Newspaper of The New York Herald, 25 Aralık 1848, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated 25 Aralık 1848 Page 1
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?- I ... ... - I T H . ^ NO. 5318. ' TERY IMPORTANT REPORT F10M THE POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, roir office DrriKTMIMT, > Contract Office, December, 1848. \ To the Hon. Caie Johnson, rot t master General Sir In obedience vo your call for a statement of the views respecting the rates of postage, and the changes in the mode of doing Post Office business, which 1 had txpreteed to you In sevrral conversations, as the result of my examinations abroad,' and my acquaintance with our own system, I bare the honor to submit the following :?Yea hare referred to my opportunities of witnessing the operations of the best conducted offices in Europe. As the information respecting them, on other points than those above named, may be interesting, and was obtained in pursuance of your instructions, whilst attending, under your directions, to the business of our postal arrangements, I will embrace them la this communication, with such notice of the history and extent of our own post establishment, as will show the gratifying comparison it holds with those of other countries. I ?Uniform Cheap Postacie. When In London, in 1847. I met with Rowland Hill The explanations of the principles and operations of the penny postage reform, on several interesting poiuts. by its founder, drew my mind with Increase! earnestness to the consideration of a uniform rate, and the reduction of pottage. The principle of a uniform rate of postage in Kngland, is sustained by the fallowing argument ; ? An average rate that will defray tne cost of transportation on the short routes, will, in the aggregate, defray the whole cost of transportation ; for the whole servlse consists in their respective localities of short routes ? The long routes are made up by the connection or combination merely, of the short routes. That circumstance oauees no additional expense; consequently there is no reason, looking to cast of transportation as the only element of postage, for making any additional or further charge upon letters conveyed over the long distances. That is a rule of easy application to Great Britain, and which works out there, as its natural/esult, cheap postage; for, having au area of llti 700 square v miles, a population of 27,000,040, pretty equally diffused, and pervaded by an aotive commercial and manufacturing business, it has no unproductive routes, and produces a large correspondence to sustain a limited system of mall oonveyauoe. But the most important circumstance is that in reducing their postage from high rates to a low and uniform one, they changed its na4.ir? f.Am /v/ ? ?? a).;nk if ka.l noawUnaU {yielding a net revenue to the crown nearly equal to $8 OOO.GUO annually] to that of freight, or the prise lLerfly of transportation, including delivery, &c Now, with us, the proportion* are reversed. Our population, assumed to be 20.000.000 at this time is spread over an area, within the organized States, of l.lli'.'.OOO square miles. We have, consequently, numerous unproduotire routes, many of whioh yield a revenue lea* than the half of their cost. This ctrcuastauce, and the foot that the postage on newspapers fs:'? to piy the cost of their transportation by abwt one third, and that this item of expense, and the cost of transporting franked matter through the mails, are cast upon the pottage aasmsed upon charged letters, givea to our postage the charaoter of a tax. Make such disposition of the burthens I have referred to as will relieve postage of this character; change its nature, as they did in Kngland, to that of freight; reduce it to the single element of transportation?then we may successfully emulate the example of Kngland in postage reform, relying on the more clastic energies ofa young and growing people te make up for the disadvantages of greater territory and less population. We have a counteracting advantage in possessing a much larger family and friendly correspondence in proportion to numbers; and growth and developement will rapidly augment the smtunt of business letters. I am well aatistied,fr(m a general estimate, that tha surplus oost of the unproductive routes, the expense of transporting newspapers beyond what the postage upon them defrays, and the amount that free matter would come to, if oharged with postage, could not be less, at the most moderate calculation, tban $1,000,000 annually. The official correspondence of the departments of tha government, including Congress, is the public's correspondence. Why should not the nutylic n?? for it as an individual f>4$s Iof his: It is the duty of the government to the citizen to establish and maintain routes, under a great variety of circumstances, notwithstanding they may ba unproductive, as a portion of that guardianship and protection that his allegiance unities nun 10; ana puonc poucynrequire* iai; tae dir. fusion of public Intelligence, through the circulation of newspapers, be so cheapened as to be placed within the reach of of all. But is it just that tbis should be done at the exclusive expense of a class of citizens who bare no more interest in the matter than the rest of the publia? Supposing Congress should provide some other way for railing ibis $1,000,<>00 than by assessing it as a tax exclusively on the postage payers of pnvate correspondence?then what would be required would be a letter postage revenue, equal to the aotual cost of the transportation of letter*, of the amount indicated in the following estimate Assume the expenditure of the department at the amount of laat year, put for aafer statement at a round sum. I am aware there is to be an increase of mail service; but there are special items of expenditure for last year sufficient, with the savings in the middle section, to make the sum here Stated answer, vir. $4,400,000 Appropriation by Congress for the object stated 1.00< ,000 Newspaper postage not quite equal to that of last year, as something of a decline may be apprehended 750,000 Then there remains for letter postage to prcduce 2,650 0(0 4.400 000 Now the enquiry arises, how low can the rate of letter postage be reduced and furnish this annual amount of *2,660 000? The answer, I am well persuadeil.is to be found in the data, which our ewnexperience in this very matter furnishes. But it may be satisfactory to show what effeot upon revenue the redaction of the rate of postage has had In Great Britain, as well as in the United States. In Great Britain, the former high rates averaged 7d. per luugie icbvrr. ium pruuuucu u auuuai iotouuo iu tbe lapt year of tbuir operation, 1839, of ?2,390,738 10 IX The present rate is Id., Uniterm, and the revenue it produced the first year, 1840, was 1,369.004 6 2 Less of revenue ?1,021,159 4 II,1,' ? F.qual to f 4,942.410 72. Here is a reduction in rate of 88 per cent, causing a decline in the segregate of 42 7-10 per cant. After a lapse of (even y?n?rn, there still remains a decline of revenue of ?386,736 16s 0,'gd.?equal to $1,871,897 83, or 18 1-6 per cent. Th? decline In net is much greater than in their grots revenue; and 1 take this occasion to state that the whole mill packet service of Great Britain, as well the home as the foreign, is charged to the Admiralty, and not to the Pout OIHoe. In the publications ol tne day this large item of mail expenditure is omitted: consequently an exaggerated net balance is exhibited in their Post OSlce statements. The net revenue of 1847 was but ?67,469 3s. 8d., after deducting the covt of their steasipacket ae well ss other mall transportation. I am gratified in being able to state that <>ur own experiment! furnish demonstrations In favor of low postage of a decidedly morn encouraging character in respect to revenue. Prior to 1845, letter postage in the United States stood at various 'rates, averaging, in the' respective amounts they yielded, 1IX cents the Ingle letter. The revenue they produced?I speak of letter-postage ievenue only-the last year of their operation, 1846. was (3 >.6o 181 38 Postage was reduced to our present Ave and ten cent rates, the flrst year's revenue of which, 1848, was 2.881.897 74 Loss in revenue 778.483 C4 ?Being a reduction of 21 1 & per cent. Now the reduction In rate that produced this decline, was 66' , per cent, the present 6 aud 10 cent rates being averted at 8.':1 cents per letter, according to a calculation ?(m>\de on rather Imperfect data to be I ur?) ? of the several amounts yielded by thope rates respectively. Thn decline In revenue h*re is less, In proporiinn to the reduction of the rate, than it is in Kr.giand, by some 7 or 8 per cent. The next year's revenue, 1847. realized an advance upon that of ]84<> of 10 8 6 per cent Klve per c.f nt represents the general progressive growth of the department, as it does the ^ ratio of increase in the population of the United States and there was, consequently, a recovery from the flrnt year's fall of revenue to the extent of S\ per rent. But thia cea>ed with the second year-for the increase of the revenue of 1818. over that of 1847, I* but In the ratio of the general increase of the department. abent five per cent. It is still J>30?.S77 28 less than the revenue of 1845. The feregoing statement is of letter postage exclusively. We have r?en that Itl'j per cent of reduction of the postage rate eau^es a d< aline ot VI 1-6 per eent, In the revenue A uniform five cent rate Is twenty-one per rent less than the present rates averaged at cents, The reduction In revenue that'.!! per cent reduction in rates would produce, would be. according to the foregoing proportions, 7 C IO per cent; and this proportion. deducted from last year's revenue, would leave VI,086 630 08. This is $486,630 08 more revenue for the next year than the preceding table call* for. and shows that the rate is higher than what the principles of low pwsttfre here assumxi require. If Congress appropriates for postage on free matter only, or merely abolishes the frnnklng privileges, tht rate oould be put at five cents uniform; but this would still involve a tax upon the letter postage paver to meet the surplus expense of conveying newspapers, and of the unproductive routes. A uniform three cent rate is 62', per cent loss than rur predent rates; and that, per centagc, according to the scale of reduction, exhibited by the operations of 1845 '40, will oause a decline of revenue of 104 6 par cent. * The revenue of last year $3,350,304 10 licduced 19 4-6 per oent 6U.U00 21 1 eave* a letter postage revenue of f2 68fl,U4.t Hl? ? $2,(ioO 000 l* the imuunt de*lred. rhi* demonstrates that ft three rent uniform rate in eullloienl. and bar*. Ij suffloleut. to raise an adequate amount of letter poetaye revenue, provided it In relieved of all charge* and burthen*, beyond that of the cost of tha transport of hitter*, including thetr delivery and other incident* A* to a two ce&t it i? apparent, #o<?ording to E N E MORN the te?tA of all our experience, that it would net J it i<l the desired amount of revenne. Two cents is ft trifle lais than the Kntrllah ncnnv according to the legal standard of the relative value of British and American coin. And in view of their advantages, especially in their high rates of foreign and tranait pottage*, which average, probably, twenty cent* per letter, and amounted, In 1847, to 1>3 B7?, we achieve a much more arduoua undertaking, if auooewful, with the three cent rate than was accomplished by the British experiment. Comidering the vaatneaa of our territory, and the magnitude of our system of mails, and the still greater extent to which it must l>e carried, three oents here will be far cheaper rate, in comparison to service performed, than one penny in Kngland. There it one point not touched on in the foregoing calculations?the possibility that the present oommlaaiona to postmasters, when cast on the reduced amount of revenue, may not give sufficient oompenaatloa. But in respect to that, we can do as before?wait and see. There will, probably, be a reoovety on the second year from the fall of revenue of the first year, giving a proportion of increaae beyond that of the regular growth of the department. And this may alTord the meana of enlarging the commissions if it shall be found MMNUf. The same policy commends a uniform rate for newspapers, which 1 would put at our lowest denomination or coin, one centthe single newspaper, not to exceed two ounces in weight, where regularly Issued to subscribers. Transient newspapers and pamphlets I would oharge with the letter rate, if reduced to three cents, with thia rextriction in all caaea, that the weight of the newspaper be limited to two ounces, and pamphlets to three ouncea, with power to the Postmaster General to classify amall periodical pamphlets issued to aubrcribers with newspapers. Our aea poatage ratea are oonfused and mnttlfaroua. There is a six cent postage on private ship letters, if delivered at the port, and two oents addition to in land, if addreased elsewhere. There in a ten cent packet rate for the Wect India Islands, or islands in the Gulf of Mexico, and a specific rate of twelve and a half cents for letters to an<l from Havana. There la a twenty cent rate to Chagres, thirty cents to Tanama. and forty centa to Aatoria, or other planes an the Pacific within the territory of the United States; and, finally, there ia the twenty-four cent packet rate to the Rurcfean ports. And the matter is made more complex, by subjecting aome of these ratea to the additional charge of inland poatage, and relieving othera from it. Let all sea-going letters pay one uniform rate?the same, whether conveyed by private ahip or fovernment packet?whether from or to the port of an nterler pobt-office It is important that the power should be poaseised by the Executive. of arranging with foreigfroountrics, uniform transit ratea of postage, with the privilege of pre-paying. Whilst it would promote convenience, to have international arrangements that would allow of optional payment, in either country, on the direot correspondence between them, still, that la not Indispensable. But In respect to correspondence between two countries, that must be conveyed across the territory of a third nation, there must be an international arrangement between that third country and one of the others, to enable the letter to reach its destination, unless the party has an agent in ! the intermediate country to pay, at leatt. the transit postage. The super-addition of ratea should be avoided. Let the ship postage pay from Its departure, and to its Ueatlnation wherever it may be in the United Statea. It ia much more aatlafactory to the partiea to know familiarly in a stated amount, what the whole charge ia. and the aimpllfioatlon of the accounts ia alone a sufficient reason. If government retaina the prerogative of exoluaive mail conveyance, it must provide for the tranaportation of unpaid aa well aa pre-paid matter. But it ia wise to induce the pre-payment of postage. It better adjusts the expenditure between the partiea?it simplifies the accounts and lessens the labor of nnatmaatara Tk... fore, a pottage of twice the amounf of the pre paid rate should be imposed on the letter* of those who, instead of paying it themselves, put the government to the trouble of collecting it of the other party. This might be modified somewhat, the better to adapt It to our coin. II.? cflanue 15 the Moiit ok Mtll.lXi; L.eiter1 and Newspaters?Bauoitiu Mails, a .id forwarding them to Distant Offices. Our forms, commencing with the post bill, are complicated; and vet the ob:eot for which th>*w are ec, 11 not obtained, for they provide nd checks practically. They do not secure a thorough accountability on the part of tht* postmasters A like feature of insecurity extends to our mole of bagging the mails, wbich gi \ es all the postmasters and tbelr clerks on the route, access to the contents of the same bag. It is the purpose of distributing offices to consolidate the small mails flrom the various offloes within their district, for distant points, into large ones, for that portien of the route oommon to them, with * view to more oertain despatch and greater tafetyi mnd then, at the proper points, to separate them for their respective destinations; yet they have the effect, la numerous cases, to withdraw mails from their direct course, and otherwire to delay them, simply to be dintributed ; thus, in thpurands of instances, causing additional detentions. and creating an expense to tbe department, in distribution commissions, for doing that which is an injury to the service. Numerous alterations and oorreotlons have been made, and numerous attempts? but tbe defects are not removed. The schemes of bagging, forwarding and accounting, are all based upon the plan of mailing ; and there, all tbe defects of our system have their root. Nothing but a radical change an reach them. In tbe Infancy of our post establishment, when the i offices were few, it may bave been possible, agreeably to tbe evident design of the arrangement, to compare at tbe General I'ost Office the post bills, with the account of mails sent, and the account of malls sent out of one office with the accounts of mills received of another, and vice versa. But this has beceme imprac, ticable, and has been so, doubtless, for the last fifty years. In practice, therefore, we are withoat the desired checks to prooure complete accountability on tbe part of the post offices Our system was borrowed from the English : but theirs, at this time, possesses not a feature, in the particulars referred to, that corresponds to ours. After a longer experienee. probably, of the defects we 'are no# suffering, they at length abandoned the old system as Incurable, and adopted a new one. Each post effice In the kingdom of Great Britain (London, Edinburg and Dublin excepted) is furnished with a list of what is called its corresponding officer? There are usually some four or Ave ; and it can mail to no others. The port bill contains but two Items? the amount of paid letters, and the amount of unpaid letters, entered by the mailing postmaster in two blanks provided for that purpose. The reoeiving postmaster counts tbe letters, and enters in two other blanks, provided in the bill, the amount of paid and of unpaid, and signs it. If his entries disagree with the mailing postmaster's his assistant countersigns, and the last entries are taken at the accountant's office as giving tbe true smountr. Here Is a check at the outset. Each postmaster la furnished with a blank called, a monthly voucher. One side is to contain the amount of a.11 letter* sent. arranged under the bead * of his corresponding oftlcep, In column* of paid and unpaid; the t.ther tide the amount of all letter* received, under the bead* of the oorrespandlng office* from whioh received, in column* of paid anl unpaid, and each entry i* to be made opposite tbe date of mailing, a* well on tbe reoeired *lde a* the pent tide A* the office* from and to which each offlre receive* and rend* mall* are designated. and are generally but few in number, there I* no difficulty in keeping this account. and In oomp?ring the account* sent, of one office, with the accountR received, of it* corresponding office, and vice verra Here i* the second cbeok. The first by the neighboring postmaster, the last by the accountant* at the General Fo*t Ofllee. These voucher* are sent in to tbe General Post Offloe after the expiration of eaoh month, and with them only those post bill* wherein there 1* a discrepancy between tie entries of the mailing and tbe receiving Postiriuters The examinations and corrections of KTorwape Bade on these vouch*!*, anil at the end of tbe q At*r the account Is closed by Ik quarterly return from Be postmaster, and the ledger enules at tbe <?anetal Test Office. What tbere 1* In the foregoing that we have not, i* the principle of mailing to designated office* only; tbe simple form of the post bill: the principle and practice of the receiving postmaster clierking npon the mailing postmaster; and an effectual comparison, by mean* of the monthly vouchers, between the account* of mail* sent and malls received, thu* s&uring accountability by a complete system of cheek*. Hut a post office must have letter* to *enJ to other pest t (lice* than its four or tlve corresponding offices How are they, I y the Kngtlsh regulations, mailed and | forwarded? A* follows?One or more of the eorrespondtng rdices of each office is designated as its forwarding office. If the letter* to go beyond are paid, j their amounts are entered oa the post bill to the corresponding forward office, which enable* It to ch->ck that nmount, being a charge againit the mailing post- 1 master IT they are unpaid, they are tied up with the | other letters, but are not entered on tlie nost hill The ! paid letter*. being fully shocked, ?rt> nei?t on by the , forward office, through the forward office of its circle I of corresponding offices to tlielr destination, without further poet bill. Th* unpaid letters go forward from , tfc* mailing office through its forward office. and no on without pout bill, until they reach the font forward i ((He* preceding their ofllce of destlnatloo. at which they areplneed under poet bill, so a* to ralsean account szslnst and eheck upon, the receding po*tmast?r. Thl* Is very unlike, but vastly preferable to, our unsatisfactory and **pensiva soheme of distribution office*. The poet Mil In Kngiand I* used solely with a view to the ac**..nl|; and not for the purpos* of tracing or identifying the letter- a use that Is attempted hern to I be made of it, but which it is very Ineffectual In ao- j romplishlng In Kngiand. they furnish a satisfactory id and trsce for valuable letters In the mall, by what is called registration. For a fee of on* shilling 1 sterling, charged in addition to the postage, whlcn | with the fee Is to be paid in advance, a record of the letter by its address Is booked, and a recnlpt given It j Is described, in full. In an accompanying bill, specially l.oted on the post bill. an>l sent In such manner as to make It conspicuous in the mails. It is noted by special entries at each forwarding office, and when delivered. a receipt is taken. As to local letters, received and delivered at the same office, the like aheoks are maintained In respect to then as to mailed letter*. The sorter makes out a letter bill fur all he finds in th* box: and the delivering clerk, or letter carrier, acknowledges their amount by entries In blanks provided for that purpose This j charges them lu favor of th* postmaster, and the post- i matter in favor of the Oenerol Toat OUkct. A monthly j Ll W TO ING EDITION?MONI voucher Is kept on the wme principles that have already been explained. It is sent in to the accountant with all the letter bills; and the amounts they contain, after being corrected, on examination, are plaoed in the quarterly return and charged on the ledger. The mail bag, which la generally made of canvass, ffA#R unH?r bxaI Anil li An?n<iif nnl v ml. t.h? riffle nl. dressed. Thin is an incident to their scheme of mailing. founded on the arrangement of corresponding and forward offices, and would be entirely impracticable with us, unless our mailing system was adapted to it. As to London and partially so, at to Kdinburgh and Dublin, the sebems of mailing and acoounting is essentially different. In some partiouiars. from the foregoing; but as we nave not in the United States any place, that, like London, may be set down as the universally acknowledged and oommon centre In all respects, I will not trouble you with an aocouot of their peculiarities. For they oannot with advantage be introduced Into our arrangements. Our civil divisions are so different from thereof Cireat Britain, that we must, I am satisfied, devise a central system of pout operations for the large offlces in eaoh of our States, rather than adopt the Londoa arrangements The foregoing is but a hasty sketch of the characteristic points in the mode of performing the post office business in Kcgland Much that is incidental and explanatory, might be added; but in this connection it would serve to confuse, rather than elucidate. The question is. shall we adopt that system' The difficulty lies at the outset. When the change is made, the duties of the offices will not only be better performed by the postmar>ters and their olerks, but with far more ease and despatoh. The great wori in undertaking this change consists i n laying off the post of flees of the I'nited States into oiroles, so as to give to eaoh one of our 10.169 post offices its specified list of corresponding and forward offices. Besides a thorough knowledge ot the course of the malls, a particular knowledge of localities must be obtained, so that the malls shall be made by these arrangements to run in the channels of trade ami business. It would require too lorg a statement to point out the complexity and magnitude of this labor. When I considered the number of onr offices as compared with those of Great Britain, which has but 1778. (exclusive of receiving houses) and nearly a third of them are only sub-offices, and the extent of the territory of our States, whioh is ten times as great aa that of the I'nited Kingdom. I distrusted the practicability of making this radical alteration, and keeping the oiroles of offloes properly adjusted amid the incessant ohanges going on among postmasters, sites of offlces and courses of routes, and the rapid increate, from year to year, of new offices and post roads. But the object to be obtained is too Important to be abandoned. The improvement of our svstem can h? accomplished In no other mode. Subsequent reflection baa satisfied mo that the difficulties can bo overcome, if sufficient time is allowed, and Congrese makes a suitable prevision to carry out tbe undertaking. The prof [met that uniform postage will soon be established. renders the change more urgent. Our mode of performing post office business must be simplified, fo as to be done with greater despatch and aocuracy ; and whilst every scheme of revenue should be provided, with checks to insure aooountability, that needs it most which is made up of tmall amounts, for there is s greater tendency to neglect and oversight, arising from the lndilTerenoe with which small sums are apt to be regarded. Individually, though, in the aggregate, they swell to millions of dollars. The corresponding and forward system of mailing, as it may be technically oalled, has been an indispensable adjunct to low postage in England, bringing every penny paid for postage to the ledger of the Accountant (ieneral, and giving the publio the assurance, that what has been 10 well earned has been faithfully accounted for. That part of the poet office system in F.nglaad, which is carried out in their London arrangements, called the central system, oannot be introduced hers. In lieu of it, I would have a class of primary offices, to consist of one^from each State?perhaps two, or more, in tbe larger States. The difference between them and tbe great bodji of offices would be, that they would be placed In dlreot correspondence with a far greater number of offices. Kach primary office should post bill and bag mails to some of the other primary offices to be designated, and to *11 of the ordinary or second class offices within their State or district, situated en the direct lines, radiating from tbe primary offioes. They should be listed for that purpose, and these, In turn, sbc'j'd to suob primary ofltce. Out of tbe great body 01 offioes I would form the second class offices, to embrace the ohief portion of them ; also, a third class, which I would cull, as in England sub-offices. Sub-offices neither keep nor render accounts. They get their supply exclusively from one office, which is oalled the prinolpal office, \ The principal office sends out a post bill, beaded on cne side outward, stating the account of the mail as despatched, with blanks in it for tUe sub-postmaster to make corrections, and tbe other side inward, on which tbe sub-postmaster enters the acoount of bis malls returntd, with columns for the principal postmaster to make corruptions And in keeping the monthly vouchers of this account for himself, the prlno'pil postmaster keeps it Also tor the sub-postmaster, and ren,l.r> It tn th? <Jenif.il P,.??nfMn0 All ...-U kiii. re to be sent In Kith the monthly voucher. They have still another class in Kngland. Railway offices. occupied by two clerks at a time, at salaries rangin from ?80 to ?200 per annum, with an allowance <f 108. sterling per day. each trip. Mails are made up to them as lwrward offices only ; and as such, they irake up mails toother offices, and check upon the mails received from other offices. They receive no postage, but render regular monthly vcuohers, to serve as checks upon postmasters in correspondence with them. There are advantages in this, in giving despatch, but gained at too great a cost. Another objection arising here, would be, that our cars do not ran with sufficient steadinesr, to enable ao much clerical duty to be performed in them. To secnre equtl despatch, and not increase the number of route agents, I . suggest the following regulationWhere the party will pre-pay by means of a letter stamp, and will write on his letter "way,''instruct the postmaster to put it , in a way bag for the route agent, under a lock, for ! which he is provided with a key, without post bill; for I the postage being paid by the stamp, a post bill is un- ; necessary in reference to the acoounts. The agent can deliver it to the office addressed, by placing it in the pouch for said office. The postage stamp should not be obliterated in such a case, either by the postmaster senditg or by the route agent. It should be done by the receiving postmaster before he delivers it. The sending postmaster should keep and sender a monthly voucher of way letters so sent, as necessary | in the settlement of his commission account, and for . othsr purposes; and the route agent should keep and ; render such a voucher likewise, by way of checks - a ! duty which he can easily perform. The postage stamp ! and the direction of the writer te sand his letter ' way,'' will enable this facility of immediate despatch without pott bill to be extended, under proper modifications, to other routes than railroads, and to late let- i ters on the principal lines up to the last moment before departure. There is but one objection to this?the tendency of this class ef letters to multiply to a number beyond the ability of the route agent properly to attend to and dispose of them. This facility has not been extended to the public at all in Kngland, owing doubtless to this objection. When the evil, appro bended, manifests itself, it must be guarded against by piopcr restrictions. Letters of value and special Importance. should not, of oourse. be sent as '-way,'' but go under the eeaurity afforded by regular mailing and bagging to the place of distribution. The division. tb?n. of post offices, would be:? 1. Primary officea, kept l?y postmasters. 2 Pout offices, kept by deputy postmasters. 8 Sub offices, kept by sub deputies. Maii.in?:.?Adopting the simple form of the Kngllsh port bill, we should add to it a third column, for ' amount of pontage stamped letters." Thin will be Decenary for the commission account, and for other important purposes. a* we haTe no atamp office in the 1'nited States I would have a uniform blank for post bill, and repairs the name of office and date to be filled by the office atsmp (this adds to ita authenticity) and in all cases that it be algned by the officer aciaally In charpe of tbe mailing at the time, be fax postmaster or clerk. In Kngland. the po?t bill is colored. There aie practical advantages in this. These from a primary ofllce should be of on? coUr ; those to ft. of another ; and those between ordinary offices, of a third. The post bills should be filled with?1st Amount of paid letters, being those only actually paid in money at the office (this is the admission of a debit); I'd, Amount of unpaid letters (this Is a charge ogalnst the corresponding postmaster); .">d, Amoant of postage stamped letters (this Is merely a memorandum). The office dated stamp should be impressed on the right hand upper corner of every latter, and, nnderneath It. the p*id stamp in red. If the postage has been paid In money at thecfllre; and the rate atamp in black. If an unpaid letter. Mails will only be made up to the offices listed as the coitcsponding offices; and for distant places, to such of them as are distinguished a< the forward office, as hereinbefore described. Of tbe unpaid letters, care will be taken to enter In the post bill only those for the delivery of the office oiaiiaj toomitting from the port bill thr>s? that art- to bs forward) d beyond. The items of eaeb po?t MB, with its date, should ba entered on the sent side of the monthly voucher, under the head of the office mailed to. vmiiio rmuipn puuuiu 111' jliunu?g i nr e* fTJ onirit in the I'lilted Statei. They are better for being made of modi, b*cau*e more |tenaclou? of the Ink, anil far oheaper. Th?y *bould be u*ed on all letters ?ant or | received, and In filling up blank* of datea In post bill*. | notice*, and return*. They*h?uld be re-*et eaeh day with the proper date; and In the large office*. re-*et after the flr*t mail ha* gone cut. with the additien of A under the date; and after the *econd mail ha* gone out,|with 0. Thil will nerve to *ettle many dlapute* whether a letter wa* hand-d in in time for the outgoing mail: and on the Office Day Memorandum Book it ?hould be9 ?tamped every time aa. re*et, to furnl*h evidence of that fart. It would be an improvement to have the year in the 'lamp, a* well as the day of the month. Letterh malted ahoul I be stamped a hove Mated, on the right, hand upper oorner; and letter* received in the mail ahouid be (tamped alao on [ the back. Bai.cinu. ? -A* lock* anil trava are aireailv oht?ln?.l at'great rxpenne. and a* mall* nan be cloaed and opened by innM of them with much greater deipatoh than when tied, pealed, and (tamped, we had battar continue In the i He of the look and key. In reapeot to mtilR fi r dletant point*, we might adopt the Knglleh practice of pealing and utamplng, Thle, In view of tha poMlblllty Of lurreptltiouMy obtaining keyi and of making felpe one*. I eonelder the aafeet ThU f >rra of malllrg will require a hag for aaob oftloe. It ehonld be labelled wltb the nanus of the two offlcM between r- - -nx>-n?>?irr iRK I] )AY, DECEMBER i ~ ' " ' " T~ i

wbich It plica, an J retained exclualvely for their uae. The primary nfllce mails should (to ?n<l return under the large bras* look. The forward offlee mall* under I the fdihII brass lock; and all other malls under the | Iron look. IlECBivmn Mails.?The mall bag, onbelngreopened, should be turned inside out; and made of such form and materials that it can be readily done. The entire paid and postage stamped lettera will be couuted. and respective amounts entered in the receiving Costmaster's column, and such of the unpaid as are for his delivery, if the amounts agree with the entries of the 1 mailing Postmaster, the bill will be retained for about a year and then destroyed. If they disagree, the bill will be tent with the monthly voucher to the (ieneral Pcstcflice The letters that are to be forwarded will be sent on, if paid or postage stamped, without post bill, a mply by tying them up with the matter for the proper cilice; it ucpaid with a poat bill, If the lettera are addressed to a corresponding office; otherwise not. Kvery letter for delivery should be impressed on ita back, with the office dates stamp, to allow when it waa received. The amounta in the poat bill, acoording to the Receiving Postmaster's count, he will enter on the leceivlng side of the monthly voucher, opposite to the date of the bill, and under the head of the mailing otlice. Of mis-ient. redirected and dead lettera. I will apeak hereafter. NfcwspArcni.?Th? practloe of the Knglisli rostofflce furnishes no regulations suitable for this oountry. as to the mode of mailing newspapers and accounting for their postage. There, government receives ita remuneration f?r conveying newspapera in the mail in a stamp duty of one penny on each newspaper ; and as every newspaper published pave the stamp, it ia immaterial what number of them ia placed In th? mails. Foreign newspapera are subject to specific poatuge rates, varying from to 4d : but tbete are mailed as letters. They impose, also, a speoiflc postage of Id. on newspapers, handed into an cfllce delivered from the same; but this amounts to what it was intended for, a prohibition -to prevent publishers from usirg the penny posts as their carriers In Krance, newspaper postage ia 4 centimea. (four-flftha of a cent), on a sheet of small dimensions, aud It must be pre-paid. In Germany, it la one-fourth of the leiter rates for the dlatauoe according to weight. Tianaient newspapers ahould be mailed and forwarded aa lettera. Aa to those regularly issued through the maila to tubsorlbera. a plan should be de\ Ised that will enable an acoount of tnem to be kept and checked. i duc wincn win not subject tnem to b* overhauled. Mnglj, for the purpose ot mailing, on each despatch of the mail. The practice otoallingon publishers for a list of the number of paper* Kent by them to each pott office. Las become obsolete, from their neglect and refusal to famish it. I beg leave to suggest the following regulation:? Kvery post office, where a newspaper is published, should, in the oourse of the first month of each quarter, have a special and minute mailing of all newt-papers sent from it, made, at least, once, though at the haxard of losing despatch by the outgoing mails of the day on which this mailing is done, for the purpore of taking a lull list of the newspapers sent, giving tbe names of tbe post offices, alphabetically arranged, and tbe numbtr of newspapers sent to each, with the frequenoy of their issue, whether weekly, semi-weekly, tri-weekly, or six times a week. As the result of this, a voucher of newspapers sent should lie transmitted to tbe Auditor of the Department, soon after tbe expirailon of tbe first month of each quarter. Every office in the United States should immediately, after the expiration of the first mouth of each quarter, send a vouober of newspapers received, showing the number of newspapers received thereat, and the post office from which received, alphabetically arranged; with an additional statement exhibiting what number are delivered free, and what are refused to be taken out, giving the names of those refusing, and the names and offices of those receiving free. As the postage is to be taken at the commencement for the entire quarter, these reports will enable a complete account to be kept upon returns from the sending and reoelving postmacters checking upon each othvr, of the whole newspaper postage for the quarter. The additional rttatemrnt will enable credit to be given tbe receiving postmaster for the number of free and refused newspapers. By this means, the overhauling of the newepaptrs. before each departure of the mail, will be voided, except on one day in such quarter. Carefully prepared blanks should be provided for the abave returns. and blank notloes to be filled up and sent in by each postmaiter, that he ban no newspaper return of either kind to make, whenever that is the case. In a n?-w>pa|)er postage journal or journals in the Auditor's office, or in the dead letter bureau, the newspaper returns could be duly collected and ready for comparison on the ooming in of the postmaster's monthly vouchers or quarterly return. And with said quartely return should be sent an additional voucher of newspapers cent ; also, of newspapers received, where newspapers i have been sent cr Teoelved during the quarter in addition to those alreauy reported. Accounts.?The tirsc exhibit is the monthly voucher, to be cent in soon after the end of the month J hate already described it. I would make this addition: ?A column for amount of pontage stamped letters. If the office is in correspondence with a primary office, it returns two monthly vouchers for posted letter*; for those sent to and received from such primary office, and for those sent to and received trom all other post offioes. If it be an oOioe having a sub-oflioe. then a ihiid monthly voucher of letters will be required. | There should be also a fourth monthly voucher for local letters. Fifthly, a newspaper voucher received for the first month of each quarter, and followed up in the third with an additional newspaper voueher. And sixthly, a monthly voucher of mis-sent and re-directed letters overcharuvd covers and receipts, and dead letters. This voucher requires a more particular description. The accounts thus far described, fix the liability of the postmaster, not only for tho postage prepaid to him in money, but also for the unpaid letters comiBs to his office. Some of these may have been mis-sent, M>Bi( misdirected. some overcharged, and some remain on liana uncalled for. How in he to get credit for them ' By thin monthly voucher of mis-sent. redirected, < vt-rcharged, and dead letters. The process Is au follow* - On mis-sent, or mis-direr ted letters, received at an office, that fact is entered in red on their face; they are tLen mailed forward in their true direction, with an appropilate post bill, and the examination of the same by, and signature of, the reot-iving postmaster will constitute the check. On overcharged letters, the fact and amount of overcharge is to be entered on the covers, and they retained, or receipts taken from the parties of the amount refunds 1; and allowance for overcharge will be made only to the extent shown by the covers ! and receipts. Suoh overcharges and the amounts of | re directed letters, will be entered on the monthly voucher -as should be ulso that of the dead letters returned?and the present very objectionable provisions of law respecting dead letters should be so modi- j fled as to aliow of the following arrangement : Deii> I.hthh ? A letter uncalled for remains In the office till the end of the quarter, and is then advertised; and not till the expiration of three months frrm the time advertisement commences, oan it be sent to the General Cost office as a deal letter, and > then it is possible for it to remain on h<sd three months longer before reached in its turn and opened. So that a letter of value may be in the Post office i and Dead Letter (ffice nine months before it is returned to the writer. This fs wropp. 1 would advise I the following : Primary offises, and such other post offices of the larger class as may be so instructed, ! should ro.ke return of dead letthrs on the 1st and 15th ' of esch month all other post offices on the 1st of each month. When letters are refused, or the person* addressed are'-dead,'' or "gone away, not known where,'' they are to be sent to the Dead Letter offioe on the first return day, without being advertised But in each case the cause should be written in red ink across the face of the letter. In all other oases, the letters on hand at the expiration of the fortnight, or the month, (except those received by the ! last ??? I. .1?- -- I -i a.v .u MO luuiiruiniuij qurOl IIPV'1, HUM lllimB ' remaining by tbe next return day aro to b? transmitted to the Dead Letter Office. Letter* left in nn office ! to be rent, but which cannot be mailed, from the llle- 1 git.ility of tbe sdJrets, or having no addrrs*. or being I address* d to a foreign country without postage being pie-) aid, should be immediately enclosed to the Dead I Letter Oftice. having written upon them in red ink, j ' cannot be mailed " A blank should be provided, called the nccrunt of ! miffent. redirected, and d?ad letter*, overcharged covers and leeeiptsfcr the month of - ?, and in its column.*, opposite the proper date* and under the name of the post offlcs* to which the redireoted letters are rent, should be entered the amount*. The dead letters me ntered by their number and mmunt*. opposite the date* on which they are sent to the Dead I.utter (itf.ee. The post bill* that nccomptny the redirected matter should be sent by the recoiling postmastrr to the Dead I.etter Office. I will here remark that in view of the increase of duties these arrangement* would impose upon that office, it* force should be considerably Increared The principal officer, wha j might b? called the lnspeet?r of Dead Letters, will be the examiner of all claim* of oredit for redirected and dead Utter* and overcharge*; be should have charge , of the correspondence a* to ml**ing, lost and returned letter*, and might, with great propriety, h'ive charge of the new*paper journal, and the examination of the accoants of newspaper po*tag* I will here state that la my examination in the Dead Letter Office in London. 1 found tbat, notwithstanding their cheap r ite* and pre-payinent of poitage, there wn* returned 1.670.7'ia dead letters and newspaper* for the year ending 5th January, 1H47. The postage on the letter*, (l,078..'iflj iu number.) amounted to ?7 043, of which ?841 3*. tod was paid; and that there were in those letters ?507.674 6*. 7d in bills, and ?'8 061* 10a Od in ca*h. The number ef dead letters in h ranee is nearly 300,000 per annum. (|i 4R i r*i.v Hin an*.?These should be made np and sent in with the last monthly vouchers of the quarter immediately after its expiration. It should contain a ,I-M? 1. For the primary offloe latter*, atated in three mount*. 1 * month*. '2 For Id Office letter* generally, itated in lame way. 3. Kor l' -*1 totter*. al?o, *tated in *ame way 4. Kor <v*paper* a* per A ret return. <da. aa per additional return. ft. For ?h<p letter*. 0. For pottage stamp? The return will take credit ? 1. By returned letter* and overcharge*. ' ' 2. By refuted and free new*paper*. 8 By commi?Mon on lattora and newipaper postage ' collected at the office. 4 By commtfaion on .amount of poatage and (tamped letter* aent. 6. By gratuitie* for thip letter*. 6 By Incidental allowances. * [ERA IQ/IO Tub Lkdkcbs-Should be drawn up to correspond, | and ?o an to exhibit on one page the accounts of oaeh ] post office for the yt ar; and they might. an in th? British Post Office, be made up of printed blank*, leaving nothing to enter in manuscript but the amounts-thin laving the time of the clerk for more importaut duties, aud ensuring greater accuracy. A more general use of prihteil blanks would much i improve the aervice; and in view of the great multiplication of letters, ami increase of duties, that low postage will produce, will have to be lesorted to as a necessary labor-raving facility In Kngiand they are provided of a uniform kind, for every aperies of notice, return or voucher The account books are made upofprlntel blank aheets. and even envelopes for accounts, dead letters, ikO., wl'h printed addresses, are furnished to the postmasters. This goes far to ensure despatch and : acsuracy. Rkuistration.?I would adopt the Knglish plan for furnishing e\ Idence of the mailing and receipt of valuable letters ; providing special means for tracing them In the mails, and giving greater security in mailing and forwarding them. This is easily aooompliahed, if we adopt their general mode of mailing. Hut the attempt to engraft it upon our present system will prove a failure and a deception. I have already described the process of registration. If made to answer the purpose designed, it will greatly benefit the publio. It will somewhat improve the revenues The registration fee in Kngiand is equal to rents, besides the postage; and I was told that the number of letters in that country that paid this high charge were very great, being used in cases of payments, legal notices, and in many other inatancea where the evidence or the asaurauce was deMred that the information seat was brought home to the other party. As to comoenaation of Dostmasters, our nresenlmode by commissions is decidedly preferable, in my judgment, to the Knglish, which is by specified aalaries | Commissions are best Huitud to a chaoging anl growing system, an th<>y always proportion the reinuueration to the amount of business done. liut I a?e no good reason for a separate commissi.>n on newspaper { Let the accounting be aimplitii<d by having but one net of commisaion ratea, embracing both letter* i. mi newspapers; and if a claai ot? aub-oflluea should be authorized, the eommimioiiH for sub- deputiea, in con ideration of their biing relieved of the keeping and rendering of accounts, might with juatice be put at less ratea than thoae of other postmasters. Uniform rates and pre payment of poatage will greatly facilitate the business of mailing and account- | iDg. In Ureat liritaiu a pre-paid letter, not exceeding ; a half ounoe in weight, i* sent through the mall to i any part of the kingdom at their minimum rate, and the unpaid letters at double that rate. This disori- i mination initirea pre-payment ia moat oases and it ia ' further aided by a legal provision that subjects the j writer to the payment ot the pottage, and to proie- I cution therefor if necessary, in all oases where his letter la retuaed by the person addressed. I n <inrmany, [ the writer la equally liable to pay the poatage on his i refuaed letter. The Knglish scale of progreaaion la somewhat peouliar ; It counts the hall ounce but obc?. When the letter exceeds an ounce, be it erer sostna'l an excess, it 1a subject to four rates of postage?ai much so as if it weighs two ounces ; so if it exceeds two ounces, it pays six rates, the same as if it amounts to three ounces in weight. This scale simplifies the butiners at the cflloea. and counteracts the tendenoy to make up large letters, which sometimes runs into an abuse. III.-Haili.04d Maii Service. In Franca, thu right of sending the mails by railway, ftte of charge, is seoured in the charters cf incorporation; and in Uermany, both the mails of the Prince of Thurn and Taxis, and of ! mr B?VO(?I u?;>rrumruir, uiw cuuvojrnu, irotj ui cost. on the railways of that country. In Kngland, i the railway companies are bound, under heavy penal- j tics, to take the mulls at such hours ar.d rpeed as the i Postmaster l.cniral Mha 11 prescribe; and as to oompn ration, if they and the Postmaster General cannot agiee upon it, it is to be decided by arbitrators chuen by each, ana an umpire appointed by them, if necessary. The prices paid by the British post office vary from Id. to 2s. ltd. the (ingle mile; Id. the single mile, as the Knglish count distance, is equal to f 14 72-100 per mile per annum daily service, as we ntate it. The 2s Od. compensation is equivalent to $451 03'* per mile per annum daily service. The cau*e of this euormou.i difference is best explained in the language of the Secretary of the British Post Office. < ol. Maberly "Some trains (bo said) are run in the middle of th? night, when they would not have a p?s*eng?-r to convey; others are run at hours when they are full Of passenger*. In the one case, you would get \ery excellent terms; in the other, you would be obliged to pay very high, because you must pay the expense of the train, tbe police, the eight establishment and every Other expense Incident to jour order." We have no such tervice performed in this oountry as here described. 1 find, notwithstanding this extravapftnt Award of >461 VJiJj, per mile per annum in favor of the North IJnion Railway t ompauy. that the prices paid for railroad mall conveyance in Kngland in 1S47, a? Tag"', sccording to the best data that could be obtained, l'i 2-10 cents for each single mile The railroad mail ser vice in tlie United States stands for the last y<-arat the avt rsge of 13 40-11)0 cent* per single mill*. I believe we would bave better servloe performed between the port offices and the depots, especially at the large cities, and make more satisfactory arrangements wlih the companies, if ww were to confine their service to the 1 rails, as in Great Britain - and if the department were to conslruct its own railroad cars, a proper dnduoti . n being made in the company's pay, it would bave suitable apartments for its mails and agents, on other rail- ' 1 roads than those between Washington end I'hlladephia. The mode of settling price* f >r railway mail : service by aibitratloa is. I am persuaded, unfavorably regarded in Knglacd. a searching investigation bavins 1 W. inln An.. /.1 ha.-n r.ll f h n < Parliamentary Committee, and great reluctance since ' having been manifested iu getting up any more arbitrations In reference to tne vexed questions of rail- ! road compensation with which thin Department loan- [ noyed, I humbly ask, why are not the committees of Cotpress, and Congress itself, the best arbitrators.' Let I the Departmcntsend in its estimate.specify ing theconipensption for each road?let it be heard in applanation and the companies in oppafitlon, i( they desire; and ! in the .Appropriation Act for the service of the depart mrnts let a sahedule be referred to or incorporated i which will settle each case, and leave no chance to j dispute afterwards what the law Is in the matter Tho absolute power of the British Postmaster General over I railways enables hiia to tlx departures and arrivals i at hours that best suit the public convenience, in 1 respect solely to their mails Instead of their chief mails beirg despatched as ours are from New Vork, at half-pai-t lour In the afternoon, they are not permitted to leave Loudon till nine and ten at night ? thus allowing ample time for the prepxratlon ot correspondence after the business of the day is over, and ample time to mail it after it is deposited in the otllue. On the same principle the mails are brought into London atfiom three to tive o'clock in the morning? glvlrg njlfloient time at the office to open, assort, and < prepare thvm for delivery at the earliest buiilaess hours of the day. For want of such power, such arrangements are impossible here, wherever the com pa nies fltil it is not for their interests, iu reference to (he Lett accommodation of the travel, to run at { night, IV. Msir. OO?ITRACTS, I In Kranee and Germany tbey are made at flied i pricts?being in Kranoe a certain allowance for acli horse and each driver for each six miles of | travd ; and in Germany an allowance per mile for i the ordinary fervice, with a share *f the profit on extra work, and a nominal allowance for each borie kept and used ; which, however, is after- i wards mrdifad according to ciroum.nanc-s, so as to be sufficient to pay sxpenies, and give a pr?- : ? per rate cf interest on capital, anil gratuities to ? punviiiiuu*. vuat urn vt?rj pprvimuj ^iutiuovi iui iu vumr | p arrangemeuts. evrn to the Item of ' beer money.'' ,j (CD'rsota are given, with sureties for faithful per- ? lorenDcc, and l'or a certain term of years, varying n from four to fix. On the continent, pa^encers are 0 convejed hy the post departments. Not so In (ircat ' Ilrttuin; that is there exclusively the business of the I f mail contractors. On the principal routes the depart- | _ ment obtains the coaches of one ?et of contractors, the eoa ;h builders, and the service of horsing the |( coaches and conveying the malls In them of another, 1 a culled the mail contractors, with privilege to them to convey a limited number of pasrengera at their o?n t proflt, Contracts In Ureat Britain are let on full ! a competition, and for a term of years; but do not ex- p plre at the time i?t unless the department or the con- c tractor gtvn three months previoui natice; nor does t; it ct are at aay subsequent time but upon su<-h notlc*, except In cafe of the dra'h of the contractor, or ita ! p annulment by the Fostma?ter (ieneral for default, 1 u dimbedirnae t.f ordi-rs, or insolvency, which can be u rrdered at any time for those cau?ea. The highest contract piice for buildiog and keeping coaohes In repair a was, iu 1M7.13 Kid per single mile, the lowest 43 G4d. 0 per single niilo. This would amount at the maximum 1 ( to J.17 M per mile per annum, diily service, and at the 0 minimum to f.i k'j pvr mile per annum, daily service. , Tbe contract prices for horsing and conveying the n.ails varlsd from 0 to Oil per siugle uiile. (. ompett- ,, lion fir the busineFS of transporting travel hw , , reductd the average price of coach service below that a of their horse or cart posts ; and much below , , what tlmllar transportation costs on the con- | * Orient; but then In Krance and Germany, the r Department derives revenue on suish routes from 1 a pai-sengrr fare as well as postage. The Kngliah f mail coLtracts are of the same general character with ( ours. '1 he duties of tbe contrac tora and powera of t the loMmaster Oeneral are stated with mueh more H particularity. Kor instance, it la stipulated that one ,. team of horsea shall not be driven so far aa to berime j, necessary to water them and a coachman shall not bo I t confiied to a single stage, but shall drive aa gr-at an tl extent of the road aa the Postmaster General shall prescribe. The power of ordering the dismissal of a ,,| driver, which la leserved In our contracts, la extended tl in theirs to the horsea and every part of the establlxh- ? mant. They reserve to the Postmaster Oeneral the power of substituting another contractor for cause, tfi wiinnui nimiiuiDK me contract or cnur^inn rAp^uir?. rr Incurred in procuring ubetitute ferrice . anj of for- tI Siting the pay accruing oinoe the iant pay day. where pr the contractor bw been In default and diMni*n<?d. The u, contracts for the rural pnft? and other Inferior fterrlce ir ire made by the Surveyor of the di'trlot. and In hi* p|, Dame, acting in behalf of the I'oetm iKter General A sr r'ght of appeal in given to the Poetm?*ter General cj, 'rom the decision of the Surveyor againat the contrao- OT tor. under the reiwrved power* In the contract. I do Dot tee that the pewer to make deduction* In tha na- (B tnre of a floe tor delayi and failnre, aa la done ^ n onr contract#, I* given 1? KngHih nail D0 ontraatn. It i? specially renerved In ahe German ?< loaUMU j and the tinaa ui appropriated to Ut? - <** Ti D." < Twn rpivvi * ?f V/ X 0( po?t poor fund. Id Trance the punishment Is to pl*e? tb? driver who falls behind his time at the foot of the roll, which is kept of all driver*, with a view to thair prr.rni ti( n , and if the fault Bootinu?n, reduce him to a route yielding an inferior ci.mp* mat on. It wnnld be an improvement to have the contractu instead of terminating all at one time in each section, to end on different jean. ?o that an entire service of one '(Uar teroftbe I nion will not be left to the hazard* incident to ? new jet of eontrftctora. V. ? Civ* I'oits. An human** postofHce bu*ine*a i? <lona in Lon don and Tails in transporting latter* from ona part of tb? city to another Four huaJrml and fifty latter-cftrrier* are employed in Tftria, anl aa my memorandum show*. 1307 in London, (at pay of fn m 15* to So* sterling lerweek) besides s u peri n ten dent*. *urvey( r?, in<p< c'or*, < lerks, fortera, t-ub sorters, and messengers, connected with the name branch ot serviee it in estimated that the number of letters in circulation in the delivery of Loudon,exclaaiveaf those of the(>enerftl Post. war. in 1847. ov*r thirty-three million*. It 1* a greftt mistake, which r ome ii?V4 fallen into, that this aerrine i* done without charge to the citizen. lie pays a* much postage tor a letter convened from one street to the nest in London a* from I.undsend to the Orkney*, vis: one penny, in Parift the city postage was, in 1847, :i sous. Letters a re delivervd ten times a day in London, and from 0 to '2 in itt environs, extending twelve miler from the (tanernl Post,( ilice. In Paris the deliveries are madexeven times ft day. A complicated and extensive organisation la devoted to this business. embracing *ub-olHoe*. re ceiving house*, and acciUratnri. Krom It a large revenue is derived , aud it Is furtner used to collect letters for the (;?n> ral Post and to deliver the letters which have ooraa through the mails without ftny Additional chargn The oity post busineis in the I'nitud States i* performed chiefly by private enterprise. At tbtt rat* of three or Tour rent", which lh? law impose*. or at the Knghah rate of one penny (two cijutNi. todlviduel* ctn underbid the noTciomfnt lor tbia bu?in?K*-and there In no legal prohibition To compete with the in successfully, net ouly must the city po-ta-cn be reduced, but the department must get up like arruegcrnxnt* to thOM of London and Tarn. The plan* you hare In contemplation of re-arranging the carrier service with *ubt tlli-en and receiving bou?e?. accomplishe* all purpose*, no lar an public acaommodation in concerned, a' a ooat to the citizen of oiw cent per letter; which la twothird* leae than in i'aris, one half 1?** than in London, and l'rom one half to two-thirds, or three-fourth*, leaa than our preaent city rate. The objection la, that it sacrifices all revenue from city po*t letter* ; but all that we have hitherto obtained, ha* been inaufllaient to meet the coat of their conveyance. It will not effeot a free delivery of General Post letter*;?hat that la an extra accommodation, rendered after the letter ha* performed it* regular circulation through the mail* : and, before it ia extended, either exclusively to the clti/.en who livei within eu>-y accea* totbeofflce, or to all. whether far or near, our flrat efforts, It appear* to me. rhculd be devoted to the mere needed and mora e-}ual reform of reducing pontage on matter within the malla to its minimum. VI.?Tiif. Frahxino Privilege I* aboliahed in Great Uritaio ; but membera of Parliament are entitled to receive, free of charge, petition* addrersed to either house. provided they ar<* aent without covers, or in oover* open at the aide*, and do not exceed the weight of thirty-two ounce*. Addrrsae* to the <{ueen likewise go free of p<>tag?. In France, tbe franking privilege ie extended by older of the Minister of Finance to certain public otllcra for their official correspondent only. In the German States the king and royal funiil V ?><! I'mlmii.lo. < I... ? 1.1 j < .. . .UjU, IUO iriUMUt privilege. Government olHrcri fosses* it for their ollloial correspondence; and tb? I'ostma'ter General I" authorised to extend it to moieties for the promotion of soience and art* and benevolent objects j but their correspondence must pass unsealed VII. Moke* Orukr OrricRR. On the continent, *peoial provHons nre mad" for tbe conveyance of money through the mail ?the department ensuring it. The French charges amount to an average of fire per cent on the deposite of coin ?and an nrd^r payable at any or tbe (fllcca in Fracoe will be given for *uch deposits, at a charge of five per cent, with a stamp tax, if the < rder Is over ten france, e jual to ieri>n c-nt*. la Germany the like facilities are furnished by the mail*, tithtr tor forwarding the money in specie, or by an order, at a complex seal* of charge* founded on tbeir pottage rates-gold and drafts b-ing placed at half tbe charge of silver in fcluKlaau orders are not given for a lurger amount than .C5, ana the charge is threepence for orders of ?2 and lest, and sixpence for order* over. This facility for transmit ting tmall sum*. is nsed in Great oritain to an enor mous t stent, the transact us Amounting, in 1817, to X14.Ho, 153 1 ' *. Od sterling 1 was told that.| a 1837. it occupied the time of hut tbr?? elerke, ?4 uon nearly 300 officers and clerks are emplnved at the priicioal cilice in Aldersgate street; and it ha* a branch in every considerable post office in the kingdom. 1 brought with me a complete aod voluminous set of all the forme and bltnkf. I>ut believing it unsafe to connect such op*rations with our present defective mode of mailing forwardlrg and accounting, I have deemed V |iirui?uic riru lu PUWT UpOU IBM dlSCUMIOn whether it would be expedient and proper to establish nuch id Institution in aonnection with die Tost ifltcc Department. VIII.? Mis< ?.i.i.r.iKOi'i I And tbe following feature* common to the mail rflab'ifhtDt ntf of Ureal Brita'n and ?rm continent: ? 1 A flrcal (fllctr, not subordinate to the head of tbo IK part ment to aot an tr?a?urer, and to chenk npon (he acoounts of tbe I'oitmaater (ieneral. In hngland I raw that tbe account* kept in detail were in tb* barge of an officer appointed by the Poitmviter < Jeai-ral, called tbe Accountant (ieneral. The flacal ftictr first referred to who l>? commissioned by tbe Loids of tbe Treasury. i? a'yied tbe Receiver U^aeral. 'I. (iuards to accompany tbe mails, furoi<h?d by t*l* Depaitment with fire arm*, livery and chronometer, o be returned when their cerv;c? o ansa The wage* ire lialf a guinea a week In Knuland. with permission o solicit fees from pas-enters. On t'm r tilway* they rceive Jt'iU a )e?r advenc-H '0 Jt'lOO on the third year if service, to ?115 on the tenth, and to ?13Jontbe lfteenth 3. lWgistration of letters for an extra charge?on he continent called recommended let'era In eas? t tbcir leas, no indemnification is male by the KngIrb pest office, but there la by some of tbe Uerman iost establishments, to tbe extent of to tbalen in cb caie. 4. Tbe delivery of letters by letter carriers, and heir prompt return to tbe <!ead Utter ofHie, when be laity addrcsttd cannot he found, exoept tbOM marked ' potlt retlanlt," or ' to be kept till call?d dp." 6. Tbe limitation of letters by weight. In K.ngland. he single letter oannot exceed half an ouoen ; in ranee, a uuarter of an ounce: in (?*ninv ourtbf of a loth, now changed under a dearee of the ecant roital Congreie at Dresden to a loth, whieh 1* ialf an ounue. 0. The conveyance of money by tnall under ipeelal egu!atl<>ns |See money order office.| 7. A dlvUlon of post office* Into at lea?t two classes. I bex: that account t? the Ueneral Pout Ofliee, and ;htle that oo Lot In trance and Germany, one offico iWne. lor a district, receives the account* of all the flicex of that District, ami renders tbofo ascouat) *i: h its n? n to the general office. I n tire at Brit tin. It 4 only tbi'fe that am ?ub rdinate in other reapoct* hat rent *r their account* to another office instead of he general office; and ibis is tbe division intoprin :[al and sob offices that the gr >w:h of our departBen* will con pei usevntually to ad >pt If, with thl* liv sii n of the post oiHre*. a similar one should be i.ade an to the routes arranging the inferior onei late Kubordinate clasi, to be attend-d to undrr speeiBc in truo'l>n.?. hy certain po?t mister* or loeal agent* eMgnc.ted for the parp~>?e, both in ooniraetlag lor the -rvire and In supervising it. great relief would be floided to the auditing branch and to the coatraet fllce 8 The taost general mode for paying poatruaatere" uads or balances, is by remittances through the mail a m' de I coniider inferior to our*. Having stated what arrangementsi:e common to the everal Kuronean svstsms, I will now refer to suoh Ml xe peculiar to each. In London, tfcey have no postmaster They substlute for that (dice a superin'**nding president of inland nd foreign mails, salary ?700; and a superintending reildrnt of district posts salary the same. Every thing cmiDg and going through tbn mails, falls under be charge of the former, and whatever of mail matter rlgtnatesand Is delivered within the populous circuit t the I.ondon deliverv. eitemlin> twwiva miUj In Irectlon lrom the office at St Manias Le Grand, is nilrr that of the latter?tbe one accounting with Ttrymiiil and the other every day, to the Aucount t. t General I witneaaed the making up and daapatoh I the evening mall. The.operatlon *a< auperiutendd by two president*; there was said to be 809 persona n duty, but there were, apparently, but 400 la the win*. Tbey had a powerful coaljutor in a ete.tm Pgme, that performed the labor of oonTeying lb* i.eweagf ra, with their mill baga between the tint and I'cond ?tnries, and ttanaporting packages between the istrict pest and mailm* offices. ocotipylng tbeoppoite wing* of the building At 0 o'clock r. M , the :1lgow(. were clcaed againet all Utters and newspa>er? except thone a?.ooiDp?nied by the late fee of Id. nd ?td till 7 P. M . and tfd till half pa?t 7. From the levatcd deck* of the presidents. I aaw the atamplag, he obliterating of the po?tage arauipa. tbe sorting of he lett< ra to tne route dt.?ka tbe counting up of the mount of the pre-paid by the mailing clerks, aa a ivekngairat the return* of the receivers, the poet illirg ol the unpaid, the tying up. tbe wrapplug, and ho l itirglrg The great nnmhera and the activity of tie reene. made it one. apparently, of indee ;rlb?bfo r nfiji< n; yet each had hi" allotted part, aud all cases r doubt and 'iue*tion? of discretion were brought to le preaidi nt', and promptly auawered; and so nicely ua Una ibia inultlfarloua and immense labor adiuated > the tin* ret that *? the last bait parsed through 1a d<KT. the clock struck 8. and the f ur immense hid*, no thronged and bu*y, war** at nnca departed id silent. 2U0 000 latter* ?n l newspapers m tha < bihl*' number that laft tha office on that occasion, it before they did ?o. tha account of this vast nrutit of matter was prepared, checked, conj ted, and on It* way to the Accountant General; id tha monay collceted by tha receivers and window nlf, accompanied by a ri-rlflei statement, was pa'(l ar to tha Receiver General Tha uniform rata of postage, and the discrimination favor of pre-paymant by a <4t(T**rena? of one half of a d-a'ge. aro peculiarities, as yet, or Che British at (fflco, though after tha 1st January nest a similar tern will go into operation in inaoe. Tl-eit j.r?