doctrines cannot obtnin Indeed, although these reports are disgraced with them, thsy are not the law, even in F.ngland. In that country they do still pretend to reverence tbe barbarous doctrines which bave obtained In past age*. It is not for the judges silling in state, with ermine npon their gowns, and wigs upon their Leads, to dNrwgarl or show a proper want of reverence to the sages of tbe law They still hold in rerpeotall their maxims?they reverence tlwrn; but. they evade them. To get rid ot the difficulties which they feel as Christian men. by tbe pressure of doctrines inapplicable to civilization and enlightenment. they resort to a oourFe which is really whipping the unmentionable one round the stump They say tbe law l?, that hrfrffrnltles. Insults and lujuries. which have bren heaped upon tbe wife, short of violenco. are not itnfflcient to authorise a divorce; but they show a wicked animus en the part of the husband, so great as to prevent bis getting his wife back We say that, under the law of Pennsylvania such injuries to the feelinpsand rensibllities are indignities tending to render the wife unhappy, and her life borthensom* ; and we claim the right given us by the act of A**em uij. iii^iiiuk uriurr n i ninryi*miii? juiji 11* "rurr vu i miike out the acta of indignity which we have so coleninly averred [It it 'mpoBfible. in thin sketch, muc h of which had neresfarily to h? written whilst the argument waff proceeding to give any thing like a correct idea of the strength pf Mr.Choate> arguments.or the nervous power and beauty of his language Mis address was listened to. by an audience composed of the moat distiuguished members of the bar of Philadelphia, a bar wnlch it is boasted ia second to none in the Union. All present ?tre struck with admiration at the strength and brilliancy of Mr Cboate'a address, and the remark was general. ' If he speaks this way while addressing the court, what will he do when he get* before a jary."J Mr. Dallaa concludes the argument to-morrow. The HeeoffiiIIion of the Kepuhllr of Liberia by France and Knglanfl? [From the Coloniiation Herald.] It will be seen by the following extraots from the letters of our associate. that the expectations held out on a former occasion, as presented in our last number, have been realized in the moat satisfactory manner. The republic of Liberia Is now fully recognized by the governments of Franco and Kngland, Id terms of marked courtesy and cordiality, and accompanied by such offers of substantial aid as greatly to enhance the value of the aot. Throughout, President Roberta bns acquitted himself of bis arduous and responsible charge in a way to elicit and retain the highest opinion of his judgment and akiil In the minds of all those, both fonctionaries and others, with whom he has been brought in contact. The administration General Roberts will constitute an era in the history of Liberia, to which sue ceeding generations will look back with allowable pride. He who In timed punt, baa contributed, both as civilian and soldier, to the organization of the new State while a colony. and to expel the alave dealers and tbeir retainers, will not fail, now that he Is olothed with additional authority and reinforced by tj)e nhips of friendly powers, to sweep the entire coast of these worse than barbarians. The conduct of the F.nglish Government, by its frankly recognizing the new republio, we are bound in a spirit of common justioe. to say, gives proof of I the sincerity and ultimate good intentions which acI tuated it. when not long since the lommandTi of Kngllshrblps of war protested against the anomalous state f f things in Liberia as one to which they could not become parties. Baference is here made more eMMltDy to their refural to acknowledge the validity of the enforcement of certain home duties by the colonial authorities. The correspondence lietween Governor Roberts and"the Knglith commodore and captain on that occasion, was. of course, read in Down- | ing street and must have prepared l.ord Palmerstou to receive the envoy of the new republic with a consideration due to his acknowledged diplomatic ability end his recognised position among his countrym?n. The pleasure which the intelligence we now communicate ha* caused among the philanthropic in the I'nited States, is alloyed by the reflection that our government did not anticipate the action of both France and F.ngland It Is the first it is true, to send a consular agent (Dr Lugenbeel) but a more distinct formal acknowledgment was due to the young State, whioh has derived its being and been nurtured in Its infancy through the untiring efforts of American citizens; and In whose behalf sympathy has been offloially declared to he felt in the letters of Secretaries of State at Washington, (Messrs. I'bfbur and Webster.) and by the then resident Minister at St. James, (Mr Kverett). We shall not refer to. nor animadvert on the prejudices which have interfered with a plain, manly, and national course of conduct, because we believe that they must jleld to the force of truth, embodied in the shape of lucrative commerce adorned by benevolence. For onre in the history of the world the two races will now reciprocate, to tbeir mutual advantage, kind offices and snbstamtial services, without misoonception of motives. or future embarassment to either October 12 1848?President Roberts has returned from Paris, where he effected with the French govern ment all be desired? the full and complete acknowledgment of the independence and sovereignty of the republic of Liberia This act was done by the French government In the meat complimentary and liberal manner, and orders have been given to the French naval commander on the coait of Africa, to put at President Roberts' disposal two or three ships of war. whenever he want* to go up on an expedition, to put down barTscoons and break up slave trading parties, and otherwise promote the Interests of humanity upon the coast of Africa. It Is truly wondt-rfal bow successful Mr. Roberts has been. The most tklllful diplomatist would have considered himself fortunate. under ordinary circumstances, in effecting in fix or eight months what Mr. Roberts has accomplished in as many days. He ray*:?Mr. <Jea. W. Lafayette, ron of the old Ueneral, was most indefatigable and Incessant in hii efforts to serve him; and it is mainly owing to him that he succeeded so fully and 10 early. Kver affectionately yours, GERARD RALSTON. Ortoiier 26, 1848. My Dkab Kmrm-I am very happy to inform you tbat President Roberts has procured the acknowledgment of the independence and sovereignty of the republic of Liberia by the British government, which has been granted In the most free, liberal, and comflimentary manner. It Is Impossible that it could ave been done in a more gracious manner, except, possibly, the French government may have done so, iPBFmuch as it anticipated the British government by a few days. But It must bo acknowledged, In justio to the British government, that Lord Palmerston assured Mr Roberts, before he left here for Paris, that there would not be the slightest difficulty about recognition?tbat he might go over to Paris with the full understanding that when be returned he would find the act accomplished-signed, sealed, and delivered? In short, be might oonslder the thing as done. Lord Palmerstcn bas been as good as bis word Mr. Roberts is now engsged in negotiating a treaty of commircewith this government. He showed to George '1 hompson and me. last night, the draft of tbe treaty in tbe handwriting of Mr Labouuhere, the President of the Board ol Trade. The treaty is a moet liberal one? bated on perfect equality and reciprocity between the two States? Great Britain and Liberia Mr Roberts thinks In a very few days more this treaty will be signed, I tealed, and drli>ertd abo. aud then be will be ready to i go tack to Liberia, having succeeded entirely in ths ! srcomplifhoient of the objects which brnuglit him to K.niope. Lord Palmerston told bim, tbat a portion of tie liritirh squadron should l>? employed to assist bim in putting down the accursed slave trade. I have slrer.dy informed you tliat Wen I'avaignac as<uredhim that order* thould be sent out to the commander of the F rench squadron on the Coast of Africa, to aid him j (resident Robert*) by a'l possible means In suppress: lug the slave trade. Bktchji of r?;,ii>k>t Roman.?We learn from Mr Haiston, is will be seen in the subjoined extract of a letter to Mr f'resson. tbat President Roberts is probably now on his way to Liberia Vou will recollect that I introduced Mr Roberts to Mr. Ssninel Gurney. This geutleman has introduced him to a house that trades with Afilca. which will most probably prepare a cargo of merohandiMe suitable for the Liberia markets, and thus give to Mr. II. and his two ladies a free passage htm*. Thus you see Mr. Roberta is enabled to accomplish every thing that Is defirable He has been eminently successful in Kurope. I am mortilled, beyond measure, that he wassounnuc1 c?*i-ful Vith the American uovernment. and that he wa* ob'.lged to leave thd I'nited Stated without the tuktowlt dement of the government to the Independhicb of Liberia. IIoRBini.K Murder and Rohukrv.?The St. .Totsejh (Mo.) Gazettt, of tlic 10th inst., givea th<following account of the horrible murder of no eateeincd <fl!cer of the army, and hi* family"Justas we were gcitig to pre?*, we received information that M?jor Slryer, Paymaster of the U. 8 army.wa? murdered and robbed, in Saline county, a few day* elnoe He had in hie po??e**inn f 160 000. and wan on hi* way to the up! per part of this State, to pay the volunteer* their three i month*'extra pay. Hid wife and *i*'.er-in law were in I company with him, who were aleo murdered. It is *uppot-ed they were mnrd< red by the noldler* who were acting ?* an e.-ccrt " Jin < ovtraire. the St Louis Krpublican of the 10th *?y* : W'e arc satisfied. from a conversation with a oltiiien tiom the tippt-r part of thi? State, that the report which we published yesterday, of the murder cf Major Singer and hi* family, In Sailna county, I* Incorrect. The report coming to u* In the St. Joseph f fan lit. I* alt'g*ther too round aboot a way to give it any plausibility. The fame paper *aid, on the 18th: On making *om? 1 d i <11rv last night, we learned that such a report wa* prevalent at Lexington *ome day* ago. It probably originated In the ract that Major S. deviated from the rcute which he had originally proposed, and failed to make hi* appearance at certain places appointed for the payment of the tfcops. W ?0 ING EDITION?THUB The California (Johl Region. [Krom the Baltimore Sun | WiiiiiNoTo*, NOT. 20, 1848. It ia reported. with truth and reason 1 believ* tb*t Colonel Mason, of the army, commanding our forces in California, ban a? nt an official acoount of the extraordinary gold and quicksilver minei of Califtruia to the Secretary of War and that fiuailar accounts from officers in th? navy have recently reached the Secretary of the Navy. The previous reports that all other kinds of buaineaa. except digging for gold is deserted, ia coniirmed, and the extraordinary price of (lour which ia said to have riacn to $50 a barrel, maintained to the lateat period. Solid lumps of g*ld have b?en found, equal to f 4 000 in value, or almost as large as those found on the White Hall eatat? of Maj"r Ileiss. in Virginia The mine*. with the exception of the propmty be longing to Meatra. Korbea & Suter. are on tbe publio landa of the territory, and their value la, I believe, estimated at a thousand millions of dollara ! From this, of course. an equally enormous discount mu?t be made. (Sold and silver, like everv other nroduct of the noil. requires labor and if tbat labor, as in stated in the acceuuts, in now remunerated at the rate of $'J0 a d*y, t h? profits even of tbere wealthy mines mu?t be limited. Alexander Von Humboldt has proved thut the poor silver mlcea of Saxony are more profitable than the rich silver mines of MexU.0, furnishing the silver dollar 16 cents cheaper than it can be furnished in Mexico. Tfce (told region of California Is said to extend on both rides ot the Sierra Nevada and to embrace u surface larger than tbat of the State of New York If tbeee dWcoveries are really of the importance these statemmts lead us to infer, they will probably be embe died In the reactive reports of the Secretaries of the Army and Navy, as otherwise Congress itself will institute the inquiry, and demand a it account of them. It Is indeed a strange and mysterious fast, that while all other countries are involved in great national disasters, every thing seems to prospor in the I nited States, bath in war and in peace, aud in our foreign and domestic relations. If the above accounts, which resemble, In more than one resjact, the Arabian N'ghts' entertainment, are correct the Governorship of California may prove to be a more desirable appointment under Ucn Taylor than a membership of his cabinet, and some " di*in tererted" politicians will, no doubt, insist on the removal of lien. Lane. Col Jefferson Davis is already mentioned in connection with that appointment, too, but it it> thought by many that Gen. Taylor will insist on bavint at least one intimate, private, personal friend in his cablnct, and that friend is Col Davis. Washington, Nov 25. 1848. I learn that highly important and <nteresting dispatches have just been received by the War Department. from California. In relation to the gold region of California. The facts communicated justify the opinion tbat the region is remarkably rich and productive of the precious metal. The documents will be laid before Congress among thoee accompanying the President's mesi-sge. The progrwa of settlfinent in California will be very rapid. Besides the population which will rssort to it for maratitne purposes adventurers will be attracted in great numbers, by the unparalleled richness of the mineral districts. Already, as 1 It-am from some gentlemen who have jut.t arrived here from Mexico,arrangements hare l>?en made by a coirpany of New Yorkers to build up a city at San Diego; acd it la supposed that the speculation in lot*, to will be very brisk. Refore the next Congress will hare done talking nfcrut a bill to establish the territorial government of California, the people of California will be ready to demand admission, as a State, into the Union. They will have the requisite population in two years, and it is provided by the treaty with Mexico that they shall come into the Union Cm Ions Lellrr from Ex-tiovcrnor Seward. [From the Albany Journal ] Ai hvrn, August 20, 1848. My Dear Sir?On my arrival here this morning, after spending two weeks in Livingston and Seneca counties, I had the pleasure of finding your letter of the 2.'!d inst. The contents of that communication excited my surprise. Having happened to be in Albany two week* ago. or perhaps three, Mr. Weed showed me a letter frcm you, containing the agreeable information that the political discontents in your county had subsided, and that the whigs were rallying to the standard of the cause. Yonr letter to me is so fnll of despondency, that it makrs me hope it proceeded from only a depression of spirits, naturally enough produced by the Inappropriate and unseasonable letters of our candidate for President. In th? whole State there are scarcely any persons In wbese correct! ess of judgment upon political questions 1 rely with more confidence than on yours, Judge 's. or Mr. 's. I shall deem your apprehensions worthy of profound consideration, if you con tlnue to indulge them for any period of time Out you will excuse me for raying, on my part, that I do not find reason to distrust the success of our candidates in this county, and especially in this State, In the events which are passing before us. I peroeive, as you do. the mischievous effects of the letters to which you refer. But I sin obliged to acknowledge that I expect the disorganization of the locofoco party will In some degree Impair our own organisation. I fear, alfo, that tlere may be some districts where this evil msy jeopard or otherwise ruin local ascendancy. Yet, on the other hand there seems to me no room for doubt that tbo state of things so peculiar will result In giving to our candidates in this State a very large majority I over each of the opposing candidate*?while in other State* tbe reantt will be the came where circumstances are similar, and quite as favorable where they are different. If you answer me that these local losses crtnnot be borne, I reply that, in the first place, they must be prevented, if porsible; and. is the next place, they are quite certain to be balanced by gains elsewhere. I have the pleasure to add. on this subject, that so far as my communications extend I And our fliends engaged with leal, and with certain confidence of suoCMT. For more than ten years past, I have looked to tbe day of ripening of conscience on the subject of slavery, to which you refer, and bave endeavored t? do wbatwasinmy power to prepare the whig party to p? fit by it. not for mere personal or partisan ends, but for tbe benefit of tbe country and humanity. You Vnow that every concession to or for slavery by the whig party, fcr tea years pant, has been a triumph over us. But there are two things, neither of whioh I can ever do The one is. to share the responsibility of any such concession ; tbe other is. to oppose a candidate of the national whig party. All the whlgs of N?w York (to whom I owe so much) could not oblige or induct me to do one or tbe other of these acts. Any other dnty tbey may require at my hands, will be cheerfully rendered. I bave abiding faith that the whig party will be succrseful in tbe State, and in the nation, thi? fall. I bave abiding faith that this success will favor tbe non-extension of slavery. But even If we should fail of success now, I abate not a particle of my confidence that all that is ever to be done for freedom must originate with the whig psrty, and. in point of practicability, must be anoomplishedby it. Very respectfully, your friend, WILLIAM H. SEWARD. Hie Fliiancn ol' AiiNtrltt, and the llotlixrtillda. [Correspondence of the Baltimore Sun ) Washington, Nov. 2h, IAK In 1833 a new 5 per cent loan of forty millions of florins ($30,000,000) wus made by the faur houses, Gevmuller, Rothschild, Armstein, and Lsktles, (of which (he former, in 1842, broke all to piece*:) the debt then amounting to 774,(KK),000. or $387,000,000. A new loan was made bv th?* same houses in 1835, amounting to 30,000,000, or $16,000,000, besides a forced loan of the bank amounting to $5,000,000. A lottery loan of 25,000.000, or $12,*00,000, had already been made in 1834, payable in IbCO, and another Was made in lsilfl1 oobistins of 30,000,0< 0 florins, or *15,000,000, ...r, lv.-n Tli?' whole debt of AiMriu, national and provincial, it mounted in 1C|2, to !M2,000,000 flonns, or j:-l71,0C"M,CKX)? inclusive of the loan made on the iJ-'ih July, 18-11, the interest of which is not to be reductd before the year Since 1812, new loans have become necessary to mett the interest due on the old one*, and the I expenditures of *.iie State have continued to mI cr< nee. Since the commencement of the last Polish revobiticn, the Austrian credit was mainly upheld by the Rothschilds and in Vienna and Finnkfort; but the revolutions in France, Italy and Germany have a^ain doubled and quadrupled the expenditures, and dimiuiihed the revenue by tl.e almost complete ttagnation of trade and niaDtfietttN. It the Emperor returns to a city in tubes, which up to that period had hern distinguished by the loyalty of its inhabitants, lie will find neither wealth nor courage to give value to hisnooeftions. His Mctory ban sealed thr fate ol nis dynasty and of Ausiria. Vienna was the central power of the liuce conglomerate of nation* forming the Austrian Umpire, and with its fall the cohesive atti action of the provinces is gone forever. Windithgrntz is in Vienna : but how will the Kniperor pay his troops ! Alas, poor Rothschild ! Arfairs at tuk Wkst ? C'apt. Belger. Assistant ljuatler Master U. S army, arrived at this place last night, en route to Tort Learenworth, with a tr?ln of 1.2U0 mules- government property Capt. John Benge. prosecuted for the murder of Uearge Held*, wan tried In Skin IJayon district. last week, and acquitted. Mirt. Benge and Tom Starr were In this place on Sunday night, the <!id uit . and - *<? I the river into the nation They were not recognized noon enongh. or they would have been arrested by

romeof our citlrens,? Fort Smith (.Irk.) Htrald, Nor 8. High Freight.?Tlie low stage of the Missouri I has caused a very considerable advance in the rrlce of transportation and freights on that river. Whi at I* now charged from .16 to 10c. per bnnhcl. and pound freight $1 per 100 pound*, from Any point above I Glasgow to this city The steamer Mustang arrived yesterday, with very little cargo. Her officer* Inform us that they refused freight at these prices, la conrequeue* of there being hardly sufficient water In the channel for them to come out with the little they already had on board,?.Sf .Lewi's Rrjiubtican, .Ve< A). 1 , ? >RK E 1SDAY, NOVEMBER 30 I [Mr. RurltlngtiMni'a U'tlure on the MI<I?II? Age*. Mr Licickbter K A Bi'cKinr.HAMdellvered.onTuaiiday at Clinton Hall, the third lecture of his course ! on literature, learning and religion in the middle ages. The highly farcrable impression produced by the pre ceding leotures. evidenced Itself in the augmented number of the auditory present on this occasion. and the intense interest with which the lecturer wns listened to. aad the warm applaud) which greeted him, wheal e cono'uded, pare ample proof of the gratification afforded by his discourse. Having discussrd, in the last lecture, the means which existed for the pro. ductlon of books in tfce middle ages, and tfce labors of the monks in their multiplication, Mr. Buckingham proceeded to oonsider their exertions In the dlssemina" tionof knowledge, and the nature of tbe facllitieg which then existed for the diffusion of education among the public. He notioed the statement cf Hallam, that the church placed no restrictions on the ordination of illiterate persona : and proved, by the citation, of the decreet* of vai ricuH councils, that tbl* assertion Is wlinily in- i accurate, and that the most careful vigilance i ! was exercised to secure the possession of a competent i ghare of learning by those who were admitted to the I pr'.ettbood. The obligation of learning was equally ] Incumbent upon the monks The various monastic , i rulf h declared moat emphatically that knowledge was a iiualiticat f>n indispensable to those who assumed the ' i habit ('f religion ; and many incident* recorded in I j monastic history prove that the rule thus pre?crih'd , 1 was constantly and rigfrously enforced. The stand: ard of literary excellence, too, was then fur higher 1 I than we have been accustomed to snppise; and those 1 i who fulfilled tho requirements embodied in mona^tio , ' rules and canonical decrees, must hive arrived at a , high degree of Intellectual cultivation. In reference ; to this point, Mr. Buckingham noticed some of the < 1 false htateiixnts put forward by various modern hW- , i tcrians with regard to the monks and clergy of the middle ages, and clearly demonstrated their entire 1 I opposition to historic truth. Dr. Robertson has 1 declared that, from the seventh to the eleventh cen- , tury. the clergy were so Ignorant that they oould not , r? ad the Breviary; the fact being that the Itreviary ItFelf did not then exist, having been compiled about j tfceendofthe eleventh century; and ample evidence j remaining to snow that not only the power of reading, but the possession of a very extensive amount of 1 knowledge-ar*d Dr. Henry, as an illustration of episcopal ignorance, has recorded a very funny story concerning the blunders of Meinivero, Bishop of Pader- J borer, every word of which is proved to be false by a simple reference to the writer whom he as hii authority; while the Bishop himself ii prored to have been a man of considerable learning, agenerous patron of education, a liberal founder of schools, and a warm eocoursger of learning in all within the oircle of big influence In answer to the assertion constantlv rtlt erated, that the monkewere not learned, Mr. Hacking- , ham proceeded to draw attention to two cirenmstancos, bavit>g an importantEbearing upon this division of the 1 ?ubjeet. In the first place It must not lie forgotten that ( the monasteries were not originally established to serve as academies of human learning They were designed ' rather for purposes of religion and charity, than for 1 the promotion of education ; and the monks would , have been guilty of no deviation from the rule of their founder*, if they had been as little veraed in secular knowledpe aa haa been assarted by their antagonist*. ' And In the second place, it must b? remembered that 1 the views of learning prevalent among the monks I were very different from those which are accepted at the present day. The classics. which are now so highly esteemed, and an acquaintance with whioh is regarded as an Indispensable part cf a learned education, were ; looked upon by them with aversion; they deemed them not only useless, but pesltlvely pernioious In their tendency; and they neglected them altogether, that they might devete their time and energies to other mutters, of far greater interest and importance. But that the monks did really encourage learning, according to tbe views which they entertained of Its real character, Mr. Buckingham clearly demonstrated by a lucid and eloquent review of a few of tbe facts attested by the records of authentic history. In every monastery, there was almost invailably a Fchool for the education of youth.? In tha eatllest monaatie establishments, founded by St. l'aehomeus, this was a prominent feature ; and in later ages, this custom was everywhere rotalned and encouraged and contnended by the canon* as a nanet laudable and necessary praotlee. In all these monastic schools, eduoaticn was gratuitously afforded to all who sought It ; ami the monaatie libraries were freely open to the public, and students were permitted not only to rtad the books in the libraries, but also to convey them to their own homes. The parish priests, too, were instructed to reeeive all children whom the parents might desire to commit to their charge for education, and to train them in all useful knowledge ; and they were strictly prohibited from demanding any payment for this instruction. There were many other ' schools, too. besides those In the monasteries ; not only ' cities and towns, but even the smaller hamlets, appear to have possessed such establishments ; and Tope Alex. Ill directed the French bishops to prevent the teachers of these schools from making any charge for tuition, since knowledge ought to be freely given to all who > sought it. Tbe universities ware well supported; many : of them boasted a number of students, which presents a nio?t striking contrast to their present condition; and the clergy and temporal rulera exerted themselves, both by precept and by praotleal action, in promoting the spread of knowledge among the people?founding colleger, endowing schools, becoming themselves teach ers, and inculcating upon those under their sway the uiii^cui> ^uinum ui icsfuiug. a Duaoiuima, IVir DUCKIngham noticed the objeetions mad* by Mr. Hallatn and Dr Henry to this favorable view of the means of education In the middle ages. Mr. Hallam asserts that the schools were exclusively religious; but an examination of their hlstorv shown that the course of education pursued In them embraced a vast variety of branches of secular knowledge, and Dr. Henry affirm* that learning did not promote the advancement of those i who possessed it; bat a reference to the page* of his own . history affords numerous examples of the attainment I of dignity, in both church and State, on account of ' I superior learning ; and such instances are abundant in the history of toe middle ages. We have been, of course, able to present only a bare outline of the view* maintained in Mr. Buckingham's lecture ; It would be vain to attempt to place before our readers the vast 1 < amount of curious evidence by which he sustained his various propositions. The testimony which he adduced v?? clear and convincing, and amply demonstrated the accuracy of his conclusions ; and those who lis- j | tent d to his able and eloquent lecture will be Inclined hereafter to nolle at the stale denunciations of monk- I iih darkness and Ignoranoe which have been hitherto so much in favor with a certain clats of fanatical and ' ' ill-informed historians. On Friday eveuing. Mr. Buckingham will proceed 1 I to the consideration of the dlffution of the scriptures J in the middle ages, a point upon which his views aro as much opposed to popular prejudice aa on the other questions which he has already discussed. There- | ligious public will feel, we sre assured, much curiosity to hear the evidence by which It is proposed to prove that, in the middle ages, the Bible was assiduously , studied by the monks and clergy, and rendered by them accessible to the people; and the philosophical ! student, cnunot fall to be gratified by the dUoussion ! cf a question of so much Importance, as affecting our views of the character and position of our ancestors. ' Mr. Buckingham bus already shown that he la a per- > feet master of the subject whioh he has undertaken to treat; and we shall look with much curlHslry to 1 bis tuocess in demonstrating the poiltions which he | is to maintain on Kr'dsy evening. Kevtnth of Canada.?The Canada Uizctlr of the iMh uiftant furnixhes an abstract ol the returns of the ftross tevenue for the year ending October 10, 1*48. The following table will oompare the result with tint of the preceding year 1847 1848. Quarter ending Jan. & $52X000 $?17 472 Do. Apl. 6 1C4 741 316.640 Do. July 5 854 Ofll <r.9,04'2 Do. Oct. 10 734.933 663 455 Total $2 312 718 $2,045620 ! Decrease In 1848. $2fi6 180. cf which amount $2:11.404 was in falling ell in the receipts of the custom-bous*. Ci.osino of nir. Can/i.s ? During th>- list seven years the canal has closed but once as late as Dei-ember 1st, and that was la*t yesr. Judging from the of tl>? weather At present, it will be later in fr?tr/ij ing tlit? J< ar thHn it was liit. Yesterdav wan clear ami ple?Mi?t. and one or two boat*, heavily loaded ! with p< rk. cleared for New York A boat loaded aith | flcur cletred for Alhany on Sunday ? freight 75 cents tier bbl if it sot through and at the rati) of cents j it'it failed to do so, A la>'ge majority of the hoa?? have j ' rtcpp<d rucnirg and art reeking for comfortable mr>< rin<? f r the winter It Is possible that the wateis may not frcett for a week to come, ami those bents that cletred jt>terd?y may get through. tbou/h | ; it is hazardous to ship produce at thin late kiiiio 1 he weather yesterday was far uioie favorable than for ! ftvual dajs preyioufi. i The packets on the F.rlc and <!cncs'ee Valley canals here stopped running; They made th?lr lan trio on Saturday, aud yesterday they were put into a condii tlcn to go into winter quarters, with the exception of tie little beat Ihatruns to Brockt'ort and llolley. , : ahich will con'.iuue to make it< regular trip* until | the canal free***. The reason that has juet cloned j lis* been a prosperous one for all the line* of packets ?unrir g to and Ir m thin city at lea?t we should jn.lge so by the number of travellers have ohosen that mode of conveyance, The boata^nd their captain* * ill c? ma out in the spring thoroughly recruitai and r ady for another" brilliant season llochHttr ,1m., I Not M. Cibeat Fihr at Hiooii?ipo*T.?We learo from the Mtiytrillt Herald ol ilie 21st inst., that a de' structive fire occurred at lligglneport. Brawn county, i Ohio, on Tuesday night last, which burnt five building', and the oontents of one "tore entirely and of another partially. It caught In the stora of KUIott, Gardner * < o The other store was owned by Mr. Andersen. Entire low probably $11000. of which *3.0u0 w?r lafured o? Messrs L, O. h Co. (took. [ERA , 1848. Cltv N?w?. I I thk rirr. points.? ikktch or a hoc-tub* ai. intro. i l DVCTIO"! TO THE ORC.IKH OP THAT KAUIlOl RO Of IIADKR. ] " Betterdwell in tlio ltiiilnt "f ?In nun, j ! Ttan reign in t'lia horrible place." In hid conversation* upon the rock of St. Helen*, Napoleon, on one occailon, recurrimr to his native If land of Corsica, remarked tl at hi- knew It to well that, blind-folded, be could walk over It io any dlrec- i tlon. An observing traveller, with a tolerable nose, i ' after a mon'h's ?ojoorn in Oothain, could, at noon of a day in .Inly, just as readily identify, in a rapid drive, with his eyes bandaged md his ears hermetically i sealed, hi* Invasion and evacuation of the Five Points, by the mnelltheugh the streets of N.*w \ ork are nowhere as dellciouRly aromatio ?s the winds from the Spine Islands. At noon, or In the afternoon, of a mid-summer's day, with literal justice, Orange street might exclaim " Oh, my ofTenea Is rnnk? It smells to Heaven." Csrtfullg of garbage emptied into the gutters, already tilled with the filthiest fluids. are, by the action of the urn after a thorough stirring by the pl^s, reduced Into a Bert of pulp, ot the color of turtle soup which' seething, bubbling, fermenting and exhaling in the Intense heat, dllTuseR in the surrounding atinos phere a. stench most execrable and revolting Here ?nd there a capacious grunter lies broadside, bankng In the genial blaze, and luxuriatinK in the (lime. ever and anon turning the wet .81 lo up. | ifhicb. as seized by the evaporation, renders him but j limiy visible In a cloud of steam, firoups of living ca | | [features of humnnity, bloated, blistered, ra^ed and | ' 'eabby, mildewed and grenfy. half ins^uo, or semi- I ' diotlc, line the ragged side walks: and th" doors al' ! open. dl.'close at every step shackling shelves, full of Ucoholic poisons, cellar* populous with specinw ns of 1 Iving pntrefaetion. and stair-cases hideous In their > | Bit by blackness, leading to dingy dormitories, whoie *ir is ranoid from the contagion of filth and disease and 'rem which often a rough ooflln comes down at nightfall, with the decomposing ruins of some poor wretch in it, caking rocm fer some other wrutch to crawl up md die among the contagious ra^s in the vacint corner. Occasionally, In the feculent slime of the gutter, , Kome inflated termagant, oblivious in beastly beatitude I from excessive potations of the vile acrid gin obtained at the next door, lies perchance hea ls and tail" with a venerable and well-behaved porker, and an dead as her companion to all sense of the jeers of the drunken negroes, discussing the oharms o' the sleeping beauty. The children that crawl out Frem their sepulchral holes underground, or that creep Jown from their mephitic cage* from the diseased aud I dying in the garrets, rickety, saald-headed scorbutic, or Jropslcalare equally the caricatures of their generation, , I.Ike plants which are sprouted in a charnel-houre, they > draw their brief existence from corrupting bones, and ' lie in the thick darkness which ushered them into life. Their first words are profanity; their earliest sports are inhibitions of their wretchedness, to extort a penny , from the passing stranger, or (if a precocious sagacity In ctime. Tnere are but few to be seen, and the inquiring i visiter might It am the plot of some dai k talo of shame | acd desertion in the history of most of them. Perhaps the mother of that scald headed boy is the besotted i widow of soire drunken emigrant who died on Black- , nell's IMand; and that shadow of a little girl, whose _ opthalmi ' eyes can scarce endure the twilight, may be i the daughter of some confiding damsel lured from her father's cottage in the ountry. and driven by shame i and despair to cross the threshold where i.'eath follows , cloee upon the initiation?where the horrors of exist- i ence too often drive its victims to hasten its dissolution ?where all the pictured agonies of eterral perdition are overwhelmed liy the actual terrors and the foul discords of the palpable fiends and furies that surround them Horrtbie. Indeed, the scenes from which the victim plunges into eternity, with the hope that even In Its direst punishment there can be nothing worie to encounter' Look at this (iolgothaof the Five Points?look at this place of skulls, these barracks of Potters Field, in the light of day, and it would appear that the sun were as unwelcome and strange to the scene as to a cavern wnere oars ana owis ana nan torpid reptile* bad for ages occupied it in uninvaded darkness. The dingy. grimmed,and decrepid shanties. squeezed into each other by the comprising wall*, and Handing only because they stand together?the dark hole* under ground? the wretched.elusters of mocking misery that ?warm in them to overflowing?the brothel*. the groggenes. the old elo\ the place for drugs. and the depot of ready made coffins, all in ominous conrenience to fHch other?the reeking pefctllcnce in the streets, and the constant brawls of blaspheming thieve* tbat nwell in chorus from the cellar*, depict the locality aud its bideou* society and association* a* thing* to whloh the day is an intruder, and the light of the sun an abstraction of thus much time from the biminess of the place. For object* but little leu despicable than the scenes ixrtrayed, the ' mysteries" of New Vork have been harped upon till even the moat morbid appetites are surf-lted. Yet the greatest mystery to a stranger.ln passing throngh the Points by daylight, is the mystery of their exemption from a fire sweeping them from the face of the earth Over a space of peihaps a hundred acres, the buildidg* crowded together to sutTooation are as combustible as powder, and tilled with materials a* inflammable ; they swarm with a riotous and drunken population, who. cot unfrequently falling asleep In their straw, with their pipes lighted, ret fire to it, or igriteit by scattering their candles Into it in their nightly ?*reu?als. Vet the inhabitants, in seeming defiance of all tbelawg C.f ?afety, ?re exempt from eonflsgration, wbile whole squares of ftre-pr?"'<ul?"0M consumed in other quarters of the city. Strange as this exemption may appear, we think the reason is rhvious. A portion of the inhabitants of every cellar, room or garret, on the Points, are always awake?a number of them are always in the streets. They thus form?not from organization, but from the accidents of necessity? a corps of sentinels, at all hours and at all seasons ; and if some miserable creature set* fire to the straw, as she falls into her torpid sleep, there are. from want of room to lie down, several of the hybrid family yet awake to extingnish it. Thuv the demoralt/.- 1 leg excesses whi'-h are the ruin of the deplorable population of this infected district, are. in one j respect at lea?t, the secret of their protection A suggestion for the public good Is never out of place. 1 There is a projeot on foot for an enlargement of the Battery at a heavy expense to the Corporation A far better exp< client for the public benefit would be the purchase of the sink of the Five Points, and its conrersion Into a public square of fifty or a hundred sores. A margin on the four sides, sold out in lot* for t[ stores, etc.. might half redeem the cost* of the enter- I prize; but the contribution to the health and charuoter of the city would compensate it for the outlay he- | ?ond an; estimate of expenditure. But our purpose n this instance Is to tell of a nocturnal visit to the { Toints. Ore Saturday evening, not long ago. escorted by Captain Mangus, of the police, (for whose kindness we extend him our hearty thanks.) three respectable looking men might have been seen at about ha'f-past ten P. M . making a descent from the Tombs into the i oidif i uur wtnfr, me wutiffl nierimnmi'nt. as a comparatlye stranger to the " mysteries and miseries" of toe Kmpire city, tbe expedition wax organized wan one of the trio Oar guide observed It win not ?ery good night for tbe visit. an tbe revellers were all compelled to bang up their fiddle* at twelvo o'clock, from a regard to the Sabbith, farced upon thecn by the municipal authorities; whereas, on any other night in tbe week. "Tiny dan>I'd all night Till b'r?(d daylight, And slept on the gin iu the morning." Pn*?lcg into Orange street. our conductor knocktd at a blind d< or In a blind recess, and his "open sesame" i at cnee unhered us. by the black janitor, into the sanoturn of IV te Williams's assembly rooms. Pete Is defended from tbe pure African race; but has all the eas?, grace of carriage, and courtesy to granger*, of an accomplished danoing muster. 'Walk in. gentlemen; glad to see jou captain.'' Pete, perhaps, was actlrg the diplomat, and told any thing but the truth, In bis pleasure at this meeting. There were fifty or sixty negroes and mulatto?* in the room, of both fexes, and a down white men of th< cla?s of'thi b hoys," rngsged in the sports of the evening ? tho b'bojs nionoprliclcg the best looking of the colore 1 w?nctes in the d nee. An orchestra of three Kthiojesn musicians, on a platform, did up the iuusIg to (rder. The company were orderly?all suflloiently lolitr to lecogcine the guardian of the pease, snd tbe importance of showing clT to ad- i \autnge In Lis prtsecce. in dread of the ?? laVocfe. They appi are 1 to be in high glee; and when a slender young buck, Hill Ccolle. m? called ! fore nrd for a br?ak-d'>n n, the movem-nt wa? un nl- | mruft to Bitke way tor him and hi* wonderful "tiperiority In the multifnrlou* gyration* of the double-iinufH* He continued ft.r lialf an hour, to the utter emaseii.f nt if (lie crowd, to ply hi* feet upon th>- tlo >r with the rapidity of n French drummer b?atlni the ?a/>//e/; and when b<> tini*h*d with 'grand flourish, in whirh hi? Itg* were invisible in the duat. he ?u *r?etej by Mich exclamation* a? 1 He Lord, e.hile,how h? lling* hit boo:a to de flJdle"' D - n (rood:" 'Oit> de boy i toine licker." But tbere appeared to b? no llijunr in ; i Ibe cawrn. In a rece*a, lignted by one tallow candle, rat an old negro before a table, rattling hi* dice or?r 1 f a *wrat cloth, free to all corner*. Our compuny went in and harardrd a few centa upon the figure*, and the | aonchalence with whicli the old C'on^o *wept the Make* Into hi* baaket betrayed him a cool practltion-r at the game. The tllmnri* of hi* tre-nuty however, , *bowcd that he ?ti doing but a fmnll hu*lne** In the j retail way, the money market In the l'olnt* hein^f ftl- >] way* remarkably tl*ht Pete William* * a?*ejibly j room*, It muat be recollected, comprehend the aril , tocrtcy of the i/vanitr, wbo, although vile women and | 'kulking tbie*?* are y. t abo?e the meanne** i f rot)- j blng a atranger by a cmftlu^l a*?anlt In the btl'. roam especially with an cfflcer of the polio* present to defend the Intruder. I Kr< m the *ubterranean aaloon of the polit* Peta William*, we pa**ed Into several deua redolent of the i fame* of bald faced gin. onion*, and tobacoo. where I L D. TWO CENTS. (Toapn of bloaUtd whlttt wiunni, moitly from their brofrue. th? outcast* of th? oi l world w?r? MtMng noting th*lr el?y plp??, and 'ji?t wait'iitf my d?r inn. lur ji i" ouuui m mia iiirniK mm? ' Some of them had their eyes bunged up and bl?~kened Br their swollen featurei ?eratched m t awfully, or their raga half torn offth-ir discolored limbs or their disfigured mouths bleeding from the fracture of th? two or three remaining una#* la their j?w? la "una fierce encounter with other tigresses who bad fire 1 no better Their charms, such a* they were, were offer*! to their distinguished visiters with such art?) of ft Kuaeioo at but made them th? more repulsive and revolting and particularly if the eves of tha oftl -?r # rw for a moment diverted from their shooking blaudiahmenfs nnd ridiculous at-temp'sto personate the oo joet. The old llrewcry wound up thu distressing d'tour of the night Since the v'.slt of Dickens, It has under(too* ?hat the oceupauts call a"great improvement ; the lower lloor* are appropriated to liquor, wholeral* and retail Barrels of gin. new whiskey, and brandy hot a? aquafortis. are ranged In a formidable row. promising from|thtir capacity, a supply of burning alcoholic poisons as plentiful as the allotment of I roton wnt? r to the neighborhood (dusters of mau llln won>"n. with thick and husky voices. ooising nostriln, and blood shot eyes, lay In confusion around the stives, while constant application* at the bar of meti and wrraeo, fouie pleading for ''junt a mouthful for two cents," clearly established the fact that there were ? " few more lelt o' the mine sort " Such was the exhibition below. From an upp r floor came down the infernal screams and blasphemies of a woman unl-ra p?rox?r in of delirium imntnu; and from a houje opposite iluillar cries made midnight in th's lOMHty of thieves, completely hi leous. We have 'a l enough. We are sick of the theme. We have hurrlel over It as a task to be done. It In f haokneyed and thread ban* as the vagrants portrajed It is disgusting to think of, and levelling to cce Rut If the presentition of the picture will i n any dt gr< e lead to open tho eye* of our conscript father* to the imperative duty of cleaning tint this seat cf p"'tllence in the heart of th-? city, we shall have gained the object of our reluctant trstlniopy against them, for permit'iog a uuifli-n.'.' so w>ntrous. to remain undisturbed so long. ( Htni.i: 01 Abitkai rino Lkttbrs?A man named John l ynch nan arretted ye?ter Ity by deputy ta-trphal Smith. < n u charge of opening letters and obstructing Lhe ccire-pondenne of William Mulligan. The matter hi .Is over for further Investigation. npopi **v.?Mr. laceb Sockman, one of the Ne*r York pilots, vns attscked with apoplexy, yesterday morning, while piloting the I nlted States transport hhip Khode Island into port. Strong hopej for his recovery are entertained. Ai < int.vxai Dkath ?The coroner held an inquest vpifiiriluv at. thM I lit v I In., rkit h I nn Kftriv a!' 'I'Iiwa. thy llirney, ag#d 15 years. n native of Ireland, who cum*) to bin death from the Jailing of a barrel of lour from the 8d ftory of the store corner of Oreenwloh and 'J baiues streets The deceased was pa?sing at tha time, when the barrel of flour struck (lie cellar door, bounced off and fell upon tne deceased, Injuring him mortally. He died shortly after being taken to tha Hospital. Verdict accordingly. Avoiiira?The coroner held an inquest yesterday in 44fli street, near the t'tli avenue, on the body of John Stieden, a native of Werraany. aged &2y->ars, m rsrpenter by trade, who came to hie de?th by the fH.ll!sg of the scaffolding on a new building erecting in 42d street, near Oth avenue It appears the scaffold was badly erected, giving way and failing to the ironnd, killing the deceased, and wounding Philip Skinel, who likewise fell with it, so severely thai but little hope is entertained of his reoovery Verdict according to the above facts. The deceased hai left ? wife and four children to mourn nls Iosh. Kirk ?The light house at the entrance of F.iopm Creek North river, was consumed by fir* on TueiJ ay morning. I.nw Iiit?lllgeii<'e> WjitHiiTflToir, Nov 25 ? Important Deciniom ?The Circuit Court ot this district made a d"sision on Tuesday last, which is very important to persons wbo transact business with the government or gentfor claims. Congress, by an arbitrary aot, provided, some years sgo, that no money should be paid by the government upon any power of attorney of ft date prior to the act for the payment of a claim. An agent may make a contract with a claimant to |>ro*ecute his claim for a certain contingent fee, to be paid from the sum recovered, lie mav. under that con tract, upend hie time and money In presenting the claim before Congress, or the departments, or both, and yet, when he applied for his fee, and prei?nts his power of attorney to receive It, the law steps In and cancels his contract and bin power of attorney The parties fcay refuse to pay hi no any compen'aMon It so happens that successful suitors forget their solloit* ore. as convalescents do tbedo<'t>r?. Oenerally, Indeed, the agent Is cheated out of his pay. In a recent case an agent applied to our court for an Injunction against the Secretary of the Treasury to prevent his paying a certain sum to a claimant, a portion of which sum the agent was authorized by a contract and power of att Tney to draw and receive, as his compensation for obtaining the amount claimed. The court decided that they bad no power to direct the secretaries in the discharge c-f tbelr duty?that they were executive t fleers, and ?ould exercise discretion ?Baltimore Sun. IsTiiriTivn Casi ?In Cumberland county. Pennsylvania. last week, wad tried the case of Catharine Oliver nnd others of the State of Maryland, against Daniel Kanffman. of CnmWland eoanty. for aiding the escape of and harboring 13 slaves, claimed as the property of the pUintifl's. A great number of witnesses were produced by tbe plaintiff'! counsel, who proved that the iiavea w?re brought en the evening of the *4tb of October. 1M7, to the barn of KaulTman, and after nmalnlng there part of the Might, were taken In bit wagon across the Susquehanna river. Several witnesses were called, who were immediate neighbor* of KaufTn>an,ar.d obstinately refused to anawerany questions or inquiries propounded by the court or counsel. Being apparently determined to keep silent, theywer* given into the custody of the sheriff and conveyed tojail But after remaining there a short time tbey concluded it was better to oonte forward and give evldeno*. Tbe defendant's counsel took the ground that a ease of thin kind did net come under the inrisil ctlon of this court The jury retired. and aft?r being out pnm* uours, reiurneu a verdlot of fixHi jir the plaintiffs.? I'hUad IsJgtr. K?Ilf;lou? Intelligent. 1 he Her t'.dward Meyer, late a minister of the Lntheran dencminatlon. was admitted, by Bishop D? Lanrey. to the Holy Order of Deacon* In the Protestant Kpiscopal Charob. at Trinity Churoh, i?eu?v?, on Sunday, November 19 He preached bis first reinou as an Kplscopal clergyman last Sunday afternoon, at St. Luke1* ohur.-h, In thla city. Mr. M. ban bi'en for mint months a realdent In Rochester, and In well known to muny of our citzens as a teacher ot the Herman and Krenca Language. Army liilrllltfi nrt. Ani tber Finall detachment of IT. S t nop*, between Kl) and !<0 in number, passed through this city on W?dnesday evening. westward bound Th>) following In the distribution of th>> force composed of the fourth infantry, along the northern frontier :? Dkthoit?Col. William Whistler, commanding the ri g'carnt and post; Or, Tripler, Surgeon; 1st Lieut. Maloney. Adjutant of the raiment; ('apt. Gore. la( Lient. Wall. n. let Lieut. Jones. 2d Lieut. Henry, 2<1 Lieut, Collins 8a< kftts Harbob?Hrevi-t Lieut Col Lee, eomnutndicg post; 1st Lieut. l.'.S Oract, 21 Lieut. Hunt. Ow t?;o? Br< vet l.ieut Col. Wright, commanding post ; 1st Lieut. Augur 2d l.ieut. I'aine. Komt Uiiatiot ?Brevet Major Alvord. commanding pest; 1st l.ieut Montgomery, 1st Lieut. McConnell, 2d Lieut Ilnsrell This regiment bas performed more aotual servise thU twelve years past, and has had mere otli ?r? and men lost in the service, than any oth^r It has performed two campaigns in Klortda. was one if the Are: to land at Corpus Christ!, and was in every general engagement up to Monterey, win one of the first to land at Vera Cru:. was present in every general engagement fr?m Vera Cruz to the capture of the city of Mexico, also, was one of the last to leave the u.untry ? llvjtuln JlJvfrliltr. 1 he U S. transport ship Rhod??Jsland. Capt,. Kr?eVcrn arrlvfd yestertlav from New Orleans, ha .i n 4 Biade the passage In twenty-four days Ou l>osrd ar? the companies \ and K. 1st. and K of 21 artillery, with lit? following ofllcers and paeseogerc ? 1st l.ieut .lam- a B Illcketts. 1st artll'ery commanding ; Assistant Snr gernK. H Coolidge, L' S. A.; Brevet Major J V Reynolds, ::rd nstillerv: 1st Lieut A linnhu i.? i<t -?. tilUry; l!?iU Lieut D. M Doltihoorer, lit artillery; 2nd I.lent. O H Tllllo?h*?t lit artillery, A < S ; Bre?*t 2nd l imit. J G. Tidball, 3rd artilierv. AIr? Ur. Coolldge and children. I ieut I(n*?'ll ha? opened a rendeiraAi far ?he enllf tui* nt of recruits to Col P K smith'* re,{iin>*Dt of Vomited IMtlemen, *hlch ia under crders for California at Br.fTalo. Col Kirby of the army, pawd through Buffalo on Friday lart on hi.' v. ay t.ut. The comtran l of the Mxtb military department. hecdqURrter" at JeMenwn Barrack", which h\* b?*n .me Tnrant. by the diath cf Heneral Kearny. ha* Iweo BeMntffl tn<Jener*t 7'wlsrtr <io*cral Worth ha* been arfigned to tha command of tha eighth and ninth mtUtan department*, pre*iou*!y under Oan. Twi^gv Captain John M. Barry died at his residence. in Bostor on Monday. During tha command wl'h Met'co. < spta!n Barry w?a in command of company li, MarrachuJettt Volunteer*. ItllMcfllniii-oiiH Political Intelligence. The native Americans of Uoaton have held preliminary meetlpga and intend to present lnd?puad?nt n"dldatcs at the municipal election. (ti n llernandetc (whig) han been fleeted Mayor of it Xugtistir.e, Florida? the flrrft instance ol the kind. '1 h* Van Buren party, in Boston, hate nominate* Bradford Sumner for \iayor of Bo*'on Mi-rdfr in West Jkr??ky.?Grofg'* Wiggins A roitby colored man. of c^n-iderabla prop-riy. wma tilled in Salem laat week by Klijah Oray. alio coinred. I ha two were In company liray baring a g in whioh ) wu swinging In a manner to enJangar the lafaty if the other Ha wa* requested to dasl't and iu reurn struck Wiggins a blow on the head which kilWd lim Immediately MunER.?Timothy Whelen, an Iri^l man, w,ts 'hot dead on the 24th of Octobar. near Kort Oibson, 4tkansa?, by Charles <iriftln a'herokae, Th? murder uaa deliberate, wilful, and ithcat provocation; bat :h? murderer waa drunk.