Newspaper of The New York Herald, December 26, 1848, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated December 26, 1848 Page 1
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<y> ! ? ^ .1 . i , ii ! ! i i TH Ha 5319. INTERESTING CHINESE INTELLIGENCE. aoairs in ine veiesuai umpire. The Effect of the European Revolutions. die. die. &c. [Prom tta* China Mail, Sept 28. j Hwang, the late Lieatenant-Uoverupr of Kwantung, ku been summoned to Conrt, ostensibly to reoeive office, but in reality, it is surmised, to give bis opinion of the present state of foreign affairs. The sub?tanc? of the recent news from Europe has been forwarded to the Emperor, and the events are no extraordinary, that even the customary apathy of his Celestial Majesty bus been roused to inquire farther into their nature, et which no Chinese is better informed than Hwang. His ideas on the subjeot may not be very comprehensive in the estimation of European politicians, but they are oertain to be marked by prw-r^'.e and good aeiue .and greatly in advance of other imr?rial councillors. Hwang waa Keylng's most trusted adviser, even after be was deprived of office; and the imperial Commissioner never enfaged in foreign affairs without oonsulting him. The office is now entrusted to a in*n of aueh inferior qualifications, that Kejing probably sees the necessity of having Hwang's couusel and oo operation in reference to opening the oity of Canton in April next. Sen, the new.Governor General wh nowholda the appointment for the management of Barbarian Affairs, lately recommended a naval offloer at Heang-*bau for pi emotion; but hla request, on account ef iuibrmallty, has been refused, a result quite unexpected, and which bas engaged the attention of the Board of War. The people under hla jurisdiction praise him for not being greedy of money. He himself has frequently expressed bis total indifference resnectinff the honors conferred upon him, a od hi s read! ness to surrender them all, In order tola t r jd and quiet life. His administration ha. -.Una. -.n marked by great severity in the dispensation of jusiioe, endeavoring to overawe evildoers by cruel punishments. Nevertheless, crime does not seem to be on the deorease. Accounts of the disastrous consequences of tho hiavy rains In the North, continue toarrive. Several r*vers are raid to have inundated whole districts, and the most terrible ravages of the Hoan;-ho ara apprehended, if the rains oontinuo. [From the Peking Gazette ] Some of the aboriginal Meaoutsze in Hoo-nafltiavtug misted ti e tax gatherer, were denounced a* rebels, and an army was marobed Into their mountains. ILe insurgents were routed in a pttoht d battle, an 1 many of the leaders, according to the statement of the commanding general, came of their own acoord to nrrender themselves The oourt d.r-eted that tlse offenders should be treated with the utmost rigor, and similar revelti for ever be put down by decisive and rigorous measure#. Zu\a tie *""aQable J Le, the Proviaoial Judge of Kwang tung (refl?a-^y appointed superintendent of finances) is remarkible lor bis activity and exoellent intentions Unwearied in writing proclamations and prohibitions against the prtvailing vices of the people committed to his care, te endeavours, by all means in his power, to strike terror into evil doers by inorea-dng the severity of punishments. Yet crime has not decreased, bat teems rather to become more prevalent. Gankwei, a sc!?n of the imperial clan, who had grown up with Taonkwang, and fer many years ranked amongst the most confidential servant! of his sovereign, is dead He held, alternately, mmy high offices and was frequently the president of on* or other of the Six Boards, rendering himself also celebrated by his financial mea9ures. Few men could boast of i */, ikom K. tmrvn.i.l ma.fr- . r^uBi lATvir ruuwu kv lurui uj iudii iiupriini ui^ .Of, and none better deserved such tokens of his highest approbation Gan kwel was therefore one '0f the msst fortunate mortals of bis ag?, as far v worldly honor* and emoluments were concerned, jfor some months he had been ailing, and, after J?,Uch entreaty, obtained have of absence. By the tf jie his loave had expired, his illness had great!y Increased, and, shortly afterwards, be died, to the great grief of the empcrar. Ilia name rants high for undevlating rectitude and statesmanlike abilities. Several districts in Shen-ae have been anabie to pay the land-tax this year. The supreme government has tber<fore ordered that the exaction of the same should he delayed, and a proclamation published to make known to the peasantry that this indulgence proceeds from the great bounty of the monaroh. and that underlings are not to avail themselves of the opportunity to extort money. There are sevoral heavy debts owing to the imperial travelling establishment, derivable from investments in lands. These sums are to be colleoted with all possible rigor, and other outstanding items must likewise be paid into the imperial tieasury. The Governor General of Shea ae and Kaa-anh, who lately asked for leave of absence to behtld the Oregon's race, (havean audleaee,) has not obtained his boon. He remains at his important station , but, aa he was suffering under an optbalmlc complaint, received permission to att?nd to it for % month or so, but not to delay bis recovery much longer. He hold* a very important post, which can be filled by none but a man of strong nerve, able to adopt vigorous measures at the spur of a moment. In Lie, he has given many proofs that he possesses the requisite qualifications, and can curb the insolence of the Mahomdedans. The Governor cf Kwang se 'Cochin China) having been officially informed through the prefect of Taeping, that Yusn fuhfhe had aucceeded to the throne of An-nam, his predecessor Yuen tub seuen (the name of hla reign was Tbreu tree) having died on the 1st November last year?an envoy was thereupon sent to communicate this event to the K.mperorof China and to aubmit a letter to that effect to the throne. The Governor of Kwang se being fully persuaded that that nation has for many years been raspeetfully obedient to its leige lord, reqaeited, In conjunction with the high imperial commissioner at Canton, that tbe tribute-bearer might be permitted to proceed to Pekln. It would thus appear that the young king is dlspossd to tread In the steps ofhls father, by entire submission to the sway and customs of China, from whence his great grandfather so determinate^ deviated by introducing Improvements, and rousing the spirit of the nation through Krench influence. i lue granaee inf-:ui'nj mi wru ?uo?u auiuugsk iureignem f?r bin persuasive talents. has now fairly comnieneed his refonns in Szechuen, of which province he was Governor-General beforo hi* admission into the cabinet, and to which he was re-appolnted eighteen months ago. He la perfectly aware of the difficulties of tbe administration of a country full of high mountain*, where the natite Chinese possess same of the independence of mountaineers II* has likewise to keep an eye constantly upon the indigenous tribes scattered throughout the territory, who are brave aud determined in their resistance to Chinese encroachments. Tbtre ?re also the Sefans on the western frontiers. a most unruly race, as well as some of the Kokonor tribes, all nominally owning tbe Chinese sway, but always ready to pounce upon their unwarlike liega lords. An aetive mind like Keshen's therefore finds work enough in controlling naclfylng. and punishing tbe people under his jurisdiction, and he seems to be never at rest. The emperor, adverting to the djath of Gan-k v?l, says, that he was endowed with firmness and determination. and in all transactions did his duty. Hn endured fatlgus?was not resentrul?was most oareful and aocur ite in all he did, exerting himself to ths utmost of his powers. He fell sick ofaceld last winter, had bis leave of absence extended, and died unexpectedly. Tbe monarch ahed tears at his los.i, raised his pojthunions rank, bertewed a number of presents and three hundred taels in silver to defray the expenses of the burial. His son received the appointment of a lile-guardsman in the third olass, and will bave access to the palace. In this manner ha? Taukwang provtd bir great affection for his relative. A distant relation of the imperial clan having been imprisoned for a debt of his graodsire. on baing informed of the death of a near relative, begged to b? r'"" """"J *" "? >" ??j ... the tomb llin r?|Uest was readily granted. and )i i obtained full permission to perform the duties of QlUI p ety. The Kmperor continue* to enjoy good health, an I is p'esent at the cabluet councils and the a lata merlttci'ii. A Mantchco found guilty of felling to ne Are-trees to the precincts of the imperial reeid ,'no*, hu been rcDttiFced to decapitation. Hi<) aosoinpllc?<< are denouiiced. and will he punished as noon as appruhenJed The disturbances in Snow-Tung hare b?<n quelled but a Fpirit of ia*ttbordfn.'Uiou slill prevail* trieru as veil as In the capital. China has un lergone au eutire revolution in Its Ideas of pissive obu Il-noo. which ar<? now totally at variance With the exi ting institutions. This jiar, in spring, the Kmpefur irade a tour to the western tombs of his anceitcrs to perform thu sole.uu ilte of presenting racriEce* to their mane*. Daring hi* absence, two of his uncle*, with M'.ih-che.nsah. tb* premier, and Cbo plr^-teen. a Chinese minister of *t?'e, ooudueted the administration of the ernp'rc. Muhchangah l? raid to haie r?Mr?d on account rf licknes*. and the iiumlnalion of hit *uccr?aur was still deferred. 4 treat changes hare taken place In the oatngim 1'ng ?fBner* rf th? pre tori sn hands or eljht standard < Thin 1/ considered a certain indication of a oUnng* In the ministry. It ha* been found necesary to mill? aKera'.ioas in the succession of the princes of the blond. who from generation to generation will descend gradually in tank, till they flDally become mixed wlr.b the people 'I he pooterUy of the Imnerial elan Is so nn neron*, an I l.as branched ofT in such an extraordinary minn?r. that luany of the noble scions who claim their descent from thn imperial house, are no better olf than m?nial*, receiving hut a small stipend. A great grand'on of Kbang b.? Is a fervaot, and many other Individual* have scarcely the wage* rf coolies. If their number* re not loincedhy the above sliding scale, they will f. rally be ?o great a' to absorb the wh >Ie revenue of the Imperial ho*se, Theyoung n?n h *loa.:l rir t.i this privileged class, ara moreover very proud, an 1 frequently give rise to quarrels by their aggressive and insolent J ehaii'>r. thus occasioning much sorrow to their imperial kin?man. Heme they have been kept under I-? TMy RIVAL oounrtiui, BUM pwu.nunu ~ w. u *?v?nty. Many ?unuoln have lately ab*oonded from th? harem to Ihf Rreat rtlepIeaMire of the Kmperor. One who fled four time*. i? wn( to the rlrer Amour, to bv now a !??? to the roldicr* there for life Another, who hao had inn* connection with the opium traflla In ihn palaoe, will, a* goon a? L? lf> onu^ht, receive *nrrr? )>nuMhnient. SdYtral dUtilftl in Sb&n-tur-g Larioj eullcred lroai t E'NE MOB fUDd.j calamities, were exempted from paying Una during last jur. The tame favor was shown to some diatrlcta In Shen-se Wherever the bmpercr show* himrelt thus gracious hla bounty ia loudly proclaimed In large lettara npon thousands ef yellow papers stunk up at all eornara, that the Inhabitant* nay remember the paternal goodness of the great Kinperor. An immeme list of candidate* for office*, onaocount of the patriotic contribution* paid into the imperial treasury, appear* again in the Ptkin Gasrttt. Money la decidedly the omnipotent instrument of the day; and talent, unsupported by this commodity, ba< little t rorpert of promotion. The sale of oflioes is an understo< d thing, and the fundamental prinoiple of the Chinese monarchy, of raking the bent literati to the bifihett honors, is rtually abrogated. The salt monopoly, in the north of China, which, in day* of yore, yielded such immense profits, is likely to undergo great alterations, for most of the merchants engaged in it are bankrupt aod the deficit of the ircome occasioned by their inability to pay the dues, gives rise to serious evil*. Keshen dismissed an officer en the charge of drunkenness?a misdemeanor of very rare occurrence amongst Chinese officials. Paou-cbaag, formerly minister of Thibet, but who was recalled In consequenee of certain aocusationa brought against him, is appointed President of the Board of War, and bas regained the full confidence of his n.aster Le. the provincial Judge, has issued very severe prohibitions against Budhi*t nuns. It would appear that the younger members of the sisterhood do not act up to their vows, and that many youths are led astray by them. Wooleang, the Mantchoo minister at the court of Lbasaa, having died, the Kmperor directed that some token* of favor should be shown towards him. Lin trib-tseu. thecx-oomu>is?ioner of Kwaniftungand present Governor General of Yunnan aud Kwei-choo, teems to be distressed for means wherewith to disperse ome robbers who have become very powerful. The gevernaaent directs blm to make use of the patriotic contributions alieady collected. These robbers are probably insurgents, who have opposed the lenient ineacures of Lin, and must be put dow z. with the strong hand. Sen, the new Governor of Canton, has been raised five steps and recorded three time*, for having sent a patriotic contribution of 10 000 taels to relieve the staiving people of Ho-nan, he being a native of that province. Le, while provincial judge of Kwang-tung. issued a very petere proclamation against the horrible custom of drow Dlllg female infante, and threatened to vl*it the perpetrator* of euch deeds with the utmost penalty of the law. as if they had murdered a aon or grandson. Chang, the magistrate, has issued several prohibitions against kidnapping and selliing children, the worst description of slave trade. A regular traffic of tll< kind Is carried on to a great extent. Amwi r*orr.c.t ok Kkvino's.?Leu-tsin. the late Prefect of Canton, and recently intendantof ShaouKing and other dbtriots, is said to have fallen into disgrace, and been sent in chains to Canton n# n proud, overbearing man, vain of his talents, and very severe upon go that ha must always have a great many enemies. Many sensible papers have lately appeared on the subjeot of the transportation of grain by way of Tientsin, one of whieh makes it incumbent upon the broken to refund what is short in the amount, if the loss whs not occasioned by the carelessness of the captain; but this arrangement being'.a Opposition to existing oustom, finds little fav^r the eyes of the grandees. To prevent inroads in their country, the Koreans deserted, cha 'whole northwestern tract which borders upon Mantchooria. The Chinese government appears anki^'Ua to meet the wishes of this recluse people, by ^Tohibiting vagabonds from cultivating the land, as squatters on the frontiers. Under these the poor Sban-ce peasantry are com?" bended, who leave their homes on the barren hill- cultivate the virgin soil of Kirin They are, hr ' <r, too numerous and persevering to be repelled! j mere prohibitory enaetmants. There ia another ordinance, which forbids them to clear the soil on the border land of Kirin and Le awatung. The latter district, though the patrimony of the ruling Mamchoo dynasty, is now entirely in the possession of Chinese agriculturists. These injunctions will probably remain a dead letter, as great masses of starving human beings pour constantly into the vast uninhabited parts o.* Mantchoorla, and in spita of the government, soon change the desert into ? garden. A memorial from the Lieutenant-Governor of Keang-ie, explaining the causes of the insurreotion at Linehuen, baa appeared. A body of men, under the pretence of building a temple, imposed a heavy tax on the peasantry. To put a stop to such imposition, the gentry seised the leader, ills adherents took revenge on the captors, and the whole country was in a short time in a blaze Kuoh is the government version, which no doubt differs materially from tbe real facta. In the meanwhile the whole brigade of the Lieutenant Governor haa bean despatched to budpress the rising, which proves that the disturbance Is of the most serious nature. It would appear that the Meaou-tsze, being attacked ' in Hoo-nan, took refuge in Kwang-sa. Whether they have suffered a defeat is very doubtful, yet the Lieutenant Governor of the former province has begged a reward for the officers who distinguished themselves in the campaign. The war has been a costly one, and is by no means yet tlniohed. To supply the wants of the public purse, the Kwang-se Lieutenant-Governer proposed to open a subscription for ! patriotic contributions, insuring to donors rank and I emoluments. Key-ing joined in his request, and the I Kmperor has no deubt granted it. | RUSSIAN INTERCOURSE WITH CHINA?TREATY OF K1AKTOU. [From the China Mail. Sept. 21.1 We had recently occasion to reter to tbe state of commercial relations between Russia and China, and ' regretted the want of a copy of the treaty of KUktou, | by which they are regulated. This want has n.ow been ' pupplied by the kindness of a triend, to whom we are indebted for a French Teieion. made from the original ' <Mantehoo, *f the treaty in question, which we now 1 publish, accompanied by an English translation. It is both curious and important, as being the oldest 1 existing treaty of commerce entered into by China ; with an Kuropean state on terms of equality; for in I that of lBfce, the result of prolonged negotiatious.trade { la only incidentally referred to, and restrioted to those 1 "who have pasaprr-s, by which it appears, they came | with permission," while the preamble sets forth Its object to be " in order to repress the Insolence of certain 1 roTera, who. passing beyond the bounds of their lands ! to hunt, robbed murdered, and committed other out1 ragea; as also for settling the bounds between the two ( ?n.p:res,of China and Russia; and la short, to esta! blif fc an everlasting peace and good understanding." This treaty did not redound uinch ta the credit of | Ilucsla, which gavu up its claims to a large tract of country, and to what wan of greater importance, the ! command of the river Auioor- objects fur which it had j wtged a border war for many years. As an accompaniment to the prevent treaty, a brief ! summary of the several embassies from Kuaaia to ChiI mi. may not be unacceptable, for the materials of ! which we are chiefly indebted to the "Actus de la So' e'?'tc Orientale," and Maiila, Iiiatoire Ocncralc de la Chine." The first embassy from Russia to the oourt of Pekin, was In 1666 and had for itsobjest to establish freedom ' nf nnmmerra Kitwoun (ha t mm onnntrica Th ? Vmm*. ; ror (Shun chi) directed that the Russians should b? treated with honor, and had a guard placed over the house appropriated to them, by whom they were to bs accompanied wherever they went?attention* which 1 wcuid probably have been willingly dispensed with. 1 As a preliminary to negotiations, itw?? required that the Russian monarch should be acknowledged a* i.ho Tarsal of China, oad the prtsents be had sent nooepted I as tribute. To there conditions the Hus?ian ambi*i rador would not accede, and he was, therefore, compelled to return home without having accomplished ' anjthing, except to And that the Kmperor of China i was regarded as the suprene ruler of all the nations of thewerld. [Shun-ohi, the son of the victorious Mant' cUoo Teensuog. or Ttung tih and founder of th? present dynarty, was, on assuming the tliran*. ' proclaimed Kmperor. nott.f China only hot of the world "] i NietihulT, who wan then at IVkin, attached to thu I L)utch Mission states that It was uot because the Ru?. sians refused to ackrowledge their monsrch to ha li.e vas?al of China that they were not received, hut I tecovee they would not submit to the ceremony of { investiture. which however, amounted to the *ame I ttin/, as liist would, in efl.-ol, hfc?e been th- MCkuotvIt Cement < f va??alage or d^peodmoe. i he ttcor d em busty. ni.dir I hei di re llexioviex < Jolev in. ail I ted at l'i kin in dui lug the teun of the Kmperor Ksnc-hi. and had for its sole object tfee settlement <>f the frontier, as his bvenulr.ajy ai?ntiOBfd. The third erohntsy. under Ifbrantz Ides arrived at r. km in MovrtDotr. lbM, atera journey through Silnriar.nl Tartarj of 18 months. The objects of the I trnbsnj tv?te ohletly commercial, but it doe* not. apl pear to have teeu moaetttul. although InoranU, in his | nocouiitot his embassy, allege* that he was received j with the ceremonial obserTtd iu Kuropv; and that, inI stead otdepr.s'.tlni: Ms credentials upon the table p'ir. i posely prepared, he plactd them upon the thron >, and In the prefence of the Kmperor. If so it is remarkable that thiM concession on a point of ceremsny should nave been the only advantage gained by tbu sinbnrsad* r The four'h embassy was that of MmallofT, In 17*20, rendered famous, not so much by its sunees<fu| rs^uits. hj ihe admirable account of it niven by John Bell i>f At'.nmrnj, thr tnvdicai attendant, and in the Journal o/ l)r l.nnge. tn? S'-rreiary of the rii??lun. whr> r m tinned an resident at I'ekin for nearly two y?vir?, until Ilia ciote of the lon? aad eni'jf lite tied reign of KunRhl The firth emOMBT wai that of Wiailda w'.tche. despatched in the l*?t, }ear of the rei^n of the Kmpen* Catharine of Kuwia. After iimu^ln^ the in port ant treaty of Kiaktou, the Amba.iiidor proex (led to I'ukin, wh?r? he arrived iu 17iH. duri ng the lelgun of Yung-cnlng of Cfiioa and I'etur II of ItiiMia. FIt* year* ?nbw<|ii?nUy three Mandarin i with a nui inerou* retlaue, rnme an an cmbinsy to SI Peter?burj( I ?a preeedent which haa'not been eince followed with , Itussta or any otkar country. The ei*th embassy was that of Kropotoff, who obtain! d an audience, It in paid. by submitting to perfrrm the Kotow, but without effecting the commercial obj?cti of hi* tnionion The Kerrnth embany wai that of Golowkln*, in I hi.i o, in tn? rciati* or too Kmperorn Alexander of Humitft and Klaklng of Chin*. ThU wax tht< most magnificent mini-ion that had nrr b??ii dMpatoh?d to 1'ektn; b?t th? xtrnt of ih? rotinun, numbering upward* of tiro hundred individual*, upon whom nothing had bffn ?par?d that would t?nd to add to > Mwir rplendor. only seem* to have augmented tbi itwii. v..^ * . < W YO tNING EDITION?TUE I Amb&MiLdnr'fi diffirnl i?*? And wax thrnncrhniit hia prrpreaa, a peipetual ca?'?? of ohj?cton on the part of tbe mandarins Tb^ question of the err* menial to be observed on preaentatlon having been warmly dUcuesed during the recent ?mbaa?y of Lord Macartney. Gelowkin also demurred about confirming to It; and the Vieeroy of Mongo'ia aoccrdingiy aent a deputation to Pekin, for in?tructlooa aa to the t>rma on wbleh the mi.'iion ahould be uttered to proofed These were to tbe effect, that the Viceroy ahould invite the Ituaaian envoy to a f?a*t in the name of tbe Emperor, and there require tbe performance of the nine proatrationa before a acreen and table covered with cloth of imperial yellow. Thla Qolcwkin refuaed to comply with, aod an order for hi? return waa rhortly afterwarda received. lie had arrived at the frontier on tbe lit January, and departed homeward. without having reaohed Pekin, on the 10th of February. 18f6. Tbia waa tbe laat embaaav from Ruaaia to China, for tbe mlealona of 1808 and 1820 were undertaken profwafHlv to keep up tbe communication with Pekln, bat probably not leaa to obaervt the a>at? of the countey and judge of its reaourcea. The miaalon of 18'JO wa? conducted by Timkowaki, who haa written an intereaticp account of it. A secret miraion under Waaalgen ia aaid, on the authority of tbe Courritr Ft avcaiie, to have be?n projected In 1840 We know nothing of ita obj'ota or r?ault; but we do know that the Chlneae authoritiea peremptorily refuaed to allow|the Prina Menanblkoff to di?charge her cargo at any of the porta, holding that the Kxfaana are reatricted to the ;roviaiona of the Kiaktou treaty. [From the Mail, of September 28 ] According to our ahipping report, the Prina Menacblkoff baa left Wooaung. and proceeded to Kamchatka with her oargo of fare. Waa thia really a apeculatlon of tbe Fur Company, or merely a cloak for an experiment in a higher quarter? Some of the Leading Characters In the Kuropean Revolutions. AUSTRIA The new ministry informed as follows:? rrince Schwartzenburgh, President of the Council. Count Stadioa. Milliliter of the Interior. General de Cordon, War. M. Kiuus. Finance. M. Threnfeide, Agriculture. M. Bruck. Commerce. The Ministers of Justice and Worship ?re not yet named. A letter from Vienna of the 21st of Nov. says:? The new ministry is at last constituted: M Bach ha* the portfolio tf justice, and M. Rbinnfeld, deputy of the centre, that of publio worship. The provisional acceptation of M Bach is said to have been one of the conditions of Count Stadion to take the portfolio of tha interior. Amongst the conditions which Count Stadion made to the Kmperor, is the demand that the Councillor tf State, Weins, and M I'ignitzshould be sent away; the same measure 1b. it is said, to be applied to M. punter, who took refuge in Austria, relative to the affairs ci iu" Sunderbund. Tbe?e men were the principal Instrum?tu?~ P^Prino? Metterniph. 1 have seen the programme which tha present cabinet is about to pufehfi. it dtViares that it will maintain the absolve integrity of the monarchy, and thai; it will not permit its primitive organization to be disturbed. The langusge of the programme is exceedingly vague, so much so that it is not easy to say exaotly what are the views of the minlstary as to the reeonstitution of the empire. What is certain is, that it will have a monarchy under some form or other, and that, although it ren?W3 the declaration that it will maintain for the country the liberties that i t has obtained by conquest, the palioy of the new cabinet must fata iy lead it to a direct at d open protest against the resolutions of the parliament of Frankfort. ;v (5* U- a Prince Windiscikjratz, the generalissimo of the Austrian troops, is exceedingly rich, and descenda on the maternal side from the celebrated Walleustein. lie is chivalrous, and of the greatest bravery, and his devotion to the imperial family is unlimited, although he has instituted a process against that family lor the renewal of the name and restoration of the j>ro|>erty of Wallfnstein. At the head of the (Irand Duke Constantine's regiment 1.. ?1 1 "?ii- ? UI tmioroiur, nr ^11.017 u inii ugii loueu 1IIII19CU (fil on several occasions in 1814, and was decorated with the cross of Maria Therene lor resisting successfully for three hours, in a puss, a force of quadruple strength. Windischgrat/. is about 63 yearB ot age. c Jos. Jeixachich at present Baron, Field Martial, and liann ot Croatia and Sclavonia, was, in the month ot March, only a simple colonel ot a troniier regiment, who made himselt beloved by the soldiery, because he had himself issued from the same rustic stock. His popularity increased a* the quarrels of nationalities became ardent: and when, in the month of March, the repeal of the Austro-Hungarian union frightened the Croats still more lest they should be abandoned without delenc to the Magyers, Col. Jellachich was immediately designated by the public voice as the chief oi the national resistance. On this indication the cabinet of Vienna made him the governor of the country. The new Khemsh Gazette, in a letter from Vienna of the 21st, said that the wife of HIu 111 had arrived to demnnd the body ef her husband, but that it had been dissected, like those of the other insurgents who were executed. HUNGARY. Louis Kossuth, during the celebrated diet of 1M5, edited a manuscript newspaper, in which, escaping the censorship of his Austrian tyrants, he published each day an account ot the proceedings ot the sitting. The police in vain endeavored to seize it nt the post office. When the editor found that his letters were opened, he sent about his paper by the hussars of the comitat. The police always bore him h giudae. At the close of the diet, Kossuth edited another journal. Summoned to drop it, he appealed to the comitat ol l'esth, who bade him go on. He was arrested by soldiers, and chut up lit Uude. < >n coining out, he founded the Journal of Prtth, and became the most ardent advocate of the popular cause. His courage and ability astonished the Austrian government, which, unable to bear the leuet shadow ol free discussion, got up a ditlerencc between Kossuth and his proprietor. lie left the paper, and, abandoning journalism, took to association. He founded numerous things necessary to the prosperity of the country. It was he who began the agitation in favor ol manufacturing industry, and fought against Austrian protectionists When the movement took place, the comitat of l'estli scat Kossuth, by an overwhelming majority, to the diet. He soon became finance minister, and is now supreme dictator of his beloved country durin? its strangle wiih the tyranny, despotism, and obstinacy of Austria and its imbecile emperor. The Beilage to the Prussian Slants Zeitung, of Monday, in a communicakon from Pesth, dated November 14, gives the following address of Kossuth, to the Hungarian National Assembly:? "As I haTP rcnivnd permission fr >m the House to m*ke r.n inepection of our ramp, with n Yiew to a clear understanding of our position and to sati.-fy many of lbs means ot defence, ho I have taken the liberty to auk fern sitting ot the Assembly, before which t can lay the rfsuits of my Inquiries, and the nec?s*ary m?? sure* which must he taken. 1 must statu lhut I found tbe camp in a icost satisfactory state, and ictdy to make any sacrifice that might be required of it. Ou the other hand. I fcund in the higher cl.v*c?of the srniy. not entirely that rpirit of determination whlnb is necessary to carry on this description of wurfara^anil which, with (>od's ii*?istHnce. will stand us in stead | but which ?MiM?nrc is r.erer given but to tW<- who i earn it l>y tlnlr own efforts. We have. be for* *ul ' the world, openly ut?he*thed ouh sirords Surround# 1 I by fraud and tr>apon. *f conceded that, by the reprefentntiou of the dangerous state of affairs around us. we rheuld br.vo some ?tti iHiou paUl to ns; bit we huve been answered by boitij railed traitjri. Whilst one portion (f our nrn.y is fighting for djna->tic In'erest* r.h.-tad, here the |rai;iTHtic ranctlou lit pp'Oiuuced a pulrtice, find if ri't up againtt us From this n*a?? thi re -xt?<tf> in rur army a certuin wavering and b^nXWHtdiieM. ?hioh in certain circumstances may lead t) uuplea>*iit results I miiotiin that if it had not been f. r this wavering, and if the faithles run Jeilncliirh had been properly und actively fol li.Kni up, this war wou d h.i?e b-ea ended by nur amy in a couple cf d*y.i. Tuoko uho held tha ronunacd would not h?ve ftijed to Inquire vrh?t i?r I this or that stream or river Leltha wan t > l>? eri>e?ad, but ?i u.a only have r< quired to know where lh? enemy ?i:f On thi* account I went to the camp a-id I would not go empty banded. The people on tin Dorau surrounded pie by thousands. and showed the gTifttfft spirit. But wa? It net possible with such ?< t*i?tance to hhve remedied the evil? It was necessary, I considered, that Vienra should be freed from the entmy that was then belote it, rn I felt that if Viennt fell, so would the enemy's forse be immediately turned si a n.'tuj. I aleo Ibeught that if Vienna fell without en < Ifort on <?;r part for her assistance, the p^ope llxreiD w? uld be-et acainrt us. Those in command said Ibnt the movement would have had bo g >od renilt. that the higher officers had little stomach for the dglit, and that our ariuy would most certainly hate been overwhelmed. I have my doubts ou this point, as ha\e otb?rs There is one? uamely, (ieorgle (Kljen). ?ho ban assured me that, with proper care, onr army would not bave suffered much. We should. ther?fore, have gone on. I maintain that only pmillanimius nrn ot-uiu na\e entertained a doubt of our (imjeu. None of there people'* account* Mate that there were ?i'V cannon shot* exchanged with tint artsy of KljeaKwf, re wa* the case. whilst our haatily r*'*ed army eiitooly ?tood fit# f>r eight day*. but *)no drove the enemy back. It 1* hardly trui* that we were generally In a elate of disorder-that we were everywhere in fl'ftht? that we ?o.?roely offered any re*l?tatre ai.d were retreating; for we were the party who retained powendon of the ground, a* the utateraent of (ieorg< i prove*. Never for a moment had we lout a tingle gun. The Hungarian nation in ready to pellorm their duty, but they demand, an* with perfect right, that no a*n ulionlJ play thoughtlerely with their arr*iy; and, therefore. I hav* ordered a court of inquiry Itito the ctrnumntanaed af.teudlng (bit* action Moga. who ?m actually and really ill before

t!*e battle, and who hn already required a pension, f il from bl? e.-a Uuiing lite li^V. <iad his o >a >RK E ISDAY, DECEMBER 26, mand I mu*t, therefwre. give to a patriotic and high" mindtd man. and that man I* (ironed (Kljen ) I ray thin od my word of honor. tbat be baft already nerved you w*ll, a* a oommanil^r In the army. He Reeks no ImpoFlng poeitlnn, and there ezlxtR between him and tbesbperior officer*, the very best understanding He U now oriaaiztnit the irmr. whieh la the more aa?T to him. becauae that army Is an Hungarian one. We have do more ocoa'ion to speak of thiH or that regiment. whtre all are Honvads. I ooul<l have wished that all of you could have seen our Hussars - nothing aan be compared to tbem They do not ask how (troog the enemy are ? but where they are. and instantly make clear work with them The reports ray notulng of theae things; but tbese facta must be known to every b? Uy. Further, no body oan deny that we must conquer. If not ou the Leltha, then cn the Ha*b; if not there, at Komorn; and if not there, on the Theiss ? With great bitterness. I must mention that the enenjj hca not behaved fairlv to us Our Parliamentaire Ivankahaa been detained prlaoner, regardless of the 10,tiCO prisoners of war whiob we have in our possession and yet tbey reckon on our olamency. But this la a great gain for ui, aa we ahall never again allow tlie use of a Parliamtnlairt between ua Also three members of the Hungarian repreaentativea who were then in Vienna, aa well aa Stephen Vargay. secretary to the foreign department, have been imtriioned by Windisefcgratz. Thla la disgraceful to the enemy. The country authorities will everywhere do wkat i? aeoessary. In form-r times families supplied recruits to the service with a tr*w?now tbey have s?nt us more than we can mimage. With Uod's aaaistance, we shall have in the spring a couple of hundred thousand soldiers. It U, i lieretcre. tbat I hope that the Home of Kepreaentatives will proceed quietly with their work. If I may aek u favor myaell Irom the council, it is, that I Day obtain I' uw of abtence from the house, in order to recuver my health On all accounts a combination of tbe committees is now very nen. *sary. It U a fact tbat our army attempted to free Vienna Tbe house can condemn me, or approve of my measures. It Is through tbefe measures that we have cleared our good name in history. Some of hem pl"a?e me. tbe others do not do so. That whish Is now carrying on is uo war. but a murder, tbe consequences of which will be attended with the moat eitraordinary diflloultiea We muat enlighten the whole world on thla. If great mistakes have taken Dlace. we alao know how to be irene. lout, but not towards the men who havw occasioned such unheard of mischief. In thin point of Tiew the committee will endeavor to deal with these seduoers from the path of freedom. A Pun? letter columns the following respecting General Bern:? It is generally believed Central Bum has escaped the rearch made for him by the ^*>*trlAP authorities. if he be captured, he will be shot withonCjinviV cy- t fate for which he is prepared hy the most extraordinary Intrepidity. Perhaps the following faots, which Illustrate his character, may not be unacceptable to ycu General Bern Is the son of a German, but was born in Poland. His reputation as an artilleiiit Mands bijij it Ig) nowevcr. of hie unflinching ?6tn-?n?, ?<pd perhaps of his relentless disposition, that I am about to speak. Some flve-and twenty years slnae, h? had a quarrel with another (Polish) artillery offloer, whom be challenged to fight with pistols. They met. On the ground they tossed for the first shot, and Bern lost. Mis adversary took aim, flred. and Bern fell. The i filcer, believing him dead, prepared to quit the field, but Bern, who had received the ball in the right hip, turned ever on hlx left side raided hlmrelf on h s elbow, and said, " Stop, comrade; it is my turn now; take your place " The officer did so, and in a moment fell, chot through the heart. Bern lingered long under the wound. 1 he ball could not be extracted. During twenty y?ars he nillared excruciating torments from its pretecce, and at lat<t resolved on proceeding to London to consult the faculty there. He was told that the operation, to be successful. must be a very painful one. He at once said that be would submit to it He was accordingly thrown by ether into a state of stupor, and the operation commeneed. The circular saw had indented the bone round the bullet, when the Intense agony Toured the patient The operator became alarmed, but Bern reassured him. called for his pipe, lighted it, and commenced smoking, while the operation was returned. *nd was crowned with complete success. The ball was extracted, and Bern perfectly recovered. [From the Oxford (Kng ) Journal 1 Some of our readers may probably remember to have seen walking about Oxford upon crutches, about twelve months ago, a gentleman of middle height, light complexion, and of foreign appearance. This gentleman turns out to be no less a personage than General Hem, who has recently been taking so prominent a part in Vienna aa one ol tne three insurgent generals. He is a native of Pol?nd, hikI look up his residence in Oxfuid last winter, <?t the douW* ]?/T(?ose of recruiting his strength, u/trr httVing undergone an operation London, and recruiting his nurse, by giving lectures upon artificial memory. In the latter, however, he w.is unsuccessful, lor his imperfect knowledge of the English language rendered his efforts of no avail, lie continued to reside in thiscity uutilthe French revolution of February, but the events which succeeded induced him to leave for the continent, and ultimately to enlist in the cause which has so signally resulted in hisdcfeat. BAVARIA. Adviccs from Munich, in the Aug;?l>urq Gazette, announce the long-ex|iected modification of the Bavarian ministry. The departments cf the interior and of public worship are re-united, and assigned to M. Von Lerchenfeldt, the late Minister of Finance, who is succeeded in that office by M. Von Weigaud. The department of trade and publie works is temporarily annexed to tli it ol foreign aflairs. The change is universally approved of. GREECE. The Athens papers of the 7th ult. bring us the definitive list of the new Ministry. The following are the members of it:? Rrar-Admital < anaris | ?/*b',?0?n011 5 ana Minister or Marin*. M. A Lendos Minister of the Interior. M. Bulgaria Flnane^ (itnerai May romichalu ... .War. M t;. Colon tronl Koreian Affairs. M. Kbailis Justice. M. Callifronas Public Worship. The Chambers are convoked for the })t'i of November. It is not considered at all certain th-it the new ministry will sustain the trial, aud further modifications will probubly be necessary. rome. The following in the new ministry forced upon the Pope, in the late insurrection in ttie Holy City:? f oreign Affairs, Mamlani Interior and Police, (ialtttlKinanres, Lunali Con-merce and Tubllc Works, Kterbini. War, Campelio. Public luMrurtion. Rofmini. Orace and Justice, Sereni. ItOIXAND. The Stunt* Cmirnnt, of the 22(1 ult , gives the following definitive list of the new ministry :? Minister of the M iiine and Colonies. Vice Admiral II Hjk Miniftvr of Justice, M. D. Donker Curtius. Minister of Kureign Affairs L. A. Lightenvelt. Minister of the Inferior. J. M. de Kerapmaer. Minister of War. Major General Voat. Minister of Kioance. P. P. Van Boue. Minister of the Reformed religion. Baron Van Mtrsstra. Minister of the Colonies. O. L. Bared, former Director of Agriculture in th? Netherlands Went InJles M L A I.ithrenvtlt Is churned nrf intrrim with th? Affairs Ot the K' man Catholic Religion. dknmark. I TiikNkw Ministry.?Ourcommumcationa from | Copenhagen, of the Hi h ult., contain the following | h?t of the new ministry :? (.cum A w munno, i rniurui oi foreign /\ua m. Von Spot)tier k, Finance. Meedvig. Heligion. (ttntral flHueen, War. Lang. luterlor. Clauren pro tern, without portfolio. \>n Zahrtman, Marin*. | M. Uarclentieth Justice. The list is not yet published officially, but is f lven as highly probable. PERSIA. We have already announced the death. at Teheran, of Mtliommril Sh^h. the sovereign of Persia, aud tb? proclamation. on the 18th of September, at Tabriz, of the heir apparent, holding th<-re the Kovernment of Am ibidgan. as successor to hit father's throne, un d< r the till** ot Nefser-ud- Dean-Shah. The youthful monarch took his departure for T>>h ran, e n tbe morning of the 18:h. accompanied by Vt Abbott, the Uritish Consul at Tehran, and M. (inns ultachtd to ti'? Russian mission thereat. under n armed escort of no less man cavalry, 7 00 tuntry, and 24 pieces of artillery, whose serviue* w, ca fecured by a loon of A'lo 000. rai.-ed chiefly tUrm^h th influence of Mr Stevens, her Ilritannlo Majesty's ( onml at Tabrix in the brief spa;e of forty el*lit hours. among the Greek and Armenian nierohants. the people of which la'ter sect. bv speoial firman of ti?i new sovereign, have bren placed under Mr Stevons' lromrdlate consular protection, a compliment of no importance, when It Is considered that they number nearly hO 000 nouls Accounts have been received of his Majt sty's timely arrival nt Tehran, at a moment when H.idij Mlrxa Apiarst tfce late King's Prime Minister, was busily ?ngsged in forming a par.y to place a junior brother upon the throne, to the detriment of the heir apparent. who on bis accession very prudently appointed to tbn preirien hip Mirxa Taki. late Persian commissioner at the coi.fi rences of Krxeroom. reg irding the frontier question between Persia and Turkey. 1 nil* UUUHlimi J (jmri. wrt-rpmuii vi n ill"w r iiTrr?ii(u to tha throne of IVrnia, la, at a tiuin whin th" political horizon of India In ?nt>xp?<cf<?dly al ud-d . amittrof no unall moment to th* Hritlnh <'ro?n whow ln(1u?n-? at tha court of I'ornia will, wo trust, br maintained. Ob the part of the Sultan mea?nrn havn ??r? lau labl? b#*n taken hv th* Suhliin* Port*, to prHrant any hoMitft tnoTfntpiit. with k view of deputing th? p|<>? hy Aly Nh?b. who If ItT'.n* at K<*rb?U m th? t and peuiivQcr of tha SulUu. The U'.ost acaouat* ?. [ERA lO A O JLCMO. from Tabrlt. confidently anticipate that for th? pro- | lent at lra?t. public tranquillity will be preserved Malek Kanrlm Mlria uncle to the late. and grand uncle to tbe prMfnt Kiiifr. ha< been appointed to the | vacant goTernonbip of Azt-rliidgan. SPAIN. Narvnez has Iiphi heard to confess that, in 1S13, he landed at Valencia with '?) francs; and now, notwithstanding his reeklepn extraVrtgiince, he is known to he worth ?200,000 in money, be*iden possessing immense landtd property, in the shape of church property, purchased from the S;ate. Fifteen jears uuo, Sartornis, the Minister of the Interior, whs a poor tndiita (sizer) in the University of Salamanca, and in IHM), accepted with gratitude the situation of u copyist in the ofhoe of a newspaperentitled the CorrtoNtmnnal.for wliich drudgery hereceived two francs a day. Ills equipages and general style of living now are worthy of a prince, and it is notorious that he throws away thousands upon his numerous mi?trease?, which, however, does not prevent him from investing large sums from time to time in foreign stock. In 18-12, Mou, Minister of Finance, was not worth jCIOO a year, nnd was celebrated amongst hiH acquaintances for Ins " shocking bad hat." lie is now possessed of a fortune estimated at XIOO.IHM), a-d hss recently presented his illegitimate children with estates worth ?10,000. FRANCE. [From the London Atlas.] M. de Giratdin, of the Prase, seems to have taken for his motto, ever since his entrance into life, "Jji bourse ou la vie Mis pistol.has been at everybody's head for the last fifteen "years. It is to this bandit spirit of attack that he owes his fortune, his position, the very name he bears. He was brought up in mysterious obscurity, ignorant of his parentage, under a vulgar and trivia' name ; knowing no other lriend than the tiotatr1 who paid ihe expense of the school where he had been placed, and to whom he was conducted once a year to give proof that he was mill alive, and the [tension to be continued. At the age of sixteen, his studies were completed, and he passed hta examination with great Mat, and he was then sent for by the notnire, who told hint that those who look iniercU in his welfare had resolved tSat he should follow the study of the law, and had made every arrangement tor him to that eflect. "And who are they who take this interest in me 1" exclaimed young Lecomte (for this is the name by Wjuvh he was then known); "tell me this moment who I am, and what is mv father's name 1" " 1 know not, in truth," returned the notairt, in a sneering tone. " Here is that will refresh your memory," returned the young man, drawing from his pocket a loaded pistol, which he pointed to the head of the startled notnire, who, after a few moments' parley, was only too "lad to give up the name0' Count Alexandre de Girardin as the person by whom the rnoflfy had had bcfjji ?aid into his hands for the education and nourisfimPiit of young Lecomte. It is said that on that very day, and by the very same means, did Emile de Girardin obtain acknowledgement of his claims by the General, who, evidently pleased by this indication of spirit on the part of Ins son, allowed him to bear his name and to share his fortune. From that hour has the life of Emile de Girardiu been a scene of strife and warfare with his enemies, his rivals, nay, his very friends, and all the world besides; while the Presse has been made the battering ram to destroy the reputations of men of talent and the lives of men of honor. It is believed that a duel between this man and General Cavaignac iB inevitable. , The Result of the Amcilran Presidential Election In an Gn|(IUh Point of View. r Ik. I n..,lr.n l<lirnn^!< Mm V'H 1 The ungular want of polltloal significance wkioh we hareremarked an characterizing the Presidential content in the United States, has coutinued to its clone ? In looking through the speenhes, and articles, and handbills which have appeared daring the election, what perhaps strikes an Englishman most is their personality In this country, we aro accustomed t<> make the political opinions of eacdidates the test of their claims en our support-on the eve of an eleotinn. the pteei teems with discussions on whatever wav be the questions of the day m<"?t interesting to the locality which it is sought to influence, in America, on tba contrary, " men. not measures," Is the doctrim which practically prevail* ; partly, perhaps, because the peculiar circumstance! of that country render party politics less vitally important, and party dintinncions leis broad, than iu the UDited Kingdom; but still more, because the ''mww," to whom candidates appeal. are more easily attracted by piirsonal qualities mote Inclined to hero worship?than the soberer and more r? fl> cting classes whose Influence dominates here. Whatever be the cause, the effect is undoubted; the only candidate who went to the poll pledged to a principle?Mr. Van Buren?does not seem to bare succeeded in reourlng the ''ticket" of a single State; while Taylor and Cass, between whom tbe real struggle lay, have both deliberately abstained from committing themselves to any specific measures-almost, indeed, to any line of policy. It ie curious, to->, to observe how much strers is laid upen comparison between tbe military achievements of tbe candidates, and how instinctively the martial propensities of the people are reoognired and appealed to. It is very olear that, notwithstanding his known preference of a t>aoiI:? policy fir his country, the hero of Rueua Vista | owes bis triumphant success mainly to tbe laurels that , be won in Mexico. We have before us a record of bin ' raying* and doing*," which baa been oiroulited as an eleotion handbill by hi* friend*, and whiah bas reference, almoht exclusively to his campaign*. Indeed. rne of hi* saying* ?" my wounded are behind me, . and I never will pans them alive," 1* prefixed. apparently a* a permanent motto, to the journal whiea is the chief organ of bin mpporters at New York. The fact* to whioh we have been alladin; are easeatial to be borne in mind, ir we wiih to appreoiate correctly the eflVct of the late election. It by no mean* follow*, becaure General Taylor La* been chosen by an . Immenre majority of the Union, aud because the whig , party generally have adopted hiui a* their champion, that, therefore. *11 or any of those dootrine* with which the whig party i* peculiarly identified, will meet with fqnal *ucc<**. The prssent victory i* one essentially of Taylor over Ca*?-not of whig* over democrat*.? But there are nevertheless, certain leading idta* of policy which hive been put forward, with sufllolont prominence, by tb? victortou* patty, and which *n In acme degrte sanctioned by their triumph, it is worth while to consider. Ofthese. by far the nnat prominent and the mr>*t important Is that ofpesce against war, of industrial progress siialnft extension of territory. The favorite motto of the Taylor party Is, < We stand on our own toilaid wr are glad to think tbat that question, at least. Is settled f^r some time to come, not by the victory of (Jeneral Taylor, but by the expression of feeling snd opinion which the contest has elicited. The wonder, indeed. Is. how it could become a question at all. Niver was ruch afield of peaceful contest opined by nature to any peeple, and never, to do th'-m justice, did any people make a more v'gnrous use of its advantages. Sea aud land conspire to Invite and reward the labors of the American*. Their commerce Is extending itself f v? r (he old world, their colonization overthe new. While they ?re preparing to bridge the Pac'flc with steam. nnd to compete wltn BriU-ti cipi talists In the markets of the Ka?t, their pione rs are crowding togilher a goldi-n harvest In the streams of ( alifornii and the mountains of Vexioo, and Congress if roDHdfrlcg proposals to construct a railroad from ti e Misuari to the Columbia With such a lie!,A before tbem?with hardly a rival, or even a formidable niishbor. arid with ev?-ry pro.'p-ct of b1 c milng, by the mers'orce of circum-tscc the most po#H?fui. a* welt ' a* the tnost prosperous nation in the world - that A >.i- ; ricats rhcnld think of making war. for war s sake. U i UP Blttfti pi u 4mar pruoi i* it rtrniy ui u?m ;rtvic i i * >m it) ; for the op mo K?o|(r?phiCAl an 1 polUlqal aondltlou* wVrh contribute to tin* traw'.h of th?ir g-eatneM, j would inako an a^prphsivn policy, on their (>a*t, not only inefficient, but *uicidal. A popgUtloo, at crci' dlM'PTM-il and d>-moeratio, 1" ncc.marly av>:*e both to taratlrin and di'rlpliH*. It ra<y . tb rpf>r?, hi brave ami warlike, but it will ne.i-r b> t :rtnid?b:e tor pnrpoffh of <fT-ne?. Willi th<t fecoa 1 o>. iijier.iltl position In the world. the nvy of the I nited Stat>;? coimi?t* only ot ibship*. of all cU'*** and ?an| c^tiMructiou of whirh only ?! ?rn ar? /teaoierc while h??r enormou* extent of frontier I* rfe'^nd-d by a regular army cf aboot 8 (ju0 men. It Is obrlon* th>t witbauih ! military rueurce* and a virtu il iue4pt0.it/ f jc rocrultir? them in time for efllotent se'.ivn, war. with any powerful nuritiir.e nation, would not only b- fatal to the prosperity of the American I ai >n. but wju.u lead. proVably to lt> entire cM?i?oluMon It I* matter, tli^re. lute, of ?oHl faDft*Jtion to all who are int?r*?ted lite ourrelvi n, in the proiperl'y cf Am?rin, to think that the lerfi n t*upht. at tfce price i.f 00t>,<!l)n Hier'inn by the Mtxionn war. hat not !)<- a thrown a.va/ upon her. end tbnt che in not about to pley the part of a lireb and unorg the nations of the earth. With r? gtrd to tbe slavery quniti >o, (i 'n-ral Tayl t, thoi.ph a slaveholder and ron? rva'lie of ex'ntlo^ tcititiitionr." i?, with the whlfl party tjenerallv. ad?er?e to their exten.-icn into new roil; and It wn u?? d a' an argument In hi* favor, with the norther a ftbjlltign?. that hi* influence In the South w uId probably iniuie tlie euccep* oi tneir ie?i.'tanoe lu inatextnnM.iu t.-p* ciellj I* be pledged to i (T?r no oppo'itio* t? the **>>eetrd dec) <ion of < on^rese against the intr" I jotlon of Mate* into New Mexico and California. It in c-iriom, indeed, that tue wbl* partj art* atrootf adrooat * f >r what we fbou'd call the ' oo>>rtttuMonal"d >o?rln writ a r?fpect to tbe reto. not only on il l* p"lri'. but r*aurally, Nri<1 that a well-grounded apprehension l??c Hr. I'M fbould exercise It (a* Jac If'1" arid I'olfc h*f* d?n?) in deferen-e to the opinion- of the 1 if democrat/ ae J In oppo ition to the exufin* le^ii?,a'.ura, h*< ooutribntfd largely toward* hn failare Of the much-talked of inoreaae in the tariff, we con Um (hat we have ?ery little fear. On thl?, a-i on ino.tt ether queotloD* jbu democratic mind U in a ?<tat? of perpetual fluctuation. In 1833 a free-trade ejr*t?u waa agreed upon, ia 1M3 one of prnteotion; in IH10, th? re wax a unauiinour revaleion iu f*?or of fr e tnde; and n?w we ai* told tb?t the tide ii ii.;a'ti turning towerdf prct'C! 'n. It l? not lik?l? that, elth ?inll ?x pfrtaBf*. * wruiH t h .u . ? ... ... ? . id brunch** v? tuJutfj wii<?U i p :0<l VA ?? | , L D. TWO CENTS. brrath lor a factitious *l?t?nc?t; and It it prahaWa, therefore. that an loervaHiog population will aoon again exert. il??ir dormant and ica't?r?d trfu<th and inniit on the downfall of elaM-lngidation at one* and for ?T?r. [Krom thtt London Time*.J j lie election ? T in* American l'r*<tdenoy 1* by thi? time decided. and in week or ten day* ? *h?ll know lh? result Of couree wearelnter**ted In It If there Ik do longer a worthies* bit cf territory to wr*ngl? about, tbe United State* are itill mar neighbor* la more re me* than one; and It n a great object to oa tbat they Fhou'd be liberally and peacefully governed. A lit w vreaiil?r,cy opens a new abapter of acoidente, and help* forward thin or that topic of political agitation. Ah It happen* however, the Britiab public have luer. enurorred with Kuropnan politic*. and know little mere cf Taylor and < ??n th*n their name* Kven ! the State* ihe interest i* rather forced and Aetltloaa. Tbe two General* and their supporter* are alike in novel and temporary position* Taylor profane* peaaa and pratiction Cwi is a " rotated with w?r anil fraa trade. N( w. undoubtedly, war 1* a wora? tbinj than m prohibitive tariff, but the threat ef the one may (till ba a le** c'argercux matter tban the threat of the other ; ju*t an ' I'll cut your h.-?d off," addreaied to a child, will probably give it ler* real uneamneu than I khail not give you aty more pudding " It may bt aaalar for Taylor to c'o a little for hi* manufacturing ?upyeitern than for Ca?* to gWe hl? Irleh allle* an opportunity c f cultirg British throat*. Of the two, however, on giunrai pilnciplea we feel bound to prefer the one who oilers himself in the name of peao*. We ara alao alive to n certain danger In thl* instance. not Immediately effecting Britii h Interest* War i* ? t?Sdenoy or republics. 'I h? t:oo?ul or the ('resident ha* a short time helcre him. and In naturally anxiou* to mark bin reign with tome eadurtr g mem rial. iViaa and California immortalize Mr. i'oU. and it lit p'teaible fcir. (Jane might eontrlve to uaociate hii mine with tha annexation of Cuba. What Wellington I* in tbl*oonatry and t/tvaigna* in France, General Taylor ia at thl* moment in tha United State*. Wa mght extend (he llat; for there m ><'>rc? ? (iijBrMfni in me oivt ic-a world at thia moment that In not under thepaoiflo influence of eome military chief Some man who ha< experienced the ilia And reaped the prtica of war, labora with all hla lulght to avert the former from hla country aad praHtvi tha latter for himself. The soldier In poaaeairion ft isgetieriklly oonsi-rvative. The present state of affair* ia a garrison which he la bound to defend, and any introduotion of Hew eleinenta, or other considerable change, ia an Invasion which ha ia bound to repel. The men we hare alluded to, however, aliow hitfiiec feelings than the merely defeuslva. They know tha liorrora ol war, and the years which add to their enjoy nieut of peace only quioXen the remembrance of the mnerable work in which they pavt.il the froahnaai of their youth or the flower of their age. Where tha young aee nothing but a game, the old aee a grave. Exactly the third of a century, the period familiarly assigned to a getieiatlon of men, has pasaed slnoe tha clnae of the last international war There have baas civil wara disputed succesalona, succeaiful rebelilona. armtd intervi nllons, but not that fell confliot of nation with nation, much lean that universal milkt which charactarized an almost equal period of preceding hiatory. The result ia too plain. A generation haa risen np which knows nothing of war exoept in bcoka. or table talk, or In tha oatentatioua fortraaa or the brilliant paiade. Histories, poems monument*, tltlea. Veterana wearing medals and field-ta&rahala holding levee?. with occasional feats of tro< ag*ln*t distant barbarian*, ahow only the fair aide of war. 'l'hia la what Impreaaea the new generation, tlenaa the fatal raibneaa with whloh It appeala to so laaue from which veterana recoil The tendency to war la all tha atronger, when from the excessive jealouay of a military oaata, tha whole population ia made warlike When every eitisen ia a >oldier, and scarce a peaaant escape* the ordeal of a uniform, you then Implant unlveraal faeuUlaa aad taste, which in many minde will atruggte for foltlment. In thia respect England present* a striking contrast to nearly all the world besidej. We have a tanding army which, notwitbatanding the vaat number and difficulty of the positions it occuplea over tha whole world, yet amounts to a very amall proportion of the people. With the vast peninsula of Hindustan, with Canada and Australia, the Cape, the Weat Indiea, the fortifications of Gibraltar, Malta and Aden to garrison,? with Ireland to tranquilize aud retain, we oannot rf ckon up more men than ara now stationed la Paris and ita vicinity And that ia all our army. Wa have no National Guard, no militia, and soaroely a pretence of yeomanry Hence our people ara unused tn war. and the profeaf ion of a common soldier ia*acarcely accounted honorable It la not so on the Continent, or in the United Statea. There tha larger moiety of the people are tra'ni.d to arms, and therefore prone to war. Kin General Taylor's address to some returned volunteers from'be Si?>toan war. quoted yesterday under tbi brail of American intelligence, we Dave the milltry ardor of the raw civilian and the veterau'a reaet onary longing for peace incidentally but forcibly contracted We fear it mntt be said that wartaapaaalr.m (n (hu llnihwl m anH f Si?f m huru ui> a t< nee ran la found, there will bit nnltek of will Of cr>urr? thin rpirit has a fair side ?ud afoul one.and the fi rn.tr is very naturally that which the (ienial leleot* for hin prain l. "llus war ha? aerved to manifest the exitteneeof a deennneoaqticrai Ic heri i."tn in all alare? of our peuple. It lru not lx-?n by mi) meant confined t? Uie il?tai<r lex, fur nowhere haa it ahoue l-xifcl.ler than in U.e conduct and a ntiinen:! of the aufte,-tea of onrrount'y, an many of * hum have honored ns with thair pr??< i <? on Una ccca?iou Dining in? public aorvlce, 1 hi?? tamme familiar with dredi whieli r.lm-e tl>? women of nur cimtryoi a levi I with tha Spaitan and K man mother* of whoae herniam hi?tory rcci ida ao many i .u reeling axamp na. I liava known uioUiera to arid their only aooa to the war*. wiling them to return with lienor cr I ot al all. I have known eistrta tn purl with only brothers with wi rda foil of pride and lio|ie of their return with bright lanrela I I aw known wire* to-t^-r thomaalvea from tbo anna ot devoted kuahuiida, and to firaetall '.hair own 'area and afTulinna, in a prneral anil patrio ie pride and devoUm to their country's anil tt.eir t-uaUiiu'.iiocor." AU very good bu; when one consil-rs the ambi^uoua character of the fjtiarrel. who can fall to fee In thi? heroism a pofitive passion tor #.r ais ' It 1* the r tw fentimtnt nnd the beginning of the (juarrel we nee here dtferibed The general, himself nowever. add/i, from hid own experience, the actual attpiul and the moral lesron; and if we may truac the apparent tames;neaa cf bia language. we now poaaese tha key of hH presidential policy, if he h s buan elected. " Dot I oaanot avoid the oppnrtuity, whilst referring to tha achieven rnta of our aril ti, ofeipreaa ng my deep lonviotion of the nd'nnoTLfttl proof. Thrcu^hent my ttrrfot, I aaeur* you the proudeat in' rutM.it of * ti t >ry bare ht?n darkened aud rendered torrowlnl by ti e reflection of th* p-iinful ooovffMM whlah 't ppduct*; of tie wive* nude widows, of parent* made ov"<lia*a>. i f frUm'ibereft of thoic bound to them by the deareat tie*; for the awfnl remit* of wtrnr* not confincil to (he bloody vhoei of tlie battle-field: l ilt di?ea*e?*!ow, oon*umit.n diaearo?mora than ryot the ibi tiuBient* <1 war.* utter* death a??<>ni those engaged ir the trjinRlatiiiae* ai d expoauri* of mli'Ary diitv. Of th iae who htv* dirrt in *ctiv* itririceln Mexico, the proper:Inn of thot? < ut dt/wii by difeat e to tin ie who loll on the battle lie'd inbuilt Hv* to i nr. Ti t tl:C?e ni?.i >, a: a ronsiaut wttr tti of all tlieaieruand I anfiil rea liitu of war. I *>Mire ymi that th- r?i? no onawboraJoicaa ci' re in the eoBcluriaa <f ibe w?r with Mexivo, now happily ti rminaUd. than I to 11 was not from any api rabenain.i <>f the dnefer*, < r any dr> ad of the fativitea and inff-miR* to whioii I might te ex poied lh?tl*o warmly daiirodths concision of tbi* w?i! I ut it w?? became 1 Itoked upon w.ir as a great evil?as a Inn r> ion- ?I Uh, xl.enitcau be lionur*blj concluded, itia tl e lint ?n'y of a r*' i r, i facially a rupnbli:, to terminate." Pope Pu C?A tutus Governor of Louisiana.? Our reiidtrc will remember, a?ya the New Orleans Jjilln ol the 17?h in?t., that the Legislature, at its Be Mie n last spring, nanaed a series of resolutions, offered by Mr. I. VVightnian Smith, of this city, expruMve nt the ln|?- and confidence of our people in I he wisdom and patriotism of Pope Pma IX. These resolutions were transcribed on pir. hmcnt, nrd entrusted by our Governor to J. M. Wray, Esq., ol this city, who delivered them in person at Home, where he was very hnudsomely roceived by the (authorities of t ie Holy Pontificate. Tn? following reply ct his Iloline.-s was ulso brought ever by Mr. Wray The original 13 111 Italian, from which we tianHhte:? [Despatch No 8 585 1 litimiiLK S11 In tulloieat of the n itioe ooned by vctir esteemed coniniii' iiiri: n of tb? 20th of May Itt.'t pa?t. the Hi^h roitlll I' Piai I V ray an* 1*', a vettiicn, h*" Ijk d put id po-ra-xifo of the (evolutions adopted bjljtbei Oencal \*'?mbly ot y iur Stat#. Juria; the preceding n onth of Ma?eh. r.n 1 teftifyinsj to the af!? l donate rrvaril< of tfcs psoplw nf Louhuan in hit bnbulf '1 hie act it h ? flVflug la ) to ai? to mention, l.?8 ji-.ved ?t gr?t*f'^l to tne hily father. ?ha hu learned, with deep aati'fsotion. the favorably impre*ri?n tl.at t>ia paternal cars au<l aolieitujn have pro i ueitt in your land wiieu. upon tin ?ice**,ou to tb* i > ntiflral See. indnpt-n Jently of the rnoo?ut<>m cl?in>? f the ROTemwiHij'. ot th?i l?ni?er*al < 'nurjti at I,in I an'if, he made it hmt'tuJy to eomult th* l> Mt W.-1faie tf hi? subject* Ilia Holmes*. moreover. coulj not but b? d>*p'.y nifiv. d nt tbe manner in whlnii tbe tJenwral Awe-obiy tbfUftlK* have ?fxpre**ed ttieir lir?ly iut-re?t an 1 beatty participation in the nrnr relation* tbat hav? recently bian opened betaken tflx Holy See ami th* (.OTer t>ir eut of tbe (Jnlt?d 3t?t??. I'll" ait w?i one of still nrea>;?T gratification to hi* that, tbrouKb 11. wa? oon veje I ai ?'IJ;lin?l ??s tr .t n ij th it tl-e l ntloia reli?i0J. in Li J Diana, will noon pro?plieg in that *ol?r?ed freedom nhieb it i?, by divine trdit-atiC)*, entitled to e?jiiy. Ntw the Holy Father. d.'.?lr.itm that all thea* nonflniriita rbrultl ba ? xpre?#ed thr.-a.jh me, has oh ir/>?d :na to comply with I he grateful duty of tran'mlttin< to you the present despatch. I wojld, th*-ref < ?, b*# of yf ii to convey to all the member* of the S>n%te and the House of livprcpi'ntatm a of your State, the ohoioe Dentin >nt* of the Holy Kath r not una^o^mpmied by a pit Oer of the gratitudw whinh he bai ex?erien?*d from the kindly demonstration* whloh tb?y on harmonicuidy rejoivrd in hi* recurd N??r c*n I dl*p?nr? wiih coovejing to yon, in hia name, word* of peiuiiar -? ac i\ u< * it uguii; ui. ooii ior in ' oinriru pari, wm?a you bar* taheu in the d?mon*trc'i.>u lUeif, and for the good >xpre??rd in ymr rtcm'auni a'.ton Having tbu* complied with the mandate of niv .Sotleipe, be pltatrd. honored cir. to anient the tasuruac* of my moat dl*tingui?htd consideration. Vour Bout d'votfl xervant, O. CARDINAL SOGLU. Hon. Isaac Joii^o*, (ioreiiior of Louisiana, N-w Orlean*. Homk, October 0, 184(1. m The Lffji.-lature ot Camda has been summoned to ?fKPinblf at Montreal <>n the 1 "in wl" Jimmy. A fforiny *?-syioii is t.Tppcfd. '!>< r? rHitf ?h < m-p >i I i"-i'irr 1 kit tu>kiMiKU |>(VV?:e IW be CUuitlj Uuivuituvu. 0 Sjffl;]

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