Newspaper of The New York Herald, December 4, 1848, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated December 4, 1848 Page 1
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? %iri.. . mi,) . v - .? - ? ^vaHRMnaMHnnnMBBBMnnaHBMn .... , TH .. NO. 5297. The Krec Hull Mc<-IIiik " PUHnlflphliu. Bueech of Mr. Wllmot. [Prom the Philadelphia ItepuMlc, Dee. 2 ] The free soil meeting nt the Chinese Museum, last night, whs cjuitf Urge and enthusifistic. The meeting was called to order at half-past seven o'clock, by Mr. George Connell, upon whose motion David C. Skerrett was appointed president. Alter the organization of the meeting, resolutions were offered by T. S. Cavender, and adopted with unanimity and enthusiasm :? RefOived. That the friends of free noil, 10 far from helng diicouraged by the remit of the recent elootinn, tod ample cause of rejoicing In the fact that hostility to the extension of slavery has been declared paramount to all other poll leal oonsiderationi by three hundred thousand freemen?a number larger than the entire body of slaveholder* in the United States. Resolve*, 'that we still demand free toil for free men, protecting against any compromise by which any portion of our national domain shall be given up to the curse and shame of human bondage, and declaring that any and every concession to the iilave power shall be met by our prompt and determined demand for repeal. Resolved. That we reaflirra the principles and policy declared in the liuffulo platform, an demanded Alike by the exigencies of the .".risis? by the interests of the whole country?and by the progressive spirit of the age ; and tbrt we declare our unalterable determination to sustain them, at all times and under all possible eentingencies, until the preservation of freedom and he interests of free labor shall become the established policy of our national government. Mr. Wli.mot was then introduced by the president, and was received with long and hearty cheering by the vast audience present. He commenced by Haying, that it firtt of all became his duty to make his most respectful acknowledgments for the very kind and flattering reception they had been oleased to icive him. He confessed that he had appeared bef .re that intelligent and large audience with much reluctance-indeed, as his frinnis well knew, it was against his mott earnest advice that this ireeting had bun held. He had, however, ?iieldi'd to the persuasion of many kind friends. who beieved that hi? sm?ll voice would contribute to uphold the standard of freedom in the present trying and imfortant orieis in which the country was now involved, t was not necessary that he should inform his audience of what was meant by the proviso. Ithasbe^n subject of much misrepresentation ; it had been the interest of both the two great polltloal parties of the country to oMyepresent it and impugn the motives of those who were engaged in sustaining it. An effort bad been made to blend this question with the subject of Volition, with which in his humble judgment it had no oon section whatever. He, for one. held to all the comprrfhises of the constitution in relation to slavery. He would have been the last man ever to have agitated this subject, if our Southern friends had been oontent to abide by the compromises of that instrument, instead of transcending them (App'ause.) He held that slavery wss a State institution, instituted by Stat* authority, under the control of State laws, and that the general government bus no power over this question within any State of this Union. This was the doctrine hefed ever advocated, and which ha held ; but when roe Southern States a'ked to be permitted to extend slavery over the general territory of the Union?over new and free territory, recently acquired from the Mexican republic, he would say that the general government?that the whole people, should exert tlkeir power and stretoh forth their arm against every effort to plant slavery there. This was aquestlan. in his judgment, in which the free States have a dtftp and abiding interest?one second to none that had ever arisen since the foundation of the republic. We found the soil acquired from Mexico by tho war with her, free from the pollution and degradation of slavery?it was ? free soil; and the question was? > " Shall it remain so, or shall it become the Inheritance of the slaveholder and ma black cattle T" This was the only question involved in tbis subject. On the8th of August, 1846, the President of the United States aent In a message to Congress asking for an appropriation of $2,000 000, for the purpose of enabling him to effect a peace with Mexioo. It was apparent that this money was to be expended in the acquisition of territory. We were indebted to Mexico in no sums of money; on the contrary, she was indebted to ns for spoliations committed on our commeroe. This formed the topio of general conversation on the afternoon of the day this message was received, and after full oonsultatkon, as far as time was allowed for consultation, it met the unanimous approval of every democrat in Congress. (Great applause.') There was no dissenting voice, so tar as he (Mr. W ) heard, in reference to the propriety of this measure?the proviso. There was no di*position.on the part of the republican members of Congress to embarrass the administration ; on the contrary, among those foremost in the movement, was himself, he being among the most consistent and uniform supporters of that administration. (Applanse ) The proviso wsa not introdueed with any view to influence or bave any bearing upon the Presidential election whioh was to follow. It was not offered to break down one man and build up anether. There was nothing discussed, ns far as his knowledge wont, but the intrinsic merits of the question. Was it right?was it politic?was it in accordance with the genius of cur institutions, that this republio should become the propagandist of slavery? (Knthasintlo cheers) AVer* the; to embark at this period of this world?in the middle of the nineteenth ocntury??with the past experience before them?with a knowledge of tbisnocialinstitution?was it politic, he again asked that tbey should embark in the extension of slavery? Under these ciroumstances, the proviso was offered to the bill. The propoedtion was offered on Saturday, the 8th of August; but Congress, by resolutions, previously offered, had agreed to adjourn on the 10th. The whole of the Northern delegation, with two exceptions only, from the free States, were unanimously in favor of the proviso. The democratic delegation (one member only being absent) from Pennsylvania stood, united on the nuestion. fUreat apDlause 1 The amendment, however. being sent to the Senate. failed there, being taken up at too late an hour, 12 o'clock being fixed aa the hour for the final adjournment of CODgrecg It met, he knew, the approbation of the moat eminent leading republican* of that branch of the national legislature The very eminent and respectable gentleman who had been recently nominated by the Haiti more Convention, Rare It hia unequivocal approval. {Applause] lie declared that it was ground from which no Northern man ought to recede. [Tremendous and long continued cheering.] The Senator from Masaachuaetti, (Mr. Davia,) took the floor near the time of adjournment. and oommenoed debating the anhject, and occupied the whole time, and thus all action waa defeated on the aubject. The eminent Senator from Michigan, (Mr. L. Caaa,) ao deep was hia anxiety in regard to the matter, that he remonstrated with the Senator Irom Massachusetts on the course he bad pursued?that he had been instrumental in defeating thin measure. This waa a fact the Senator never denied?never would deny Mr VV. went onto aay that hia own convictiona were, that if the vote bad been taken in the Senate, the proviso wonld have become the law of the land. At the opening of the following session of Congress, a large prof ortion. if not the entire representation in Congresg from the f?ee Statea. was atiii in ita favor. Kesolutions of instruction were unanimously passed by the Legislature of Pennsylvania, sustaining the proviao?that la, ninety membera of the House voted in Ita favor, and in the Senate they were paaficd with three disaenting voices only against it. The subject was take up by each of the free Statea of the Union, and in rapid aucceasion, some ten or eleven of the free States, through their Legislatures, spoke au unanimous voioe in favor of this principle. It was democratic then- -It whs right, it was just, it was a principle which our North held sacred, and declared they wuutd stand by and maintain. But in a short time influences were set at work to defeat this principle?the iufiucnce of the general government was brought to bear in favor of the South, and a humiliating spectacle was presented of men occupying the first positions in the councils of the nation, who had maintained this principle, abindoning it, and turning their backs upon it! A large proportion of the press? particularly of the republican press?commenced their attacks upon it, using all sorts of anathemas against, it. It was trea<ou to proclaim thia principle?it was treason to the democratic party. Such was the decree issued at Washington I .very uian who dared to speak in jRYor oi ii. ??. proarrMiea. i n? south united together and faid sh? would support no man for the rretldmcy who dared to maintain this principle?that the would ftlike dvwn every man. however eminent, howeve* good, or however noble?every man who maintained freedom in free territory. The consequence wan, that the ouiltitious men of the oouutry -tho<ie who bad fixed their gaze on the Presidency, declared they would oppose any man *ho sustained it. To ru .tain It. it was alleged, win unconstitutional. The past experience and past action of the government wag all wrong ?Jeff-rsi n was wrung ; Madtson, Washington, and Jackson, were also wrong, and all the Kieat and good men who laid the fcuuda'iont of the republic under which we live, were all wrong! Th'? was no new principle, (Mr. W. proceeded to mate)?it was M old ? the government itself. In 1787, Thomas Jefferson. and other good men. had thin question in hftud. They looked upon It in Its true Might-as a curse upon ineu and nations?an an evil of the very ti?l magnitude. All the great men of that day deplored its existence ? looked upon it M a calamity? and while they saw no remedy, no meana for It* prevent eradication, they took the precaution against ita pread in unoccupied territory. Mr. Wllmot here entered iuto a hittory of the acquisition of the NorthWeatern territory?referring to the ordinance of '87, and citing the nth article contained therein, atiilnst I he Introduction of alavery. lie next prooeeded to show in how great a proportion wealth, population, prosperity (to., had Increased in all those States o> ihis confederacy where slavery did not exist, as oontrasted with those In whioh It was foster- d lie went on to prove that aln vi< labor brings degradation %?d dishonor upon the white laborer hecoe it was, that the white laboring man would not emigrate to a alave State. No laboring white man would emigrate to a country whereidishonnr was brought upou Ms obildren because they [ labori d Slavery brings dishonor upon labor. "Whf re the great mass c.f the labor Of a country is performed by blmik meii, it Is Impossible that free labor ean be respected. The foreign population which come* to oar Hborsa, cannot b* ?r ti e idea of being placed on a level with our negro peep'e. 'I'hev feel too much respect for themselves, and a becoming pride, for that ; w tbey then refore desire to settle on a free soil, where slavery iiu * nut exist. ?nd where they shall be free from all that Interfere* with their sociat telations. r The wbo'e e^t;re f.reii'n pxpi.lation (e V the free * ates of this l'ni, n Th.< aUvshoiiler ?r.J his *? >. !? cupj the greater and more genial portions of the \ E NE MO] America* continent, or rathtr, it i? given up to them; whilst the freemen dwell in th? 1<'hh congenial regions of the North. All that we require is. that slavery i >1 All nitike no aggression upon the free nail of the land (Tremendous applause ) If our Southern friends look upon this institution u of value to them?if they renin d It as a blessing, my voiae is, let them enjoy it unmoltsted within the boundaries set forth by the Constitution. Let ns resist unto death the encroachment of slavery. The free soil of \merioa belongs to the free laborer of America. (Enthualastio and reiterated cheers ) What is It that gives the laborer of America such a pre eminence over the laborer of any other portion of the world? Why is it that the laboring men of America have better food, are bettor clothed enjoy more of the comfort* of life than the laborers of other portions of the world ? Why, these b'.e'sings are to be attributed not only to the benign influence of our institutions, but to th? great seoret of the elevation of the masses, and the cheapness of our soil. Her lands are at a price within the retch of every honest and industrious laborer. After expatiating at seme length on this subjeot. Mr. W observed, that the day is not far distant-the day is near at hand?when the soil we occupy will be as thickly Settled as that of Germany. What will then be the condition of America? The result will be that the last refuge of the laboring man of America will be the vast territories recently annexed to this country They should be kept open for him and his posterity If tbe negro slave is to oocupy tbem, as I have proved to you, the white man is exoluded more positively than by any law of Congress. No man will come from Germany; no man will oornu from Ireland?down trodden a? she is?to settle there Mr. W . after making some further remark* on this point, staged that *1 900,000,000 waH invested in slave property?a sum larger than the real assessed value of property in the States of New York and Pennsylvania put. together. He had been brought up a democrat?delighted in its name and principles ; but no natter with bow much horror he had been accustomed to regard the mounter bask, with it* capital of $36,OOOUOO, he confessed that be looked upon it an but a pigmy oompared to the capital invented in negro Hesh! ( Applause.) He olalmed to be a democrat-ono of the strictest sort, too, (applause) and he thought certain gentlemen who bad long been the recipients of government patronage should get tired, if they had not already become so, of reading him out of the party ; (applause;) but he did affirm that this was no part of the creed of the republican party, (laughter and app'anse.) that we should embark in the work of propagating human slavery. If this damnable work was to be consummated?if they were to embark in the colonization of slaves? for God's sake let the odium rest on some other party. He was one of those who felt constrained by the highest considerations of duty, of selfrespect, of regard for that people who had stood around him like a wall of fire, to oppose the late nominations made at Baltimore. It was out of no faotious spirit ttat he had done so. If he (Oeb. Cass) had maintained this great principle, he (Mr. W.) would have gone as far as he who went furthest In his support. (Applaure ) Mr W. next proceeded to speak in defence <f Mr. Van fiuren. whom he most ably supported?insisting that that gentleman was fully justified in his reoent oonrse?a courre that had been brought about by the extraordinary and unjustifiable proceeding of the Baltimore Convention in relation to one of the delegation* from the State of New York. Tha right settlement of this question, Mr. W said, was to determine the character of our institutions. It was to be shown whether this republic?the hope of the downtrodden throughout the world?whether this republic should be sustained and oarrled on, and directed by the real and true democracy of the oounury and the laboring men, or the slaveholding interest of the South. If the North failed in this struggle, and slavery was carried out to the Pacifio Ooean, then would the South have the entire centrol of this government, and mould and fashion it to their own purposes. After making a few remarks laudatory of the oourse of the democratic party heretofore, and some comments upon the causes of their being triumphant over political competitors, he concluded his able, and eloquent, and elaborate speech, (of which tbisis but a mere synopsis, as neither time nor space will allow of our going into details) by saying that those who supported the proviso were, in his humble judgment, in the right?that as sure as there was a Ood in heaven- he would stand by the right. If tbe cause was rightwas just?then let no man fear the issue. It would triumph. Let us make this republic what Jefferson intended it to be, and which every freeman of the North should desire?a barrier oyer whioh slavery cannot pass. James iW. Morrissnn moved, and James J. Butler seconded, the following resolution, whioh was adopted with loud cheers Resolvsd, That man's real freedom can only be assured in the ftttdoa ol the pablic lands ham the grasp of spooulators, and their appropriation, in limited iinantitfes, to theaotaal settler. Dr. Elder was then aalled out by the audience, and after a brief address from him. the meeting a djourned, in excellent spirit*, at about 10 o'clock. Philadelphia, Dec. 3,1848. Great Meeting of the Young Democracy of Philadelphia?Declaration of Principlet?Uproar and. Excitement?.Fun, Fancy, and Declamation. A meeting assembled last night, at the county court-house, in Philadelphia, to hear the report of a committee who had been appointed at a previous meeting, and instructed to propose some plan ior the re-organization of the democratic party. At an early hour the court-house was crammed, and great anxiety evinced to hear the report. John G. Sharp was called to the chair, and numerous other officers appointed. Thomas Dunn English then came forward, on the part of the committee, and re id the following report and declaration of principles:? REPORT OK THE COMMITTEE. The committee appointed at a town meeting of the democratic citizens of Philadelphia, held at the Democratic. Head-Quarters, on tbe evenlne of the i:tth of November, 1848 and by that meating Instructed to | present. at pome future public mooting, seme plan for the better organization of the party, &o., beg leave respectfully to reportThat the great and controlling cause of the present condition of the deraooratio party, in the city and county ?f Philadelphia, arise* from a general dissatisfaction with the party government, and iaxness of party discipline. The aOairs of the party, its internal management, its mode of expressing opinion, its distribution of honors and emolument*. buve all been, for a long while, under the control of self-constituted clique*, or cauous-created committees. These combi- i nations, whatever may be the individual worth and probity of their members, mast naturally seek to retain all power in their own hands, or in those of their adherents. Thus it is that we see this strange position of affairs? a party sometimes led by men in whom it has bo confidence whatever, and whose words and deeds it freely ridicules. This anomaly resuls from the want of a proper representative system in the government of the party, by which the will of its members could be expressed; and the faot that we have not bad such a system before, arose from the timidity of Individuals, who. while they gave vent to individual complaint, had a disinclination to propose a remedy. Thus, too. it has been thatunsorupulous men have endeavored to make the democratic party an Instrument by which they might attain wealth and position. and tospesk the plain and honest truth, have frequently succeeded. By combination and oiganIzed fraud, they have, time and again, destroyed the will of the majority, and diffused iukewarmness, if not absolute discontent, in our rank*. Your committee do not believe that any plan of organisation can totally prevent the evils of improper combinations The cure, in the main, is with the democratic party itself, the Individual members of which must apply the last resort of freemen when needed. and vote down the incapable. un>ound or profligate. Nor do ths committee wish to go as far as their inclination would, perhaps, impel them, in the recommendation of measures foe a re-organization. But they do recommend to jon the plan which accompanies this r?port, for the annual eleotlon of a (Jemooratio General ommittee. based upon a ratio which shall afford a fair representation of the democratic party, for our city and county?a committee which, elected a< its members will be by i he people, will represent the feeling* and wishes of their constitutents. upon all oocasions where It is impossible or inconvonlent to appeal to the party in mass. To such a committee the further task of re-organizing the democratic party, by introducing such reforms as are needed in It* action, could he confided with more propriety than to your committee, insomuch as the body chosen by democratio suffrage could be fully re- i sponsible to their constitutents. Your committee also | report a set of rules to govern the election of the first i General Kxecutite Committee?rules sufficient to control its election and organisation after which they of course oease, unless adopted by the committee Itself I In addition to this, aud as the bajis of all future aotlon, ! vour committee report a declaration of democratic I principle i?, which they nubmit for jour adoption. This, while it coutainn nothing which In ant or nhould not be 1 recognised a* demrcrat.Te doctrine, proclaim* well ?* ti<bli>hi'(J feature* of policy in a fit'in* holdnean ofntyle and manner, and ptanent** politioal creed no plain and explicit that (he bumbleit citiin can eompr?b?nd and dleeunn it. All of which, m well an the accompany Id* document*, whloh they include an part of their report, your oobimittee respectfully nubmit. DECLARATION OF rRlNCXTt.KS .Uejitrd at a Gtnnal Mrtting oj thr Knilll| Drmocracy ?) thr City and County of Vhilndtlyhin. hrli on tht Stcond Day of Dccewber, 1848, at thr County Court lloutK. , ' We declare Und publish, a* well-grounded and nettled principle*;? 1. 1 hat, In adjusting any tariff of dutlnn upon Import*. tbe *o1e object nhould be to obtain a revenue adequate to the demand* of an economical administration of the government; that It would be nnjuntand ! oppre?five to arrange dutie* for tt|*l pur pone of affording to any man or net of men npcolai favor*. aggrandixenent, crimronnitie*. Leglnlntlon nhould be performed for the benefit of all, and when it Ntcosine opprenaive to aitbt-r a greater or nuiallar portion ot'tha community i or when it* renult* impoverish tbe inn**. It* proper | end* lire violated and itnelf rendered odioun Hence It | t* that we denounce any tariff whone ntyect I* pro.eoI t!nw?*ne>? proteeMnr tieinir wheu fully anal/ned. a ircre trick by which a few capUall*'* wr* enable to per1 Ml more tlMM the pc*>'e-?ur ! t?-e iMIO) |.*?. r t't nv UaurMutlog t'?e rwe?' and toil of the p.-or m>vn | # W YO /tpt, -y RNING EDITION?MON into gold, and plundering all ntlier classes,in order to I ( add to their already Iboobn fortunes. , t S. That the finance of government should be ma- , , naged by the government itself, Independent of the i control or agency of bank* or banking Institutions? . mBfiann/l K? _ >w< MannnoiKI. /.Al .... ~V.? ... 1 liable to severs penalties for a violation of duty, and not by corporations whose actions defy scrutiny, and whose infractions of law eannot be punished. The plan of the independent Treasury now in operation, which has been tested through a time of war?in all countries a reason of great financial embarrassment ? receives and will eontinne to receive oar steady and well-deserved support; and while we are willing to admit such alterations in its details as may be nece?sary to its perfect suooeas, we will never agree to surrender a single one of the principle* upon which It is based, and by means of which the publio money is preserved rom the grasp of speonlators and capitalists. 3. Tbat in the disposal of the publio lands, a liberal course should be pursued towards actual settlers ; and since the spread of agriculture and the Increase of small freeholder* contribute to the prosperity and progress of the country, every actual settler is entitled to and should receive a limited and inalienable amount of land, sufficient to support, in conjunction with hi s industry, himself andtfamily. 4. That this country is a confederation of independent sovereignties, whose Interest it is to remain united; tbat the peculiar institutions in each of theie States sre purely domestic, and consequently a subject of looal govt rnment. independent of the supervision and Interference of other members of the confederacy ; that ; when Congress attempts to legislate upon or concern- I iog any of these institutions, it grossly invades the 1 rights of both individuals and communities, and commits a great constitutional wrong ; tbat the saftcy of I the Union and the perpetuity of our republican insti. I tutions demand tbat every honest citizen should re I press the agitation of any and every prominent cause ' of discord and disunion. j 6. Tbat the public domain was granted to the : general government by its donors as the source of a ' fund to be applied to the necessities of that government; that the money arising from the sale of the lauds which compose the domain, so long as they continue to be sold, should not be diverted from its legitimate use, by being distributed among the States ; and that, when the government can spare the land fund, it is more for the interest of the nation that tbe land should be given to those who wlllaotnally cultivate it and add to tbe productive wealth ot the nation. 6. That the Constitution of these United States is a grant by sovereign and confederated States to the 0 corporation of the general government, of certain * powers specified and limited in tbe constitution itself; 1 and we contend for strict construction of the powers granted; consequently we oppose the creation of a national bank, a protective system of duties, and tbe ap-, ~ plication of the public funds to the furtherance of any s schemes or plans not necessary to carry out tbe duties ' or powers directly assigned to the general government. f< 7 That the people are as fully capable to nominate R as tbey are to vote for all candidates for office, and P that the intervention of caucuses and conventions, at b all times an evil, requires to be either modified so that the wishes and will of tbe people shall be truly repre- a rented, or else utterly abolished. The people have, frequently, owing to the corruption of the convention " system. been presented wun tne alternative of either " voting for a Felfish and unprincipled man. or one notoriousl y incompetent to fill the station he nought, or c< by their vote against him. attacking the policy which t( he represented, and which was dear to their con- P1 sciences. Under this system, as now conducted, we cl have seen nominated and eleoted to legislative offices, men who were utterly unable to discuss measures of tf importance in the halls of legislation, or to defend the principles of the party with which they were iden- P< titled, and who did not make up for this deficiency by dl that plain oommon-sense and unshaken integrity so ** necessary for the efficient legislator. Such things are tc calculated to alienate any party from popular affec- D' tion. The condemnation whioh they ultimately ob- ,n tain. Is thus dealt on a deserving set of political prin- bl ciples as well, and the peace, prosperity, and progress ** of the State seriously endangered, from the temporary tr suspension of a proper polioy ia the administration of c', publio affairs. w! 8. That the pillars of the State are the laboring po- tr pulation, whose brawny arms create the wealth, and al whose every day sense forms the safeguard of the na- V tion ; that their health, comfort, and happiness are to be sedulously guarded, as a matter of publio welfare i CJ that no combination of capitalists shall be allowed to tl oppress or injure them ; that all excess of labor which f" tends to injure their physical comfort, or debar them tl from mental improvement, should be restrained ; that tl the praotlce of causing minors and females, especial- * ly, to labor for many bourn per day over the time suit- c ed to their physical strength, in factories and else- b where, not only debars them from mental improve- f? mtnt. and deteriorates their physical condition, but tends to raise up a race of peop'e in our midst, dwarf ed and stunted in body and mind ; and that all such tl things, as calculated to render hon?pt labor degrading. V are St subjects for specific and decided legislation. w 9. That our country is our mother, whose honor is as dear to us as our personal honor or the peace of our T firesides . that her cause is our cause. and an insult to 1' her is an insult to be resented by each of her sons ; : '1 that when she is engaged in war with a foreigu land, | T the citizen who displays sympathy with hor foes, or , n DttoAiirno'sifl thorn tn nrnfranf. thu fa a. t.ruifnr IT whom it would be an excess of oourtesy to pronounce A dishonorable ; and that representatives, who, from | their seat* in the halls of legislation. encoursge tho | K' enemy, hare attained a depth of political infamy 1 t< equalled by that only of one man in the history of <T th?se United States. P' 10. That the people of this country are devoted to '< the checks, compromises, and balances of the Const!- < tution ; that they recognise the independence of the li three several departments of government as one of * those great principles whose preservation Is the surest 11 guaranty for the continuance of onr freedom ; that ei to destroy or cripple the qualified negative of the Pre- '' sident?falsely called veto power?would be to place w our rights at tbe mercy of any set of legislative des- hi pots who might prove false to their trust, aui would ' reduce the form of government from that of a well- *1 balanced republio to an elective aristocraoy. d 11. That banking is only a legitimate business when i" pursued upon legitimate principles; but to call for ci charters wbiah exempt stockholders from individual tl liability is to request the mantle of the State credit for di the fhoulders of fraud and falsehood; and that each i f" State is prohibited by the general constitution from coining money, or emitting bills of oredit. and conse- ?< quently cannot confer on corporate bodies a power 'I' which it does not itself possess. Cf 12. That the accumulation of large bodies of lands '< in the bands of an individual, is an evil whose effects ti must be felt in the future; that such an aggregation 1? ot ihe soil, as it tends to decrease the number and dis- ? courage the efforts of tillers of the soil, in unwise and nti-republicsn, and savors too much of the feudal b? times to accotd with the spirit of our Institutions or <!' the temper of onr people: and that a law (hovld speedily be passed limiting tbe quantity of the public <*' lands which may be disposed of to individuals -A 18. That our people, as years of experience have de- hi cisiveiy demonstrated, may be trusted to choose any k end every office-holder; that official patronage is more f> likely to be exercised discreetly by them than by in- " dividuals; and that, as all officers should be of right R chosen by them, no motives of sound policy demand that they should restrain themselves from the exercise * of such a right. hi 14. That the foreigners who immigrate to this " country should not be denied the protection of our laws, nor a participation in tbe hlesxings of good go- hi vtrnment; that it is good policy to extend to them, aittr a reasonable time of sojourn, the rights of citi- P1 zenship; that the present naturalization lnw< hive proved tbemielves by experience to be highly politic * and proper, and that, in their admission to office* of r? trust and emolument. tbe place of the citizen's birth " should neither recommend nor disqualify. P1 10. 'i Mill tne present *y*t?m pursued in appointing rl officer* In the army and navy in calculated to date- ' iiorn*e the service; that appointment* should oea"u to ' be a matter of favor; and that the proper apprentice- " fhip for the future commander in before the maat in i fl the navy, and in the rank* from the army. 16. That it i* the duty of the democratic party to 11 advocate the reform of ali abuse* in government; that * when an abUMt exist* and a remedy in offered, the pole K questions to be a*ked are oonoerning the justice, prac- " tlcabllity and pre-eminence of the proponed measure; T that whether it offend* the prejudloe or affect* the }' pocket* of individual*, iinot to be dlKnunned: and that j< the dunoeratic party, a* the true party of proiref*. " while it I* conservative of the constitution to guard it b from the Inroad* of a loo*e con*truetion of It* pro- | ff visions ha* m natural and invincible antipathy to that ll fal*e conRervatism which retain* abuses and preserves 0 venerable wrong*. ? The committee also presented a plan of electing n a general committee, and Mr. Knalish then moved 11 the adoption ot the whole. Mr. TS. A. f'enmman, * ex-Senator from the county of Philadelphia, got up t in great haste, and said he was in favor of the plan of organization ; but he objected to the tone of the a I report, which he denounced as uncourteous. He o ! did not know that he was opposed to Ihe principles t avowed in the declaration, but thought it inexpedi- ? ent to pgilate them at this time. The Baltimore pin I form had been defeated, and we were defeated with it. (Cries of " No. no !'*and greatconfuaion.) He thought it ought to be brought before another meeting?that the committee had better be instructed to repot t at a future meeting. Resides, sonie things were not explicit; nothing had been said on the free soil question. Atter some other remarks, the gentleman sat down, and was followi ed by Tnomas Dunn Knglish, who said that he could not fit quit t under rental ks so baseless as those that he had heard ; and when so respectable a body aa the committee were assailed and their c motives aopersed, he must aivevent to justindignation. The committee had merely brought forward the viewsgi nerally enteitained by the progressive democracy?had, in eflpct, only amplified and a(>plird >he principles laid down a! the Baltimore convention. As to the time, there was none more t-uiiable than now. lie then alluded to the fact of the recent whig and fr?*e soil meetings held in the eity, and contended this was the proper moment. The speaker then went on to defend the report of (lie ( Miimittee, and attacked the positionst iKerrby Vin Fi.r< n and thefree (oilers, and finally sat down i-p'irt the < hee^ < f the audience. I I*'r kk ii'xi .tddt'SM d tlv meeting in support ? RR F DAY, DECEMBER 4, >f the report, and read from a paper a portion of an ssary in regard to hanking, which be had intended, it first, to have incorporated in the report of the :ommittee. This essay denounced the whole jonking Astern as a fraud, and was received with rreat enthusiasm. This was followed by an 'loquent speech from Wm. Little, when a warm lifcussion arose, sprinkled with sarcasm, spice ind personality, in which Andrew Miller, late Reorder of Deeds, Morris R. Hamilton. Thomas Dunn English, E. W. Powers,and E. A. Penniman larticipawd. All kinds of words flew around, ind very naughty expressions left the lips of rrave men. Mr. Little accused Andrew Miller )f having caused the defeat of the democratic tarty, by his former endorsement of Taylor : and Miller retorted, by expressing hie regret that hei "John Donkey1' had expired; whereon Thoniaa Dunn Enulieh leaped up and said that the Donkey" had died because Andrew Miller would not edit it. After this very rational discussion had ceased, the question was put on the eport of the committee, and enthusiastically idopted. Another debate now sorting up, in which T. C. Van Dyke and T. B. Florence, the late candidates forCongress in the 1st and 2d districts, with others, joined. The occasion of this was the ontinuanoe of the committee to provide for the -lertion fldelcg|tti to a general convention. Filallv the motion prevailed, and the committee were also instructed to lay the declaration ot principles b< litre the several wards and townships of he city and county The meeting then adjourned, ivitli any amount of cheering. The movement i* one of some moment,when we misulei ifae principle* adopted. It will bt; seen hat iiiosrof the positions of the land-reformers ire incorporated, and that a thoroughly radical one pervades the proceedines. The meeting wns rery crowded, veiy noisy, and very enthusiastic, md the debate which sprung up was one of the nost piquant and racy we ever listened to. We ire Borry that we have not room to transfer it liteally. tfcssngcof tl?e Governor of South Carolina. Wo have received the message of Governor Johnson, f South Carolina, to thn Legislature of that State, and re herewith present a synopsis of it to our readers, 'he report of the Comptroller, in relation to the State nances has not jet been received On tha sutyect of education, Governor Johnson says: The increasing prosperity and usefulness of thu outh Carolina College, is so much a matter of prlile, hat the attention of every one is constantly directed nwards it. The extensive additional accommodations >r the (tndents. projected by the Board of Trustee* t its last annual meeting, have, by the liberal moans rovidt d by the Legislature at its last annual session, .,1., > on.I tli... <o nn onn.r. *n ??" " I J" *" "" *" r K?'?. he students number now 2,">5. including the gratlot tog class. which 1b thirty-eight in number In regard to the free schools. he Bayst?Defeotlva in ne fran e work of their original atruetur i. thev have ragged on a wretched existence, if. indeed, fbey can e Raid to exist at all, down to this day, at an immense DSt, without any apparent benefits, except in the >wns and citlts, where, from the denseneaa of the opulatlon, the funds appropriated for their support in be concentrated so as to make its influence felt. The necessity of internal improvements ia referred >. On this subject Governor Johnson usea the folwing language : All who are familiar with the upper >rtiona of the State, know that few, it any of ita pronotions. will bear the expense of transportation, by ie ordinary means, to a market, and leave any profits i the producer, except the article of cotton, which ia ot grown at all in the region bordering the mouniins; and even that, at the present low prlcea, leaves it a small net income when the charges of transporition are deducted. All deaoriptions of grain may be ansported to our markets from any of the Northern tieskt a lesa expense than from the mountain region, here it ia grown in abundance; and, with facilities of ansportation. might and would be increased to almost jy extent. Lime, which is found in abundance in ork and Spartanburg districts, of superior quality, is tut out, even from the market in this place, on ao>unt of the difference in the expenses of transportaon, by tha Thomaston lime For the same reason ur gTeat marts are closed against the iron produced in le interior, and they are supplied from Kurope and &e Northern States. The same remarks will apply to lmost every article of production, the transportation f which Is expensive on account of ita weight or ulk; and I venture to predict, that nnleas greater tciiities of transportation are supplied, the healthiest nd mott favored portion of the State will become tenDtlesi. Heretofore, they have fonnd a market for heir agricultural productions amongst their cotton rowlsg neighbors, but at the present low prices, they ill find it their Interest to raise their own supplies. We extract the following on thesubjeot of slavery:? 'he constant and never ending agitation of the Ufstion of slavrry between the slaveholding anil nonax holding Status, apart from the issues really lnolved. will of itself in the end inevitably lead to the lost disastrous consequences. The passions of com lunities, like those of individuals, are roused and inamed by constant vituperation, however unimporint may be the matter in controversy ; and the de ree of resi ntment. engendered by it, is in proportion > the magnitude of the matter involved. To us the uestion is vital, the iasuea of " life, liberty and prosity" are involved in it, the poison of fanaticism is > infused In the masses, that I have charity enough ) suppose that many worthy men conscientiously beeve that involuntary servitude 1b a damning curse, nd would willingly turn our slaws loose to cut our iroats. But the mockery of the more liberal and blightened politicians of the non slaveholding States, disclaiming the authority of Congress to interfere ith the institution In the States where it. now exists, at protestirg against its extension beyond ita prent limits, is more galling. Do they not know that m encruragemi-nt and protection given to fugitive atcs have rendered property in them of little value | i the border States ! Do they not know that, cir- 1 nmscribed to the territorial limits they now occupy. ] ley will In a few years exhaust much of the now pro- i active soil, and in their rapid increase in numbers ' rerwhelm tbelr owners, und drive them to seek an . ylum elsewhere ; and that by exclndlng th?m from i lumonm iHTiicir'fPi mrenuy or nereairer to oe acjired, tbey will, through thr agency of t'ongres*, ac mpllr-h indirectly what they concede to he unconitutional .' I will not speak of our equal right* as el?.en* of thfh confederation The argument ha* been ng ppo exhausted, and demonstration as palpable as n.a'hematicHl conclusion will avail nothing. The probability is, that whether we will or will not < permitted to carry our slaves into the territory nojtred by treaty with Mexico, will be definitely settled no distant day. If against us. the question will ne fsnrlly arise as to the measures we ought to pursue. II the other slaveholding States have precisely the lire interest in this questicn that we have, and we now that roany. If not all of them, feel the same solitude about it that we do. and it may reasonably be ippo>ed they would readily unit* with u* in any arure promising relief. With eur united, moral \ ad physical strength, in a just and honorable cause, . e run i-ucct gsfully oppose any piwer that nan be rougbt to bear upon us. Concert, is to time and 1 aimer of action, is indispensable to this unity ; and le (juestlon now is. when and bow this Is to be ; rovght about ? Is the present time propitious ? Wo know already, or have abundant reason to snp- i ore, that the present chief mkglstrnte of the United I later, adopting the Missouri compromise as a rule, j ill. if Congress. In its fnllv and madness. In total dls- ' gsrd of rea?on and right. exelude us entirely from 1 le Mexican territory, interpose the conservative veto | D*cr. It Is known, too. that in the election of his aecersor. n-any of the slaveholding States cast their ' titer for the candidate who will be elected; and that 1 all the rcit there was gTeat division, more, probably, 1 mn the results have brought to light; and. I take it r granted, that It was upon the faith, that, being a ruthern man, he would not be unmlndfnl of Southern | ghts It cannot be supposed, then. that the State* hich will vrte for him. and the mlnorltle* In thoae I tales which will vote against him. can be brought to ct together in anticipation that our right* will be i iolated under hi? administration, he having the power 1 i prevent It. The present, time Is, therefore, in my idvment. unpropltlou* for action. We ought, not* i ltbstandlrig. to provide for any contingency. The j low may be struck when we are unaware of our daner. and no time ought to be lost in projecting mean* a unite the slaveholding State* In some common mode t action, when the occasion shall arise; and a free dilussion and interchange of opinion will greatly projote this object In preparing the public mind to meet Is consequence*. A* before remarked unity of time nd concert of action, are Indispensable to suceem. nu >>ouiDi'rn ronrmtion is ui? most aireoi ana praoiesi nirtn* cf obtaining It. No on* State flan reasonably hope for suoces*, when ctlng alone In opposition to the opinion* of all the tbers. The (fleet of such an attempt would expose hem to be ftTerwhelmed in detail. What, it may be sk?d, will 8outh Carolina do If nhe is left alono to pht thi* battle? There are spirits in her bosom that rnuld willingly perish in defence of her right*. Bnt ronld It be wire to seek auch a destiny, as long as there i hope of luecor? In alluding to Mr. Whitney's projeot of building a ailroad to the Pacific. he says The projeot is one of he most sublime that has ever been conceited by man. )ne is astounded by its magnitude, and yet with adeuate means no one will now question Its practicality nor will It he doubted that, if carried Into exeution, it would greatly promote the settlement af the illd lands through which It Is proposed to carry It, iringirg us into communion witn our fellow citliens nhabiting those remote regions, and greatly facilitate cmmeree. Sir posed Ml'kiikr in ^prinofiri.d, Mass.?Wf urn that the body <>t ,, nim hinist named ( Itirk, rho was in the employ of tba Western Hallroad Corpaion. at Springlleld. wts found yesterday morning near be shop in that town, flu-re he worked, with his throat ut most horridly. The circumstance crtated much ixoitement in the town, and when our informant left reitetday afternoon, a coroner's Jury were investigate the circumstance* attending his dea'.h. The prerailing opinion tu Spr'ngfleld was. that deceased who, m* is ini fit r.slve man, of good and striftly tempe ste 1 ablte, bad hern most fonlly murdered bi *oine lend, who probahlT mi?took him for some oihi-r peon - Ho'ltn ..Jm tiirr. l>ir i IE R A 1848. The Tremendous Gale at Bufffclo. (Kromlhe Butlalo Advertiner. Nov 30.] We have had inrre high wind this fall than in any eaeon within our remembrance l.ant ntght-or | rather early thla morning?we were rlnltel with the 1 leverest gale we have experienced since the fall of I 1844, at the time of the higheiit Hood known to the | uiueit iiiunoiiituvn inewina uimw rrom me weui, | and was at its height from two to tiva o'clock this ; morning. Tbe damage dons to* th? building*, and (hipping in the harbor, la conai durable, though not aeI riou* in any aingle instaace Much lumber aod tlm1 fcer has been displaced from the yards, and quite a I large quantity will be loat or destroyed. The water was quite high upon the Klatg, though the grading of | the street*, particularly Ohio street, and the oonstruol tion of doeka, protected the eastern section of the city | to a great extent; yet, notwithstanding thepe barrier*, tne water being driven up through the side canal*. pretty effectually flooded the low lands Canal boats were thrown out of tbe Clark & Skinner and Main and Hambnrgh street oanala, ami left high and dry by the reoedingof the water. A portion of the floor of the depot of the Buffalo and Attica Railroad was torn up. and wood, and.ot.her movable articles In the vicinity, scattered In admirable confusion In every direction. We understand that the water wai the highest between nix and seven. On the west side, below the ship canal, the water swept over the apace between the lake and eanal, and Kany families occupying the small tenement* along the banks were compelled to leave. On the upper side of the ouual, the water came up to within a few feet of the gas works, and several boats were thrown out and left upon the land as the gale subsided. Quite a number of chlmniea were blown down, and several buildings unroofed. The roof of the coal shed of the Oas Work* was partially blown off, dc.lng damage to the extent of about $160. The building owned by George R. Baluock, on ! Lloyd rtraet and the canal, in which was the law ofllce of liabocck & Welch, waa unroofed; as also a portion l f Rug,ben's steam lull!?. Thu shipping in the harbor sustained much damage by vessels being driven against each other, by which > pars and other timbers were broken. One schooner bad her sides pretty well jammed In, and several yawl I boat) were smashed. One sehoonir came in about balf-past seven, when the gale was near Its height. She had but a >peek of canvas* up on her fore spars, but she shot ahead very rapidiy, and rounded the plar and came in beantiftilly. Another passed down the river at the same time. Although the driving of many poor families from their homes, will cause much suffering, yet no liveB have been lost, and the loss of property is trifling. This gale, as does almost every heavy on*, shown the absolute necessity of a sea wall, to protect the eanal from ultimate destruction between this city and Black Rock. The lake i* making approaches towards it, and something will have to be done to prevent tbe entire absorption of the strip of land intervening [From tbe Buffalo Courier Deo. l.J We have to record one of the most sever* gales on Wednesday night and yesterday morning, with which our city lias ?ver been visited. During its greatest height, our citizen* were alarmed by repeated cries of ' Kire," but happily there was bat little damage done by that element. The alarm* were mostly caused by chimnles burning out. Tbe wind wan at iti height between two and five o'click in tbe morning, when very considerable damage wan done to tbe shipping In tbe harbor and to buildings. The docks protected the eastern portion of the city; still tbe water was driven through the slips and side canals, flooding the low lands and throwing vessels out of the Clark and Skinner and Main and Hamburg street canals, leaving them high and dry when it reoeded. It also did considerable damage to lumber lying on the banks of the creek On the other side, the watt r came up within a few feet of tbe gas works. Of the buildings injured. We notice the depot of the Attica and Buffalo Railroad, the floor of which was torn up; ilugbee's Elevator partly unroofed, and the buildings of Geo. K fiaboock, Ksq , wholly unroofed. The lots in the last instance will be $500 or more. The roof of the coal shed of the gas works was also partially frown oO, damage $150. Tbe scene in the vicinity of the Kastern depot, where there are numbers of shanties tenanted by Irish laborers, partook of the painful and amusing. The floors ot 1 most of the shanties were entirely submerged and tbe i lemates compelled to put out as fast as possible. Many | were very busy In picking up the wood, boxes, and odd ends of lnmtwr that came floating up,?so much competition going on. in fact, ?s to brlsg on an occasional " shindy." What became of the shanties appeared to be a matter of no consequence -the wood they must have. The greatest loss to one poor family seemed to be a brace of fine pigs, the pets and darlings of the household, which lay dead in front of one of the cabins. Te the rich the loss would be trifling, but to these hard working laborers it appeared almost Irreparable. The distress of the men, women and children, who all joined in the general waiting, was really heartrending. We ttOft the benevolent will remember tbe suffering* ot these and other unfortunate people who are losers. The water was at one time seven feet higher than the average. The accident* and injuries to the shipping were, as near as we can learn, as follows Tho il.inu I .lin.lnx hail t l.u I ??>.|ra yard*, kc , carried away liy the lower lake schooner Jensie Wood?the bulwarks of the nchooner were al?o torn away, and she was otherwise materially injured, together with the schooner Queen Victoria. The schooner Ureen Bay, lying on the west tide of the creek.broke loose and carried away the propeller ( barter (jak wbirh. in turn, carried away schooner Blue Bell, damaging the latter vessel to the amount of $400 or $600 The steamer Queen City, lying at the foot of Commercial street, was run into by the schooner Virginia l'urdy. which broke loose from th e opposite shore?one of ftr arches and two state roonn badly injured. The steamer Ilendrik Hudson also broke loose from ber moorings and tore up Die bulwarks of the brig Globe, but received little damage herself 1 he steamer (treat Western broke loose and was (Jriien on to the dock, a little abnve Bughee's Elevator hi. j Is in a bu t position?the New England also The stiamerr Baltic and Key Stone State were also driven acrors the creek The schooner Washington Irving is air i' high and dry near them The brig Paragon mid schooner Pilgrim are driven ; hard on the bank in Kinnie's slip, together with the schooner Kudora. The schooner Commodore Chauncey also broke lcose. bad her bulwarks stove in, and was considerably injured otherwise. A couple ?f vessels were peon going down the Niagara river in the morning, hut we have heard nothing from ibem. One was supposed to lie the brig Iowa, but we learn tl at the Iowa lies u. wreck at Point Abiuo. We may expect to htar of other marine disa-ters, and, wo ft ar. of loss of life, upon the lakes. The gale here has ceated. [From the Buffalo Republic Dec. 1.1 Our city bss been visited, since our last. with a gale, which, f< r Its difai-trous consequences, is without a parallel, since tbe disastrous gale of '44. Added to the i (ears inspired by the wind, were the repeated alarms of Ore which occurred since 4 o'olock. We are gratified I in being able to announce but little damage fr >m tire. I Two wooden shanties, occupied by Irish tamille*. ju*t , below the Michigan street bridge, were burnt to the | ground. The machines found great difficulty in approaching the scene of conflagration, from the very | nature of the ground, it being very low, and at the , time covered with water, from the overflowing of tho . crrek. No. U was the only machine which actually afforded any assistance. Klffy dollars will cover the en- j tire damsge occasioned by the Ore, this morning ; but the losa from wind was much greater. A three-story brick building situated on Loyd street, opposite Thomas' Exchange, was completely unroofed Los* at least $.">00. His really surprising that there was not some farther damsge done by the rocf. which was blown a distance of 100 feet. A two-story brick building. on Exchange street, near the freight depot, wm also ui.roofed. Los* considerable. Bughee's Elevator partially unroofed Atwo story brick building, on the east side cf Michigan street, was unroofed. Damage considerable. Much other damage was sustained in diffeitnt parts of our city, from the full of ohintneys, blowing down of signs, etc. It Is ye.t difficult t?ascertain the rlamise done to the shinnln? The water in the creek was at one time Keren feat higher tlmn the average water mark By the assistance of ( apt Burnett, harbor-master. and from what we conld learn from other sources of Information. we are enabled to give the,following Items of marine intelligence The steamer Queen City, lying at the foot of ComBserclal street, waa run Into by trie ichooner Virginia i'urdy. which broke from her mooring* on the opposite ride of the creek, and had one of her arches taken off, and two of her atate* rooms demolished. She waa also otheiwire Injured. The ateamer Lexington had her bulwark* stanchions atid mis carried away bv the Canada iawer lake tchooner Jessie Wood.which got under her guard The sobooner (Juten Victoria and the Wood were considerably Injured. The propeller charter Oak broke adrift from her moorings, and bad a good deal of her upper works carried away, The schooner Hone was driven into port with great force this morning but sustained, we believe, no aaaentlal damage. A schooner name not ascertained, waa forced to seek a harbrr at Black Hock The schooner Pilgrim la lying on her beam enda on a bonk in Klnnle's slip. The Paragon lain the same or worae predicament. The schooner Kudora Is out on a bank In same nllp. The steamers New krgland. United States. Baltic, and Heed s new boat, the Keyitone State, brnke loose from their moorings on the south side of the nr?*ek and were driven over to the north aid* The United Statea and New England are high and dry on tbe north side of the creek. Tbe brig Glob*, steamer Hendrik Hudson, schooner Commodore Chauncey, and two other vessels. broke frrm their moorings, and the Chauncey had her but warks ?tove In and otherwise Injured. A canal boat is said to bave sunk at Tonawanda, leaded with 1.200 bushels of wheat. These are all the positive disasters we have heard of We shall daubtlesa be oalled upon to ohroniol* yet more laricna one* The water In the er*?k Is goin{ down, and no further damag* Is apprehenJed from the wale. There will undoubtedly b>> great auffnring among tb* n>any poor families who are driven from thetrhom-s by the high water In fact. alr< ady do w? h?nrof ca??a of tb* ni <et b?art-rending deacription We trut our eitliet.a *UI extend a lielplug and timely han<1 to th I saffcti*. ?. . x L D. TWO CENTS. Additional Intelllurnre from the California Uolil Ktnlon. [From tbs New Orlean* licayune. Nor. 34 ] lieutenant Loe*er. U. S A.. arrived here yesterday, in tbeisbooncr Desdemona, from Jamaica, with despatches from Got. Mason. of California, to the IT. 8. OcTfrnmcBt. Lieut. Loe^er left Montarey la August Inpt, for i'ayte. In Peru, which pisoe he made In forty days Me cama the no* by the way of Panama and Jamaica to this city. In company with l.leut I,, earns David Carter, who went out to Californiain the employment of the government, ? arty in the commencement of the war. From the latter we learn that there wa* no exoltemsnt In ralifornia.exceptthat produced by the report*from the gold region* of the Sacramento and it* tributaries. The irania for gold digging had reached such a length that it wa* difficult to procure workmen in Monterey, except at the most extravagant wage*. Denertion* had taken place from the L nited State* force*, and from the marine, to such an extent that tbe U. 8. *bip Ohlofead t?. rupply men to take the *lnop Warren lower down the roart. out of the way of the infection From the latter ve?wl a boat's crew dererted, In open daylight, for the gold region* t ouvauv F. .'id Artillery, and the dragoon*, left at Alwntetey. had nulfered little froui denertion, but the citizen* generally bad gone otT in qnestof the precious metal. l.ieut. I.oener bring* over with him apecimena of gold obtained In the valley of the Sacramento Some of the piece* are the firot found in the eonntry The extent of the gold region ha* not been ascertained, but the ore ha* been found in a teri Itory lf>o mil** in extent and 50 In breadth Mr <'erW think" ?hat, m?nr of theaoonunt* of the great abundance of tha precious metal in the region In which It 1* found are exaggerations. but that iti* discovered Inlnrge ijnantitle* I* abKolutely known. He informs us that the ore Is procured at pome rUk and with great labor, yet that It mn^t mlinnnil in tha cniintrv?nnnaldarlntr tha >< nun. titles" brought to Monterey, and the Imperfeot Lwt?n> < Dipkyed in depurating it from the noil. The tract of country constituting the gold region la a level plain. Whether the particles of gold have been washed down from the mounralna or heaved up by volcanic force, no on* knows, but the latter I* generally belieted to be the true theory Mr Carter ban himself rren drops of virgin go!d weighing two ounces, andjther* are those who assert they have met with it in bulks of greater weight. A? yet. all attempts to employ capital in procuring gold have resulted disastrously Those who hard organlred a company to collect the preoiom metal have loft their out lit*, for the person" hired for such a service invariably leave their employers and set up huslnesa on their own account?taking with them the implements entrusted to them The gold la not confined to the beds of the rivers, but every where within prescribed limits it may be had by digging up the earth, and washing the soil from the metal. The effect produced in California by this new source of wealth has been anything but beneficial to the colony or advantageous to the publio service. The New York volunteer*, as soon as they were disbanded, reP at red to the gold region, Col Ntevenaou with them, snd every article of merchandise. food or olothing had tiren in value to an exorbitant extent. Tha epidemic was universal. The crews of whale ships and oilier commercial veasels bad deserted for the enchanted r< gion. as well as the enlisted men in tha United Stntea service. Money In coin, which wu plenty enough for all purposes before gold was difcovered, had grdVu so scarce that the duties upon imported goods could net be paid except by hypothecating "dust." Those who eould not procure better means of collecting gold, wandered off in Its quest with tin pans buckets, and whatever else could he used to separate the metal from the earth by washing. We annex m letter and a proclamation from Col. Mason. showing the troubles which this gold fever haa brought upon tha custom house Our informant thinks It will require a large force to protect the interest of the I'nited States from the depredation of the 11 diggers." who form the largest, inoet desperate, and vagrant class of" foreigners" in that tenltory. Large numbers of tbem have perished during the aiakly teason on account of their reckluaa course of life and in sufficient means of comfortable living. Saw Fsawcisco, July 25.1848. Sni-We beg leave to submit to your Excellency ll the proceedings of a meeting held last evening at the City Hotel of thin place. We pray that your Excellency will take Into Immediate con?lderation matters of ?uch Tltal importance to the commercial as well a# to the other interest* of tbe country, and will be pleased to forward us your decision at a* early a day as your valuable time will How. / We are, respectfully, your Excellency's most obedient servants, W. D. M HOWARD. C. V. GJLLESFIE. JAMES C. WARD. To his Exo'y Col H H. Mason, Governor of California. HtADqUARTrst Tenth Military DcnnrMKiT, ) Monterey, California. July 31. 1848. J OtSTUMis-Veor communloation of the 89d, tag*ther with its enclosure. has been duly received. I will Instruct the Collector at San Kranclsooto receive gold duat in payment of duties at tbe customhouse. with the privilege reserved to the payer of redeeming one-half by a payment to the Collector In gold or silver ooin. any time within ninety days, and the other half by a like payment, any time within one hundred and eighty days. This, however. Is to be a mere temporary arrangement, owing to the present scarcity of coin in the country. It would give m? pleasure to comply fully with the wishes expressed by tbe public meeting held at Ran Kraaclsco on the night of the 21st instant, by making the whole redeemable in one hundrel and eighty days; but it would have the effect of entirely cutting off the receipt of any available fnnds In the custom-house for rix months to come. That is a longer time than it will be prudent to dry up the only source of revenue that the country affords, and would he ton wide a departure frr m my instructions, which are very positive, tc obI-*" leotthe duties exclusively in gold and sIItm coin," before the goods, wares or merchandise leave the custody of tbe Collector; or, In other words, before they ure suffered to go into market. I am willing to allow the goods to go at once into the market, and to wait three and six months for the duties?although I am ordered to collect them in cu?h ? provided the gold duet is taken at a rate low enough to make It certain that the merchant will redeem it at the stipulated time, and If he does not. that there will be no doubt that the duties can be realized at once by putting it up at auction, if the money be immediately required. You will readily perceive the situation in whlcih I am placed; a large amount of duties will he received at Ssn Francisco; should some ten or twenty thousand dollars of this gold dust, received at the cu?tom-hous? -reckoning at the rate per ounce at whioh it will be m reived ? fail to be redeemed at the stipulated time, and' I should be forced by want of funds to throw suddenly this large amount into market, to be sold for cash, and it should not bring that sum. I at once become and am held personally and individually responsible and accountable to the Department at Washington for the loss sustained In consequence of the departure from my orders and Instructions. I am very sure that none of thq merchants of yonr town would desire to see me assume a rl?k of becoming pecuniarily involved by departing from my Instructions for their accommodation; and. therefore. I feel by departing from my orders in this instance. In permitting goods, wares and merchandise to go at once into the market, and waiting three and six months before the duties ran l>e realized, that the precautions I take to guard both the nub!io and tnvself from any loss, are not unreasonable or greater than the occasion calls for. I fhall ftrongly recommend In my first communiontIon to the department th? immediate establishment of a mint In Upper California. I am, respectfully, jour obedient rervant. R B. MASON. Col 1st Dns , Oor. of California. To W D. M. Howard. c. V. Gillerple. James C. Ward, San Francisco, California. MIOCLAMATTO!*. Hr*cni *srrs? T?*th Dktart wht, > Monterey, California, July 'lb, 1**8 } Win r< HS many cllisens barn gone to the gold mine# of the Sacramento, without making proper provisions for the families they have left behind them ; and whereas many soldiers, tempted by the flattering preipeot rfsudden wealth, hare deserted their colors to go to the rame region, regardless of th?ir oaths hi)J obligations to the government endangering ths nfety of the garrisons, and thereby the tranquillity of the eountry. It is made known that unlesx families are guarded and provided for by their natural pro tectors. an J unless citizens lend their aid to prevent desertions from the garrisons of the country, the military force now la California will be concentrated in the gold region, to tho exclusion of all unlicensed PWMII. Tenon* employed at the mines are reminded that up to this time they haro enjoyed the high privilege Of digging gold on government land, without nharge and without hindrance In return for this privilege, they are bound to assist in apprehending deMrtere, - -i- .1.1.. nnil,-i. to the nearest military offlner where at. y nr? eoneealed. A dragoon force wilt aooik be at the mining dlafrlct and will traverae it to e?ery direction. to arrest desertera from the army and uaryr and to apprehend auch elrliena a* harbor or am ploy them; for theae eltlaena arc a* culpable aa th? d?| rertert themaelTP*. and. If arreatad, will be tried by a military commlaalon, and puniahed according to th* lawf of war. Should the officer In oommand of thla force receire the ecrdlal aid and aupport of the eltlipna, he will be enabled to obeck the a*rlou? * !! which now threaten* the "aMy of the oountr*. But it cltiiena are not willing to lend their aid and aa<latarce. but one alternative remain*. ?l* : th*t of taking mllitnry pwaeaalon of the mining dlatrlct. It la hoped that there are enough red- otin* ni> n at the iniqea to pee how much the proaperity of California will be retarded nnleaa they ptirene the conrae that U poiated out to them. It la dealrable to deralope the richea and wealth of California bat the military aafety of the country rauat be ((cured at all haiarda R. B M \SON, Col lat Dragoons and Gov. of Calif >rola, Tits Popm.ATio? op ILi.tNoiA ?The elisstion shown that the incrn-.R* ol our population mnce 1 H-l ( ha.- b< en very tfreat. The ai<gT-gat? rote? p-.lle.l nil' to rlaing one hundred and thirty thousand | find a compariacn c f present return* with thnm?i>f '44, fli< wa ' in a Isive number of t*t*? aiuthern count' ? the vottia wfri" not cur In firce The reault a>ak?* it cl? >r ihat ti e c< < t isso will . ?e u* *t ieaat a mlt? ' p tl I'aB'.i' ?'t?'H. {til ) Htn> ?l?r Sai> i.

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