Newspaper of The New York Herald, December 12, 1848, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated December 12, 1848 Page 2
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?r<a?d matt?r ef honor. aadit *>< ptiJ Including j uui'iiil null iuUrctt, pjo(?'u?1ij, ?.iuju. failure or ItlprBllAI. Again. the cior* of th# war of out ilebt, la ISiO, J>1'.T :3i u::J 74, a portion of It i??arin< na in uf \ tti per Ofn ; yrt t'.i?t <l?bt ftlvj W44 not <rly fully pa U la I '? >. ! '. 3 principal an I intcroat, tut tLr (:ov?rDDii o nfu-r ii.|uiJ?tlo$ a'.l It* te?*i.t? 1? J ? fur;?iu? l?: in th* t.-*a?ury of $iH 10L, 644 . I hi)"#.- <1. p i?.'?d anth th? SttU).< Hm m!i j k?rp Dr- i.< unf b- ci l I up >a to rotun it to th? I yumuamtoi i f I'uiou, nhjuid lh.' ?ai r^xncy ?T?r it^u.i' 11a Ufr, which t? in >?t improbable. At t?a' <i .?.r the cvUDtry hail b*>o txhtu?trl by a prolonged anil it" tr ?tru; gl* w.tb <b?* i^rawt po?r,*r in tin wtrld.aid its euiiim?:c? ?1 aost annthllatnj by block and rcibuz^f t? It* population th?n ?*? s #7? OJt), au J. ooi ? jtii c !y. iccurjin.; to population. tie dsbt ot tha* <i?t?i would be *quirn!?ut to a debt. at thi or? ent | r i to 1. of upward* o! thren hundred an J night iu.ii;uit? ol C I r?. or ni-. rl* fire tlinm a? urea. a* oar jtr?f?u: debt. \*i -.hut debt uf 1816 wat nut only punctually p<itl \ritbin t?veuty year* thereafter, bat I a Mirplu*. Mi ?v hire Keen of more thin twenty ei-fiit I {Billion* ol dollars, dep*?utd with the Statei. it. then, Id t?? i.\v jear.s. uudtr moh clrouinstanoe#, and with eurh h popuia ion ?nil aucb reaouroe*. we oou'.i pay a j 4ebt of that magnitude aud bave a *uzulu? ol twootyeight milliiut. v itfeiu boir xliorl a per??d inijr wo li>iuidtlc out engagements.' t> V HI mil 1 tabie it mil be nrn tUMr'n I7'.K) to the pre lent period. including ibe reimourseui-nt of treasury n las, w? have pud a public debt. including interest ajimating to ? t( tality of upward# oi live hundred mill oat of doiiarr By reference to the satne tab!#, it appears that our revenue during the ?aui? perioi. derived tram rerource? other lhao li an* or treasury note*. wa? up l wards of eleven hundred nod thirty ilx million* of dai- 1 iar?. !t will be perceived thutour present debt.tnaluling 1 the whole ot the loan yet to be paid in and d- d iotm,; it?e purchase, directed by thu department, of $>0*o.>0 of 1 the puM'.o debt, within tll? lust few week*, would b* j about $>k;Y27S.4oO 41. The debt due on the4th March. lb4.V per table hereto annexed, was $17.7tl? 7lO Hi, I deducting which from the present debt as above stated, I leaTei- the increase of debt. ." Inee thai data. $ti 41W,660 79. including th? lnana yet to be paid in, to woiob may be auded about *26000 fi>r Mexican aud bounty land scrip. The principal ot the public debt pud fine* the 4th March, 1845. t? about $1.8w2 N13 OS Our whole debt. Including the loan yet to be paid in. in not a sixtieth part of the debt of Great Britain aid les? than one-halt the annual interest of that debt According toatab'.e of the cJinmie?toner of thu General Land Office, hereto annexed. it appears that our I whole public domain unsold amount* to $1448,- ; 217 687 acres, which at the pu-ient minimum price of ^1 26 per *ore. would make aa aggregate value of j <11.802,7722WJ. Jiegardin^ th^m bjwever, incluling our mioeral lands at twenty-five cjnts per acre, they would yield *300.561 4M< t-ar^e as l.s this sum, our ! wealth an a nation would be mire rapidly iocreared by the sales of all our agricultural lands at low rates, not exotedivg itventy-iivw c> n's per acre. id *m>t.i utruis, to actual settlers and oultir.it rs. and thus, by enlarged product* and exports, insuring increased imports and augmented revenue. As it is obvious. even with liberal appropriations, that our revenue from lands and custom* will enable us to pay the public debt before its maturity, 1 pre rent the following suggestions for the consideration of CoDgress. The great mass of our public debt, exclusive of treasury cotes, consists of tlve per cents, redeemable in lSja, ot six per cents. rudaeiuible in ltSid, 1662. 1667, and lbt.8, of tlx p. r coats, an t trie military bounty land scrip, bearing six per cant interest, redeemable at the pleasure of the government. Of tlaii sum. tbe department, as at pesetit authorised by law, can purchase at its discretion, *lit? the means will perni't. tbe live per cents, th? s'z per cents redeem ab^s in Itfib, lbtili. end l?0f?. Tbe military bouuty land scrip bears six per cent interest, and is red temablo at tbe pleasure of th^ government. No power, Lowever, is given to tbe Secretary ot the Treasury to purchase this dr bt. although Congress may authorise tha d-p i:tment to liquidate it ot any tim.? without poyin? any premium or advance, and I advise euah autnoncy to be given, to iake eilect at any time after the 1st July next. As regards tbe debt of twenty eight n'liions of dollar*, arising from treasury n ten and stock authorise J by the act ot ilSth Jan . 1847, the Scretary of tin Treasury has no authority to purchase treasury n;tm or stock, except at par. When this aot was peadiu? before the two houses of Congress, this department re- 1 commended that this debt should be plaoed up.ni tus i eame footing a* those which prooeded, by deleg.itia^ th i authority to the Treasury to purchase any pjrii >u of ; It, including the treasury notes, ut the market rate, , above or below par Among ether rensons which in- I fluenced the department in this recommendation, was the fact that such a provision would mi?? the j debt moie valuable to the purchaser when it should be sold by the Treasury ard therefore imrea<e the piemium which could be obtained by eularjiuj the numter of ladders for it heiea'ter. namely, t ie Urgsst, ; probably, of all pureba-ers, the government itself; and the abs< nee tl this provision diminished the premiums the department vrar enabled to frb^aiu up a this loan It is obv ous t!-at if we have the means to purtihise tha | public debt before its maturity, it should b i done, J rather than pay the interest, and it i.' also clear lhat a' the amount which can be p'lrchicod by the government is increased, especially to the great extent ?f twenty-eight millions ot dollars, th* ! Treasury can maVe the purchase up?n better tarin*, by < nlarging the number of co mpetitors who caul! sell to it oer own stock. I'nder these circumstances, 1 reccnjtrrnd that tbe Treasury Department o> aiUhorised to purchase nt the market rate, at any time wb.sn iU taeaus will allow, after the first i f July n.<xt, an r portion of the debt of twenty eight miUious, authorised oy the act of libth of Jauusry, 1847, including Treasury notes, if any should remain unfunded. 1'ais is the mere necessary, as the . aim of tbe public lands have b<er. fet apart by this department, as directed by that act. for tbe payment of the interest and pnrohise of the principal of this stock, which is impassible at present." tfce right of purchase beinj lira ted to par. j Unlers, thee, authority should be givsn to purchnas this stock at the maiketrate, a considerable sum must remain in the Treasury, ou the 1st of July next of these talcs, which can be used for no purpose whatever. As soon as it was ascertained, in the es iin*tea of the ftveial departments, that tlie government had the meats to purcnise n pvit:on pi its ueol, sua arrest t lie inttmt, tho department considered it to bo J it* duty to male tbc pu:clia-e. t'p.n lo-tkin? luto thi te ei-lim^tes, and rotnp?rin.{ th.-ui with our Ei^aa*, it ?-a! l'cund that there would be a balance of}. 2 b'i3 0w4 S4 ib the i'rta'iirj on the 1st el' July. 1849. and i Ulance of $u 040.54.: it ob th? l?t of July, 18X) There who al.vo at that date, by th* litest returns, a c >py of which in hereto annexed, $Ij3 fci)4 41 iu spejie, in the feTfr*l depoitoties, to the cred t of the j .Treasurer <1 the United Slates, after deducting all , Oralis unpaid atid outstanding; and aince the purchare of this stock, there remained, by l<il??t returns. ?01.740 Sl> in specie, subjeot to the draf t of the Tleamrer, after deducting all drafts unpaid a id outstanding. I'ndir these circumstances, it w?.4 resolved to make the ptircba: e to tho amount of $r>00 O0J, thus ufiag a part of the premium obtained on the | leans by tbis department in liquidating to that extent the debt incurred and by the rise of ibe ?:ojfc sinoe that purchase, had it been delayed until the present period, the government would hare been compelled to pay a much higher price It was essential to* success (unless by larpely advancing the premium) tliat the purchase should be made by a confidential agent; and directions ftr the purchase were accordingly giren to C. W. Lawrence, the Collector at New Vora, in whom the whole community in which hi resides justly repose unbounded confidence, and who had executed arery trust with fidelity. A full statement of all the detaih of tbis ptrr?ha?c which ?as aiade at tfcvlowert market rates, is b?lnct prepared and will be placed protnpt.lybeforethecommitt.ee of wayaand means of the Ilc^ise. andof finance in the Senate. That the d<ibt should bo liquidated as rapidly as the cieans of the treasury will permit, so as to srrest the running of interest, will not. It is presumed, be doubted; but the government shtuld har? ltd option to purchase any cf its stacks. ro aj to lessen the pre- i tnium which it would be cotnpuil?d to pay. and the purchase should be vety gradual and projres'ire, for if it were forced too rapialy, the premium would bscaine exorbitant In view cf the uncertainty which attends all calculations of accruing rerenu?. it will pnbably not be regai dtd as judicious to make any further p-trchai-e until a period succeeding tiie 1st of July next. *, b.. r, .rUfnol.i Knlh n< t? >11.1 >TunHit,ir.: will be tested by resu'ts. and whoa it will bokuowa with certaiuty vhat means will bo at the dispo'al of the department to redectn tho public !ndeb*ednoj< ? As an eTldenee of the progre's ot' the country in wealth and credit, it may bp useful to oontrist the ??l?i of the government stocks and tressury notes during and immediately succeeding the war of 1 12, with similar pglei during and Immediately i cceeding the w?r with Mexico. By tho rep >rt 0 the committee of ways and moans of the House of Representatives of Congrats, of the 13th of April. 1830, it appears that, for the loans of th? wir of 1312, Jor eighty millions of dol'ars. In slock and treasury noted. the government obtained but $31,000,000 after deducting di.'counts and depreciation, b ing a leg of f.4?v,OC<',000 upon its transactions; whereas, in th? loans of ihe !?ft war with Mexico, this department obtained or foriy-iiine millions < f dollars borrowed on stock r.d tra'nry notes. $4!> 5G.r> .'ill f!i> including a premium of }...(i6 611 ."9 upon these transaction*, having obtained lib .'..Mi 611 liU more for forty-nine milliour of stock and tn a? ury notes sold b.v this department, for loans growing out ol ttie war with Mexico, than was received fir toity-e'mbt millions of stock nod treasury notes sn;d during ?nd immediately sucoe"ding the war with Ur?at Britain, tn s beiQ< r inired b; mi under . the constitutional trea-ury. and p*t I in specie for thj ( stock ard treasury net* sold. Theio statca'nts u.r* | cot made with a vief to deprecate my distinguish'-J ><redecefsorf in this U'pirtoi' nt, by whom th? o loan* ! vrcre cegctlated. The gre*t services rendered hy th iiu ire well known and apj rcclited by tli^ country, an I by no one more fully than by the pre<ent iaoumb-nt r.f this department, who has bid an opportunity of ol). ferTtrg all the difficulties by which they w re suj. toundi d and tow impossible it was for any 8ejr-:tary, uuder tho.'i; clrcua. ane;i, to bar'.* msdi th. n j '.u. , tlrn on better t?rms ttao was ffecteil hyt .'^, bit | 1h? fact? ar? Mated * * a m "t gritifying proof of ih wondufnl advance of 'be wealth of the country, and 01 tie povernment credit. The ech t survey, under the charg" of the suptrintendent, Piofeisi.r'A D Li^che, i? inakinj grout and rapid progress Daring the past jpar, pi* station* of tie co?.'t on the \ l?-tie and "alf of Mexico biva bs-sn veder larrey snd the computations, drivings. Hi.d engr-itlt |i? of hive kept pato wi'h the field w<rk. Within the sane period six new khoa'.s have been d'scoTered end made known on th> Kistern ooa>t. and one In < betapeake Bay Important suggestion* In rtpard to the p'au- 1 r light houses anl b joys h?*e been derived <iora the coact survey reports. WhiU this work is c nd'JC'ed on the hl^hoat rcleutltic principle* It Is rhown In a letter from tho siipsrlntealeat tbat tb? land W'irk cost-less tbiin th? nt iiijium pvd lor tbe fnivey (conducted with ?o much < onciuiy) of 1 tl e public lands. In reviewing the pro.'rr?s of this wirk for the past ] four >i ars. the result ts uio*t striking A piftot thj /.t^rui Infii tin l.-'fti cufrti'l fron the southeast nart <>l ]ifco<> l?iir.d, into \1?ls?. *n l tho whot? Ian1 Work li?? b?cii pooiplrtt-l, fr m P int .1 uII'h to r?p# c-ji, .rOTttfr^ * yt) li<Jt-nt?'ic <* * ; (he hj<!r.yr?;(hy h?i pn?rid NtntuPknt. ?n>l both the !ind ao>l w?'.< r ?,.rk M' D'etre birNir hou Much work of ??i<ac?tlcc *lJ i!lilug uyln' 0 in 4oa?bct?rora l'oint 4 Judith and Cape May DritvtN Bijrbu been flat shed. lad the chart of the kty ud river yibllihai. The ? baa bean triangulated aouth of the Virginia line, and ban tbia and the outer coast will b? triangulated is I roan two to three 5 ear a (run the preMot time. The topography of tbia seatton, which waa c< mtnenred in lh44. la adrancibg to oompi'tion, and, except the off ehere work, one third of the hydrography ! finithed. The ahorea of Albemarle Sound. and moat of ita tnbut u iea. have been surveyed ; the triargulation extending, also, over Crouton and Roanoke Sound*, and the hydrography in greatly ad fane*d A general rtconnolaanoe hat been mtde of part of the coast of South Carolina, Georgia. Florida, Alabama. Mi?*it>?ippl. and Texaa. and the operation* founeed upon tbia hare been commenced in South Carolina aud Texaa. In Altbatna. Mississippi, an4 Loa.sl ana. the triangulations have advanced nearly from Mobile to Lake Borgne ; the topography of the sfcoreu of Mississippi Sound, and of th? adjaaent islands. has boon nearly completed, and th? hydro graphy of the entrance to Mobile Bit. an 1 part of Mississippi Sound, and of Cat and Ship Inland harbors. and ih?ir approaches. have been finished. The survey of Galveston (upper and lower) Bay, h?? m id? considerable ptogrets. Four base line* have b-en measured in Mu*sachu?*tts. Maryland. North Carollna. and Alabama ; and two others have b?en laid out for meafurement. Two of the ba*e linet were mu sured with a most useful apparatus, combining new features, the Invention of the superintendent Korty astronomical stations bare been occupied in Vlaine> New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rho.l* litland, Connecticut. New York, Pennsylvania. Delaware. Marylaad. North Carolina, South ^eroiiau AUb.m?, Miv sissippi and Texa*. a part of which observations were made with new and improved instruments. Jdagnetlo observations have been made with the instruments recently introduced upon the surrey at eighty three stations. Whi <! improved gradetic instruments have b?en introduced upon the work, the principles of the modem mathematics haw been extendi d^o every part of it* results. The electro-magnetic telegraph has b?en ured for determining the difference of longitude of | card aal points in the work, and with a degree of precision not hitherto attainable by other method*. The tiuif SuTam has been explored as far south as a sectiou acd'Hs it at Cape Hattera*. and the law of the ocean temperature, ascertained. Twenty lour sheets of chart, remarkable for their arrangement, aocuracy, and style of execution, have been published and distributed to literary and scientific institutions.at home and abroad, and placed with agents for sate, at prices merely eoveriug the oost of printing and paper. Ten more sheets are In various stages of progress of engraving. WhHe the scale of operations h..f> been enlarged to embraoe the whole extensive coast of the United States, and to afford the benetita of it to every part of the coast as rapidly as possible, the economy of the work has steadily advanctd, tho augmented expenditures required falling muoh below the increase of work done. Wbie so much that is eminently uaeiul to commerce and navigation, and to our ft.re^n and coastwise trade, has been accomplished by this great work, It has received the commendation of men of xcienco in Kurope and America, and alvanced the seientifio oh&racte.r of the country. On the l'aciiic, where this department has already carried the work, and where it wi!l be so useful in obtaining information and publishing charts of car Western coast, 1 have entrusted to it tha losation of the buoys, and the selection of sites for light-houses in Oregon. The department has proceeded to carry Into execution the reveral acts of Congress, passed at its last ictiinn miblna n.iu.Tnnri?liorH for liirht-homiis. light-boats, buoys, beacons, &e. It has also carried tbe law3 into t ffeot, providing a art" bDats, 1 rocket?. pariound^n, lifeboats, and other neaesstiry apparatus for the better preservation of llfii and property Irom bhipnreck ; calling to its aid the underwriters and Chamber of Commerce of Now York, aad the llunuue S.ciety for preserving life, of Slassachuaetta. Important improvements may be introduced into our il^ht houre fystea. To conduct it properly, requires an accurate knowledge of our coast and n?vlRation?the proper sitas?tho character of the bulltimg and mode of ?cr structir.n- -the proper appiratus ted mode rf lighting?the different elevations. color, and other distinguishing properties of the light?, and whetbar stationary or ravolvicR?the neecisary preparations to guatd again.'t accidents, or th9 extinguishing of a light?adrquate regulations to secure tbe accountability atd attention of keepers, and all the aduiihtatrative duties pertaining to tbesystejj. There is iuroircd in all this, a varied umnunt of Knowledge, practical and scientific, possessed by no one individual; and to aid the department in the execution of tht6e lawj it has heretofore suggested to Congress, and again respectfully renew? its recom-nend?tioss, for the organization ot a boari, creating no experne, uuJtr the supervision of the Treasury, consisting of the Fifth Auditor, the S'lpirint'.-ndent of thu ( oast Survey, two ofilters of tho navy, ati ofllcer of tbe Engineers, aa alto if the Topographical C*rp?, who would uuite the requisite kuowled^a, and enable the department to conduct a'l the operations of the system. upou cur extensive lake ami niarUim? frontier, with incna5ed efficiency and economy. The department has ai"o proc-sedei to carry into fxecntion, as for as practicable, the various lawj fjr the erectipn of marten hospitals, on ltxe rizers and UP.eg t.f tfce V. cat, availing ilsell 01 me vaiuaD.e servi, cesoftfce Topographical Bureau Ccpi*e ol standard weights and measures hare been distributed to tbeStaus with the exception of theOur most recently admitted Into the Union The f'andnnls for these States a?d f"T the oustombouses of older States not yet supplied. are 111 tae cour?9 ' of preparation. The attention of the Stated it oa'le I in the report of the Superintendent of Weights aad Measures, re-ceived in June last, to the necessary steps for preparing county standards. co a? to secure uniformity in the weightu and measures in common use. Fifteen balances fer regulating standards have been supplied j to five States, and set up by an agent from the oftloa of 1 we'gbts ?nd measures. Two more sets, six in number, have been supplied to two other States. Twenty-nine . were on band on the 1 t of January last, ready fur distribution. The ei'ablishinent prodaces at the rata of ; bis balance; of the first class and three of the second, i or niao of the secosd. or four ef the third, per annum, i Tfce present distribution of weights and measure* is, in my opinion, provisional, and has been so consider- j ed by statesmen and m?n of scienco. A more general uniformity. extending to different nations, was looked j forward to by Jefferson and John Quinoy Adams, a? | one day attainable, and was rocoiam^ndrd in luylait 1 annual report. The time, in my opinion, has earns . for the frlous consideration of thi* subjsot by Ci.n- ; gress. New standard) are about to be made in Kogla i d The reorgani7.*Uon of the Germanic coiifuUe- | r*ti< n will give a grekt extension to whatever system , of weights and measures they may adopt; and the poll- j i tiral changes going on In other parts of Karspe are ; favorable to the introduction of uniformity. The su 3- j cess of our coins thows that it is practicable to break up the old fj stem and to in'.roiuoe another, wew and , I entire. One standard of lengths, ono standard <f i weights, one standard of capacity, with suitaMs multi- | pies and subdivisions, would be promotive ol oonven- i lence. and of economy of time in the business of life U and tho intercourse of cations. The adoption of J the decimal system would also, in my opinion, jjmtM plify and facilitate computation; and I recomj^^^H that authority be given to this department to necessary steps for obtaining international action to uniformity of coins, as.l weigMfl measures. Daring the pact year, the third of a rate reports of investigations on sugars Urs, under the direction of Professor A porlntendent of weights and measures, J. MoCulloch. mnlter and refiner of delphia ha' been presented to the transmitted to Cougress. by whom it to be printed, with a collection of ports. This report completes the ti fnr as necessary to.make tile ed in the use of the instrument at the and stnndard lnctrument* and a prepared fur u?e Tbrse extra official chsrged by these gentlemen without conffifej^^^^^^H My la*t report recommended the grant of land for schools in every quarter tO'.vni^^^^^^^H gon. 'J hi? grant, in each of the new section cfthe pubilo lands in each townshEyB^^^^H signed to secure the benefit cf educatto^H^K^^H children of that township This object h.is^Q^MJ^^H gr^at cztAt, bwMUMon* rctloa is ih" ivnMl I towntbip, ix miles square is t > dist ant fr im other sections, to furnish a school to which all em p resort, and because, as a pecuniary provision, it is inadequate. The grant, however, of one seotion for every quarter township wonld be sufficient, whilst the \ central location would be a ijarent. to every other section in such qusrter tr,*n-)iip. bringing the schoolhome within the immediate vicinage of every child ; within its limits. Congress, to some extent, adopted this recommendation, by granting two school sections , In eich towtiship. instead of one. for education In Ore- ! gon; but it is respectfully suggested that even thus ext nded, the grant is still inadequate in anoint, whilst the location Is Inconvenient, and toa remote for a sohrol which all can attend. This subject is ||ala , present?d to tl.e attention of Congress wl'h the recoxinettdation that it shall be extended to California an 1 New Mexico, and also to all the other ne-? sla'es an 1 territories containing the putlle domain. F.ren as question of revenue, such grants wuuld mare than relund their value to the governrn-nt As etch quarter township Is comprnfd of nine sections, of which the i rentrul section would be granted for schools and each 1 of the r< mulnirg eight rectlons would b? adjacent to i that grsct. d, tfce-u eight sections, thus located, and ea"h adjoining a school reetion. would be of greater \alue than when separated by many miles from such opportunities; and tbethirt} tworrotions cf one entire township, with their benefits, would bring u larger ; rice to the govemrni n% t! an thirty-five rcctions out r.f thlrty-?lx. when one section only, so retno'.e from the ri st was granted for Mich a purpose. The public domain would tbus be settled al'an earlier peilod, an1), jIt Ulng larger products, tbus soon augiu -nt our experts and ?.ur imports, with a corr<?pondant laor.-*?e of revenue from duties. The greater diffusion '( e Inration would increase the power of mind a*il knowledge a; plltd to oar industrial pur,ultr ant ?ii;m nt, In this way also, the prolurts md wealth of (be nation. Bach btate Is d"f-ply interested la tho welfare of *rery o'lur; for tbt represent it ions of the whole, regnUto by | their ?o'i>s the measures of the Union, which must be more happy and prosperous in proportion as its councils re K"id<H by more enlightened vlew^. reuniting from the wore universal d.fiu'ion of light, and knowledge, and education. Tbe atten'im of Coord-** If reepcctfiilly InTltodto the condition of tb* public land* in California Tin ofhcltl report* of the ^reat mineral wealth of (hat region prerent important for yoor oncldoration. That (fold ari<i <|uiok*llT?r oxlut to a great extent In California, would aeatn to be placed biyond ccntioTt r-y Thin gold wonlil ap| ear to require the fptabilnlim* nt of a branch of tho mint of the United Stated nt San Krancleco. The ijulciMlrer I* not only Important a* oonr.ee ted with th? Mining of the precious nu-ta'e with health, and the arte, but Mill inire with tf * advance of nclmer, and the pro^raee of dlerovery In phytic* Tbf mlnee of gold. and. perhaps ot oth?r mlncralr. wou'd Mem to be located nhU-lly on the publlo lend* Yh-y belong to tha goTernra?nt.a? a trnitee for the people, wboee Interent* eh "lid be protected ?nd e?-cuifd by Con(T*r.* A f olentlllo oommlielon toraiki ' geological e *a ml oat Ion a loomptnlad with li near ?ur: reye In dremid to be important XL. roiutumuui chireot?r of thl* report, gro?in(j Hi I of tha raited arid Important duties, eonstantiy lugmenting. ***igned by law to this department, render* it neovuary that I ihould r??rr? for * few day*, p.ml fur a rpecial report to Coocree*. the warehousing ijatc-m In itdrkno* of ibat rep>rl, 1 would remark. at tbia time, that new inatructi >n< are prepared by (hi* department, and tha torm? nearly compiet-d, a<n>ng other regulation* extending a morn free oo Br>?tit:ou fcr the storage of foreign iuip >rt? The progreM of tn* e\atein ban been mod ?atlnf.?otory and cuejenf il ; the value ot foreign good* wareh >m?d la our pit ,?, since tbe (>a**age of tbe law in Ih4t$ up to the 3')'.h September last, baring amounted to tbe rery largo aaa of about forty (ire million* of dollar* In poon retiring from this department and from public life, in which I hare aerred :-o long, wlt'i interior abilitir* to many other*, but with ejiiil Boliotlul* to promote tbe b**t in(er.-?te of my helored ooautry. 1 -vit.ii.it with the utmost deference to tho aapsrior wi?<K>in of t'ongreaa, my view* and experience as rrgtrda tbe orgaui.ation of the Treasury I2?i>trttnjut. It* raried and important dutirs, with the rapid in -reve of our owu burictH* and population, ean Hoircs'.y ha all promptly and properly performed by any oai sJeare tary. ? el. lu Uetucaing any or its du:ies iroji tut" ue partment, the greatest care mn<t b;> taken not to impair the unity, simplicity, and efiiaieney of ih systwai To take from this department its supervision over the commerce and finances, or over any of the accounting officers of the Treasury. the two oousptrallers, the six auditors, the treasurer, the solicitor or rrg'ster. assistant treasurers or collectors, the revenue marine, the coast survey the mint. the weixh'.s an 1 measures, the marine hospitals, or the light-house ?y-t * rr, woul 1 create confusion and be most prejudicial to the public tervice. But there are Important public duties, having no necessary connection with commerce or finance*, that couid be most advantajeou-ly separate J fr )<u the Treasury, and devolved upon a new department of the government. Among these, are the Wnl cffice, land titles, and surveys ceaeoted therewith, lineal and geological The business of the land cffice occupies a very large portion of the time ot the Secretary of the Treasury every day, an 1 bis duties cooneoted therewith must be greatly increased by the accession of our immense do naiu in Origan, New Mexico, and California. exoe.iiallv in oounection with their valuable mineral lands, thoir private land claims, arid conflicting titles. Krora all de:Ulons of the Conimlsioner of the General Land Office, as to government titles or private land claims pre emotions, private entries or purchases of public domain, an appeal lies to the Secretary of the Treasury. This is but one branch of these duties; and yet, as soma evidonco of the amount of labor devolved upon him fro.ii this sou roe, i bave prsnou need judgment in upwards of fiva thousand cases, involving land titles, since ths tenth of Match, 1840 These are generally judicial questions, and not financial; requiring often great labor and research, and hav:ng no necessary connection with the dutiet of the Treasury department. The daily corresponds tee bf this department with the Commissioner of the General Land Office. Surveyors General, the Registers an* Receivers, and other perjjns connected with tlie system, is most voluminous The supervisory power now exercised by the Secretary ol the Treasury over the expenses of tho courts of the United States, and other duties connected therewith, through the marshals and clerks of these oourts, gives rise to a very considerable dally correspondence withllbese officer*; and having uo necessary connection with the finances, should also be detached from tho Treasury Department, as well as from the State Hepartment, the duties of these marshals in connection with the census of the I'nitod States. Having transferred the laborioui duties enumerated from the Secretary of tho Treasury. Congress stnull authorize him to "appoint an assistant Secretary, who V... a tniin nf anil .?t jrir.fl n fH'ary not le?s than $3,000 a year, who pbouUexami-ji all Ittteis, contracts and warrants, propirej lor the tignc'ure of the Secretary. and to perform t-uoh other duties, cot requiring the R'gniture of tbe Secretary, as might conveniently be durolvsd upon htui by tbe department. To malnUin the unity and efficiency ol'the Bjstcui, he should be appointed! by tli* Secretary, and subjtot to bis direction He would wnnt one able and efficient clerk, with a talary uot le-s than 3,700 per ant.urn The offioe of Comptroller of the Treasury should be divided, aad that great and ti'.igmentinx portion of his duties relating to the receipts I'roia customs, and tan accounts <>f Collectors ana other oflljers of the cust( Disconnected therewith, should bj devolved tin in the bead of a Dew bureau, to bo called the Commissioner of Cnhtc:na, whose duties would be various a ad important. The firbt Comptroller should retain all the other duties now performed by him, and especially Madecifion upon claims and accounts, which would oaoupy tbe whole time of tbe head of a bureau Ccmhined as now are under the first Comptroller, tbe duties appertaining both to receipts and expenditures of tbe public u.onoys, accounts, and claim*, taa office is overburdened with buaineu, which cantios promptly and properly be performed by any one iaiiviJual. however able and laborious. Tbe duties now performed by the Commissioner of Jndian Aifairs are most nuraarou* and important, an 1 must be vastly increased with the great number of limes ecanereu uvrr ham, i/rcgvu, now mmnu, ?uu California; and with the interesting progress of bo many of the tribes in Christianity. knowledge, and civiliration. Thefe dutie? do not necessarily appertain to war, but to peace, and to our domestic relation* with thofe tribes, placed by the constitution under the charge of this government This KOrt iinpertant b-ixean, than. should be detachtd from the War Department, witV. whljh it has no necessary connection. The duties of the I'atett Office, great and iinportint as they row are, must nccessarjij- Jr:cr. .i?u with the progress of light and knowledge, the development! of the wonderful inventive genius of our countrymen, and the reseatches of so many enlightened minds in this country into machinery, tho physical 8oi?n:?s, and the arcana of nature. This barea.U has no necessary cr proper connection with the State Departmjnt, and ought to be separated from it The I'ension Offloe should also bo detached from the War Department, inasmuch a> no military orders are given to pensioners, m such, by tho Secretary of War, nor by the Navy Department, much less to the widows and teirs who receive these bounties froin the government. There is another rrnron why the Pension Office, as well as the Indian Bureau should b d^tach-d from the War Department, and placed under the supervision of the same secretary to whom the I,*nd Office would be entrusted, namely: under our system of revolutionary and military bounties, ar.d land warrants, as well as under treaties and reservations with Indian trills, cany questions arise in relation t? ur public lands and private land claims, connecting th'ja?elre3 frequently and intiroatf ly wiih our iji-nnral land lyalsm, nt.d with decisions uj < ? Kad title< made by the Comr-isslocfr of the General 1.and Office, and. therefore, lilJ tbo'e bnrtsiis whese duties ate so intimately coaL't i tfd w th tie public lands, at well a'with print# laud ought to b< placed under the supervision

(.r^ri^kiM department, or conflict of decision and Kay, and does, in fact, take place. I^^^HEtben detached the Patent Office from th? ^^PEntof State, the Land Office from the Treawell M Its supervisory duties, in connection ^BTaccount* of man litis and clerks of the courts. BBludlng tfceir connection with the census; having Hto dctacDed from the W-ir Department the Indian Thmau and the Pension Office, the fomo supervisory authority as regards them, all now exercised respsctively by the Secretary of State, the Socret?ry of the I'reaeur'y and the Secretary ot.War, Bbould b? entrusted to the Head of a new Department, to ba called the Se i cretaiy of the Interior, his duties wouUU be connected with tbcwjj^H||y|M||l|c s?r and efficiency of tlM s?rvioo. tfce more prompt di?char<<? several departments ^^^^^^^^HpMptqaent Immense veald be great indeed, the a I"l^^^^^HHl''1'' Tr> asury departmenT^^^^WHRQ^^rnSardaj Conneoted with this subject, T "recommend tlie 00mpletion, at an early day, cf th" Treasury bu'ldln,;, 1,0 as to recuie fire-proef room*- to all our bur -aus f.ee from lent, an well as accommodate and inclu I,'ln this edifice the State department, with its 1 avaljVuIu archives. The department ha* purchased, for ths ?um ?ppriated by Congr<??*. both tbe bridge* within this dij- I trict cut the eastern branch of the Potamw w i c.h j are now free cf toll, as designed by the wlie anlliberal legislation ?f Congress1; and In consumm%!ln; tMs result, valuable aid was rendered to mo by th- .Mayor of this city. Th? various recommendations of thin, mv 1 \?t financial report, aro respectfully submitted to the enll'fhln.td Ron'iiii ration of the two bouse* of Conjres*. They are believed to be such as would best promo to tb'f true interests of the A mi rlean paople. For thorn and for my country, ar.d fci r Rlor'ou* ennfed Tv.y of rOTer*!gn and I nited Stati n, I invoke t'io continued bletsirps of Heaven. M?y hi r union be hr?ranonioii?. |>rc grmil\ e, and prrpetual! May her care?r be one of honor, peace, c&d felory? cf equity, justice, and Rood fulth! May each ?uccp?aive administration, in all time to coiue, in faithfully discharging the arduous duties t>f it* exalted trust, receive tho support and approbation of lb* p?ople! (iuidrd by C3n*almis reotitude. may they b? ronm.f r.di'd and sn?tain?d in very ? fi< i t to promote the public gco j. and ?7en their enor?? wbieb are thn lot of humanity?be regarded with indulgence, and overruled by u b -nigunt I'rovidciice for the advancement of tbe h3j-piues? and welfare of our beloved rnuntry! It. J. WALKK.Il, Secretary of th? Treasury. lion. R C. Wii?tiiroi\ Speaker of the House of Ilnpr< tentative*. Navat,.?The 8. store *hip Fredonia, Lieut commanding F. A. Neville, sailed I rem tliia port yestuduy morning, for Sua l'ranei?co, Calif rnta. This filie ?lnp luk'.-s out n voy large c.irgo ol government Ftorea for the navy, army, and revenue teivice on lhat station. The following officers are attached to the Fredonia:? Li?ut eommnDding. V A. Neville; anting rai<Ur. Ahn>r Iliad; passed midshipman, A. k Monroe, I,. |{. I.yne f.dward llenshaw, as?litant surgeon, Ja.m-J V. liairlncn; aotlCK pnraer. Joteph (Jideon; aotin/a'sls (mil foi^t on. l.hinynw. iiuijrifuiK ui ,.r ? mtn, inhtrl W K??in?j; cm (ranter*, (Iworur ?V KlU i't.'Aiid J not* Liua; notion K itnuer, John Drnfn; pirMr'* rUrk. D?oj?miii DuilMd rutC4*i-lt;r, 'VIIIUm NocwocU of Richmond. Vft. NEW YORK HERALD. Norttiwrat corner of Vnlton and Hauta at*. JA91KB OORDOIV BBJIJIBTT, rnopaiETOR. AMU3UIKNT3 THIS SVINU40. PAQK TBKATRX- Bicmaho III?Libbktt. BOWERY 1HFATRE, Bowory?Muwoo Pak-X' Til i 'w ci.aaa?Umumi Ann Liyiau Stiiuu-Thb mii.i.na abd Hi* M??, DlOiDWiT TIIK-\TKR, Brj?dvr?y?Tkb Uohchbac*? M ihina Kakk. NATIONAL THIATRB, lUath*m Squar*?Kii?o awn Db immi-WANuBdiNO lljva -Vrarujtiaa add iiiicBici. BtrhTON"3 TPFATRB, Chamber* ntrMt-BatAOH or Puomu-wiiiit'i baknum? tkaobu* qi ?bn. BROADWAY CIRCUS, near Sprin* *tr*?t? Ev?vk?tblah. isw, bo. MECHANICS' HALL llnadwsy, no?r Sma?~(!niin'l *tw?.'km?Ethiopia* Bmt-ina. MKLODEON ? 7iac:.tii SmsADiM. SOCIETY LIBRARY?Ci??nr).i'? MmaTBlIA rAflORAMA Hall, 69a Broadway.?Diouama > Boa. iihdkhii or V ua Cbub. ZOOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, Bowery?Yam Aj?*vbqh** j Band mk.mavkiukKTUYVESANT INSTITUTE, Broadway, near Olaaoker itreot ?Nkw Ohluhi iskbr*acis'.h' ttnuorjAn Cohubbtb. TAr.KRNACLE Broidwaj?Dh" Coi.ton ann Boyktoh'* Exmn tion or Ei.kctho-Vaiiitii Tbi.icghaph, and tub I*aim-ii>o or thb Cownr or Dbath. BROOKLYN INSTITUTE, BrooUlyn-Gi'Ro'i;* Third Conobbt. New York, Tdtulay, Utwuibtr 14, 184U. Actual Circulation of th* Herald. Deo. 11, Monday 20.490 copies. Tin pnblioitioB of th* Hern Id cowmeuoed yenterdsy at 20 Jliuutoa pa*t 1 j'olock. and hnistied At 31 mi nut** p.wt 0 o'oiock. 1 circulation of tit* other Leading Horning Journals* Courier and Enquirer, (daily).. ....... 4,SC'J Journal of Comcieroe 4 GOO Dully 8,600 Tribune. .......................11,600 Aggregate 34,(ICC Errors in the above estimate will be oorreoted OB I td?4Qate authority. The Report of the Secretary of the Treasury. Our readers will find in this day's paper, the | report of Mr. Walker, Secretary of the Trcasuiy, | in full. Under the head of Washington corres* ! pondence, one of our letter writers gives liia opi( nion on its meiits and contents ; but we shall i defer giving our views on it until we have examined it in a Wall street light, which we shall do i in a day or two, at our leisure. Tin- S<enm?Jilp CannUn. This steamship had not arrived when we went to press this morning. She is now in her seventeenth day. She is a new ship, and it may be that some part of her machinery has given way, or (hat it is yet too stiff for spsed. If she does cot arrive in a day or two, her news will be anticipated by the Niagara, which will be due at Boston to-morrow or Dext day. The ixoid Milieu of California?Kail toad to the Pnclfic. If the accounts which we are daily receiving from California, concerning the gigantic mineral discoveries in that region, and the official reports published by the government on the same subject, are to be relied upon?and we certainly have no leason to doubt tliem?the western poition of our territory will, in a few years, rival the Atlantic coast in opulence, in population, the extent of its commerce, and in all the advantages which, to a Kreat extent, are contineJ to the eastern division of the continent at present. A great revolution?a wonderful change in the commeicc of the world, mid especially in that of the United States?will be the immediate result; but in order that we may avail ourselves of our geographical position, and secure to thi3 country the advantages that will result from this new order of things, we must expedite communication be' tween that distant pait of our territory and the Atlantic coast. The trade of Asid .Ohm* is, and has been for n long series of year?, monopolized by England, and that trade is, to a great extent, an exchange of the precious metals for the teas and silks of that portion of the world. It is carried on. too,with disadvantages which we, from our geographical position, would be exempt from, provided we availed ourselves of the facilities which the God of nature has bestowed upon us so liberally. We have the gold and silver on the Hpot, us is proved by the recent discoveiies in California. In this respect wc enjoy an advantage over England of no common Kind; and in another* an advantage of still greatcrjmportance?that is, in the facilities which we possess of uniting the eastem and western shores of our territory by railroad. As mutters now stand, we are dutant from San Francisco nineteen thousand miles; to all intents and purposes we, in New Yoik, are no nearer to that part of our territory than Liverpool is, for ves- j fels from both ports must double the Cape, thereby encountering the well-known perils of that dangerous navigation, in addition to making the voyage of the duration of from four to five mouths. ]?y the proposed union, therefore, fully sixteen thoosmd miles in the distance between New York and San Francisco would be saved : for a railroad from the I Jgifltyutippi. to California,through the llocky Moun- | j tainijAkthe Great South Pass?which,by-the-way, jrtjniTtT*n? been excavated by nature for the ex. TOitt purpose of a railroad from the eastern to the jMfefcrn shore of the American continent?would longer than twenty-five hundred miles. Tiic ^H^ntages of such a union never were more ap,ia^Vftt than they are now. It is clear and evident that if this communication were formed, and these mines of gold an<i ?ii??*i in California are as prolific as they are represented to be, we would have j the meanti within ourselves of controlling the coinnieice of the whole civilized world. We would ^vcrcome the dangers and delays of navigating Bpund the Cape, and we would possess the basis Hr%ll commerce in an unlimited degree. We pwould assume the position which we are geographically entitled to, that of the entrej'ot of exchange nnd commerce between Asia and Europe, and virtually berome the dispensers of the blessings which atltnd upon commerce to the whole civilized world. The proposed communication would, in euch an event, become the great highway ol the nations of j the earth, all of which would be tributary to us. | The United States would then, indeed, fullil its 1 destiny. and work changes the like of which the woild lies never dreamt of. Let that communication be made, and the vista of the future would be 10 stupendously and overcomingly magnificent, that at the bare attempt to penetrate it, the human mind would be paralyzed. Cities, villages, towns, manufactories, ships, steamers, and every other e vidence of industry, would start into existence aa | if by the wand of the magician; the busy hand of Inbor and trade would triumph over the solitude of the desert; the inhabitants of the great East would be as familiar to us as those, of Europe are, the wealth of the most extensive markets in the known world would be thrown open to us; in a word, as we have before stated, we would become the cvtrej at of the commerce of the whole world; and become the greatest nation ol ancient qr modern times, to which all others would render homage and pay tribute. In the prefect position of the world, and keeping in view thoae giand mineral discoveries in ^_i.i .1 _ ? i i v nmornia, uie cjuruuun ui rnc?wng a. rupiu una j speedy communication between the eastern and western shores of oar continent t!ir most important, by inconceivable odd?, of any mailer that could engage the attention of the American public, or of the American Coogreu. Noflung can uj>proach it in the uitennityof its importance. Congress should nt once take it in hand; but the enterprise should not and might not to be of u private or corporate nature, or canfided to any agents but those of the governmerit. We have seen the ill effects of ve-t. ing great power in corporations in this oountry, to our cofct; but the greatest power that lias ever been exerciaed by a corporation in any cauntry, 1 would be in magnitude what a mosquito bite ia to the bite of a crocodile, to the extent of the power 'hat a corporation, or an individual, controlling 1 such a proposed communication would exercise 1 over ine interests 01 our people ana country. tor these and other reasons, tbe work of effecting such ii communication as the one we have pointed oat, I and of contiolling it after it was completed, should be vested in the government, and in the government alone, and should pass from administration to administration on every change of the government, as the White House at Washington, or the office of President itself, does. That Congress has the ability to carry out this woik if it had the will, we presume there can be no question. It is estimated that from sixty to seventy millions of dollars would complete a railroad the who e distance?a sum which, in proportion to the magnitude of the benefits that would ceitainly be derived from it, is as nothing. We have millions and millions of acres of land on the route, now lying idle, and utterly worthier, which, as soon as the work was commenced, would be brought into a state of cultivation, and be open to settlement. This would add to the revenue and wealth of the country, und tend to swell its asricultural productions, as well as stimulate emigration ' ;o our snores. Although the necessity of a rail- ! road would appear to be immediate, in order to ' avail ourselves of the benefits of the great changes j which are about to be made, Congress may be < startled at the magnitude of this undertaking. A little reflection, however, if their minds are strong ; enough to encounter an investigation of the subect, will convince them of the great benefits which would certainly flow from it. We trust, therefore, hat this important matter will not be overlooked dunngthis session; or that, at all events, an apropriation will be made to have the route surveyed. Let it be undertaken, and Canton, in Ohin?.\vill lit* hut thirty (lavs distant from us. while it is now lour or six months, in point of time. Cohoress and its iJoiisos.?Congress has now ; been a week in session, but it is hardly yet fairly | on its legs. This may be excusable lor a few days ! longer; but we hope and trust that our highly res. pectable legislators will proceed at once, without further procrastination, te their practical duties. Some of the members have been already offering resolutions, and cutting out work for future action This business may be continued for a few weeks longer; yet we cannot help thinking that the wisest course for them to adopt would be to take up, without delay, such particular branches of legislation as are most required, and absolutely necessary, for the welfare of the country at large. One of the most pressing aud important points which claim their immediate attention, is undoubtedly the organization of a new government ! for California. That territory promises, in every ! point of view, to be the most important and valtta: ble that has ever been acquired by this country, : and its present condition is so anomalous and dia. ' organized, as to require the most instantaneous I and decided action of the legislature. We are in I hopes that the wonderful discoveries lately made in that territory, and its immense importance in a commercial point of view, together with the coneeqmncosit is destined to have, not only on this country, bu1 the whole world, will impel Congress 'o legislate immediately with regard to it, and to tnke steps forthwith to organize a government for that distant region. In the Senate, a plan has been proposed for this purpose by Mr.lDouglas?, a9 a l.asis ot action for both houses of Congress, and for the President. It is supposed by some that the question of the organization of a government for California will bring up the Wilmot proviso, with all its disturbing excitements. We are of opinion, however' i that the discovery of the gold mines in California ! will have the effect of laying the Wilmot proviso flat on its back. The number of adventurers who arc already preparing to go out tlie:e, and the lm, mci'se white emigration which will oour loto 1 . . I yan Francisco, must soon overwhelm all attempts i to make the Wilmot proviso a topic of disturbance | or annoyance. When the inhabitants of the territory will be nearly all white, and the emigration j thither of the same character, there need be very I little apprehension entertained with regard to the I bringing up of the Wilmot proviso. The best way, however, to arrange this vexed question, would be to organize California on the same basis as Oregon was last session. l?ut whatever course the two houses m iy pursue in this important question, it is absolutely necessary that immediate action should be taken upon it by the legislature. Gknkkai. Tayt.o* ant> his Cawnbt.?We are almost inundated, from all quarters, with articles, suggestions, communications, and letters> relative to the materials ot the new Cabinet to be selected by the President elect. We have already ffiven a number of names ol those who were most prominent in contributing their aid to the rrrat victory lately achieved by the people. tut we do not think it necessary or useful to recommend particular individuals for particular departments, in the present crisis of public affairs. In our opinion, the Cabinet under General Taylor will not be such a political conclave as the politicians generally suppose. General Taylor wilj be found a very different man from Gen. Harrison ?a very different man from Captain Tyler?a different man from any who have preceded nun in the Presidency since the days of General Jackson. We believe that the President elect will choose his Cabinet from the beat names and the most efficient statesmen he can get ; but it any indiv.dual of his Cabinet, or if even the whole of it, should attempt to rule the roast, or to upset the general 1 principles he may lay down for the guidance of his government, he will at once get rid of them, us etsily asCeneral Jackson did, and will appoint a new Cabinet, if necessary, every six months. The responsibility of the Cabinet, as wisely regulated by the constitution, rests upon the President's shoulders. The members of the Cabinet are only the heads of the several departments over 1 ? *- - ?- *1.?.. ? ..1 - and r<iai\nnmkln mnrt? 1 ir inr wnicil lliry ail' l'?ai;cu, am It C|?UUB.WIV Miviv.; IV. the discharge of tlie duties attached to their respective offices. IShould it happen that any of the subordin .tes of General Taylor do not concur in his general views and measures of government, we linve not the slightest doubt but he will remove them with the came ease and promptness as (General Jackson did during the eight year* of his i administration. __ Advkutifino r,v thk Uovicrmmrmt. ? We concur in the opinion of a cotemporary, that the governmeftt at Washington should extend its system ] of advertising, on the plan that was adopted two j or three years since by the Post Office Depart- l intnt. Hitherto, the advertisements emanating ( Irom the various departments at Washington, i generally appeared in the mere party organs there, which, it is well known, liave neither circulation 1 nor influence, nor means to give them the requisite publicity to the couutry. Two or three years ago, some good genius applied the common sense j principles of practical life to the advertising of the I'ost Office; and the advantages of advertising in the p:ipers of the largest circulation have bc?n exhibited in the great increase that has since acciued to the revenue. Why not, therefore, adopt , the same course with r'.-g ird to the other great de- i partments of the government! This in h favorable* lime to carry mch a measure into (fleet, and wc trust that thn present gotem- j m? nt will eee the propriety of introducing such a , lefoim before their retirement from ollire ; but 1 should tin y neglect to do po, we ho >e that the I new iidn migration, liuder the auspices of (Je* | dpiul Taylor, will not fail to apply th?-principles ?>f ( oiiiiimii M ns-e, ut d not of putty npirit, to every , depaitment of the government. Tiih Ii;on Mkamkk Mabihi.hibuilt in thin J eity, and plying on the river ot that nam", we , lenrn by itn artivnl at thif port, bur^t hat boilers I and lull* d four or five perfoaa. 1 Y Intelligence from Mm Wut Indlefr-knlTil of tne KUtmtiilp Kui-th. The Royal Went India mitt st-awr Forth, under the cc nniiand of Capt. ^Sturdee, arrived Siturdxy morning, at a vary early hour, from B^rmula and St. Thornna. Her accounts from th.rformer p'ac* are to the 7th, ana from the I itler to the lot in*t. The British mail ateam jwtcket Great Western [eft Bermuda ((rum the Gulf of Mexico) for ting* i... j .u? t.u .-.,u - e..:,.Ut ?? ..l. j - iuuu vii me fiii9 ihi a 111.-15u1 wi auuui iwu aim i hali millions of dollars. Files of the Bennwia Herald and of the 9tIhumut Tut en tie were received up to the latest date. Gen. Hanren, Governor-in-chief of th? Dan.-h Weat India Islands,arrived at St. Croix on the 23d. The Spanish troops sent to St. Croix some time since, left for Porto Rico on the 27th.? The following letter, from our correspondent, wiU be found of interest in a commercial point of view : St. Thomas, Not. 30, 1348. By the arrival of the aieamnr rorJi, from Naw Yorn, 1 have received a tile of your valuable journal conreyicg to ua hern? to the whole land?tbe clad tiding ot General Taylor's election wbicb, when lire# known here. seemed to create a mo it joyful sensation, and ha' been tbe universal talk sins*, while (he Kbro| eau news per name steamer has suuk into in*ig? DiOcance; and *? all feel assured that hij etactiun will have it* anticipated effcot of keeping at peaM with tbe whole world. The n?-grort> are quiet here, and it mast be attrU buted altogether to the very Arm and determined Ftt-pH taken by Judge B^rg, tbe anting Governor, who makes them ice tbe mark. Oar sifter island, SI. Croix, baa been now and then threateued by btui ntgroes. and hook plight disturbances have taken place, thfugn of too injitli scoount to m*Fe mention of; aud, had Governor Oxfcoim acted as prompt and decisive an he ought to have done, no trcuoie would have arisen. The new Governor General has arrl*?il. with four hundred tto?ps. aud no doubt, thing* will now be inquired into and settled; and onoe more the planter* be at reet. All tue Island* around promise abuucltnt and productive crops, to windward as well a< leesrurd, tbojgh low prices must naturally follow, when Whs ludlk produce is ho very low iu the l>?aited States, which at present is the only market good tor anything, eve a at the very low rates. American provisions, in the win lward island*. a-e a complete glut, and prices truly ruinous. Birbadien flour, Antigua, ,'g'; Trinidad, ?7; duty to o>in* off about *l,li to per barrel At i)<?merara the duties Miil remain off and will, probab'y. un'.il lftth December, when a heavy duty will b? lev 'el 1 be w io'm place hsa been snunJa'ed with every k ndof American pr^uuce,aud ail kind* 01 toreigu ani lss aud tUU interregnum ot duiies abolished has ttir >wd an immense amount out of ibe h:inds of the governmeut. Porto Kico and St lkiminj < tliUe glutted with prov b:oqj, and our n>aTket Hooded with cargoes from windwt'a aud United States The cargo per b?rk Hyptrou, alter going to hII windward, was sold a day or two since, at ruinouk ptlce?. Kiour, $5^; prime pork, prime bioad. $3; butter, Klc. A cargo p*r a Krineh rliip troin New York, 000 barrels flour, sold ar. $0. We cnnuot expect for au impravrm ?nt when cargo after cargo arrives, and is sold at suuh ruinou* price i. The bui-inecs to all the Weal Indies has and is overdone, and now no more voyages of coining tljublioni are made as heretofore, snd we must, alt around b? content with u little. Kx"hangu on KnglanJ $4 90 t> $ 5: od UDi'ed States. 1 pnr cent prem. By ihe way of B lumore, a id by the Forth we have copies ot ths Kingston (Jamaica) y.mr? rial to the 20ih inst. IV1uiiM> / 2 la Tt Itu n hnrv flan now AAmmanrl r\9 tU.k force-i. arrived on the l.">th. aud was recoiviU wi?h all the military honors. A young man named Vaugh came to his death in a singular mai.ner, on the 2d of November. He was going from Kingston to Old Harbor, and 03 his way met In the road a drove of caws, when the aol.aals attacked him in a body, and aolu&lly butted him to death. The Journal announces the death of Mri. Darling:, wife of the Governor of St. Luoia, of jellow fever. The Journal of the 20th contains the following Information from Barbadje*: ? The Baibadota Legislature was opened on the 10th 1 of OctoLer, by the new Governor, Sir Williaai Coltbroike. Toe yellow fever bad not only not left the 60th regiment, at St. An n'c garrison, but to ithal been added f the distressing difease of i nflammatton of the eyes, f which had laid up a largo number of the men ia has- ' pital. The fever was, however, on thd deoiine. la I the 72d, the loss of life is t-atd uot to ba so frequent, 1 owing, it is supposed, to the more sedentary hioits of 1 the nun. On the cultivation of ground provision*, tin Barbadian observes:? ' It is wonderful to think how vast a quantity of ground piovisions may be procured from our land, where induttry is oxerci:id and the weather favora- t ble. Here we have been tbii year feeding our p iputi- [ tion almott t ntirely from our own cultivation, be-idea J Supplying the wants of the neighboring c?ioates.? I Large quantities of sweet p jtatoea are exported every week, chiefly to Demtra:a. The demand ia so gr<>at that we cincot imagine that our p a->ters can now say they are not worth planting Indeed, we hav? ' heard ft several persons, even in diitaut pariahei, haTing derived contiderable profit from their greuad provltions." Tu-i'Rm,??-Per, sptahlng of th(? weather, says: ? >' The weather will, it is ?uiJ. in tho laa <u*j.? of the . 'crown tho crop ' We trust It will. W? om JJ"," | l th * ??* ttr priccs could be obtain - J for thelt wglr If t*5 do noC, .?' workiD? ?* Hie lobar, hoc oPu. eU. The ?J * Cr?? "??h?!e, ed, if it ban not {exceeded, UO.ltO lion lau uj PS the quantity coDfuu.ed in the island." Tfce principal topic of di-eu>siou among tha pi-mrd appears to bo the difficulty which bu o*i?t.j 1 for >u?t time between tne people of the colony and the h>n? government, through their mutual represa jtatives, the Assembly on the one han'!, and G JTernor tnd Council on the other. It seems that tho people ha u fur ao na time complained of the neplrct tf the h.>me gori-rnment, and insist that measure l be takon for the relief of the people. The Governor and his Council refuse to do so. and the Assembly, by way of retaliation, re. fuses to vote the supplies At the last aocount*, the House was ln?y on a bill to rrdice the tariff on Impcr'a of br^adstuff.v The g v raraent has offered to guaranty a loan, to the extent or half ft million pound*, fer the use of the several colonies wbioh deciro tlie means of carrying out permanent improvements of n general nature, and this < ff-r hai been communicated to the Assembly. A* yet, nothing bu been dose in respect to it, except perhaps voting the Governor's message communicating it, a.breach ot the privileges of the House 4 The WrtT India Mail Stkamkr Fojith.?Tnia veuel, under command of E. T. Sturdee, Esq., CHMie up at an early hour, yestciday morning, looking much finer and iu better oider than whea she was latt litre. Slie has been painted, and renovated thoroughly, presenting, as she now lie?* off the Batterv. a verv I'.ne annear&nce. To Onn lain Sturdee and hia gentlemanly officers, we beg to tender our thanks for their attention in forwarding our defpatches. In a late copy of the St. Thomas Ttdmde, wt llnd the annexed complimentary card from th? passengers of the Forth to Captain titurdee, and his answer, which we give, in justice to the Captain and hia gallant officers CirT. E. T. Sturdf.*, Royal Mail Strain Packet Forth. Dm* Sir:?Our passa^o having now terminated, and our agreeable association with you being now about to we take pleasure In presenting to yon our warm thanks for your kind and attentive deportment towards us. during our recent trip from Neir York. In all cases we have found ourselves well eared for, an abundant And well provided table, enjoying tlm luxuries at sea afforded on land We congratulate the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company in having thus established a line, longdeeired between New York and tbe West Indie? as a more speedy, much ssfer and more convenient communication fur travellers than heretofore, and we trust that Wont India .Atlautlo traveller* may extend their libera! pationnge towards It. I'nUer every circumstance we have found you a thorough, skilful navigator, and a gentleman. Tothecfllcfn connected with you, we als? detlre our thanks for ailing our p'easnnt pis a?e, and believe them wortliy of the eocfldence you repose in them. In conclu-ion, allow us to wish 3 on 11 bag life, gooj health and prosperity, and trusting that some of 1J may attain fn^nr ycur company, " We ?r? jour friends and pt'sengers. ]!otai. Mam. Stkam Packet Forth, Off St. Thomas. 124th Not.. 1848. Lapiri artn Ok* i i.r.mkit:?f 6 is with the utmost pleasure I reoeieed your address, itnd cm assure yoa I feel frond to think my eudearora to make you a* comfortable as I oould, hare bean ao unanimously appreciated. It would hare afforded me much satiHfaotion to hare nrjoyed your society for longer perio 1 and I truat some time or other to have .-igaln that pleasure. I hare no aout.t but the Company which I have the honor to rerve will And It to their advantage to continue the line of packets between New York and the Weft Indie*, aa the traffic developed ltaelf. They hare determined to giTe it a tair trial. On behalf of myself and officers, I beg to offer you my beat thank*, and in return, wlah you all health and prosperity. 1 am, ladles and gentlemen, Your* faithfully, K. F STt'ltDF.K, Commander. To the pasisBgers on board the ) K. M. 8. r. Forth. { We are requested to Mate that (he Forth loaves Hgmn lor licrmuda, St. Thomas, and so on to Chngrea, on Wednesday, at noon, precirely. The Goi.d ISxcitkmijct.?'The wildncss of tha [rold manii<. ns it now ruffes in tins ritv. will h? t)ftipr undeistood when we state the fact that no less than fifteen vessels arc now load ng for Oalilornia ; four more are under negotiation, and will probably fall into the list for the aame destinationKach of these take out provisions, clothing, manuIsctures, and gold hunters in uny number. At Hnaton, Baltimore, Salem, and Newburyport. aro Also veneli up for the gold region*. New Orleans is likewise in the market for this region. Tha oflica of Messrs. Howland Arpinwau his l?een inundated every day, for more tlmn a month, with Application! for passage, and with persons bcck ug intormatioa. M I